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Sample records for acid lime plants

  1. Effect of amino acid application on induced resistance against citrus canker disease in lime plants

    Hasabi Vahideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far, the chemicals used to control this pathogen are either ineffective or harmful to the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia were treated with L-arginine, L-methionine, L-ornithine, and distilled water. Plants were inoculated with Xcc, 48 hours post treatment. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated four weeks after inoculation with a bacterial suspension. Changes in β-1,3-glucanase transcript levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were investigated at 48 hours post treatment and 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation. Based on the results of phenotypic, antioxidant enzyme activity and a molecular study of the stressed plants, it was found that those plants treated with the amino acid methionine significantly increased the plant induced resistance as well as decreased the severity of disease by reducing necrotic lesion size.

  2. Effect of commercial amino acids on iron nutrition of tomato plants grown under lime-induced iron deficiency

    Cerdán, Mar; Sanchez Sanchez, Antonio; Jordá Guijarro, Juana Dolores; Juárez Sanz, Margarita; Sánchez Andreu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of root and foliar application of two commercial products containing amino acids from plant and animal origin on iron (Fe) nutrition of tomato seedlings cultivated in two nutrient media: lime and normal nutrient solutions. In the foliar-application experiment, each product was sprayed with 0.5 and 0.7 mL L–1 2, 7, 12, and 17 d after transplanting. In the root application experiment, 0.1 and 0.2 mL L–1 of amino acids products were added to the...

  3. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  4. LIME EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME FERTILIZERS IN A TROPICAL ACID ALFISOL

    Mercy Omogbohu Anetor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Liming increases production costs and environmentally unfriendly. Effectiveness of crystalliser (CRYS, single super phosphate (SSP and organic fertilizer (OF for liming was evaluated by determining pH and phosphorus- (P- availability in an acid alfisol incubated with the amendments, Ca(OH2 being reference. Treatments were replicated thrice in completely randomised design. Un-amended soil remained acidic (pH 4.8 but liming raised pH (6.1-6.6, enhancing maximum (15.09-17.33 mg kg-1 P–release (un-amended having 4.24-7.09 mg P kg-1. Lime (L and L+P treatments resulted in maximum pH increases (7.0-7.2, decreasing with incubation. Fertilizer treatments also raised pH (5.0-5.5 for OF, CRYS or SSP; 5.6-5.8 for CRYS +SSP, CRYS+OF and OF+SSP relative to control (5.2. Acid soil infertility-ameliorating potential of CRYS and OF was revealed. They could be used multi-purposely as lime and P fertilizers by poor-resource farmers challenged by acid soil infertility factors.

  5. Effect of application of coal powder and lime on alfalfa growth on copper polluted acidic soil

    Józefaciuk G.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined treatment of copper contaminated acid soil with lime and a coal powder decreases copper toxicity due to a synergetic effect of pH increase and association of Cu2+ ions in organo-mineral complexes. A two-year-long pot experiment with alfalfa was carried out on a pseudopodzolic soil contaminated with four Cu levels in the range 0-900 mg kg-1 soil. The amendments applied were lime, coal powder and a precomposted mixture of lime and coal powder. The compost and lime application increased yield and decreased copper content in plants at all levels of copper pollution. Coal powder alone depressed plant growth. The combined application of lime and coal powder maintained soil pH in the optimum range (5.1-5.6 during the whole experiment and had a pronounced effect on yield of the second and next crops, depending on the level of liming.

  6. Correction of Excessive Soil Acidity with Different Liming Materials

    Milan Mesić

    2001-06-01

    According to the changes of soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, base saturation level and mobile aluminium content in soil for all investigation years, the differences in rapidity and duration of activity of particular liming material were recorded. Hydrated lime, sugar factory waste lime, ground soft lithothamnium limestone, hard limestone and dolomite influenced the soil chemical properties on the similar way, but not equally. When higher doses of these materials were applied the excessive soil acidity was almost completely neutralised. Compared to the other liming materials the efficacy of not ground lithothamnium limestone was somewhat lower, and that of phosphogypsum and special natural substrata was considerably lower. Winter wheat and corn were used as test crops and they were grown in the crop sequence winter wheat – corn – corn – winter wheat. According to the winter wheat and corn grain yield recorded at different trial treatments, the trial was statistically significant in all 4 years of investigation. At the first investigation year the highest yield of winter wheat was recorded at the treatment with higher dose of sugar factory waste lime. At the second, third and fourth year highest yields of test crops were obtained at trial treatment with higher dose of ground soft lithothamnium limestone.

  7. Mineral Composition of Red Clover under Rhizobium Inoculation and Lime Application in Acid Soil

    Olivera STAJKOVIĆ-SRBINOVIĆ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effects of Rhizobium inoculation and lime application on the mineral composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., in very acid soil were evaluated. Inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii significantly increased shoot dry weight (SDW of red clover plants (three times greater, as well as N, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu contents in plants compared to the control. Application of lime and Rhizobium together, depending on the lime rate (3, 6 or 9 t ha-1 of lime and the cut, increased SDW significantly, but decreased the contents of N, P, K, Mg, Mn, Zn and B in plants. Regardless of the changes, in all treatments in both cuts, contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in plants were among sufficiency levels (Mg content was elevated in the second cut, while Fe content was mainly high, as well as Cu (in the second cut. Contents of P and B in plants were somewhat lower than sufficiency levels, but above critical level. Therefore, red clover can be grown with satisfactory yield and mineral composition in acid soil with Rhizobium inoculation only, but the application of P and B fertilization is desirable.

  8. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T.), cv. Tahiti

    Carolina Netto Rangel; Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho; Renata Borchetta Fernandes Fonseca; Antonio Gomes Soares; Edgar Oliveira de Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented...

  9. Assessing the effects of soil liming with dolomitic limestone and sugar foam on soil acidity, leaf nutrient contents, grape yield and must quality in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Miguel A. Olego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium toxicity has been recognized as one of the most common causes of reduced grape yields in vineyard acid soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two liming materials, i.e. dolomitic lime and sugar foam, on a vineyard cultivated in an acid soil. The effects were studied in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm, as well as on leaf nutrient contents, must quality properties and grape yield, in an agricultural soil dedicated to Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Mencía’ cultivation. Data management and analysis were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. As liming material, sugar foam was more efficient than dolomitic limestone because sugar foam promoted the highest decrease in soil acidity properties at the same calcium carbonate equivalent dose. However, potassium contents in vines organs, including leaves and berries, seemed to decrease as a consequence of liming, with a concomitant increase in must total acidity. Soil available phosphorus also decreased as a consequence of liming, especially with sugar foam, though no effects were observed in plants. For these reasons fertilization of this soil with K and P is recommended along with liming. Grape yields in limed soils increased, although non-significantly, by 30%. This research has therefore provided an important opportunity to advance in our understanding of the effects of liming on grape quality and production in acid soils.

  10. Resilience of acid subalpine grassland to short-term liming and fertilisation

    Spiegelberger, T.; Deléglise, C.; DeDanieli, S.; Bernard-Brunet, C.

    2010-01-01

    A fertilisation experiment was started in the French Alps on an acid grassland at 2000 m in 1989 where lime as calcium carbonate (liming) and Thomas Slag enriched by potassium chloride (fertilisation) was added in a random block design until 1992. Since then, no further amendments were applied. Fifteen years after the last application, we revisited the experiment and observed that soil pH was still significantly higher on limed plots, while nitrogen (N) concentrations were lower. On fertilise...

  11. Nature of Soil Acidity in Relation to Properties and Lime Requirement of Some Inceptisols

    A. K. DOLUI; S. BHATTACHARJEE

    2003-01-01

    Some Inceptisols representing the Singla catchment area in Karimgaunge district of Assam, India, were studied for lime requirement as influenced by the nature of soil acidity. The electrostatically bonded (EB)-H+ and EB-Al3+ acidities constituted 33 and 67 percent of exchangeable acidity while EB-H+, EB-Al3+,exchangeable and pH-dependent acidities comprised 6, 14, 20 and 80 percent of total potential acidity. The pH-dependent acidity made a major contribution towards the total potential acidity (67%~84%). Grand mean of lime requirement determined by the laboratory incubation method and estimated by the methods of New Woodruff, Woodruff and Peech as expressed in MgCaCO3 ha-1 was in the order: Woodruff (15.6) > New Woodruff (14.9) > Peech (5.1) > incubation (5.0). Correlations analysis among different forms of acidity and lime requirement methods with selected soil properties showed that pH in three media, namely water, 1 mol L-1 KCl and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2, had a significant negative correlation with different forms of acidity and lime requirement methods. Exchangeable Fe and Al showed significant positive correlations with EB-Al3+ acidity, exchangeable acidity, pH-dependent acidity and total potential acidity, and also lime requirement methods. Extractable Al showed positive correlations with different forms of acidity except EB-H+ and EB-Al3+ acidities. The lime requirement by different methods depended upon the extractable aluminium.Significant positive correlations existed between lime requirements and different forms of acidity of the soils except EB-H+ acidity and incubation method. The nature of soil acidity was mostly pH-dependent. Statistically, the Woodruff method did slightly better than the New Woodruff, incubation and Peech methods at estimating lime requirement and hence the Woodruff procedure may be recommended for routine soil testing because of its speed and simplicity.

  12. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. PMID:27092419

  13. Availability of Cu and Zn in an acidic sludge-amended soil as affected by zeolite application and liming

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Dimirkou, Anthoula [Thessaly Univ., Volos (Greece). Dept. of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment; Damalidis, Konstantinos [Democritus Univ. of Thrace, Orestiada (Greece). Dept. of Agricultural Development

    2012-03-15

    Acidic soils exhibit high trace element availability compared to neutral pH soils, and thus, when trace metals are added (e.g. due to sewage sludge application), measures should be taken to reduce their mobility. In this experiment, we tested two such methods, liming and zeolite addition. The aim was to measure the availability, in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) added to soil with sewage sludge in both acidic and limed soil. Thus, in this pot experiment, we used a soil at two pH values (original soil at pH 3.56 and limed to 6.5), two rates of sewage sludge (0 and 50 Mg ha{sup -1}) and three rates of zeolite (0, 2 and 5 Mg ha{sup -1}, referred to as Z-0, Z-1 and Z-2, respectively). We found that metal concentrations in plant decreased significantly with liming but zeolite did not further reduce metal levels. In metal extractions with DTPA, zeolite additions reduced metal concentrations. In the second sampling time (on day 100), metal levels were significantly reduced at Z-0 and Z-1 compared to day 50, but at Z-2, metals were either only slightly reduced or even unchanged. We concluded that zeolite hindered metals from being strongly and irreversibly bound onto soil colloids. Zeolite at Z-2 kept metal availability relatively high over time, while metal availability at Z-0 and Z-1 was being reduced due to liming. (orig.)

  14. Growth and nutrition of coniferous forests on acidic mineral soils - status and effects of liming and fertilization

    Deposited air-borne S- and N- containing pollutants acidify forest soils in southern Sweden. It has been suggested that this may severely affect forest yield. Liming and/or application of specific nutrients, e.g. phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), have been proposed as countermeasures. The influence of such measures, and of nitrogen (N) addition, was investigated in two experimental series over 5-10 years. Stem growth and needle element concentrations were assessed, predominantly in high-yielding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 30-60 years old, growing on acidic mineral soils in southern Sweden. The effect on crown transparency was also evaluated in some of the Norway spruce stands. The treatments included liming (500-6,000 kg ha-1), and N addition at low annual doses (2x10 kg N ha-1) and in single shots (150 kg N ha-1). Combinations of lime+N, lime+PK and lime+PKN were also tested. The effects were generally weak or negligible, except that growth was significantly increased by N fertilization in the Scots pine stands, and by lime+PKN in some of the Norway spruce stands. In another study, the survival and growth of Norway spruce seedlings were found to be more or less unaffected when planted in pre-harvest acidified, limed or N fertilized soil, although the Ca and Zn concentrations in their needles rose after liming, while those of Mn and Al declined. In closed-canopy stands of Norway spruce and Scots pine with N concentrations of more than 15-16 mg (g DM)-1 in current-year needles, N fertilization was indicated to not necessarily stimulate increased growth. Other indicators of highly N-rich forests (e.g. elevated arginine levels) also start to appear above this level. The closed-canopy stands growing on the most acidic soils showed no signs of severe damage or nutrient deficiencies. These findings, together with the small or negligible effects of the tested countermeasures against soil acidification, suggest that

  15. Liming of acid soils in Osijek-Baranja county

    Dolijanović Željko; Andrijačić Martina; Đurđević Boris; Vukadinović Vladimir; Vukadinović Vesna; Jurišić Mladen; Bertić Blaženka; Jug Irena

    2011-01-01

    The negative trend of soil degradation process increases with intensive agricultural production. Therefore, there is a need for soil conditioning like liming, humification, fertilization, etc. to improve soil quality. One of the major problems that occur on agricultural soils of Croatia is acidification. A downward trend of soil pH is mainly present in soils of poor structure with intensive agricultural production. In agricultural practice liming often need...

  16. Effect of application of coal powder and lime on alfalfa growth on copper polluted acidic soil

    Józefaciuk G.; Popandova S.; Arsova A.; Raichev T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined treatment of copper contaminated acid soil with lime and a coal powder decreases copper toxicity due to a synergetic effect of pH increase and association of Cu2+ ions in organo-mineral complexes. A two-year-long pot experiment with alfalfa was carried out on a pseudopodzolic soil contaminated with four Cu levels in the range 0-900 mg kg-1 soil. The amendments applied were lime, coal powder and a precomposted mixture of lime and...

  17. Influence of different fertilization on the dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation in acid and limed soils

    Ieva Jokubauskaite

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality has become an important issue in soil science. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC is believed to play an important role in soil processes and in the C, N and P balances, their supplies to plants in all types of soils. It is much more sensitive to soil management than is soil organic matter as a whole, and can be used as a key indicator of soil natural functions. This study aimed to assess the influence of different organic fertilizers on DOC and N, P accumulation. The study was carried out on a moraine loam soil at the Vezaiciai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2012. Farmyard manure (FYM (60 t ha -1 and alternative organic fertilizers (wheat straw, rape residues, roots, stubble, perennial grasses were applied on two soil backgrounds - acid and limed. DOC was analysed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR. Application of organic amendments resulted in a significant increase of soil organic carbon (SOC content, which demonstrates a positive role of organic fertilizers in SOC conservation. The combination of different organic fertilizers and liming had a significant positive effect on DOC concentration in the soil. The highest DOC content (0.241 g kg-1 was established in the limed soil fertilized with farmyard manure. The most unfavourable status of DOC was determined in the unlimed, unfertilized soil. The limed and FYM-applied soil had the highest nitrogen (1.47 g kg-1 and phosphorus (0.84 g kg-1 content compared to the other treatments. Organic fertilizers gave a significant positive effect on SOC and DOC content increase in the topsoil. This immediate increase is generally attributed to the presence of soluble materials in the amendments. Application of organic fertilizers in acid and limed soil increased the nutrient stocks and ensured soil chemical indicators at the optimal level for plant growth and thus may provide a mechanism as well as prediction opportunities for soil fertility, conservation

  18. Nutrient leaching potential following application of papermill lime-sludge to an acidic clay soil

    S. C. Vettorazzo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions with soil pots during 210 days, to evaluate the effect of calcitic papermill lime-sludge application (at the rates 0, 773, 1.547, and 2.320 mg kg-1 or respective equivalents to control, 2, 4, and 6 t ha-1, on chemical composition of soil leachate and its effects on eucalypt growth and yield. Highest soil leachate pH, SO4, and Na concentrations occurred in the 4 and 6 t ha-1 treatments. Soil leachate nitrate concentrations decreased with increasing lime-sludge rate. Soil leachate phosphate remained low (below the detection limit in all treatments until 120 days, while the concentration increased in the lime-sludge treatments at 210 days (last sampling in about 600 mg L-1. Lime-sludge decreased leachate Mg concentration, but had no significant effect among rates. Soil leachate Ca, K, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn did not change significantly for any lime-sludge application rates. The maximum NO3, Ca, Mg, K, and Na concentrations in the soil leachate occurred at 60 days after lime-sludge application (leaching equivalent to 1 pore volume, but for pH and SO4, the maximum occurred at 210 days (leaching equivalent to 4 pore volumes. Lime-sludge application decreased the concentration of exchangeable Al in the soil. Plant diameter growth and dry matter yield were increased with increasing lime-sludge rate. Beneficial effects on mineral nutrition (P, K, Ca, B, and Zn of eucalypts were also obtained by the application of 4 and 6 t ha-1 of lime-sludge.

  19. Divisions S-4 - soil fertility and plant nutrition: residual value of lime and leaching of calcium in a kaolinitic ultisol in the high rainfall tropics

    Friesen, D.K.; Juo, A.S.R.; Miller, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    A long-term experiment was conducted on a highly acidic (pH 4.6), coarse-textured Ultisol in the high rainfall region of southeastern Nigeria in order to evaluate the requirement for and residual value of lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) to a continuous crop rotation, and to determine the fate of applied Ca in the soil profile. The initial lime rates used were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 t of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ per hectare. Maize (Zea mays) was planted in the first season and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the second season under a no-tillage, stubble conservation system. Relatively low rates of lime are adequate to sustain yields in a continuous maize-cowpea rotation system. Liming at a rate of 0.5 t/ha maintained maize yield near maximum for 2 years after application. Sustained maize yields for 5 years or more were possible with a lime rate of 2 t/ha. Cowpeas performed well and showed strong tolerance to soil acidity when planted as a late second-season crop after maize without additional fertilizer application. The critical level of exchangeable Al ranged from 25 to 55% depending upon rate of chemical fertilizer as well as cowpea variety used. Leaching losses of Ca from the surface soil during the first 3 years were <0.5 t/ha of Ca(OH)/sub 2/-equivalents in the 0- to 2-t/ha treatments. Exchangeable-Al saturation in all subsoil layers of all treatments 3 years after liming exceeded 40% and soil pH (H/sub 2/O) was <4.3 indicating that lime was leached as neutral Ca salts and had little effect in ameliorating subsoil acidity. 17 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Effect of Lime, Humic Acid and Moisture Regime on the Availability of Zinc in Alfisol

    Sushanta Kumar Naik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime and humic acid application can play an important role in the availability of zinc in paddy soils. We conducted laboratory incubation experiments on a rice growing soil (Alfisol to determine the effect of lime, humic acid and different moisture regimes on the availability of Zn. Addition of half doses of liming material (powdered lime stone recorded highest values of DTPA-Zn followed by no lime and 100% of lime requirement throughout the incubation period. With the progress of incubation, DTPA-Zn increased slightly during the first week and then decreased thereafter. The highest DTPA-extractable Zn content of 2.85 mg/kg was found in the treatment Zn10 L1/2 at 7 days of incubation, showing 17.3 % increase in DTPA-Zn content over its corresponding treatment of Zn alone (Zn10L0. The DTPA-Zn concentration increased with the application of humic acid compared with no humic acid throughout 35 days of the incubation period and the peak value obtained was 3.12 mg/kg in the treatment Zn10 HA2 at 14 days after incubation, showing 50 % increase in Zn content over its corresponding treatment of Zn alone (Zn10HA0. The application of 0.2% humic acid compared with 0.1% resulted in greater increase in DTPA-Zn concentration in soil application. During the 35 days of incubation, highest values of DTPA-Zn were recorded in soil maintained at saturated compared to water logged conditions. However, under alternate wetting and drying condition the DTPA-Zn content gradually decreased up to 21 days and thereafter increased slowly.

  1. Nutritional value of organic acid lime juice (Citrus latifolia T., cv. Tahiti

    Carolina Netto Rangel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime can be used as fresh fruit or as juice to increase the flavor of drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze organic acid lime nutritional composition in order to evaluate if there are important differences among those conventionally produced. No significant differences in total titrable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, sucrose, calcium, and zinc were found between the acid lime juice from organic biodynamic crops and conventional crops. However, the organic biodynamic fruits presented higher peel percentage than the conventional ones leading to lower juice yield. On the other hand, fructose, glucose, total soluble solids contents, potassium, manganese, iron, and copper were higher in the conventional samples. These results indicated few nutritional differences between organic and conventional acid lime juices in some constituents. Nevertheless, fruit juice from biodynamic crops could be a good choice since it is free from pesticides and other agents that cause problems to human health maintaining the levels similar to those of important nutritional compounds.

  2. Use of Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn and Soybean Production on an Acidic Sandy Soil

    Fly ash (FA) produced from subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as a lime material for crop production in acidic soils in areas. A five-year study was conducted to determine if FA can be used as a liming material in an acid sandy soil under corn and soybean grain production. Fly ash...

  3. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  4. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  6. TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE BY THE ALUMINA-LIME-SODA PROCESS

    The alumina-lime-soda process is a chemical desalination process for waters in which the principal sources of salinity are sulfate salts and has been field tested at the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Acid Mine Drainage Research Facility, Hollywood, Pennsylvania, as a method to r...

  7. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Catherine Anderson; Dennis Hanjalika Malambo; Maria Eliette Gonzalez Perez; Happiness Ngwanamoseka Nobela; Lobke de Pooter; Jan Spit; Christine Maria Hooijmans; Jack van de Vossenberg; Wilson Greya; Bernard Thole; Jules B. van Lier; Damir Brdjanovic

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea tre...

  8. Effects of experimental acid precipitation and liming on vigor, species abundance, and mineral nutrition of ground vegetation in a Norway spruce stand

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain and liming on ground vegetation of a 74-year-old Norway Spruce stand were analysed since summer of 1983. During the first two growing seasons no significant change in species composition had occurred on any plot. The frequently applied acid rain injured some constant moss species, this was reflected by chlorosis, necroses, and reduced average coverage or frequency. Damaged moss segments had decreased Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Zn- and K-concentrations. Some secondary moss species, however were more tolerant to acid precipitation. Liming with dolomite at the beginning of the experiment improved the Ca- and Mg-nutrition of all investigated species (Thuidium tamariscinum, Oxalis acetosella, spruce seedlings), lowered the intensity of injury by acid rain with mosses, and reduced the Mn- (and Zn-)uptake of the vascular plant species. The combination of liming and irrigation with acid or 'normal' water strongly increased the abundance of the herb Oxalis acetosella. Without liming the same species responded to acid rain with lower Ca- (and Mg-)contents in leaves but no visible foliar damage occurred.

  9. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Acid Lime (Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle Landraces of Eastern Nepal Using RAPD Markers

    NN Munankarmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle is an important commercial fruit crop, cultivated from terai to high hill landscapes of Nepal. However, production and productivity is very low due to various reasons including infestations by various diseases and pests, lack of diseases and pests resistant and high yielding varieties. In this context, determination of genetic variation at molecular level is fundamental to citrus breeders for the development of elite cultivars with desirable traits. In the present study, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD marker technique has been employed to assess genetic diversity in 60 acid lime landraces representing different agro-ecological zones of eastern Nepal. Nine selected arbitrary primers generated 79 RAPD fragments of which 75 were polymorphic (94.94%. Phenogram was constructed by NTSYSPC ver. 2.21i using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficient to deduce overall genetic diversity and relationships of the acidlime genotypes under study. Sixty acid lime landraces formed seven clusters and similarity value ranged from 38% to 98% with an average of 72%. Genetic variation at different agro-ecological zones was assessed using Popgene ver. 1.32 and found 47% to 69.6% polymorphism. Shannon’s index and Nei’s gene diversity showed highest level of acid lime diversity in Terai zone (PPB, 69.62%; H, 0.213; I, 0.325 followed by mid-hill zone (PPB, 67.09%; H, 0.208; I, 0.317. The results obtained will be useful to citrus breeders for elite cultivar development. The RAPD-PCR technique is found to be the rapid and effective tool for genetic diversity assessment in acid lime landraces of Nepal.

  10. Resistance to Citrus Canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Green Tea

    B. Beheshti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far used chemicals to control this pathogen are either not effective or have harmful effects on the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia plants inoculated with Xcc were treated with β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1, green tea (Camellia sinensis, copper oxychloride and distilled water. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated twenty days after treatment. The results showed that BABA and green tea had inhibitory effects on disease development. None of the agents used for plant treatment had direct antimicrobial activity on Xcc, except copper oxychloride. This indicated that the inhibitory effects of BABA and green tea resulted from strengthening the defense capacities of the plant. To support this claim, partial coding sequences of Pathogenesis-Related (PR genes from lime were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of PR gene expression showed increased mRNA levels of β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, during disease development. Reduction in lesion size and lack of antimicrobial activity indicate that BABA and green tea might be useful treatments against Xcc infection.

  11. A critical assessment of soil amendments (slaked lime/acidic fertilizer) for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range soils

    Conesa, Hector M.; Gonzalez-Alcaraz, Maria N. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia Agraria; Wieser, Mirjam; Studer, Bjoern; Schulin, Rainer [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The effects of the addition of an acidic fertilizer solution and/or slaked lime (5.5 g Ca(OH){sub 2}kg{sup -1}) on a slightly acidic shooting range soil (pH 6.1, % organic carbon 5.4) with moderate metal (e.g., 620 mg kg{sup -1} Pb) and metalloid (17 mg kg{sup -1} Sb) concentrations on metal and Sb solubility and plant accumulation were investigated. Materials and methods: In a pot experiment, we grew Plantago lanceolata, Lolium perenne and Triticum aestivum. The pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and metal and Sb concentrations in the leachate were monitored. Results and discussion: The addition of slaked lime increased the soil pH from 6.1 to 7.2 and the DOC from 100 to 300 mg l{sup -1}. In contrast to Sb, we found a correlation between DOC and soluble Cu concentrations. The addition of the acidic fertilizer significantly increased Mn- and Pb-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations. Slaked lime decreased at first, Pb-, Mn- Ni- and Zn-NaNO{sub 3} extractable concentrations, but with time, these concentrations increased. Metal accumulation in shoots was in general low. The highest concentrations were obtained in shoots of L. perenne for Mn (135 mg kg{sup -1} DW). Spikes of T. aestivum accumulated more Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn than shoots. Grains of T. aestivum had higher Zn concentrations (up to 37 mg kg{sup -1}) than spikes and shoots (up to 22 and 19 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). Antimony concentrations were always below 2 mg kg{sup -1} for the three species studied. Conclusions: Under these growing conditions, these three plant species showed to be suitable for the phytomanagement of moderately contaminated shooting range areas. (orig.)

  12. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  13. Responses of Ammonia-Oxidising Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen, Lime, and Plant Species in Upland Grassland Soil

    Deirdre C. Rooney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural improvement of seminatural grasslands has been shown to result in changes to plant and microbial diversity, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. A microcosm approach was used to elucidate the effects of two key components of agricultural improvement (nitrogen addition and liming on ammonia-oxidising bacterial (AOB communities in an upland grassland soil. Plant species characteristic of unimproved and improved pastures (A. capillaris and L. perenne were planted in microcosms, and lime, nitrogen (NH4NO3, or lime plus nitrogen added. The AOB community was profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP of the amoA gene. AOB community structure was largely altered by NH4NO3 addition, rather than liming, although interactions between nitrogen addition and plant species were also evident. Results indicate that nitrogen addition drives shifts in the structure of key microbial communities in upland grassland soils, and that plant species may play a significant role in determining AOB community structure.

  14. Responses of Ammonia-Oxidising Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen, Lime, and Plant Species in Upland Grassland Soil

    Agricultural improvement of semi natural grasslands has been shown to result in changes to plant and microbial diversity, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. A microcosm approach was used to elucidate the effects of two key components of agricultural improvement (nitrogen addition and liming) on ammonia-oxidising bacterial (AOB) communities in an upland grassland soil. Plant species characteristic of unimproved and improved pastures (A. capillaries and L. perenne) were planted in microcosms, and lime, nitrogen (NH4NO3), or lime plus nitrogen added. The AOB community was profiled using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the amoA gene. AOB community structure was largely altered by NH4NO3 addition, rather than liming, although interactions between nitrogen addition and plant species were also evident. Results indicate that nitrogen addition drives shifts in the structure of key microbial communities in upland grassland soils, and that plant species may play a significant role in determining AOB community structure

  15. Reactive Crystallization of Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate from Acidic Wastewater and Lime

    邓立聪; 张亦飞; 陈芳芳; 曹绍涛; 游韶玮; 刘艳; 张懿

    2013-01-01

    The present work focused on the recycle of the sulfate and the metal ions from acidic wastewater dis-charged by nonferrous metallurgical industry. The effects of the temperature, the reactant concentration, the stirring speed and the metal ions on the reactive crystallization process of calcium sulfate between sulfuric acid and lime were systematically investigated. The morphology of the precipitated crystals evolved from platelet-like and nee-dle-like shape to rod-like shape when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C. An increase in the agglom-eration of calcium sulfate was found with increasing lime concentration. Metal ions markedly retard the rate of crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The crystallization of gypsum was slowed with the existence of Mg2+in the solution, and the morphology of gypsum was transformed from platelet-like shape to rod-like shape when Mg2+concentration reached 0.08 mol·L-1. The amorphous ferric hydroxide was coated on the calcium sulfate after the co-precipitation process while Zn2+and Al3+ions in the solution enhanced the agglomeration of the calcium sulfate by absorbing on the surface of the crystals. Comprehensive acidic wastewater containing heavy metals was effi-ciently purified by the two stage lime neutralization technology, and highly agglomerated gypsum precipitates with needle-like shape were obtained. The precipitates could be purified by sulfuric acid washing, and the metal ions were effectively separated from the calcium sulfate by-products.

  16. The effect of phosphorus application and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and symbiotic N fixation

    A field experiment consisting of seven treatments and six replications was arranged in a randomized block design. The objectives of experiment were to study the effect of phosphorus placement and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and the amount of N fixed symbiotically by soybean. Results obtained shows the grain yield of soybean was influenced significantly by phosphorus placement, but corn was not. Fertilizer which was banded in the plant rows bellow seeds shows the higher grain yield of soybean that those broad-casted and incorporated with the soil or banded near the plant rows. Liming increased grain yield of soybean or corn as much as 31 percent higher than without lime. Lime also increased the amount of soybean N obtained from symbiotic N fixation. The partitioning of plant N requirement from soil, fixation, and fertilizer were subsequently 58, 36 and 6 percent. (author). 14 refs

  17. Phosphorus solubility in an acid forest soil as influenced by form of applied phosphorus and liming

    Fransson, Ann-Mari; Bergkvist, Bo; Tyler, Germund [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1999-07-01

    Sedimentary phosphorus, superphosphate, and wood-ash, as well as either sedimentary phosphorus. superphosphate or ash combined with lime, were distributed in selected plots in an 80-yr-old Norway spruce forest [Picea abies (L.) Karst]. After 2 yrs, the sedimentary phosphorus had increased the oxalate/oxalic acid-extractable P in the O-horizon, and the superphosphate had increased the oxalate/oxalic acid-extractable P in the E-horizon. At first, the percolation water from the superphosphate treatment showed high P concentrations. It soon returned to control levels, however. The percolation water from the sedimentary phosphorus treatment gradually showed increased phosphate concentrations. The wood-ash increased neither the amount of extractable P nor the P concentration in the percolation water. The oxalate/oxalic acid-extractable P from the sedimentary P treatment was reduced by liming. The P concentration in the percolation water also tended to be reduced. This was perhaps due to formation of Ca phosphates in the vicinity of the lime particles. In addition, if the solubility rate was similar to the uptake rate, it could account for the decreased P concentration.

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    Catherine Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity, urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose/kg and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m3 of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  19. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-11-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment. PMID:26528995

  20. Influence of liming and topsoil thickness on vegetative growth and leachate quality on acidic coal refuse

    Coal waste materials inhibit direct vegetation establishment due to adverse physical and chemical properties, particularly low water retention and high potential acidity. The Moss No. 1 coal refuse pile is located in Dickenson County, Virginia, and was idled in the late 1980's with little topsoil resource available for final closure. The refuse was acidic (Total-S = 0.38%; pH = 3.6), black, high (70%) in coarse fragments, and had a low water holding capacity (4.5% in 6.0 over a two-year period, which resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than the control plots. All topsoil treatments resulted in greater vegetative cover and biomass than plots treated with lime only due to improved surface soil physical and chemical properties. A topsoil treatment of 60 cm gave the thickest vegetative cover and biomass yield. Such a treatment, however, would be cost-prohibitive at this location. Application of 27 Mg/ha of lime to the refuse surface along with 15 cm of topsoil produced acceptable two-year vegetative cover and biomass, and appeared to be the optimal treatment for this particular situation. Both liming and topsoil had no affect on leachate pH and the electrical conductivity in leachates collected below the plots. This suggests that surface revegetation will have little effect on the quality of water draining through the pile, so long term water treatment requirements may not be reduced by successfully revegetating the pile surface

  1. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference

  2. Response of `Nagpur' mandarin, `Mosambi' sweet orange and `Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Ladaniya, M. S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7°C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1°C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference was

  3. Recover of productivity in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca

    In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make productive this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of non-toxic change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA

  4. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO3, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)2, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO3 neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)2 to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)2 as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO4 are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies

  5. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  6. Particle size analysis of coal and lime stone used in fbc power plant lakhra

    Pakistan is gifted with huge coal reserves throughout its land from Sindh to NWFP province. The total reserves at Lakhra have been estimated to be 1328 million tones. Average annual production of coal from Lakhra is over one million tones. Most of this production is used in the WAPDA power plant at Khanot, Sindh and in brick kiln industry. The high sulphur content coal has been used in the FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) power plant at Lakhra. The coal and limestone have been used ill power plant at Lakhra are 52 and 26 tones/hr as per stoichiometric calculations respectively. The research shows that for complete combustion of high sulphur content coal and reducing the emission, the particles size of coal and limestone is of utmost importance. The particle sizes of coal and limestone have been analyzed. The result is then compared with the required particle size as per design parameters of FBC at Lakhra (coal and lime stone 13 and 6.0 mm). The result shows that the particle size of the coal and limestone is not being as per design parameter of the FBC. The coal and lime stone particles size used in FBC is from 0.075-4.75 that is much lower than the particle size of 13 and 6 mm as per design specification. In addition the particle size analysis was also carried out for the fly ash, bottom ash and re-injected material (un-burnt material from the FBC that is recycled to the FBC as per plant specification) to evaluate the overall performance of the FBC plant in terms of Maintenance and Operational problems. As a result of deviation of particle size of coal and limestone from the recommended size, the combustion of coal is not complete. The incomplete combustion not only reduces the plant efficiency and capacity but various operational and technical problems occurs that even result regular shut down of the power plant. (author)

  7. Separative recovery with lime of phosphate and fluoride from an acidic effluent containing H3PO4, HF and/or H2SiF6.

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-10-30

    Fluoride content and flow-rate of fertilizer plant wastewater from phosphoric acid and/or triple superphosphate (TSP) production lead to the discharge of several thousand tons of fluoride (F(-)) per year and even more for phosphate (PO4(3-)). Since sustainability is an important environmental concern, the removal methods should allow phosphorus and fluoride to be recycled as a sustainable products for use as raw materials either in agricultural or industrial applications. In the present work, separative recovery with lime of these two target species was investigated. A preliminary speciation study, carried out on the crude effluent, showed that two forms of fluoride: HF and H2SiF6 are present in a highly acidic medium (pH approximately 2). Evidence that fluoride is present under both free (HF) and combined (H2SiF6) forms, in the phosphate-containing effluent, was provided by comparing potentiometric titration curves of a crude wastewater sample and synthetic acid mixtures containing H3PO4, HF and H2SiF6. In a second step synthetic effluent containing mixtures of the following acids: HF, H2SiF6 and H3PO4, were treated with lime. The behaviour of these compounds under lime treatment was analysed. The data showed that fluoride has a beneficial effect on phosphate removal. Moreover, by acting on the precipitation pH, a "selective" recovery of fluoride and phosphate ions was possible either from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid or phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixtures. Indeed, the first stage of the separative recovery, led to a fluoride removal efficiency of 97-98% from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixture. It was of 93-95% from phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixture. During the second stage, the phosphate precipitation reached 99.8% from both acidic mixtures whereas it did not exceed 82% from a solution containing H3PO4 alone. The XRD and IR analyses showed that during lime treatment, a H2SiF6 hydrolysis occurred, instead of CaSiF6 solid

  8. Ash from cereal and rape straw used for heat production: liming effect and contents of plant nutrients and heavy metals

    Sander, M.-L.; Andren, O. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1997-01-01

    The composition of 79 samples of straw ash from seven heating plants in Sweden was analysed with the aim of evaluating straw ash as a fertilizer and liming agent. The variation in ash composition was explained mainly by ash fraction (bottom ash vs. fly ash) and straw type (wheat, barley, rye, rape) but also by heating plant. Compared with concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash; levels in fly ash were 10-90 times higher. Fly ash also contained more Cu and K compared with bottom ash. The Cd/P ratio was 0.03 in bottom ash and 0.6 g Cd/kg P in fly ash. Ash from rape straw had a higher Ca content and liming effect compared with ash from cereal straw; e.g. the liming effect of rape ash was more than three times higher than that of wheat ash. The liming effect varied between 3.5 and 44% CaO and depended mainly on the Ca content. The average P content was 1.7% (0.2-4.4%) with slightly higher concentration in rape ash than in wheat ash. The potential for using straw ash as a fertilizer and liming agent is discussed. Compared with commercial fertilizers the use of bottom ash as a P fertilizer results in a lower addition of Cd. However, the total heavy metal content of straw ash poses a potential problem. 24 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products

    PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ≤6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice. PMID:18290732

  10. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  11. Liming and plant aging influence on micronutrient uptake by Brachiaria decumbens forage

    Brachiaria decumbens is the main forage in pastures of several Brazilian regions. The effects of liming and plant age on micronutrient uptake by the forage of a degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture under restoration process, were studied in Sao Carlos - SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate. Experimental design was a random block (100 m2), with 6 replications and 3 treatments. Each block received the following treatment: 0 t/ha of limestone with NK; 2 t/ha of limestone applied on soil surface with NK and maintenance of 1 t/ha per annum; 8 t/ha of limestone applied once on soil surface with NK. Forage samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface, each 36 days in the rain season. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the micronutrient content. In some cases, Co Fe, Mn and Zn were negatively affected by increasing limestone doses. The opposite effect was observed for Cl. Decreases of Cl, Co and Mo uptake in forage were enhanced with plant aging. (author)

  12. The effectiveness of surface liming in ameliorating the phytotoxic effects of soil contaminated by copper acid leach pad solution in an arid ecosystem

    Golos, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of sites following soil contamination can be challenging especially in identifying the most effective method for ameliorating phytotoxic effects in arid ecosystems. This study at a copper mine in the Great Sandy Desert of Western Australia investigated vegetation restoration of a site contaminated by acid (H2SO4) leach pad solution. Elevated soil copper at low soil pH is phytotoxic to plant roots inhibiting root elongation. In arid ecosystems where rapid root growth is crucial for seedling survival post germination physical or chemical barriers to root growth need to be identified and ameliorated. Initial attempt at rehabilitation of contaminated site with hydrated lime (CaOH2) at 2 tonnes/ha followed by ripping to 30 cm depth then seeding was ineffective as successful seedling emergence was followed by over 90% seedling mortality which was 10-fold greater than seedling mortality in an uncontaminated reference site. High mortality was attributed to seedling roots being impededed as soil water was more than 3-fold greater at 5 to 40 cm depth in contaminated site than reference site. In response to high seedling mortality after emergence test pits were dug to 1 m deep to collect soil samples at 10 cm intervals for phytotoxicity testing and to measure soil pH-CaCl2, copper (DPTA ion extraction), electrical conductivity and gravimetric water content in three replicate pits at three replicate sites. Also, soil impedance was measured down the soil profile at 5 cm intervals at six replicate points/pit. For phytotoxicity testing soil samples were placed into three replicate plastic pots/sample and seeded with 10 seeds of Avena sativa and watered daily. Seedlings were harvested after at least two weeks after seedling emergence and rooting depth in pots measured. There was no difference in seedling emergence and survival of seedlings between contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples however mean seedling root growth was significantly lower in soil samples

  13. GEOSTATISTICAL MODEL EVALUATION OF LIMING ON OSIJEK-BARANYA COUNTY EXAMPLE

    Vladimir Vukadinović; Vesna Vukadinović; Irena Jug; Željko Kraljičak; Boris Đurđević

    2008-01-01

    Unfavorable pH of soil is the main reason for several different problems in debalance of mineral nutrition which can cause many problems in plant growth, such as leaves and fruit chlorosis and necrosis, etc. Therefore, liming as a measure for improving amount of acids soils must be conducted very carefully, with detail chemical soil analyses. This paper presents a segment of computer model for liming recommendation at the example of Osijek-Baranya County. Results of liming recommendation were...

  14. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  15. Cellular localization of cadmium and structural changes in maize plants grown on a cadmium contaminated soil with and without liming

    Vieira da Cunha, Karina Patricia [Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Department of Agronomy, Recife, PE 52171900 (Brazil); Araujo do Nascimento, Clistenes Williams [Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Department of Agronomy, Recife, PE 52171900 (Brazil)], E-mail: clistenes@depa.ufrpe.br; Magalhaes de Mendonca Pimentel, Rejane; Pereira Ferreira, Clebio [Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Department of Agronomy, Recife, PE 52171900 (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The effects of different concentrations of soil cadmium (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg{sup -1}) on growth, structural changes and cadmium cellular localization in leaves of maize plants (Zea mays L.) were investigated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the structural changes observed in maize leaves were not only a response to the Cd-induced stress but also a cellular mechanism to reduce the free Cd{sup +2} in the cytoplasm. However, this mechanism seems to be efficient only up to a Cd concentration in leaves between 27 and 35 mg kg{sup -1} for soils without and with liming, respectively. The cellular response varied with both the Cd concentration in soil and liming. For limed soil, Cd was preferentially accumulated in the apoplast while for unlimed soils Cd was more evenly distributed into the cells. The ability of Cd accumulation depended on the leaf tissue considered. The apoplast collenchyma presented the highest Cd concentration followed by the endodermis, perycicle, xylem, and epidermis. On the other hand, symplast Cd accumulated mainly in the endodermis, bundle sheath cells, parenchyma, and phloem. Based on the structural changes and growth reduction, the critical toxic concentration of soil Cd to maize plants is between 5 and 10 mg kg{sup -1}.

  16. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  17. Tillage and liming effects on aggregate distribution and associated carbon and nitrogen in acid soils of SW Spain

    Gómez-Paccard, Clara; Zabaleta, Javier; Benito, Marta; León, Paloma; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio; Espejo, Rafael; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá

    2013-04-01

    Beneficial effects of conservation tillage are well known on a wide variety of environmental aspects. The lack of ploughing in no till systems conserves soil structure, enhances the accumulation of organic carbon in the surface layer and promotes the development of soil microorganisms. On the other hand, liming is a common practice in acid soils. Lime raises the pH, reduces Al toxicity enhancing root development, but controversial results have been found about the effects of liming on soil structure. Ultisols from SW of Spain present severe chemical constraints as poor nutrient availability and high Al contents in the exchange complex. On the other hand, traditional practices as conventional tillage led to a dramatic decrease on soil organic carbon and a degraded soil structure. No till plus liming might be recommendable to achieve a sustainable and productive agriculture in these particular soils, but little is known about the effect of these practices on soil structure when applied together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of traditional tillage (TT) versus no tillage (NT), and liming versus no liming on aggregate size distribution and associated carbon and nitrogen. The study was conducted on a Plinthic Palexerult (Soil Survey Staff, 1999) in the Cañamero's Raña (SW Spain) under Mediterranean climate (mean annual temperature: 15.0° C; mean annual precipitation: 869 mm). The experimental design was a split-plot with four replications. The main factor was tillage (no till versus traditional till) while the second was the inclusion or not of Ca-amendment (sugar foam plus red gypsum). Samples were collected in 2011 after six years of treatment at a 0-5, 5-10 and 10-25 cm depths. The aggregate distribution was determined by wet sieving method to separate four aggregate size classes: (i) >2000 µm (large macroaggregates), (ii) 250-2000 µm (small macroaggregates), (iii) 53-250 µm (microaggregates), (iv) Soil organic carbon and nitrogen were

  18. The effects of acid irrigation and compensation liming on soil and trees in a mature Norway spruce stand (Hoeglwald project)

    Since 1984 the soil of an around 80 years old spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) was irrigated with acidified water (pH 2.7 - 2.8 by H2SO4 resp. pH 5 - 5.5 by H2CO3) in 15 to 18 events a 10 - 12 mm per year additionally to natural rain of 500 to 700 mm below canopy with pH mostly between 4.5 - 5.2. The main part of the added acidity was buffered in the mineral top soil by reactions releasing Al (H2O)63+. A small part was consumed in the surface humus layer by exchange of Ca, Mg, Mn and K. Up to now the trees do not show any signs of growth reductions, needle losses or discolourations. It seems that defensive mechanisms in the fine root system are responsible for that as active raise of pH on the rhizoplane of fine roots, possibly due to nitrate uptake. Liming, carried out once in April 1984 with 4 x 103 kg ground dolomite per ha, produced a strong increase of the pH only in the upper part of the humus layer, forming a steep pH gradient by depth. That gradient marking the deacidification front is moving downward very slowly with time (around 1 cm/year). Although nitrification was already very active before lime was brought out liming enhanced the nitrate production markedly. At a depth of 20 cm the nitrate concentrations reached 280 mg/l in the soil solution. Liming also enhanced the release of water soluble humic substances. Because of their ability to form stable metal organic complexes with Fe, Cu, Pb and Al, the contents of these metals increased in the soil solutions. (orig.)

  19. Effect of three organic amendments and of the lime on the readiness and the phosphorous adsorption in an acid soil

    To observe the effects of the organic materials and lime on the availability and sorption of phosphorus in a strongly acid soil (Inceptic Hapludox), poor in P, a greenhouse experiment and a laboratory studied were conducted. Plastic pots were filled with 400 g of soil to which was given a basic N.P.K.S. fertilization with applications of 90 kg P2O-5 hectare chicken manure, compost or cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) were added to soil at the rates of 0.0; 0,8 and 2,4 g O.M. 100 g-1 separate soil samples were amended with 1,5 ton CaCO3 hectare. Soils were incubated for periods of 2, 14 and 54 days; after each period, pH, exchangeable AL and available P were determined. In soils incubated 54 days, the P sorption was evaluated trough isotherms and was interrelated the available P with the P sorption. Either, organic materials or lime increased the available P. Chicken manure let levels between 25 and 120 mg P kg-1 the compost between 12 and 37, the cowpea between 6 and 15 and the lime between 3 and 8 mg P kg-1. The availability of phosphorus increase with increasing rates of the organics materials but is reduced upon elapsing the incubated period. The treatments decreased drastically exchangeable al and this had relationship to the increase of the available P. The behavior in the P sorption was fitted to freundlich equation. The basic fertilization did not modify the p sorption while the organic amendments and the lime reduced it in different degree. The value of K, in the expression of the isotherms, shows an important reduction of the P sorption capacity in soil, caused by the chicken manure. An inverse relationship was observed between the p available and the value of K

  20. Effects of liming an acid soil amended with sewage sludge enriched with Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn on yield and Cd content of wheat grain

    Bingham, F.T. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Page, A.L.; Mitchell, G.A.; Strong, J.E.

    1979-04-01

    An acid soil (pH 5.2) was treated +- lime and 1% sewage sludge enriched with three concentrations each of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni in a 3/sup 4/ complete factorial design experiment (81 treatments +- lime). These treated soils were placed in pots and cropped with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Analysis of variance revealed significant main effects on grain yield from all metal additions to the acid soil and from Cd and Cu only in the limed soil. Significant main effects on the concentration of Cd in grain occurred with all metals added in the limed soil, but only from Cd, Zn, and Ni on the acid soil. Significant multiple metal interactions occurred in all cases. Multiple regression equations were developed for estimating grain yield and Cd content from soil metal additions and saturation extract metal content. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated with soil metal additions (R/sup 2/ = 0.978 and 0.988 for limed and unlimed soils, respectively) and saturation extract metals (R/sup 2/ = 0.879 and 0.950 for limed and unlimed soils). The best fit equations were used to calculate metal equivalent values for soil metals added (SME) which were then used to develop regression equations and graphs relating grain yield to SME.

  1. Nutrient leaching potential following application of papermill lime-sludge to an acidic clay soil

    S. C. Vettorazzo; F. C. S. Amaral; J. C. Chitolina

    2001-01-01

    This experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions with soil pots during 210 days, to evaluate the effect of calcitic papermill lime-sludge application (at the rates 0, 773, 1.547, and 2.320 mg kg-1 or respective equivalents to control, 2, 4, and 6 t ha-1), on chemical composition of soil leachate and its effects on eucalypt growth and yield. Highest soil leachate pH, SO4, and Na concentrations occurred in the 4 and 6 t ha-1 treatments. Soil leachate nitrate concentrations decreased ...

  2. Phytoplankton recovery from acid and metal contamination : a comparison of limed and unmanipulated lakes

    In order to assess biological recovery from acidification, as well as differences in community composition between manipulated and un-manipulated lakes, a study was conducted to investigate the long-term changes in the phytoplankton communities of four lakes (Clearwater Lake, Middle Lake, Hannah Lake, and Lohi Lake) located within 15 km of Sudbury, Ontario, an area significantly damaged by sulphur dioxide and metals from local smelter emissions. The study compared changes in the phytoplankton communities in the lakes over the last two to three decades, and evaluated them against data collected since 1980 from reference lakes within the same biogeographic region but beyond the influence of the Sudbury smelters. The paper provided background on emissions and biological recovery in the area as well as on the results of the study. It was concluded that there was evidence of recovery in the composition of phytoplankton communities of the acidified lakes over the last 30 years given the shift in their composition towards those of the reference lakes. In addition, the recovery of the un-limed lakes was more gradual than in the limed lakes, occurring over a period of 25 years. 2 refs., 1 fig

  3. Teores de carboidratos em limeiras ácidas 'Tahiti' tratadas com paclobutrazol Levels of carbohydrates in acid lime tree 'Tahiti' treated with paclobutrazol

    Maria do Céu Monteiro da Cruz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O paclobutrazol (PBZ pode retardar o crescimento e induzir o florescimento de citros mediante a inibição da biossíntese de giberelinas. Além disso, outras características das plantas podem ser influenciadas pela aplicação do PBZ, como as concentrações e distribuição de carboidratos. O trabalho foi realizado com objetivo de estudar as possíveis relações entre concentrações e distribuição de carboidratos na planta e a aplicação do PBZ, em limeiras 'Tahiti' enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo' e cultivadas em vasos de cinco litros. O PBZ foi aplicado nas plantas conduzidas em câmara de crescimento, sob temperatura controlada (28º C dia/ 18º C noite e fotoperíodo de 16 horas de luz, com fluxo de fótons fotossintético de aproximadamente 170 µmol m-2 s-1. A aplicação do PBZ causou reduções significativas dos teores foliares de carboidratos por ter induzido maior florescimento da limeira ácida 'Tahiti'. A aplicação do paclobutrazol resultou no acúmulo de reservas de carboidratos nas raízes.The Placobutrazol (PBZ can delay the growth and induce the flowering of citrus through the inhibition of biosynthesis of gibberellins. Besides, other features of the plants can be influenced by the application of PBZ, as well as the concentrations and distribution of carbohydrates. The work was carried out aiming to study the possible relationships between concentrations and distribution of carbohydrates in the plant and application of PBZ in acid lime tree 'Tahiti', grafted on lemon tree 'Cravo' and cultivated in pots of five litters. The PBZ was applied in plants conducted in a growth chamber, under controlled temperature (28º C day/ 20º C night, and photoperiod of 16 hours with light, with photosynthetic photons flow of about 170 µmol m-2 s-1. The application of PBZ caused significant reductions on the levels of carbohydrates in the leaves because they induced the flowering in the acid lime tree 'Tahiti'. The application of

  4. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Gopu Venkadesaperumal; Natrajan Amaresan; Krishna Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Panto...

  5. FarmLime: Low-cost lime for small-scale farming

    Mitchell, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    FarmLime (Low-cost lime for small-scale farming) is a multidisciplinary research project that aims to increase the food security of small-scale farmers by improving their access to agricultural lime which neutralises soil acidity and adds nutrients. This project focused on farming districts in northern Zambia that have highly acidic soils with poor crop yields. The aim was to locate suitable carbonate rocks in these farming districts and produce agricultural lime using a low cost method, elim...

  6. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis

    Andrew Hankinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse.

  7. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis.

    Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fungal infection, cellulitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and even child abuse. PMID:25317269

  8. Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis

    Hankinson, Andrew; Lloyd, Benjamin; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case describes a scenario of lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Phytophotodermatitis is a dermatitis caused after the skin is exposed to photosensitizing compounds in plants and then exposed to sunlight. Many common plants including citrus fruits, celery, and wild parsnip contain these photosensitizing compounds which cause phytophotodermatitis. It is important for a physician to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may often be misdiagnosed as other skin conditions including fung...

  9. Process optimisation of lime milk leaching and control of cold lime softening at the power plant STEAG Fenne; Optimierung des Kalkansatzes und Regelung der Kalkmilchdosierung in der KZA des STEAG-Kraftwerks Fenne

    Martin, Christian [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Anlagentechnik; Arenz, Helmut [Steag Kraftwerk Fenne, Voelklingen (Germany). Technischer Service; Wysk, Ralf [NALCO Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). National Account Managing Kraftwerke

    2013-06-01

    An increase in turbidity in the cleaned water of the cold lime softener higher than the raw water input of the river Saar was observed at the Fenne site at some days in 2009. Also the post-installed sand filter could not restrain the fine particles. Under these circumstances the demineralisation water production had serious problems because of heavily fouled membranes in the reverse osmosis system. Only the immense personal actions of the operating staff could enable the reliability of the water preparation system on site. Together with Nalco the power plant service department implemented a plant audit on site. The purpose of the plant audit was to find the reason for the bottleneck in water preparation and to optimise and automate the water treatment system under the aspects of economical reliability and control efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Use of bottom ash from thermal power plant and lime as filler in bituminous mixtures

    López-López, E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash (PCC-BA and determining the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA using PCC-BA and hydrated lime (HL as filler. Physical and chemical characterization of the bottom ash was carried out to evaluate its eventual reutilization as filler substitute. The materials tested in this study were made using 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% and 100% of PCC-BA combined with HL. HMA mixes were evaluated in terms of their engineering properties, namely: air voids in the mixes, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus, performance in wheel tracking test and fatigue resistance. The results obtained indicate that HMA mixes with a filler blend of 70% PCC-BA and 30% HL fulfil European standards and are suitable for light traffic or small infrastructures.Este estudio se centra en la caracterización de las cenizas de fondo (PCC-BA y la determinación de las características mecánicas de mezclas bituminosas en caliente (HMA, utilizando cenizas de fondo y la cal hidratada (HL como filler. Se realizó la caracterización física y química de las cenizas de fondo para evaluar su empleo como sustituto de filler. Las mezclas ensayadas en este estudio se realizaron utilizando 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% y 100% de cenizas de fondo combinadas con cal hidratada. Se evaluaron propiedades ingenieriles de las mezclas bituminosas, tales como los huecos de aire en las mezclas, la sensibilidad al agua, el módulo de rigidez, el ensayo de pista y la resistencia a la fatiga. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con una combinación de filler del 70% de cenizas de fondo y el 30% cal hidratada, cumplen con las normas europeas y son adecuados para su aplicación con tráficos ligeros o en pequeñas infraestructuras.

  11. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristezavirus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6–20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an ...

  12. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  13. Waste ashes for use in agricultural production: I. Liming effect, contents of plant nutrients and chemical characteristics of some metals.

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Yamasaki, S; Nanzyo, M

    2002-02-01

    The chemical characteristics of 89 municipal waste ashes, including food scrap ash (FSA), animal waste ash (AWA), horticulture waste ash (HWA), sewage sludge ash (SSA) and incinerator bottom ash (IBA), from various locations in Japan were examined with the aim of evaluating their suitability for use in agriculture. Although the waste ashes came from different sources and consisted of various materials, the gross elemental composition was similar. Acid neutralization capacity (liming effect) for the waste ashes was equivalent to 10-30% of CaO and followed the sequence SSA > IBA > AWA > FSA > HWA. Average P concentrations for the five types of waste ashes ranged from 10 to 29 g kg(-1) and average K concentrations ranged from 14 to 63 g kg(-1), respectively. Metal contents in the waste ashes were compared with levels in Japanese agricultural soils. K in the waste ashes was 1.3-6 times higher and Ca was 3-12 times higher; contents of the other metals in FSA, AWA and HWA were generally less than five times higher, but Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb in SSA or IBA were approximately 10-200 times higher than those in soils. Moreover, the ceiling amounts of waste ashes that may be applied to main Japanese agricultural soils were calculated by using soil contamination standards for Cu. Water solubility of P and metals in the waste ashes were also examined. PMID:11846166

  14. Three-stage lime-ferric salt process for treating high-arsenic waste acid%三段石灰-铁盐法处理高砷污酸

    易求实

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage lime-ferric salt treatment process is proposed for treating high-arsenic waste acid from off-gas or pyrited-based sulphuric acid plants. In the first stage, non-dangerous solid gypsun waste is produced by neutralization with lime, which could be used as additive for cement production. In the second stage, arsenic is highly concentrated in residues by adjusting pH and/or adding oxidant to produce calcium arsenite or arsenate, which is suitable for recycle or stabilizing treatment. In the third stage, wastewater is treated by iron salt to further remove arsenic and meet industrial discharge standards. The good results were obtained in the tests treating waste acids from off-gas and pyrite-based sulphuric acid plants.%提出一种处理高砷污酸的三段石灰-铁盐法。第一段利用石灰乳中和污酸中的硫酸,得到非危险固体石膏,可作为水泥生产添加剂;第二段通过调节pH值和(或)加入氧化剂生成亚砷酸钙或砷酸钙,将砷高度富集在渣中,以便后续资源化利用或稳定化处理;第三段利用铁盐去除残留砷,使水达标排放。该法在冶炼烟气制酸和硫铁矿制酸的污酸处理试验中取得了良好的结果。

  15. Ectomycorrhizal activity as affected by soil liming

    Andersson, Solbritt

    1996-05-01

    Acidification of the forest soils in southern Sweden due to atmospheric deposition has become evident during recent decades. To counteract further acidification, liming of forests in the most affected areas has been proposed. Most forest trees in the temperate and boreal forest ecosystems live in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi, and their uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil is greatly influenced by the symbiosis. In this thesis effects of liming on ectomycorrhiza have been studied in relation to effects on root colonization, fungal growth and nitrogen uptake. In field experiments the effects of liming on ectomycorrhizal colonization of root tips were variable, possibly due to different soil types and climatic variations. However, a changed mycorrhizal community structure could be detected. Laboratory studies also showed that the substrate may influence the outcome of lime applications; the nutrient status of the substrate had a marked effect on how mycelial growth was affected by liming. Under the experimental conditions used in the studies presented in this thesis, liming reduced the uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus by both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The amount of extractable nitrogen and phosphorus in the peat was also reduced by liming. The latter could be due to either microbial or chemical immobilization. The lime induced decrease in nitrogen uptake was stronger in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the mycorrhizal plants had a higher ability to deal with the negative effects of liming on nitrogen availability. This was not the case for phosphorus. The lime induced decrease in phosphorus uptake was stronger for mycorrhizal plants, and in the highest lime treatment there was no significant difference between the mycorrhizal and the non-mycorrhizal spruce plants. 76 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  16. Response of 'Nagpur' mandarin, 'Mosambi' sweet orange and 'Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Ladaniya, M.S. E-mail: mslngp@nagpur.dot.net.in; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A.K

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8{+-}1 deg. C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The

  17. Influence of Liming and Mineral Fertilization on Plant Uptake of Radiostrontium from Danish Soils

    Andersen, A. J.

    1963-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive strontium by rye grass and red clover was studied in pot experiments, using 20 typical Danish agricultural soils. Comparisons were made between the effects of adding Ca in the form of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride, and the respective Mg compounds on Sr uptake by plants...... different soils decreased with increasing axnounts of exchangeable Ca. Adding CaCO/sub 3/ at 2.5 tons/ha showed little effect on Sr uptake. However, heavy amounts of CaCO/ sub 3/, at 5 and 10 tons/ha, reduced Sr/sup 89/ concentration of the plants by 15 to 30 per cent, depending on the type of soil. Ca...... grown on three different soils. The influence of nitrogen and potassium application on uptake of Sr/sup 90/ by oats was studied for two different soils. The results showed conclusively that in red clover the uptake of radioactive strontium was much greater than in rye grass. The uptake from the...

  18. Calagem em latossolo sob influência de coberturas vegetais: neutralização da acidez Liming in a latosol under influence of cover crops: acidity neutralization

    Tullio Raphael Pereira de Pádua

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A movimentação dos produtos da dissolução do calcário e a correção da acidez podem ser influenciadas pelo manejo da calagem e pela quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica presente no solo. Avaliou-se a correção da acidez de acordo com a aplicação de calcário superficial ou incorporado nas profundidades de 0-10, 0-20 cm, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (LVdf sob diferentes coberturas vegetais anteriores (mata, eucalipto, pinus e pastagem. O estudo foi realizado de novembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003 no Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, sendo avaliados, depois de 30 dias de reação do calcário, e antes do cultivo do algodão, os teores trocáveis de Ca2+ e Al3+, o pH e os níveis de saturação por bases (V em amostras de solo coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. A calagem superficial causou, na camada de 0-5 cm, uma elevação do pH e V para níveis acima dos considerados adequados para o cultivo do algodoeiro, caracterizando uma calagem excessiva. Foram verificados acréscimos, em relação à área sem calagem, do pH, Ca2+ e saturação por bases em camadas de solo além das camadas de incorporação do corretivo, principalmente nas amostras de solo com maior teor de matéria orgânica, mas esses efeitos não se estenderam à camada de subsolo (20-40 cm.Lime mobility and soil acidity correction can be influenced by liming management and the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. Acidity neutralization in function of the lime incoporation and surface liming was evaluated in a red Latosol (Oxisol under different antecedent vegetation covers (eucalyptus, forest, pasture and pine. The study was carried out from November 2002 to January 2003 at the Soil Science Department of the Lavras Federal University. After 30 days of incubation of soils with lime, the contents of Ca2+ e Al3+, pH and base saturation levels were quantified at the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm sample depths. At the

  19. Evaluation of cyclonic ash, commercial Na-silicates, lime and phosphoric acid for metal immobilisation purposes in contaminated soils in Flanders (Belgium)

    In order to reduce the health risks associated with historically enriched metal smelting sites in Flanders (Belgium), the capacities of a non-beringite cyclonic ash and commercial Na-silicates to fix metals and create conditions to restore vegetation cover were evaluated and compared to lime and H3PO4. All tested amendments reduced Ca(NO3)2-extractable soil metal concentrations and reduced metal uptake in Agrostis capillaris seedlings. Sodium released by Na-silicates was possibly toxic to bean plants while an isotopic dilution technique revealed that metals were only weakly sorbed by silicates (i.e. reversible sorption). Cyclonic ash appeared more efficient than lime in both reducing oxidative stress in beans and Zn, Cu and Pb uptake in grasses. The metal fixing mechanism for both amendments appeared similar (i.e. irreversible fixation at constant pH), in contrast to H3PO4 where at least part of the immobilised Cd was irreversibly fixed across a range of pH. - Metal immobilising capacities of Na-silicates are weak, while the active mechanism of cyclonic ash is the same as lime

  20. Evaluation of cyclonic ash, commercial Na-silicates, lime and phosphoric acid for metal immobilisation purposes in contaminated soils in Flanders (Belgium)

    Geebelen, Wouter [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology, Agoralaan - Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. E-mail: wouter.geebelen@uhasselt.be; Sappin-Didier, Valerie [UMR TCEM, INRA, Centre de recherche Bordeaux - Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon cedex (France)]. E-mail: didier@bordeaux.inra.fr; Ruttens, Ann [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology, Agoralaan - Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Applied Chemistry, Agoralaan - Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. E-mail: robert.carleer@uhasselt.be; Yperman, Jan [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Applied Chemistry, Agoralaan - Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. E-mail: jan.yperman@uhasselt.be; Bongue-Boma, Kwele [UMR TCEM, INRA, Centre de recherche Bordeaux - Aquitaine, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon cedex (France); Mench, Michel [UMR BIOGECO INRA, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University, Bat B8 RdC Est, av. des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France)]. E-mail: mench@bordeaux.inra.fr; Lelie, Niels van der [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Biology Department, Bldg. 463, New York, NY 11973-5000 (United States)]. E-mail: vdlelied@bnl.gov; Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology, Agoralaan - Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. E-mail: jaco.vangronsveld@uhasselt.be

    2006-11-15

    In order to reduce the health risks associated with historically enriched metal smelting sites in Flanders (Belgium), the capacities of a non-beringite cyclonic ash and commercial Na-silicates to fix metals and create conditions to restore vegetation cover were evaluated and compared to lime and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. All tested amendments reduced Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-extractable soil metal concentrations and reduced metal uptake in Agrostis capillaris seedlings. Sodium released by Na-silicates was possibly toxic to bean plants while an isotopic dilution technique revealed that metals were only weakly sorbed by silicates (i.e. reversible sorption). Cyclonic ash appeared more efficient than lime in both reducing oxidative stress in beans and Zn, Cu and Pb uptake in grasses. The metal fixing mechanism for both amendments appeared similar (i.e. irreversible fixation at constant pH), in contrast to H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} where at least part of the immobilised Cd was irreversibly fixed across a range of pH. - Metal immobilising capacities of Na-silicates are weak, while the active mechanism of cyclonic ash is the same as lime.

  1. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor. PMID:24426255

  2. Mobilidade de íons em solo ácido com aplicação de calcário, ácido orgânico e material vegetal em superfície Ion mobility in acid soils with surface application of lime, organic acid and crop residues

    Milton Ferreira Moraes

    2007-08-01

    well as the equivalent amounts of organic acids and inorganic salts present in the plant materials. Lime application alone or associated with plant material reduced soil acidity in the 0-8 cm surface layer only. The low recovery of organic acids added to the soils (< 7.2 % indicates that the acids were rapidly metabolized or adsorbed to the soil colloidal fraction, which explains the small effect on cation mobilization. A substantial part of the ion mobilization in the soil and leached solution after application of crop residues was probably due to the plant-own inorganic ion content due to the high water solubility: 65 to 71 % for cations and 84 % for anions. The largest amount of aluminum displaced from the soil was caused by the application of inorganic salt solutions. The presence of plant residues had little effect on the mobilization of the reaction products of surface-applied lime in the soil profile.

  3. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  4. Liming effect on the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate sources varying in solubility applied to upland rice and soybean grown on an acid ultisol

    A greenhouse study was conducted over a 3-year period to investigate the effect of liming on the relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE) of P sources varying in solubility in three cropping sequences. The P sources were (1) a highly reactive Sechura phosphate rock (PR) from Peru, (2) a partially acidulated medium-reactive Huila PR from Colombia at 50% acidulation with H2SO4 (PAPR), and (3) a commercial-grade triple superphosphate (TSP). An acid Ultisol that was unlimed (pH 4.8) and limed to pH 5.6 and 6.6 was used in the three experiments. The first two experiments were carried out over the same period involving upland rice-upland rice-upland rice and soybean-upland rice-soybean cropping sequences. The three P sources were evaluated in terms of RAE based on dry matter yield and changes of soil pH, available P, and exchangeable Ca and Al in these two experiments. The third experiment was conducted over a two-year period to evaluate the effect of freshly applied P sources (1st year) and their residual effect on on biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) by soybean using 15N isotopic dilution technique. Soybean residue was then compared with urea as an N source for the following upland rice. The results show that the use of Sechura PR will not only provide available P nutrient, but also reduce potential Al toxicity for upland rice and soybean contributing to sustainable crop production and BNF in the legume crop, especially for its residual P effect, in this acid Ultisol. The use of possibly more cost-effective Huila PAPR can be also an alternative P source to TSP for this soil due to its good agronomic performance. However, the effect of liming on the soil properties should also be carefully determined and monitored since liming can significantly reduce the agronomic effectiveness of PR. This is due to an increase in soil pH and exchangeable Ca that reduces PR dissolution and soil available P. In the third experiment, P was more limiting than N in influencing upland

  5. Effect of Planting Site Preparation, Hydrated Lime, and DBCP (1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) on Populations of Macroposthonia xenoplax and Peach Tree Short Life in Georgia

    Wehunt, E. J.; Weaver, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Annual postplanting applications of 40.7 kg/ha DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) controlled Macroposthonia xenoplax (Raski, 1952) deGrisse and Loof, 1965 in peach tree short life sites, reduced bacterial canker incidence from 74% to 6%, and inreased the average life of the trees from 3.9 to 6.8 yr for a 7-yr test period. Hydrated lime at 5.5 kg per planting site reduced bacterial canker incidence from 81% 57 % and increased the tree longevity from 2.6 to 6.0 yr. Populations M. xenoplax were ...

  6. A long-term field study on the effect of acid irrigation and compensatory liming on the transport of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in a forest soil

    The effect of acid irrigation with and without liming on the vertical transport of Chernobyl-derived 134Cs in the soil was investigated in a Norway spruce stand by field experiments. For this purpose seven plots with different treatments were established. After 5 years of observation to detect differences in the residence half-time's of 134Cs in the various soil horizons with respect to the control sites, the plots were sampled at 18 individual pits. No effect on the residence half-time of 134Cs was observed for 'normal' irrigation (pH 5.3) as compared to the control in all organic horizons. Following acid irrigation (pH 2.7), the transport of 134Cs was slightly enhanced as compared to 'normal' irrigation. The most significant effect was found for the limed plots: the transport of 134Cs was strongly retarded in the organic layer, as well in irrigated as in non-irrigated plots. These effects are discussed with respect to the different physico-chemical and biological conditions in the various plots and the consequences for the external gamma dose rate in air due to radiocesium in the soil

  7. Effect of liquid liming on sorghum growth in an Ultisol.

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid lime on sorghum growth in an Ultisol. This research was conducted between August and November, 2011 at the Agricultural Research Center, San José, Costa Rica. In an Ultisol planted with sorghum, in pots of 800 ml, the following treatments where applied: control without lime, calcium carbonate at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide at doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. Six weeks after planting, sorghum was harvested, measuring leaf area, dry and fresh weight of the aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and the soil chemical characteristics. Treatments using calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the higher weight of the aerial and root biomass of sorghum. Even though there were no significant differences between liquid lime treatments, there were regarding control without lime and weight biomass variables. Liquid calcium carbonate significantly increased Ca absorption, and the calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide treatment at doses of 10 l/h showed the highest Mg absorption. All amendment treatments caused an improvement of the soil fertility, the most notable being the application of 20 l/ha of magnesium oxide that dropped the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol(+/l, acidity saturation dropped from 95 to 3.3%, and pH increased from 5 to 5.7. It was concluded that the liquid liming amendments had a positive effect over the crop and the soil fertility.

  8. GEOSTATISTICAL MODEL EVALUATION OF LIMING ON OSIJEK-BARANYA COUNTY EXAMPLE

    Vladimir Vukadinović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable pH of soil is the main reason for several different problems in debalance of mineral nutrition which can cause many problems in plant growth, such as leaves and fruit chlorosis and necrosis, etc. Therefore, liming as a measure for improving amount of acids soils must be conducted very carefully, with detail chemical soil analyses. This paper presents a segment of computer model for liming recommendation at the example of Osijek-Baranya County. Results of liming recommendation were obtained by geostatistical interpolation method – kriging. Totals of 9023 soil samples were analyzed in the period 2003–2007. The substitution acidity average was 5.49 (minimum 3.41 to maximum 8.20. Kriging shown that 241 379 ha (58.3% area of Osijek-Baranya County were acids soil. Therefore 90 593 ha have substitution acidity lower than 4.5 and 150 786 ha have pH International Symposium on Soil and Plant Analysis: Soil, Plant and Water Analysis: Quality Analytical Tools for an Era of Ecological Awareness. Soil and Plant Analysis Council, Cancun, Mexico, 36.KCl between 4.5 and 5.5. Except carbocalk, other "slowly-effect" materials can be recommended for liming, especially for vineyards and orchards.

  9. Correção da acidez do solo em função de modos de incorporação de calcário Correction of soil acidity in function of lime incorporation manners

    Pedro Henrique Weirich Neto

    2000-04-01

    dystrophic Dark Red Latosol, in native field. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. The treatments consisted of five incorporation methods: disk plowing plus two spring disk harrowing, off-set harrowing plus two spring disk harrowing, rotary tilling, chisel plowing plus two spring disk harrowing and lime distribution on the surface without incorporation (main plots, and four rates of dolomitic limestone: 0, 2.8, 6.6 and 10.3 t ha-1, in order to raise base saturation of soil to 30, 60 and 90% (subplots. The cultivated plant was maize. The results showed that the lime incorporation manner in the soil affects its efficiency in relation to the depth in the profile in which there is neutralization of the acidity. There was elevation in base saturation of the soil to the layer of 20cm, 15cm and 10cm, respectively, for the following incorporation manners: rotary tilling, disk plowing or off-set harrowing and chisel plowing or lime distribution on the surface without incorporation. The saturation values for wanted bases were not reached, three months after liming, independent in the incorporation manner of lime.

  10. Soil acidification and liming in grassland production and grassland soil fertility in Slovenia

    Jure ČOP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidences on grassland soil acidity and liming in relation to soil processes and herbage production. There is also an outline of the present state of soil acidity and acidity-related traits – contents of organic matter (OM, phosphorus (P and potassium (K in Slovene grassland. In grassland, soil acidification is an ongoing process under humid climate conditions. It is mainly driven by leaching of nutrients, net loss of cations due to retention in livestock products, use of physiologically acid fertilizers, acid rain and N2 fixation. This process is reduced by strong pH buffering capacity of the soil and by physiologically basic fertilizers. Acid grassland soils in Slovenia are widely distributed in spite of the fact that 44% of the total land has developed from a carbonate parent material. Of the 1713 grassland soil samples analysed during 2005-2007 45% were regarded as acid ones (pH < 5.5; in KCl, 57% as soils with very low P status (˂ 6 mg P2O5/100 g soil and 22% as soils with very low K status (˂ 10 mg K2O/100 soil. Increased content of soil organic matter was identified for alpine pastures (˃ 10 % OM in 44% of samples, mainly as a result of low decomposition rate. Liming of acid grassland soils did not always reflect in a higher herbage yield. The cause for this inefficiency is plant composition of grassland. Thus, many grassland plants with relatively high production potential have adapted to acid soil conditions. To illustrate the inconsistent liming effect three researches are reviewed. In the first two researches liming along with fertilizer application did not increase the yield comparing to the fertilized control while in the third research the increase amounted 26 %. Liming improves considerably botanical composition of the acid grassland (e.g. sward where Common Bent – Agrostis tenuis Sibth. – prevails and thus indirectly affects palatability and nutritive value of herbage. Grassland liming has a weak

  11. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  12. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2004-01-01

    The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'C-13' citrange...

  13. Liming can decrease legume crop yield and leaf gas exchange by enhancing root to shoot ABA signalling.

    Rothwell, Shane A; Elphinstone, E David; Dodd, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    To meet future requirements for food production, sustainable intensive agricultural systems need to optimize nutrient availability to maximize yield, traditionally achieved by maintaining soil pH within an optimal range (6-6.5) by applying lime (calcium carbonate). However, a field trial that applied recommended liming rates to a sandy loam soil (increasing soil pH from 5.5 to 6.2) decreased pod yield of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Fuego) by ~30%. Subsequent pot trials, with liming that raised soil pH to 6.3-6.7, reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) by 63, 26, and 59% in V. faba, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pea (Pisum sativum), respectively. Furthermore, liming reduced shoot dry biomass by 16-24% in these species. Ionomic analysis of root xylem sap and leaf tissue revealed a decrease in phosphorus concentration that was correlated with decreased g(s): both reductions were partially reversed by adding superphosphate fertilizer. Further analysis of pea suggests that leaf gas exchange was reduced by a systemic increase (roots, xylem sap, and leaves) in the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to lime-induced suboptimal plant phosphorus concentrations. Supplying synthetic ABA via the transpiration stream to detached pea leaves, at the same xylem sap concentrations induced by liming, decreased transpiration. Furthermore, the g(s) of the ABA-deficient mutant pea wilty was unresponsive to liming, apparently confirming that ABA mediates some responses to low phosphorus availability caused by liming. This research provides a detailed mechanistic understanding of the physiological processes by which lime application can limit crop yields, and questions the suitability of current liming recommendations. PMID:25740925

  14. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Gopu Venkadesaperumal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp. of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  15. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system. PMID:25763031

  16. Local development of affordable lime in southern Africa: Project Summary Report

    Mitchell, C. J.; Inglethorpe, S.D.J.; Tawodzera, P.; Bradwell, S.; Evans, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Lime is an important and versatile chemical used in a wide range of industrial and other applications. The term lime, which strictly refers to calcium oxide (CaO), is applied to a range of products arising from the grinding, calcination and hydration of limestone and dolomite. Many less developed countries do not have adequate lime production and this leads to problems associated with under-utilisation of lime. In particular, insufficient application of agricultural lime can lead to soil acid...

  17. Effect of some soil amendments on soil properties and plant growth in Southern Thailand acid upland soil

    Onthong, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors limiting plant growth is acid soil. In general lime is used for soil amendment in acid soil. However, It has been reported that gypsum or phosphogypsum can be used for ameliorating soilacidity. Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of lime, phosphogypsum and kieserite on soil properties and plant growth in Kho Hong soil series (coarse loamy, kaolinitic,isohyperthermic, TypicKandiudults which was considered as acid upland soil (pH 5.07. Sweet corn variety INSEE 2 was used as the test crop. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 4 replications and 19 treatments asfollow : unamended, application of hydrated lime and dolomite to raise soil pH at 5.5, application of hydrated lime and dolomite combined with phosphogypsum at the rate that can supply calcium 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1 time of both limes, application of hydrated lime and dolomite combined with kieserite at the rate 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1 times of sulfur requirement for corn (40 kg S ha-1. The result showed that shoot and root dry weights of corn were increased when lime materials, phosphogypsum and kieserite were applied and the drymatter weights were increased according to the increasing of phosphogypsum and kieserite. The maximum shoot dry weight (18.98 g pot-1 was obtained when 1 times of kieserite was supplied with dolomite and wassignificantly (P<0.01 higher than those of the unamended treatment, only hydrated lime and dolomite treatments, which had dry weights of 12.64, 15.18 and 15.67 g pot-1 respectively. Phosphorus and K uptakewere not significantly different in all treatments and the lowest uptake of N, Ca, Mg and S was obtained in the unamended treatment. The maximum uptake of N (512.10 mg pot-1 was found when 0.5 times ofphosphogypsum was applied together with dolomite. Calcium and Mg uptake was likely to increase according to the increasing rate of soil amendment application. Highest uptake of Ca (42.51 mg pot-1 was obtainedwhen

  18. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  19. Liming influence on soil chemical properties, nutritional status and yield of alfalfa grown in acid soil Influência da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo, estado nutricional e produção da alfafa em um solo ácido

    Adônis Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an important forage crop with high nutritive value, although highly susceptible to soil acidity. Liming is one of the most efficient and prevailing practices to correct soil acidity and improve alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate response to liming of alfalfa grown in a greenhouse on a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 3.8, 6.6 and 10.3 Mg ha-1 and two cuts. Alfalfa dry matter increased quadratically with increasing lime rates. In general, dry matter yield was maximized by a lime rate of 8.0 Mg ha-1. Except for the control, the dry matter nutrient contents in the treatments were adequate. The positive linear correlation between root and nodule dry matter with lime rates indicated improvement of these plant traits with decreasing soil acidity. The soil acidity indices pH, base saturation, Ca2+ concentration, Mg2+ concentration, and H + Al were relevant factors in the assessment of alfalfa yield. The magnitude of influence of these soil acidity indices on yield as determined by the coefficient of determination (R² varied and decreased in the order: base saturation, H + Al, pH, Ca and Mg concentrations. Optimum values of selected soil chemical properties were defined for maximum shoot dry matter; these values can serve as a guideline for alfalfa liming to improve the yield of this forage on acid soils.A alfafa é uma importante forrageira com alto valor nutritivo, porém é altamente suscetível à acidez do solo. A calagem é uma das mais eficientes práticas para corrigir esse problema e melhorar a produtividade da alfafa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à calagem da alfafa cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de calcário (0; 3,8; 6,6 e 10,3 Mg ha-1 e duas épocas de corte. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente aumentada com a adição de calcário, com o m

  20. Nutritional characteristics of two pigeon pea hybrids – Liming and phosphated fertilization

    Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of legumes in animal production systems can be a sustainable alternative as a protein source in rotational grazing system and/or as a protein bank. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. figure as an example of success of this use on animal nutrition. The development of this species can be limited by the high acidity and low soil phosphorus content. There is a lack of scientific information on the effects of liming and phosphorus fertilization on some nutritional variables of two pigeon pea new hybrids. This study was conducted in pots containing 5 kg of soil in a greenhouse at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. There were studied two pigeon pea hybrids, H1 and H2, and the treatments involved agronomic practices: 1 No liming and without phosphorus (control, 2 Liming (L, 3 Phosphorus fertilization (P and 4 Liming plus phosphorus. Liming was proposed to increase soil base saturation to 50%, it was used dolomite lime PRNT = 90%, in an amount corresponding to 4.5 t/ha. Phosphorus fertilization (as superphosphate rate was 60 kg/ha of PO25. The experimental units were allocated according to a complete randomised block design, with five replications. We analyzed the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in pigeon pea shoot at 45 days of age. Statistical analyzes were performed using the software SISVAR, averages were compared using test for multiple comparisons Student Newman-Keuls - SNK test (P < 0.05. The H1 hybrid had the highest content of CP, by applying P, lime plus P and the control treatment compared to H2 hybrid. The association lime plus P resulted in higher content of CP mainly due to the increased availability of P for plants. Smaller values were observed for NDF in H2 with P application. Lower values of ADF were observed in H1 in both control treatment and P application. The ADF values were lower for the hybrid H2 only for the treatment lime plus P. The two

  1. Microbial Fe(III) Reduction in Acidic Mining Lake Sediments after Addition of an Organic Substrate and Lime

    To elucidate the role of Fe(III) reduction in mining lake sediments amended with organic substrates, we performed a large (10 m diameter) enclosure experiment in which sediments were amended with Carbokalk, a waste product from sugar industry containing organic carbon and lime. Fe(III) reduction rates were determined monthly by measuring the accumulation of Fe(II) in the sediments in the field. Fe(III) reduction rates were also determined by incubating sediment samples with synthetic Fe(III) oxyhydroxide under in situ temperature in the laboratory. Sulfate reduction was selectively inhibited in the Fe(III) reduction experiments by addition of sodium molybdate. Sulfate reduction was measured by accumulation of reduced inorganic sulfides in the field and by 35S radiotracer using a core injection technique. Sediment incubation and determination of sulfate reduction rates with radiotracer showed that sulfate reduction and direct microbial Fe(III) reduction occurred simultaneously in the upper centimeters of the sediments and that both processes contributed to alkalinity generation. However, Fe(III) reduction was the initial process and rates were at least 3.5 fold higher than sulfate reduction rates. The results indicate that the presence of suitable anions for Fe(II) precipitation as carbonate or sulfide is needed in order to prevent loss of potential alkalinity by Fe(II) diffusion and reoxidation in the water column

  2. OBTENÇÃO DE PLANTAS DE LIMÃO CRAVO (Citrus limonia Osbeck E TANGERINA CLEÓPATRA (Citrus reshni Hort. A PARTIR DO CULTIVO DE PROTOPLASTOS DE SUSPENSÃO CELULAR PLANT REGENERATION OF 'RANGPUR' LIME (Citrus limonia Osbeck AND 'CLEÓPATRA' MANDARIN (Citrus reshni Hort. THROUGH PROTOPLASTS OF CELL SUSPENSION

    Rodrigo Rocha Latado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve uma metodologia para a regeneração de plantas de tangerina 'Cleópatra' e limão 'Cravo', a partir do cultivo de protoplastos de suspensão celular. Para tal, calos nucelares foram induzidos em meio contendo BAP e cultivados em meio sem reguladores de crescimento. Protoplastos foram isolados de suspensões celulares e cultivados em gotas de agarose, com densidade de 2 X 105 protoplastos.ml-1. O meio MT, contendo ácido giberélico e água de coco, foi eficiente na germinação de embriões somáticos. Os métodos de aclimatação de plantas testados apresentaram baixa eficiência. Como resultado final, 17 plantas adaptadas de tangerina e 8 de limão foram obtidas.The present research describes the regeneration of 'Cleópatra' mandarin and 'Rangpur' lime plants from cell suspension protoplasts. Nucelar calli were induced on a medium containing BAP and maintained on growth regulator free medium. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic suspension and plated at a concentration of 2 X 105 protoplasts.ml-1, on agarose droplets. The MT medium with gibberellic acid and coconut water was efficient to stimulate somatic embryo conversion. Rooted plants acclimation had low efficiency. Seventeen mandarin plants and eight lime plants were obtained.

  3. 2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism

    Maurino, Veronica G.; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolate, malate, lactate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate are important 2-hydroxy acids (2HA) in plant metabolism. Most of them can be found as D- and L-stereoisomers. These 2HA play an integral role in plant primary metabolism, where they are involved in fundamental pathways such as photorespiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, methylglyoxal pathway, and lysine catabolism. Recent molecular studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have helped elucidate the participation of these 2HA in in pla...

  4. Optimization of sewage treatment plants through adjustment of the acid capacity; Optimierung von Klaeranlagen durch Saeurekapazitaetseinstellung

    Herbst, B.; Soelter, K. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In many areas with soft water (low water hardness), variations of degradation behaviour are noted in the biological cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water. The use of acidic precipitation agents and processes of biological ammonium oxidation (nitrification) reduce the acid capacity of water. Addition of lime in different forms can prevent this drop in acid capacity. As a new development in this field, lime hydrate can be added in dry form. This form of application dispenses with some of the elements normally installed at sewage treatment plants. Several examples demonstrate the advantages offered by this technique, especially the need for less metal salts to eliminate phosphate. (orig.) [German] In vielen Weichwassergebieten (geringer Wasserhaerte) treten bei der biologischen Reinigung von kommunalen und industriellen Abwaessern Schwankungen des Abbauverhaltens auf. Der Einsatz von sauren Faellmitteln und die Prozesse der biologischen Ammoniumoxidation (Nitrifikation) senken die Saeurekapazitaet des Wassers ab. Durch die Zugabe von Kalk in verschiedenen Dosierformen kann die Saeurekapazitaetsabsenkung verhindert werden. Eine neue Entwicklung auf diesem Gebiet ist die Trockendosierung von Kalkhydrat. Wesentliche Teile der sonst installierten Anlagentechnik sind bei dieser Art der Dosierung nicht mehr notwendig. Anhand von mehreren Beispielen wird erlaeutert, welche Vorteile dieses Verfahren bieten kann, insbesondere bei der Einsparung von Metallsalzen zur Phosphatentfernung. (orig.)

  5. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independen

  6. GEOSTATISTICAL MODEL EVALUATION OF LIMING ON OSIJEK-BARANYA COUNTY EXAMPLE

    Vladimir Vukadinović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable pH of soil is the main reason for several different problems in debalance of mineral nutrition which can cause many problems in plant growth; such as leaves and fruit chlorosis and necrosis; etc. Therefore; liming as a measure for improving amount of acids soils must be conducted very carefully; with detail chemical soil analyses. This paper presents a segment of computer model for liming recommendation at the example of Osijek-Baranya County. Results of liming recommendation were obtained by geostatistical interpolation method – kriging. Totals of 9023 soil samples were analyzed in the period 2003–2007. The substitution acidity average was 5.49 (minimum 3.41 to maximum 8.20. Kriging shown that 241 379 ha (58.3% area of Osijek-Baranya County were acids soil. Therefore 90 593 ha have substitution acidity lower than 4.5 and 150 786 ha have pH KCl between 4.5 and 5.5. Except carbocalk; other "slowly-effect" materials can be recommended for liming; especially for vineyards and orchards.

  7. Evolution of plant colonization in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    Acosta, Jose Alberto; Faz, Ángel; Kabas, Sebla; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on plant cover establishment, as a consequence of metal immobilization and the improvement of soil properties. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Identification of plant species and biodiversity was determined on each plot, after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of amendment addition. The results showed that, in those plots without application of microorganism, 8 months after applications the number of species and individuals of each

  8. Abscisic Acid Signaling in Plants

    Vaňková, Radomíra

    NEW YORK : Springer, 2012 - (Ahmad, P.; Prasad, M.), s. 359-368 ISBN 978-1-4614-0633-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PP2C * PYR/PYL/RCAR proteins * Abscisic acid Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  10. Growth of Lygeum spartum in acid mine tailings: response of plants developed from seedlings, rhizomes and at field conditions

    Lygeum spartum is a native species in semiarid Mediterranean areas that grows spontaneously on acid mine tailings. We aimed to study the suitability of this plant for phytostabilization. L. spartum was grown from both seeds and rhizomes in acid mine tailings with various fertilizer and lime treatments. Untreated soils had a solution pH of 2.9 with high concentrations of dissolved salts (Electrical Conductivity 25 dS m-1) and Zn (3100 mg L-1). Plants grown on untreated soil had high shoot metal concentrations (>4000 mg kg-1 Zn). Liming increased the solution pH to 5.5 and reduced the dissolved salts by more than 75%, resulting in lower shoot metal accumulation. Plants grown from rhizomes accumulated less metal than those grown from seeds. Plants collected in the field had metal concentrations an order of magnitude less than plants raised in the growth chamber. These differences may be due to the higher moisture content and homogeneous nature of the soils used in the pot experiment. - Lygeum spartum accumulated more metals when grown in the growth chamber from seeds than from rhizomes and much more than in the field

  11. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  12. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA POPULATIONS FROM A MINING REGION IN NORTHERN ONTARIO (CANADA: EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Anh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

  13. Resíduos de plantas de cobertura e mobilidade dos produtos da dissolução do calcário aplicado na superfície do solo Cover plant residues and mobility of dissolution products of surface applied lime

    A. S. Amaral

    2004-02-01

    em profundidade. Seus efeitos restringiram-se na camada de 0-2,5 cm, tanto isoladamente como junto com o calcário.Cover plants have received extra attention due to their release of low molecular weight organic acids that form organic complexes with aluminum, calcium and magnesium. Besides neutralizing toxic aluminum, such compounds can increase the mobility in the soil profile of the dissolution products of lime applied on the soil surface. Objectives of this research were (a to identify the low molecular weight organic acids found in different cover plant species and in soil solution, (b to evaluate the effects of the residues, alone or together with surface lime application, in relation to acidity neutralization of subsoil layers in no-tillage systems, and (c to verify the relation between organic acids of low molecular weight, released during the decomposition of plant residues, with the effect on soil acidity properties in the soil profile due to surface lime application. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in undisturbed Inceptisol (Haplumbrept soil samples in columns, collected in a field experiment under no-tillage for five years. Nine treatments were applied: residue (10 Mg ha-1 of black oat (1, common vetch (2, oil seed radish (3, lime (13 Mg ha-1 (4, lime plus residue of black oat (5, of common vetch (6, of oil seed radish (7, and lime plus citric acid (0.91 Mg ha-1, (8 and no treatment (9, arranged in randomized blocks. The liquid chromatography method (HPLC allowed an identification of the main low molecular weight organic acids in the plant residues. Trans-aconitic acid was the most important in black oat, malic acid in common vetch, and citric and malic acids in oil seed radish. It was not possible to detect organic acids in the percolate or soil solution. Plant residues had no effect on acidity neutralization in the deeper soil since the effects, alone or with lime application on the soil surface, were restricted to the soil surface layer

  14. Liming effect on P availability from Maardu phosphate rock

    Thirty years ago phosphate rock from the Maardu deposit was intensively used for soil fertilization in Lithuania. However, the application of finely ground product caused an undesirable dusty operation. Afterwards, a super-phosphate production plant was built in Kedainiai and the use of phosphate rock was completely abandoned. Field experiments with fodder beets and barley were carried out to evaluate the P availability of granulated superphosphate and Maardu phosphate rock. The comparison was made at three acidity levels: a) unlimed acid soil with a high content of Al (pHkcl 4.3-4.4, hydrolytic acidity was 41-44 meq/kg soil), b) soil limed with 0.5n rate CaCO3 powder limestone based on hydrolytic acidity, and c) soil limed with 1.0n rate CaCO3. Two field experiments were carried out with fodder beets. In 1997 the yield increased significantly due to liming. However, no significant yield increases were found due to the application of phosphorus fertilizers. Differences between the effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock were also not observed. This might have been caused by a severe drought during the vegetative growth of plants. In the following year, 1998, a soil with similar acidity was chosen, however it contained even lower amounts of available phosphorus in the arable soil (about 50 mg/kg soil A-L method). In the unlimed soil the yield was low, the effect of superphosphate was better than that of phosphate rock. A good fodder beet yield of 32 to 35 t/ha was obtained and the effect of phosphate rock was better than that of superphosphate at 0.5n CaCO3 rate. When liming with at the high rate (1.0n CaCO3 rate according to hydrolytic acidity) the action of phosphate rock declined, and a better yield was obtained with superphosphate. Barley was grown after fodder beets in the 1997 experimental field and the residual effect of superphosphate and phosphate rock was investigated. Weather conditions were favorable for barley growth. Therefore a normal yield (4

  15. Lime-enhanced hydrogen reduction of molybdenite

    Mankhand, T. R.; Prasad, P. M.

    1982-06-01

    Kinetics of the direct hydrogen reduction of a high-grade (59 pct Mo) molybdenite (MoS2) concentrate was investigated in the presence of lime as a function of the quantity of lime in the charge, hydrogen flow rate, temperature, and time of reduction. Lime was found to enhance tremendously the reduction rate of MoS2 and drastically reduce H2S emission into the off gas to negligible levels. Successful application of the lime-hydrogen reduction technique was found to depend on the employment of low hydrogen flow rate and moderate temperatures of reduction. In these laboratory studies, best results were obtained with a lime addition ≥ three times the theoretical requirement and at 1173 K in 3.6 ks employing a hydrogen flow rate of 3.33 cm3s-1. The results were tested for the treatment of a low-grade (41 pct Mo) molybdenite concentrate. In this latter case, the procedure consisted of upgrading the concentrate by acid leaching (with dil HC1+HF) followed by lime-hydrogen reduction. The influence of quantity of acids, temperature, and time of leaching were investigated to optimize the conditions required for upgrading the MoS2 concentrate. The molybdenum powders obtained from the highgrade as well as upgraded molybdenite concentrates had 96 to 97 pct purity and could be further refined to 99.9 pct by electron-beam melting. Based on this lime-enhanced hydrogen reduction concept, a new ‘Leach-Reduction-Melting’ approach has been suggested as an alternative to the traditional methods of molybdenum extraction.

  16. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  17. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD system. Volume III. Plant profiles. Part 1 of 3

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    This volume contains plant profiles for: Petersburg 3; Hawthorn 3, 4; La Cygne 1; Jeffry 1, 2; Lawrence 4, 5; Green River 1-3; Cane Run 4, 5; Mill Creek 1, 3; Paddy's Run 6; Clay Boswell 4; Milton R. Young 2; Pleasants 1, 2; and Colstrip 1, 2. (DLC)

  18. Liming and phosphorus fertilization in soils under cerrado

    The effects of liming and phosphorus fertilizer (300 Kg P2O5/ha) application on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by sorghum plants were studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in four Oxisols originally under cerrado vegetation. There was a positive correlation between P-fertilization and liming on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by plants. The results showed that the main effect of liming in these soils was on the elimination of phytotoxicity, mainly due to exchangeable aluminum. (M.A.C.)

  19. 2-Hydroxy Acids in Plant Metabolism

    Maurino, Veronica G.; Engqvist, Martin K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolate, malate, lactate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate are important 2-hydroxy acids (2HA) in plant metabolism. Most of them can be found as D- and L-stereoisomers. These 2HA play an integral role in plant primary metabolism, where they are involved in fundamental pathways such as photorespiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle, methylglyoxal pathway, and lysine catabolism. Recent molecular studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have helped elucidate the participation of these 2HA in in plant metabolism and physiology. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about the metabolic pathways and cellular processes in which they are involved, focusing on the proteins that participate in their metabolism and cellular/intracellular transport in Arabidopsis. PMID:26380567

  20. Emprego de calcário e de superfosfato simples na cultura do algodoeiro em solo argiloso ácido Use of lime and of ordinary superphosphate for cotton cultivated on acid clay soil

    Nelson M. da Silva

    1980-01-01

    liming experiment with cotton are discussed. This experiment was conducted on Latosolic B Terra Roxa soil, acid, with a pH index of 5.0, originally under "cerradão" vegetation, with 66% of clay, 4.3% of organic mater, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.5 (meq/100 ml of Al3+, Ca2+and Mg2+, respectively. The experimental design was a split-plot, with four replications. Dolomitic limestone was applied in the first year, on main plots at the levels of 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha. P and K were annually applied on split-plots, as a factorial 3 x 2, at the levels of 0, 60 and 120 kg/ha of P2O5, and 40 and 80 kg/ha of K2O, respectively, with ordinary superphosphate and potassium chloride. Four months after lime application, the neutralization of the exchangeable aluminum found by soil analysis was observed, at the highest level, the pH value increased up to 5.5 and values of calcium plus magnesium reached 3.0 meq. The linear effect upon cotton yield, due to liming, was significant during all the period of this study, increasing from the first to the third year. The effect of phosphorus was smaller, but positive and significant. Cotton plants did not react to potassium fertilization and interactions were not observed. Lime increased the concentrations of P, Ca and Mg in leaf blades, and decreased those of K, Fe, Mn and Al in the year when it was applied. There were no symptoms of K or micronutrient deficiencies due to the use of lime at high level.

  1. Heating gas obtained from tree bark for operating a rotary lime kiln in a sulphate pulp plant. Heizgas aus Baumrinde zum Betrieb eines Kalkdrehofens in einem Sulfat-Zellstoffwerk

    Schweizer, A.; Herbert, P.K.; Loeffler, J.C.

    1991-05-01

    The commissioning of the circulating fluidized bed system for gasification of tree bark in the pulp plant of Zellstoff Poels AG, Austria, heralded the successful entry of a new environment-friendly gasification technology. In this system tree bark is first gasified so that it can then be burnt as heating gas in the main burner of the lime reburning klin. At present this can be used to replace about 1.2 t/h heavy heating oil. The system has proved its efficiency over many years of operation, and has a high level of availability. The quick lime produced with bark gas has a low residual carbonate content and a reactivity which is highly suitable for the recausticizing process. (orig.).

  2. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  3. Breakdown rates and macroinvertebrate colonisation of alder (Alnus glutinosa leaves in an acid lake (Lake Orta, N Italy, before, during and after a liming intervention

    Giuliano BONOMI

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the effectiveness of the liming intervention on Lake Orta, the speed of leaves decay and of colonisation processes by macrobenthonic fauna were studied on alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa placed on the bottom of the lake and recovered after appropriate time intervals. Experiments were performed at two sites (North and South and two depths (-3 and –18 m, during three successive winters: 1988-1989 (pre-liming, 1989-1990 (liming, 1990-1991 (post-liming. Two main results emerged: 1 alder leaves, which are known to have a medium to high decaying speed in a number of aquatic environments, behave in Lake Orta as a low speed species. Decaying processes in the three years are significantly different only in station N3, where the mean breakdown rate in 1988- 1989 is more than twice that measured in the two subsequent winters. 2 The species richness of colonising benthic fauna is low: the community is made up almost exclusively of Chironomidae, which form 70 to 100% of the whole population; among them, the genus Phenopsectra is always present, while Tanytarsus was collected only during the first year and in the less deep sampling sites. The mean population abundances were higher before liming.

  4. Copper, nickel and zinc phytoavailability in an oxisol amended with sewage sludge and liming

    Martins Adão Luiz Castanheiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of heavy metal on agricultural soils have been raised by land applications of sewage sludge and may constitute a hazard to plants, animals and humans. A field experiment was carried out from 1983 to 1987, to evaluate the long-term effect of sewage sludge application, with and without liming, on heavy metal accumulation and availability in a Rhodic Hapludox soil grown with maize (HMD 7974 hybrid. Trials were set up in a completely randomized blocks design with four replications. Each block was split in two bands, one with and another without liming. The sludge was applied in each band at rates: 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 Mg ha-1 (dry basis in a single application; and 40, 60 and 80 Mg ha-1 split in two, three and four equal yearly applications, respectively. The soil was sampled for chemical analysis each year after harvest. Soil samples were analysed for Cu, Ni and Zn in extracts obtained with DTPA and Mehlich-3 solutions, and in extracts obtained by digestion with nitric-perchloric acid (total metal contents, using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometer. In general, Zn, Cu and Ni concentrations in DTPA and Mehlich-3 extracts increased linearly with sludge application. Total Cu and Zn concentrations increased when sludge was applied, whereas total Ni concentrations were not affected. Both extractants were suitable to evaluate Cu and Zn availability to corn in the soil treated with sewage sludge. Liming reduced the DTPA extractability of Zn. DTPA-extractable Cu concentrations were not significantly affected by liming. Mehlich-3-extractable Cu and Zn concentrations increased with liming. Only DTPA extractant indicated reduction of Ni concentrations in the soil after liming.

  5. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  6. Spatial variability of soil acidity attributes and the spatialization of liming requirement for corn Variabilidade espacial de atributos de acidez do solo e espacialização da necessidade de calagem para o milho

    Sandro Manuel Carmelino Hurtado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, technicians, in most cases, ignore the aspects related to the spatial variability of the soil acidity attributes when liming requirement is calculated. The objective of this study was to validate the liming practice, evaluating the presence of spatial variability of the soil acidity attributes and the existence of areas with differentiated liming requirement, which were calculated by different methods. The experiment was carried out in an area cultivated with corn under conventional management and irrigation. The soil (0-0.2 m was sampled in a conventional way (composite soil sample and in a systematic scheme, by use of a grid sampling. In sequence to the soil fertility attributes analysis, it was calculated the liming requirement, according to the methods of SMP pH, aluminum neutralization and elevation of soil Ca and Mg levels, and increase of the soil base saturation. After the descriptive analysis of the data set was accomplished, the semivariograms were calculated and the maps were obtained through the kriging technique. Absence of spatial dependence, as well as the non necessity of limestone application, was observed for the Al neutralization calculation method. Spatial dependence was only verified for the soil acidity attributes and to the liming requirement calculated by the base saturation and SMP pH methods; for these two methods, the semivariogram ranges obtained varied from 35.7 to 200.5 m. The results have highlighted the existence of differentiated liming requirement zones when the variability of the soil acidity attributes was considered in the calculation of the dose and type of limestone to be used for corn soil acidity correction.No Brasil, a prática de calagem desconsidera, na maioria das vezes, os aspectos relacionados à variabilidade espacial dos atributos de acidez do solo. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, validar a prática da calagem, avaliando a presença de variabilidade espacial de atributos de acidez do solo e

  7. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 1.The effect on forest soil in a pine stand

    A fertilization and liming experiment with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash was carried out in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem in South Estonia. In Estonia, where electric power is produced mainly in big oil-shale-fired power plants, huge quantities of SO2 are flying into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the plants. However, it is characteristic of Estonia that simultaneously with comparatively high SO2 pollution the proton load has been quite low because of big amounts of alkali c ash emitted together with SO2 into the atmosphere through the chimneys of the thermal power plants. Therefore, acid rains are not frequent in Estonia. Acid precipitation here is caused mainly by SO2 released in the central part of Europe. In Estonia acid rains are most frequently registered in the southern area of the country. At times rains with pH values below 5.1 (even 4.0 and lower) have been registered there. This is also the region where quite severely damaged pine forests can be found. As a rule, these forests grow on acid sandy soils poor in nutrients and bases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using oil shale ash as a liming agent in a forest ecosystem for protecting forest soils from acidification and, together with some mineral fertilizers, for improving the health of injured pine stands. In Estonia the most easily available liming agent is powdered oil-shale ash, which has been widely used as a lime fertilizer for agricultural crops but so far has not been tested for liming forests on mineral soils. The comparison of the present study with the liming experiments carried out with limestone in Finland shows that the effect of oil-shale ash treatment of acid sandy soils to raise pH values and to reduce other characteristics of soil acidity was more effective than limestone liming of mineral soils in Finnish forests. The present study demonstrates that powdered oil-shale ash is highly effective in short time

  8. LimeLight

    Rushforth, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    An exhibition showcasing the work of the arts and health organisation Lime CUBE (Centre for the Understanding of the Built Environment), 113-115 Portland Street, Manchester M1 6FB, from 10 to 29 October 2005 www.cube.org.uk Admission free

  9. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

  10. Potential Use Of Carbide Lime Waste As An Alternative Material To Conventional Hydrated Lime Of Cement-Lime Mortars

    Al Khaja, Waheeb A.

    1992-01-01

    The present study aimed at the possibility of using the carbide lime waste as an alternative material to the conventional lime used for cement-lime mortar. The waste is a by-product obtained in the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide. Physical and chemical properties of the wastes were studied. Two cement-lime-sand mix proportions containing carbide lime waste were compared with the same mix proportions containing conventional lime along with a control mix without lime. Specimens wer...

  11. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  12. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey. PMID:25902974

  13. Evidence that ‘flying dragon’ trifoliate orange delays HLB symptom expression for four sweet orange cultivars, Tahiti lime and Okitsu mandarin

    Stuchi, E. S.; Reiff, E. T.; Sempionato, O. R.; Parolin, L. G.; Toledo, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and vectored by Diaphorina citri, was first reported in 2004 in Brazil and is currently widespread in São Paulo State. Brazil is the world’s largest sweet orange producer and has 49,000 ha cultivated with ‘Tahiti’ lime acid lime. Mandarin cultivation represents 5.5% of total citrus production in the country. In 2001, three experiments were planted in the Citrus Experimental Station (EECB), Bebedouro, Northern São Paulo State, wh...

  14. {sup 134}Cs uptake by four plant species and Cs-K relations in the soil-plant system as affected by Ca(OH){sub 2} application to an acid soil

    Massas, I., E-mail: massas@aua.g [Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece); Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.; Giannakopoulou, F. [Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    Three rates of Ca(OH){sub 2} were applied to an acid soil and the {sup 134}Cs uptake by radish, cucumber, soybean and sunflower plants was studied. The {sup 134}Cs concentration in all plant species was reduced from 1.6-fold in the sunflower seeds to 6-fold in the soybean vegetative parts at the higher Ca(OH){sub 2} rate. Potassium (K) concentration in plants was also reduced, but less effectively. The significantly decreased {sup 134}Cs-K soil to plant distribution factors (D.F.) clearly suggest a stronger effect of soil liming on {sup 134}Cs than on K plant uptake. This observation was discussed in terms of ionic interactions in the soil matrix and within the plants. The results also indicated that the increased Ca{sup 2+} concentration in the exchange phase and in the soil solution along with the improved root activity, due to the soil liming, enhanced the immobilization of {sup 134}Cs in the soil matrix and consequently lowered the {sup 134}Cs availability for plant uptake.

  15. Efeito da calagem e inoculação de sabiá em solo da mata úmida e do semi-árido de Pernambuco Effect of lime and inoculation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia in acid soil of the forest zone and semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    NEWTON PEREIRA STAMFORD

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento, usando solo álico da Zona da Mata e do Semi-Árido do Estado de Pernambuco, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da calagem (0, 3 e 6 t ha-1 e da inoculação das estirpes de rizóbio: NFB 539, NFB 577 e NFB 578, previamente selecionadas para sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia em meio de cultura ácido. Adicionaram-se tratamentos sem inoculação, sem e com adição de N mineral (100 kg ha-1, para fins comparativos. O experimento seguiu o esquema fatorial 2x3x5, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 110 dias após a emergência (DAE. A inoculação de rizóbio, em todos os níveis de calagem, mostrou efeito significativo nos parâmetros avaliados. No nível de 3 t ha-1 não houve efeito da calagem, porém a adição de 6 t ha-1 de calcário reduziu o peso de matéria seca, o N total na parte aérea, a nodulação e a atividade da nitrogenase. O baixo pH e Al3+ do solo não prejudicou a fixação do N2, e o crescimento das plantas que receberam o inóculo. Portanto, torna-se desnecessária a calagem no cultivo de sabiá em solos ácidos, quando usadas estirpes selecionadas visando à resistência a acidez.An experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of liming (0, 3 and 6.0 ton ha-1 in two alic soils of humid forest zone and semiarid region of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and rhizobia inoculation with strains NFB 539, NFB 577 and NFB 578, selected to Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia in previous assays with culture media using crescent levels of Al3+ and acidity. Treatments without inoculation with and without N addition (100 kg ha-1 were included. A factorial 2x3x5 was used in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plants were harvested at 110 days after emergence (DAE. Rhizobia inoculation showed significative effect regarding all parameters evaluated, at the lime levels used. M. caesalpiniaefolia did not respond to liming, however when used the level

  16. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  17. Liming and electrochemical attributes of an oxisol under no tillage

    Alleoni Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No tillage areas are increasing in Brazil especially due to a general improvement in water and nutrient availability to plants. Few results have reported the effect of liming on soil electrochemical attributes in areas under the no tillage system. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liming (at the soil surface and incorporated to 0.2 m on soil pH, point of zero salt effect (PZSE, electric potential, soil organic matter (SOM, and yield of soybean and corn, cultivated on an Typic Hapludox, submitted 12 years to no tillage. Rates of lime of 1/3, 2/3 and the total amount calculated for soil to reach a base saturation of 70 % (2.5 ton ha-1 were applied on soil surface. The full rate was also applied and incorporated to the 0.2 m depth. The effect of liming on PZSE was low due, most likely, to the low lime rates used in the experiment. SOM contents decreased as rates of applied lime increased, with the highest variation occurring between the control and the full rate of lime when incorporated. No clear effect of the lower values of SOM was observed in the PZSE values. The lack of interaction among lime rates and soil depth contributed for this situation, once the effect of SOM was diluted when considering the values of PZSE as the average for the soil layers (0-0.1; 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.3 m. There was no variation in the soil electric potential and in the yield of soybean and corn as a function of lime rates.

  18. Lime-water consolidation effects on poor lime mortars

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2012), s. 31-36. ISSN 0044-9466 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : lime mortars * lime-water consolidation * conservation Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  19. Magnesium Isotope Variations to Trace Liming Input to Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Case Study in the Vosges Mountains.

    Bolou-Bi, B Emile; Dambrine, Etienne; Angeli, Nicolas; Pollier, Benoît; Nys, Claude; Guerold, François; Legout, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Liming with Ca and Mg carbonates is commonly used to reduce soil and stream acidity and to improve vegetation growth and nutrition in forests. Ten years ago, dolomite lime was experimentally applied to a forest catchment on granite in the Vosges Mountains (northeast France), which is characterized by acid soils and drained by an acid stream. The average Mg isotope composition of the dolomite lime (-1.75‰) was low compared with that of tree foliage (-0.70‰), granite and deep soil layers (-0.40‰), and stream water (-0.80‰) in the control catchment. After liming, the exchangeable Mg concentrations in surface soil layers, which were initially very low, increased, and the Mg isotope composition decreased (up to -0.60‰). The decrease was smaller in deeper layers but not in proportion to the increase in exchangeable Mg content, suggesting contributions from mineralization of organic matter and/or displacement of exchangeable Mg from surface layers. Before application, Mg concentration in beech and fir leaves was low, and that of 1-yr-old fir needles was lower than that in current needles. Internal Mg translocation within fir needles also resulted in a lower δMg of older needles. Three years after dolomite application, the Mg isotope composition of plant leaves was lower than that in the control catchment; this decrease (up to -1.00‰) was attributed to direct uptake of Mg from dissolving dolomite. Liming doubled the concentration of Mg in the stream, whereas the Mg isotope composition decreased correspondingly from -0.80 to -1.20‰, indicating a fast transfer of dolomite Mg to the stream. Our findings indicate that monitoring of δMg may be a promising tool to study the fate of dolomitic inputs in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26828183

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates

    The addition of calcium carbonate to catchments or watercourses – liming – has been used widely to mitigate freshwater acidification but the abatement of acidifying emissions has led to questions about its effectiveness and necessity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of liming streams and rivers on two key groups of river organisms: fish and invertebrates. On average, liming increased the abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates and increased overall fish abundance, but benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all rivers. Where B-A-C-I designs (before-after-control-impact) were used to reduce bias, there was evidence that liming decreased overall invertebrate abundance. This systematic review indicates that liming has the potential to mitigate the symptoms of acidification in some instances, but effects are mixed. Future studies should use robust designs to isolate recovery due to liming from decreasing acid deposition, and assess factors affecting liming outcomes. -- Highlights: •In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we asked how river liming affected fish and invertebrates. •On average, liming increased fish abundance. •Liming also increased average abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates. •However, benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all acidified rivers. -- A systematic review showed lime application to acidified rivers increased average fish abundance, and abundance and richness in acid-sensitive invertebrates, but not always

  1. Kinetic study of hydrated lime reaction with HCl.

    Yan, Rong; Chin, Terence; Liang, David Tee; Laursen, Karin; Ong, Wan Yean; Yao, Kaiwen; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2003-06-01

    Hydrochloride (HCl) is an acidic pollutant present in the flue gas of most municipal or hazardous waste incinerators. Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) is often used as a dry sorbent for injection in a spray reactor to remove HCI. However, due to the short residence time encountered, this control method has generally been found to have low conversion efficiencies which results in the high lime usage and generates large amount of fly ash as solid wastes. A fundamental study was carried outto investigate the kinetics of HCl-lime reaction under simulated flue gas conditions in order to better understand the process thereby providing a basis for an optimized lime usage and reduced fly ash production. The initial reaction rate and conversion of three limes were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer by varying the gas flow rate, temperature (170-400 degrees C), and HCI concentrations (600-1200 mg/m3) as well as the associated particle size and surface area of the limes. The initial lime conversions were found to rely mostly on the residence time, while the ultimate lime conversions were strongly influenced by temperature and the reaction products. CaOHCI was found to be the primary product in most cases, while for one specific lime, CaCl2 was the ultimate conversion product after an extended time period. The true utilization of lime in flue gas cleanup is thus higher when CaOHCl is considered as the final product than those based on CaCl2 as the final product, which has been commonly used in previous studies. The initial reaction was controlled by diffusion of HCl in gas phase and the subsequent reaction by gaseous diffusion through the developing product layer. Increasing the HCI concentration raised the initial rate as well as conversion. However, overloading the lime with excessive HCI caused clogging at its surface and a drop in the ultimate conversion. Limes with smaller particle diameters and higher surface areas were found to be more reactive. The effect of gas

  2. Phosphorus availability in oxidic soils treated with lime and silicate applications

    Aline da Silva Sandim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that silicate application can raise soil P availability for crops, the aim of this research was to compare the effect of silicate application on soil P desorption with that of liming, in evaluations based on two extractors and plant growth. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with four replications, in a 3 × 3 × 5 factorial design, in which three soil types, three P rates, and four soil acidity correctives were evaluated in 180 experimental plots. Trials were performed in a greenhouse using corn plants in 20-dm³ pots. Three P rates (0, 50 and 150 mg dm-3 were applied in the form of powder triple superphosphate and the soil was incubated for 90 days. After this period, soil samples were collected for routine chemical analysis and P content determination by the extraction methods resin, Mehlich-1 and remaining P. Based on the results, acidity correctives were applied at rates calculated for base saturation increased to 70 %, with subsequent incubation for 60 more days, when P content was determined again. The acidity correctives consisted of: dolomitic lime, steelmaking slag, ladle furnace slag, and wollastonite. Therefore, our results showed that slags raised the soil P content more than lime, suggesting a positive correlation between P and Si in soil. Silicon did not affect the extractor choice since both Mehlich-1 and resin had the same behavior regarding extracted P when silicon was applied to the soil. For all evaluated plant parameters, there was significant interaction between P rates and correctives; highest values were obtained with silicate.

  3. Liming with powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged forest ecosystem. 2.The effect on forest condition in a pine stand

    First years after the treatment (in 1987) of forest soil with mineral fertilizers and powdered oil-shale ash in a heavily damaged 50-year-old Scots pine ecosystem showed a comparatively small effect (B<0.95) of liming on the stand characters. However, in comparison with the effect of only NPK fertilization on the volume growth and the health state of trees, liming (NPK+oil-shale ash) tended to increase the positive influence of fertilizers. Under the influence of oil-shale ash the mortality of the trees was lower, the density of the stand rose more, and the mean radial increment of trees was by 26% greater than after the NPK treatment without a lime agent. On the whole, the effect of oil-shale ash liming on the growth and health condition of the pine stand was not high. However, the first results of its experimental use on mineral forest soil cannot serve as the basis for essential conclusions. Still, the results give us some assurance to continue our experimental work with powdered oil-shale ash in forests with the purpose of regulating the high acidity of forest soils in some sites to gain positive shifts in the forest life. Taking into account the low price of the powdered oil-shale ash and the plentiful resources of this liming material in Estonia, even a small trend towards an improvement of forest condition on poor sandy soils would be a satisfactory final result of the work. It is essential to note that oil-shale ash is not only a simple liming material, but also a lime fertilizer consisting of numerous chemical elements necessary for plant growth. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 18 refs

  4. Acidification, heavy metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system of a revegetated acid mine wasteland.

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Li, Jin-tian; Guo, Tao; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    A revegetation program was established at an extreme acidic and metal-toxic pyrite/copper mine wasteland in Guangdong Province, PR China using a combination of four native grass species and one non-native woody species. It was continued and monitored for 2 y. The emphasis was on acidification, metal mobility and nutrient accumulation in the soil-plant system. Our results showed the following: (i) the acid-forming potential of the mine soils decreased steadily with time, which might be due to plant root-induced changes inhibiting the oxidization of sulphide minerals; (ii) heavy metal extractability (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-extractable Pb and Zn) in the soils increased with time despite an increase in soil pH, which might be attributed to soil disturbance and plant rhizospheric processes, as well as a consequence of the enhanced metal accumulation in plants over time; and (iii) the vegetation cover increased rapidly with time, and plant development accelerated the accumulation of major nutrients (organic matter, total and ammonium-N, and available P and K). The 2-y field experiment demonstrates that direct seeding/planting of native plant species in combination with lime and manure amelioration is a practical approach to the initial establishment of a self-sustaining vegetation cover on this metalliferous and sulphide-bearing mine wasteland. However, heavy metal accumulation in the soil-plant system should be of great concern, and long-term monitoring of ecological risk must be an integral part of such a restoration scheme. PMID:20580409

  5. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  6. Characterization of residues of effluent treatment plant from lapping process of soda-lime glass and its application in the production of concrete

    This study enunciates the physical, chemical and mineralogical composition of the residue from the process of ETE cutting of soda-lime glasses and its application in concrete as a replacement to the weight of CPV ARI RS cement, at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Tests were performed on fresh and hardened (ages 3, 7, 28 and 300 days). The results were compared and statistically analyzed. In the fresh state, reductions in the amount of exuding water and consistency were observed. The results of compressive strength were statistically different, while the results for the tensile strength by diametrical compression and modulus of elasticity results were belonging to homogeneous groups. Beneficial effects the levels of residue on the cementitious matrix and the transition zone of concrete were identified by SEM, particularly concrete in S15

  7. Rhizobia inoculation and liming increase cowpea productivity in Maranhão State

    Thiago Palhares Farias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetives of the study were to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of strains approved as inoculants for cowpea and of three new strains under selection, as well as to evaluate the influence of liming on the symbiosis and productivity. Two field experiments were conducted using cowpea (BRS Guariba from June to September 2013. In the first experiment, a completely randomized block experimental design was used, with four replicates and seven treatments (INPA03-11B, UFLA03-84, UFLA03-153, UFLA03-154, UFLA03-164 and two controls. In the second experiment, a 7 x 2 factorial design was used, with the above described treatments being the first factor and liming as the second factor. Parameters evaluated were: nodule dry matter, shoot dry matter, shoot N content and accumulation, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 seeds, grain yield and grain N content and accumulation. Strains UFLA03-153 and UFLA03-164 were more efficient for cowpea inoculation than the strains approved as inoculants, UFLA03-84 and INPA03-11B. Although the tested rhizobia strains and cultivar BRS Guariba are tolerant to soil acidity, productivity washigher when soil was limed. Yields obtained with fertilized and inoculated treatments were well above Maranhão state average.

  8. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result

  9. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO₂gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3⁻)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P₂O₅ in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3⁻)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer. PMID:25189846

  10. ROSMARINIC ACID AND ITS PLANT SOURCES IN THE CRIMEA

    A. E. Paliy; F. M. Melikov; O. A. Grebennikova; V. D. Rabotyagov

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the content of phenolics and rosmarinic acid in 32 species of aromatic and medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, native to the South Coast of the Crimea. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the studied species was 490.3 – 18511.0 mg/100g of plant raw materials. Rosmarinic acid was found in 15 species from Lamiaceae and Asteraceae families. Rosmarinic acid was not noticed in the studied plants from Apiaceae family. The concentrat...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF BIOSOLIDS BY LIME ADDITION

    M. Farzadkia ، N. Jaafarzadeh ، L. Loveimi Asl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of well-stabilized biosolids is a basic problem for many municipal wastewater treatment plants in Iran. Disposed biosolids from west Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant were generally used for agricultural activities. Initial evidence showed that these biosolids were untreated and had the potential to transmit many pollutants to the environment and create hazards for public health, although anaerobic digester was selected for this wastewater treatment plant. The main objective of this research was to evaluate and optimize the bacteriological quality of biosolids by lime addition in west Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant. The stability and reuse potential of biosolids from existing anaerobic digester and lime added biosolids were investigated. Lime addition to biosolids was performed in the reactor with 30 L capacity. Averge amounts of fecal coliforms and viable helminthes ova in disposal biosolids from anaerobic digester were 1.3×1015 MPN / g of dry solids and 314 ova / 4 g of dry solids, respectively. By lime addition with the ratio about 0.265 g Ca (OH2 per g of dry solids, pH was not dropped under 12 and growth of fecal coliform was not detected after 30 days. In this regard, discharged biosolids from this plant was unstable and very dangerous for reuse or disposal. Lime addition could stabilize the biosolids and reduce fecal coliforms more than 99.99% and had concordance with class B of United State Environmental Protection Agency criteria. Lime-stabilized biosolids could hence be well used for reconditioning the poor soil and for covering of solid waste landfill-sites.

  12. Lime and gypsum application on the wheat crop

    Caires Eduardo Fávero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Root growth and crop yield can be affected by chemical modifications of the soil profile owing to lime and gypsum applications. A field trial was carried out on a dystrophic Clayey Rhodic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil, aiming to evaluate lime (without or with incorporation into the soil and gypsum effects on root growth, mineral nutrition and grain yield of wheat (cv. OR 1. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. Treatments with dolomitic limestone (without lime and 4.5 t ha-1 of lime applied on the surface, in total rate and 1/3 of the requirement per year during 3 years, or incorporated into the soil were applied in July 1998 (main plots and the rates of gypsum (0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 in October 1998 (subplots. Wheat was evaluated in the 2000 winter season. In conditions of water deficit absence, there was no limitation in root growth in depth, for exchangeable Ca of 6 mmol c dm-3. Lime incorporation of lime increased the Mg concentration in the leaves, but wheat yield was not influenced by the correction of soil acidity through liming treatments. Gypsum increased the concentrations of Ca and S in wheat leaves, with significant effects on grain yield. The critical level of S-SO4(2- in the 0-20 cm soil layer, extracted by ammonium acetate 0.5 mol L-1 in acetic acid 0.25 mol L-1, was 25.8 mg dm-3.

  13. Potential for Recycling Nutrients from Biosolids Amended with Clay and Lime in Coarse-Textured Water Repellence, Acidic Soils of Western Australia

    Sanjutha Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biosolids in soils is an efficient method of recycling nutrients from biosolids and it is considered even safer when it is modified after mixing and diluting with other suitable soil organic amendments. A variety of soil organic amendments, such as green manures and composts, are used for modifying and co-composting with biosolids. However, these may not be considered as appropriate biosolids disposal and remedial measures for soils with unique problems such as low soil pH, water repellence nature, and poor water and nutrient retention capacities due to soil textural issues. Historically, soil amendments such as lime, clay, and recently biochar are being applied for such problematic soils at Western Australia and these researches focused mostly on improvement in soil physical and chemical properties. However, studies with potential for applying modified biosolids with these amendments are not complete yet. This review focused on identifying such gaps in these studies from over 170 peer-reviewed key research and review articles published over decades to latest in these areas.

  14. INFLUENCE OF LIMING AND WASTE ORGANIC MATERIALS ON THE ACTIVITY OF UREASE AND DEHYDROGENASE IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH NICKEL

    Dorota Kalembasa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In soil sampled after a two-year pot experiment, the activity of urease and dehydrogenase and content of nitrogen have been determined. The experiment included three factors: 1. the amount of nickel added to the soil (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg · kg-1 of soil, 2. liming (0 and Ca according to 1 Hh hydrolytic acidity, 3. organic materials (straw of rye and brown coal. Test plant was cocksfoot, which four cuts were collected in each growing season. It was found that nickel added to the soli in dose of 75 mg · kg-1 activates enzymes studied, whereas higher doses cause them explicit deactivation. Both liming and waste organic materials limited the negative effect of higher doses of nickel on the activity of dehydrogenase and urease. Simultaneously, both straw and brown coal caused a slight increase in the amount of nitrogen in the soil.

  15. Isolation and identification of phosphatidic acid targets from plants.

    C. Testerink; H.L. Dekker; Z.-Y. Lim; M.K. Johns; A.B. Holmes; C.G. de Koster; N.T. Ktisakis; T. Munnik

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is emerging as an important lipid signalling molecule. In plants, it is implicated in various stress-signalling pathways and is formed in response to wounding, osmotic stress, cold stress, pathogen elicitors, Nod factors, ethylene and abscisic acid. How PA exerts its effects i

  16. Role of ascorbic acid against pathogenesis in plants

    Taqi Ahmed Khan; Mohd Mazid; Firoz Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Plants vary considerably in their physiological response to various kinds of environmental stress. To prevent damage caused by pathogenic attack and to acclimate to change in their environment, plants have evolved direct and indirect mechanism for sensing and responding to pathogenic stimuli. Ascorbic acid (AA) is found in all eukaryotes including animals and plants and lack completely in prokaryotes except cyanobactaria, have been reported to have a small amount. AA has now gained significan...

  17. Absorption of hypoiodous acid by plant leaves

    Deposition of hypoiodous acid to leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was measured in a laboratory exposure chamber, under well-defined conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were done using a dew-point hygrometer and were used to deduce stomatal opening. For comparison, deposition of molecular iodine and methyl iodide were also investigated. The results showed that, at relative humidities of 80-95 per cent, the stomatal resistance controlled the rate of absorption of hypoiodous acid and that the cuticular absorption was negligible. The rate of deposition is about ten times smaller than that of molecular iodine and much greater than that of methyl iodide which is very poorly taken up by leaves. Because hypoiodous acid does not deposit on external tissues, as elemental iodine does, it may be inaccessible to removal by rain and may have a longer biological half-life. (author)

  18. Liming and electrochemical attributes of an oxisol under no tillage

    Alleoni Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú; Zambrosi Fernando César Bachiega; Moreira Silvino Guimarães; Prochnow Luís Ignácio; Pauletti Volnei

    2003-01-01

    No tillage areas are increasing in Brazil especially due to a general improvement in water and nutrient availability to plants. Few results have reported the effect of liming on soil electrochemical attributes in areas under the no tillage system. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liming (at the soil surface and incorporated to 0.2 m) on soil pH, point of zero salt effect (PZSE), electric potential, soil organic matter (SOM), and yield of soybean and corn, cultivated on an Ty...

  19. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. DNA markers provide insight about common lime in historicalplantings

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Thomsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Christine Waage

    2014-01-01

    As part of the restoration process of an avenue of common lime (Tilia × europaea) from 1760 in the Royal Danish Gardens, all remaining trees were genotyped with DNA markers before they were felled. As such, information about the nature of the plant material (clonal versus non-clonal) and mode of......, only two trees did not belong to either of the two clones. Genotyping of commercial common lime trees that would be planted in place of the felled trees during the restoration project was also performed. Samples of 20 newly planted trees all possessed the same genotype as the majority of the old felled...... subsample of the trees had the same genotype. Trees from four other locations with historical avenues/plantings from the 17th century were also genotyped. The two clones registered in the first location were also found at the other four locations. Of 76 trees from the other historical avenues/plantings...

  1. Arsenic removal by lime softening

    Kaosol, T.; Suksaroj, C.; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    This paper focuses on the study of arsenic removal for drinking water by lime softening. The initial arsenic (V) concentration was 500 and 1,000 ug/L in synthetic groundwater. The experiments were performed as batch tests with varying lime dosages and mixing time. For the synthetic groundwater......, arsenic (V) removal increased with increasing lime dosage and mixing time, as well as with the resulting pH. The residual arsenic (V) in all cases was lower than the WHO guideline of 10 ug/L at pH higher than 11.5. Kinetic of arsenic (V) removal can be described by a first-order equation as C1 = C0*e......^-k*t. The relation between the constant (k value) and increasing lime dosage was found to be linear, described by k = 0.0034 (Dlime). The results support a theory from the literature that the arsenic (V) was removed by precipitation af Ca3(AsO4)2. The results obtained in the present study suggest that lime...

  2. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  3. Influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings

    Establishment of Carex rostrata, Eriophorum angustifolium and Phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (pH ∼3) and their effect on pH in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. The amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and As concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. An additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with E. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendments in both weathered and unweathered tailings. After one year, plants grew better in amendments containing ashes in the field, also in those plants the metal and As shoot concentrations were generally lower than in other treatments. After two years, the only surviving plants were found in sewage sludge mixed with ashes. No effect on pH by plants was found in weathered acidic mine tailings in either field- or greenhouse experiment. - Wetland plant establishment on acidic mine tailings may contribute to a reduced metal release and a stabilisation of pH

  4. FarmLime manual: for small-scale production of agricultural lime

    Mitchell, C. J.; Mwanza, M.

    2005-01-01

    This manual is a concise guide to the small-scale production of agricultural lime. It was developed as part of a research project, ‘Low-cost lime for small-scale farming’ otherwise known as FarmLime (Mitchell, CJ, 2005). The ideal agricultural lime is a ground dolomite or dolomitic limestone with a particle size of 100%

  5. Microbial Products Trigger Amino Acid Exudation from Plant Roots1

    Phillips, Donald A.; Fox, Tama C.; King, Maria D.; Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Teuber, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 μm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 μm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from 15N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant. PMID:15347793

  6. Soybean yield and chemical attributes in soil after five-year surface application of slag, aqueous lime and sewage sludge

    Büll, Leonardo Theodoro; Freitag, Elisa Eni; Corrêa, Juliano Corulli; Fernandes, Dirceu Maximino

    2008-01-01

    The agricultural use of industrial residues and sewage sludge in order to provide essential nutrients to a plant and soil liming, will be one of the most promising alternative options of soil fertilization and liming management in a very near future, as far as these applications follow the prevailing technical norms to prevent eventual environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of slag, aqueous lime, sewage sludge and limestone, under surface app...

  7. New Development of Acid Regeneration in Steel Pickling Plants

    W F Kladnig

    2008-01-01

    For acid pickling heat treated mild steel and steel products,up to the middle of the last century,sulfuric acid was primarily in use,which has been replaced stepwise by hydrochloric acid since the sixties.During this time,the pickling of high alloyed steel with hydrofluoric acid or mixtures for hydrofluoric acid together with nitric acid has also been applied on industrial scale.The technologies used by several plant contractors hereby show considerable differences in their engineering.The study provides a survey of the progress in the state of art of regeneration technology as well as the use of different pickling media in the form of a review on existing technologies as well as improvements done within the recent years in the area.

  8. Thermal power plants and acid rain

    The slow acidification of the environment and the frequent occurrence of the precipitation with pH lower than 5.6 over areas continuously extending are caused by the pollutant releases, especially SO2 and NOx from anthropic sources. There is a relationship between the SO2 release from the high stacks of thermal power plants and the long-range transfrontier pollution. The most efficient method to avoid damage on environment is to reduce the releases from stationary and mobile sources. (author)

  9. Salicylic Acid and its Function in Plant Immunity

    Chuanfu An; Zhonglin Mou

    2011-01-01

    The small phenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) plays an important regulatory role in multiple physiological processes including plant immune response. Significant progress has been made during the past two decades in understanding the SA-mediated defense signaling network.Characterization of a number of genes functioning in SA biosynthesis,conjugation, accumulation, signaling, and crosstalk with other hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellic acid,cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and peptide hormones has sketched the finely tuned immune response network. Full understanding of the mechanism of plant immunity will need to take advantage of fast developing genomics tools and bioinformatics techniques. However, elucidating genetic components involved in these pathways by conventional genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology approaches will continue to be a major task of the community. High-throughput method for SA quantification holds the potential for isolating additional mutants related to SA-mediated defense signaling.

  10. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra;

    2013-01-01

    Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses...

  11. Mammalian-like Purple Acid Phosphatases in Plants

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) comprise of a family of binuclear metal-containing hydrolases, some members of which have been isolated and characterized from animal, plant and fungal sources[1]. PAPs not only catalyze the hydrolyses of a wide range of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic reaction conditions,but also catalyze the generation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction, by virtue of the presence of a redox-active binuclear metal center.

  12. Effect of liming on yield and quality of peppermint and Sachalin mint in fine sand soil of Northern Finland

    Aflatuni, Abbas; Uusitalo, Jouko; Ek, Sari; Hohtola, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Soil acidity commonly limits plant production in the fine sand soil of Northern Finland, which often has a low pH (5.5-6.5) and contains low levels of Ca and Mg. The effect of five liming (10% Mg and 19% Ca) levels, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 tons ha -1 , on the herb and essential oil yield and menthol and menthone content of two mint species (peppermint, Mentha x piperita, a variety of Black Mitcham and Sachalin mint, Mentha arvensis var. sacchalinensis) cultivated in fine sand soil in Northern Fin...

  13. Utilization of slaked lime for the regulation of pH value in the process of copper

    Petković Aleksandar V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of used lime at plant from company Messer-Tehnogas, Belgrade, were in the aim to improvement technologically results from flotation concentration of copper minerals in flotation plant Veliki Krivelj. This paper shows usage of slaked lime, which is waste in the process of technical gas production, for regulation of pH value in the process of copper minerals flotation concentration. It is important to point out that slaked lime is a waste material that is not dangerous. Preparation and dosage includes preparation procedures, which enable introduction into flotation process with the aim of achieving better results. Lime from Limekiln Zagrađe is brought into four storage places in flotation. Volume of each storage place is 80 m3. Lime in pieces from storage place is added by airbladders on transportation line and by system of transportation lines lime gets to the ball mill. At the mill entrance water is added and then follows lime grinding. Milk glass of lime thus prepared goes to the pump basket from where is transported by pipeline to conditioner, and then by manual and (or automatic valves it is dosed to the flotation concentration of copper minerals process. Prospect of advancement and rationalization of the used lime in flotation plant Bor, Veliki Krivelj and Majdanpek as well as a way to link different branches of industry was demonstrated. Total cost of lime supplying, transporting, preparation and distribution related slaked lime is lower for 2.955 din/kg. Particularly, using lime from Messer in content of 2.1 g/l value of pH 11.82 is possible to obtain.

  14. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Routaboul Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3 or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrienoic (16:3 acids typically account for approximately two-thirds of all thylakoid membrane fatty acids and over 90% of the fatty acids of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol, the major thylakoid lipid [1, 2]. The occurrence of trienoic fatty acids as a major component of the thylakoid membrane is especially remarkable since these fatty acids form highly reactive targets for active oxygen species and free radicals, which are often the by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most temperature-sensitive functions of plant [3, 4]. There remains a widespread belief that these trienoic fatty acids might have some crucial role in plants to be of such universal occurrence, especially in photosynthesis tolerance of temperature [5].

  15. Uranium production as byproduct from Yarimca (Turkey) phosphoric acid plant

    Full text: This paper deals with uranium production from the phosphoric acid products of Yarimca Fertilizer Plant. After examination of the phosphate rocks consumed in this plant and the acid products, solvent extraction tests were conducted to determine the effects of acid concentration, solvent concentration in kerosene, contact time and acid solvent ratio on the recoveries of uranium. 98 percent of total uranium in acid was recovered in the organic phase by applying 5 stage extraction. Following the extraction tests, acidic and basic stripping were applied to organic phase and uranium was precipitated as yellow cake from the stripping solutions. In the stripping tests mainly aqueous and organic phase ratio and the stripping time were investigated using HCl and Na2CO3 as stripping agents. Na2CO3 has provided higher uranium recoveries both at the short time and low ratio of the stripping solution. Yellow cakes were produced containing 13-18.4 percent U3o8 from acidic and 30-46.4 percent U3O8 from basic stripping solutions

  16. Use of alkaline flyash-based products to amend acid soils: Plant growth response and nutrient uptake

    Spark, K.M.; Swift, R.S. [University of Queensland, Gatton, Qld. (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Vast quantities of flyash are generated annually by the burning of coal in the power industry, with most of this material being stockpiled with little prospect of being utilised at present. Two alkaline flyash-based products (FAP) for use as soil amendments (FAP1 and FAP2) have been assessed using glasshouse pot trials to determine the suitability of using these products to treat acid soils. The products both contain about 80% flyash which originated from coal-fired electricity generation. The acid soils used in the study were 2 Podsols and a Ferrosol, all originating from south-east Queensland and ranging in pH (1 : 5 suspension in water) from 4 to 5.5. The flyash products when applied to the soil significantly enhanced growth of maize plants (Zea mays L.), with optimal application rates in the range 1.25-5% w/w. The FAP/soil mixtures and plants were analysed using a range of methods including extraction with DTPA, and plant biomass (aboveground dry matter). The results indicate that in addition to the liming effect, the flyash in the alkaline flyash products may enhance plant growth as a result of increasing the uptake of micro-nutrients such as copper, zinc, and manganese. The study suggests that flyash has the potential to be used as a base material in the production of soil amendment materials that can change soil pH and act as a fertiliser for certain soil micro-nutrients such as Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  17. Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth.

    Mossi, A J; Pauletti, G F; Rota, L; Echeverrigaray, S; Barros, I B I; Oliveira, J V; Paroul, N; Cansian, R L

    2012-11-01

    Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L(-1)) and a completely random experimental design was used, with four replications and three chemotypes, set up in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The parameters evaluated were dry weight of aerial parts, essential oil content and chemical composition of essential oil. Results showed that liming affects the biomass production, essential oil yield and chemical composition, with cross interaction verified between chemotype and limestone dosage. For the higher dosage lower biomass production, lower yield of essential oil as well as the lowest content of citral (citral chemotype) and limonene (menthene chemotype) was observed. In the ocimene chemotype, no liming influence was observed on the essential oil yield and on the content of major compounds. The dosage of 3.15 g.L(-1) can be considered the best limestone dosage for the production of poejo for the experimental conditions evaluated. PMID:23295505

  18. Caro's acid - its introduction to uranium acid leaching in Australia

    After extensive testing and plant trials to establish the benefits of Caro's acid (H2SO5) as an alternative oxidant, Queensland Mines Limited decided to replace pyrolusite with Caro's acid in its acid leach uranium treatment plant at Nabarlek. The decision was based on the reagent savings and environmental gains associated with the removal of manganese from the process liquors, as well as the labour savings and improved oxidation reduction potential control possible in leaching using the Caro's acid system. Some changes in operating parameters were necessary with the introduction of Caro's acid to the treatment plant. Operating results have confirmed the relationship between oxidant demand and uranium content of ore established during the trials. Acid savings have been as predicted from the plant trials. The major saving has been of hydrated lime required for tailings neutralisation

  19. Three-Stage Lime-Ferric Salt Process for High Arsenic Impure Acid Wasterwater%三段石灰-铁盐法处理高砷洗气污酸废水

    易求实

    2011-01-01

    砷化物的不可降解性决定了砷污染处理中化学法的不可替代性,针对高砷洗气污酸废水,在分析了几种主要处理方法特点的基础上,提出了三段石灰—铁盐法。以很低的处理费用确保高砷洗气污酸废水达标排放,同时得到三部分固体渣:高含量的砷钙渣、非危固石膏渣和极少量含砷铁盐渣。高含量的砷钙渣和非危固石膏渣可资源化利用,少量含砷铁盐渣送危险固体废物处理中心处理。%The non-degradability of arsenates determines that chemical processing is a must for arsenate-contaminated wastes.When addressing the characteristics of some major processing methods,a three-stage lime-ferric salt method is proposed for high arsenic impure acid wastewater.Using this method,the wastewater can be discharged with industrial standards after treated with very low costs.Meanwhile,three solid residues can be obtained: high-content calcium arsenate residues,non-dangerous gypsun waste,and minute arsenic-ferric salts residues;the former two can be reutilized while the latter can be treated in some dangerous solid waste processing centers.

  20. Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation on shelf life of Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia swingle)

    Influence of irradiation on shelf life of Kagzi lime fruits were studied. The results revealed that most of the physical and chemical parameters of fruits were significantly influenced by 100 Gy gamma radiation up to 22 days without affecting fruit quality. Higher doses of gamma irradiation (> 200 Gy) deteriorated the fruit quality and organoleptic parameters of the fruit. Thus, irradiation of lime fruits with 100 Gy gamma radiation extended shelf life of lime fruits and also helps in maintaining the chemical constituents viz., T.S.S. Acidity, Vitamin C, pH and juice content. (author)

  1. Potential use of gypsum and lime rich industrial by-products for induced reduction of Pb, Zn and Ni leachability in an acid soil

    Rodriguez-Jorda, M.P. [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@ccma.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Gonzalez, M.T. [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    This study evaluates the potential use of four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum (PG), red gypsum (RG), sugar foam (SF), and ashes from biomass combustion (ACB)), applied at two rates in single and combined amendments to reduce the mobility and availability of Pb, Zn and Ni in a metal-spiked acid soil. Leaching experiments were done to estimate leachability indexes and assess their effectiveness. Most of the treatments significantly reduced the metal leachability although only a few were effective for all metals. Based on principal component and cluster analysis, sugar foam (SF) and a mixture of RG and ACB (RG+ACB), both applied at high rate, were selected as first choices to reduce mobility and availability of the three metals. Metal sorption mechanisms involved in the reduction of their leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy. In the SF-treated samples, the metals were found associated to amorphous Al-hydroxy polymers deposited on phyllosilicates and organic matter particles. In the (RG+ACB)-treated samples, Pb, Zn, and traces of Ni were found associated to Fe/Ti oxide phases with a significant concentration of S, suggesting the formation of metal-sulfate ternary complexes.

  2. Potential use of gypsum and lime rich industrial by-products for induced reduction of Pb, Zn and Ni leachability in an acid soil

    This study evaluates the potential use of four industrial by-products (phosphogypsum (PG), red gypsum (RG), sugar foam (SF), and ashes from biomass combustion (ACB)), applied at two rates in single and combined amendments to reduce the mobility and availability of Pb, Zn and Ni in a metal-spiked acid soil. Leaching experiments were done to estimate leachability indexes and assess their effectiveness. Most of the treatments significantly reduced the metal leachability although only a few were effective for all metals. Based on principal component and cluster analysis, sugar foam (SF) and a mixture of RG and ACB (RG+ACB), both applied at high rate, were selected as first choices to reduce mobility and availability of the three metals. Metal sorption mechanisms involved in the reduction of their leachability were identified using scanning electron microscopy. In the SF-treated samples, the metals were found associated to amorphous Al-hydroxy polymers deposited on phyllosilicates and organic matter particles. In the (RG+ACB)-treated samples, Pb, Zn, and traces of Ni were found associated to Fe/Ti oxide phases with a significant concentration of S, suggesting the formation of metal-sulfate ternary complexes.

  3. Lime mortars with natural fibres

    Drdácký, Miloš; Michoinová, D.

    Varšava : ZTUREK, 2003 - (Brandt, A.; Li, V.; Marshall, I.), s. 523-532 ISBN 1-85573-769-8. [International Symposium of Brittle matrix /7./. Varšava (PL), 13.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA MK PK00P04OPP015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : lime mortar * natural fibres * experimental research Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  4. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ ethylene plant defense pathways

    Mur, Luis A. J.; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra; Hall, Michael A.; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant defense against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defense responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signaling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO in...

  5. Conservação refrigerada de lima ácida 'Tahiti': uso de 1-metilciclopropeno, ácido giberélico e cera Cold storage of 'Tahiti' lime: use of 1-methylcyclopropene, gibberellic acid and wax

    Maria Luiza Lye Jomori

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A conservação refrigerada da lima ácida 'Tahiti' sob baixa temperatura permite o aumento no período de comercialização dos frutos, entretanto, a perda da coloração verde da casca é o principal entrave que impede este prolongamento. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, associado ao uso de cera e ácido giberélico (GA, sobre a conservação refrigerada de lima ácida 'Tahiti'. Foram aplicados os tratamentos: T1:Controle; T2: 1-MCP (1 mg. L-1 durante 12 horas a 20ºC; T3: Cera (0,1 mL por fruto; T4: Ácido giberélico - GA (10 mg. L-1; T5: 1-MCP + Cera; T6: 1-MCP + GA; T7: Cera + GA; T8: 1-MCP + Cera + GA; T9: T2 + re-aplicação de 1-MCP após 30 dias de armazenamento. Os frutos foram armazenados durante 30 e 60 dias a 10C e 90% UR. A cera foi suficiente para retardar a perda de coloração verde da casca até 30 dias de conservação a 10ºC. O 1-MCP também mantém a coloração verde até 30 dias de conservação refrigerada, enquanto que a sua reaplicação após este período não apresenta efeito para a manutenção da coloração verde da casca. No presente trabalho não foi pronunciado o efeito do ácido giberélico. Após 60 dias de armazenamento os frutos não se apresentavam comercializáveis.The storage of 'Tahiti' lime under low temperatures allows the marketing period to be extended, however the loss of the green skin colour prevent such improvement to be achieved. The purpose of this research was to verify the efficiency of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP associated with the use of gibberellic acid (GA and wax during the cold storage of 'Tahiti' lime. The treatments used were: T1: fruit without treatment (control; T2: 1-MCP (1,0 ì L. L-1 during 12 h at 20ºC; T3: wax (0,1 mL per fruit; T4: GA (10 mg. L-1; T5: 1-MCP + wax; T6: 1-MCP + GA; T7: wax + GA; T8: 1-MCP + wax + GA; T9: T2 + new application of 1-MCP after 30 days of storage. Fruit were stored during 30 and

  6. Soil nutrient availability and its impact on fruit quality of Tahiti acid lime Disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo e impactos na qualidade de frutos da lima-ácida Tahiti

    Dirceu Mattos Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tahiti acid lime in Brazil is mostly grown in the São Paulo State. The value of this crop production ranks among the ten most important fruits in the country. The Brazilian exports of Tahiti limes have increased in the last years with a corresponding increased demand for superior quality of fresh fruits, which is affected by mineral nutrients. Therefore, this study evaluated nutrient soil availability and its influence on nutritional status of trees based on the determination of leaf and fruit nutrient concentrations, fruit characteristics, and post harvest quality. Eleven commercial groves with trees older than 4-yr and differently managed were studied. Plots with six trees in each grove were sampled for soil (0-20 cm depth layer, leaf and fruit analyses with three replicates. Correlation coefficients were pair wised established for all variables. The results showed that N leaf concentration was well correlated with green color of fruit peel as measured by a color index (r = -0.71**, and which was optimum with Leaf-N around 22 g kg-1. Leaf-Ca was inversely correlated with fruit water loss after 14-day interval from harvest (r = -0.54* demonstrating that Ca plays an important role in Tahiti fruit shelf-life. Data also suggested that increased fruit K concentration correlated with increased fruit water losses during storage (r >0.58*.No Brasil, a lima-ácida Tahiti é produzida principalmente em São Paulo. O valor dessa produção situa-se entre as dez variedades de frutas mais importantes no País. As exportações brasileiras de Tahiti in natura aumentaram significativamente nos últimos anos e têm demandado frutas de qualidade superior. Essas características são afetadas pelos nutrientes minerais. Assim, o trabalho avaliou os efeitos da disponibilidade de nutrientes no solo, sua influência no estado nutricional das plantas e no teor desses nos frutos, e correlações sobre a qualidade de Tahiti, como maneira de criar subsídios para

  7. Effects of Nematicides, Lime, and Herbicide on Peach Tree Short Life in Georgia

    Wehunt, E. J.; Horton, B. D.; Prince, V E

    1980-01-01

    Peach tree mortality was 75% five years after planting on a site associated with peach tree short life and receiving no nematicide treatment, no lime, and with cultivation for weed control. Mortality was reduced to 29% by preplanting plus postplanting applications of DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) and with herbicidal weed control. Preplanting applications of nematicides alone did not effectively reduce tree mortality or increase yield. Lime applications increased yield but did not affect ...

  8. Phosphorus leaching from clay soils can be counteracted by structure liming

    Ulen, Barbro; Etana, Ararso

    2014-01-01

    Two field experiments with drained plots on clay soils (60 and 25 % clay) demonstrated a significant reduction in leaching of total phosphorus after application of structure lime. Aggregate stability, was significantly improved. Phosphorus leaching in particulate form was significantly reduced following structure liming at the site with a very high clay content. Sites representing low (50 mg kg-1) and high (140 mg kg-1) levels of phosphorus extractable with acid ammonium lactate in topsoil di...

  9. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    Spalding, Edgar P.

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  10. FarmLime Project Summary Report

    Mitchell, C. J.; Simukanga, S.; Shitumbanuma, V.; Banda, D.; Walker, B; Steadman, E. J.; Muibeya, B.; Mwanza, M.; Mtonga, M.; Kapindula, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises work funded by the Department for International Development Knowledge and Research programme, as part of the British Government’s programme of aid to developing countries. The ‘FarmLime: Low-cost lime for small-scale farming’ project (R7410) set out to investigate a way of improving the agricultural performance of small scale farms through the use of low-cost agricultural lime produced within the farming district using locally occurring dolomite. The main technical rese...

  11. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  12. Toxicity and tolerance of aluminum in plants: tailoring plants to suit to acid soils.

    Sade, Hemalatha; Meriga, Balaji; Surapu, Varalakshmi; Gadi, Jogeswar; Sunita, M S L; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the serious limiting factors in plant productivity in acidic soils, which constitute about 50 % of the world's potentially arable lands and causes anywhere between 25 and 80 % of yield losses depending upon the species. The mechanism of Al toxicity and tolerance has been examined in plants, which is vital for crop improvement and enhanced food production in the future. Two mechanisms that facilitate Al tolerance in plants are Al exclusion from the roots and the ability to tolerate Al in the symplast or both. Although efforts have been made to unravel Al-resistant factors, many aspects remain unclear. Certain gene families such as MATE, ALMT, ASR, and ABC transporters have been implicated in some plants for resistance to Al which would enhance the opportunities for creating crop plants suitable to grow in acidic soils. Though QTLs have been identified related to Al-tolerance, no crop plant that is tolerant to Al has been evolved so far using breeding or molecular approaches. The remarkable changes that plants experience at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level under Al stress, the vast array of genes involved in Al toxicity-tolerance, the underlying signaling events and the holistic image of the molecular regulation, and the possibility of creating transgenics for Al tolerance are discussed in this review. PMID:26796895

  13. Fatty Acid and Lipid Transport in Plant Cells.

    Li, Nannan; Xu, Changcheng; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Philippar, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) and lipids are essential - not only as membrane constituents but also for growth and development. In plants and algae, FAs are synthesized in plastids and to a large extent transported to the endoplasmic reticulum for modification and lipid assembly. Subsequently, lipophilic compounds are distributed within the cell, and thus are transported across most membrane systems. Membrane-intrinsic transporters and proteins for cellular FA/lipid transfer therefore represent key components for delivery and dissemination. In addition to highlighting their role in lipid homeostasis and plant performance, different transport mechanisms for land plants and green algae - in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - are compared, thereby providing a current perspective on protein-mediated FA and lipid trafficking in photosynthetic cells. PMID:26616197

  14. A Model for Dissolution of Lime in Steelmaking Slags

    Sarkar, Rahul; Roy, Ushasi; Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2016-08-01

    In a previous study by Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015), a dynamic model of the LD steelmaking was developed. The prediction of the previous model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) for the bath (metal) composition matched well with the plant data (Cicutti et al. in Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, Stockholm City, 2000). However, with respect to the slag composition, the prediction was not satisfactory. The current study aims to improve upon the previous model Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) by incorporating a lime dissolution submodel into the earlier one. From the industrial point of view, the understanding of the lime dissolution kinetics is important to meet the ever-increasing demand of producing low-P steel at a low basicity. In the current study, three-step kinetics for the lime dissolution is hypothesized on the assumption that a solid layer of 2CaO·SiO2 should form around the unreacted core of the lime. From the available experimental data, it seems improbable that the observed kinetics should be controlled singly by any one kinetic step. Accordingly, a general, mixed control model has been proposed to calculate the dissolution rate of the lime under varying slag compositions and temperatures. First, the rate equation for each of the three rate-controlling steps has been derived, for three different lime geometries. Next, the rate equation for the mixed control kinetics has been derived and solved to find the dissolution rate. The model predictions have been validated by means of the experimental data available in the literature. In addition, the effects of the process conditions on the dissolution rate have been studied, and compared with the experimental results wherever possible. Incorporation of this submodel into the earlier global model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) enables the prediction of the lime dissolution rate

  15. A Model for Dissolution of Lime in Steelmaking Slags

    Sarkar, Rahul; Roy, Ushasi; Ghosh, Dinabandhu

    2016-04-01

    In a previous study by Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015), a dynamic model of the LD steelmaking was developed. The prediction of the previous model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) for the bath (metal) composition matched well with the plant data (Cicutti et al. in Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, Stockholm City, 2000). However, with respect to the slag composition, the prediction was not satisfactory. The current study aims to improve upon the previous model Sarkar et al. (Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) by incorporating a lime dissolution submodel into the earlier one. From the industrial point of view, the understanding of the lime dissolution kinetics is important to meet the ever-increasing demand of producing low-P steel at a low basicity. In the current study, three-step kinetics for the lime dissolution is hypothesized on the assumption that a solid layer of 2CaO·SiO2 should form around the unreacted core of the lime. From the available experimental data, it seems improbable that the observed kinetics should be controlled singly by any one kinetic step. Accordingly, a general, mixed control model has been proposed to calculate the dissolution rate of the lime under varying slag compositions and temperatures. First, the rate equation for each of the three rate-controlling steps has been derived, for three different lime geometries. Next, the rate equation for the mixed control kinetics has been derived and solved to find the dissolution rate. The model predictions have been validated by means of the experimental data available in the literature. In addition, the effects of the process conditions on the dissolution rate have been studied, and compared with the experimental results wherever possible. Incorporation of this submodel into the earlier global model (Sarkar et al. in Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46B:961 2015) enables the prediction of the lime dissolution rate

  16. CE IGCC Repowering plant sulfuric acid plant. Topical report, June 1993

    Chester, A.M.

    1993-12-01

    A goal of the CE IGCC Repowering project is to demonstrate a hot gas clean-up system (HGCU), for the removal of sulfur from the product gas stream exiting the gasifier island. Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) intends to use a HGCU developed by General Electric Environmental Services (GEESI). The original design of this system called for the installation of the HGCU, with a conventional cold gas clean-up system included as a full-load operational back-up. Each of these systems removes sulfur compounds and converts them into an acid off-gas. This report deals with the investigation of equipment to treat this off-gas, recovering these sulfur compounds as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or some other form. ABB CE contracted ABB Lummus Crest Inc. (ABB LCI) to perform an engineering evaluation to compare several such process options. This study concluded that the installation of a sulfuric acid plant represented the best option from both a technical and economic point of view. Based on this evaluation, ABB CE specified that a sulfuric acid plant be installed to remove sulfur from off-gas exiling the gas clean-up system. ABB LCI prepared a request for quotation (RFQ) for the construction of a sulfuric acid production plant. Monsanto Enviro-Chem Inc. presented the only proposal, and was eventually selected as the EPC contractor for this system.

  17. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  18. Steam slaking of lime - kinetics and technology. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Aangslaeckning av kalk - kinetik och teknik. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2008-06-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional lime burning and slaking methods are that heat recovery is bad and heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant, and to recover heat at higher temperatures. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with water vapour, for example combined with an indirect heated lime mud drier and a lime kiln. This project is a follow-up to pilot tests performed in a specific machine equipment at year 2006. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The owner of this new project is Carnot AB and the project is performed inside the Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2006-2008. Partners and advisers in project group have been KTH Energy Processes, CTH Energy and Environment, LTH Chemical Technology, SMA Mineral AB, and reference group from STORA Enso Skoghall, Sodra Cell, M-Real Husum and SCA Packaging Piteaa. The task in this stage has included market investigations and laboratory tests. Contacts have been made with suppliers, preliminary dimensioning of process equipment and budget offers are received. Economic calculations have been made out of the offers. The laboratory tests are done as an examination paper at KTH Energiprocesser on the reactivity of burned lime from kraft lime kiln when it is slaked with water vapour instead of green liquor. The vapour intended to be used is at atmospheric pressure or even down to 0,2 atm. Complementary addition to these laboratory

  19. Comparative evaluation of aerial lime mortars for architectural conservation

    Faria, Paulina; Henriques, Fernando M.A.; Rato, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Cultural Heritage 9 (2008) 338-346 International bibliography on conservation usually refers that mortars made with lime putty with long extinction periods behave better than others made with the current dry hydrated limes. In order to evaluate this assess, an experimental study of lime mortars was carried out, using dry hydrated lime and two lime putties. It becomes clear that the use of lime putties with long extinction periods in mortars allow better performances, pa...

  20. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. PMID:27131397

  1. Deficit hídrico e secamento parcial do sistema radicular em pomar de lima ácida Water deficit and partial rootzone drying in an acid lime orchard

    Antonio Hélder Rodrigues Sampaio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do deficit hídrico associado ao secamento parcial do sistema radicular ("partial rootzone drying", PRD na produção e eficiência de uso de água, em pomar de lima ácida 'Tahiti', na Região do Semiárido baiano. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos com PRD foram realizados pela alternância periódica (7, 14 ou 21 dias dos lados em que o microaspersor localizava-se em relação às plantas. Esses tratamentos foram conduzidos com lâmina d'água equivalente a 50% da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc e comparados ao tratamento com deficit hídrico de 50% da ETc com microaspersor fixo em um dos lados das plantas, e ao tratamento 100% da ETc, com aspersores de ambos os lados das plantas. Avaliou-se também o PRD (21 dias com diminuição da irrigação em 25% da ETc. O PRD com 50% da ETc não difere do tratamento com esse mesmo deficit e sem alternância de lados da irrigação, em termos de produtividade, eficiência do uso da água, e diâmetro e peso dos frutos, independentemente do período de alternância dos lados de irrigação. O PRD com diminuição da irrigação em 25% da ETc não causa perdas em relação à condição sem deficit e sem localização da irrigação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of water deficit and of partial rootzone drying (PRD on the yield and water use efficiency in a 'Tahiti' lime orchard, in the Semiarid Region of Bahia state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with six treatments and six replicates. Treatments with PRD were carried out by the periodic alternance (7, 14 or 21 days of the sides in which the micro sprinklers were located in relation to the plants. These treatments were performed with a water depth equivalent to 50% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc. They were compared to the treatment with 50% water deficit, using one fixed

  2. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  3. Loch fleet: liming to restore a brown trout fishery.

    Howells, G; Dalziel, T R; Turnpenny, A W

    1992-01-01

    This project has been successful in meeting its objectives in terms of demonstrating that catchment liming techniques can restore acidified waters to conditions suitable for fish populations for relatively long periods. This improvement in conditions has extended to the inlet stream, which provides vital fish spawning and nursery areas, which are difficult to treat effectively be other means in remote locations. The project has also provided an assessment of the effectiveness of differing rates and modes of lime application, which suggest that only quite restricted parts of a catchment require treatment. This not only maximizes the cost-effectiveness of the treatments, but also helps to minimize any side-effects on, for example, moorland vegetation. The biological monitoring programme at Loch Fleet has also provided an assessment of the overall ecological consequences of adding limestone to naturally acidic and calcium-deficient ecosystems. PMID:15091939

  4. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  5. Evaluation of Lime for Use in Mortar

    Naktode P.L.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lime has been used in India as material of construction from very ancient days. The manner in which lime structures about 2000 years old have withstood the ravages of time bear irrefutable evidence to the durability of lime mortars. Lime mortars were the mortars of very recent years – used until the twentieth century. Although they are almost forgotten today, they still remain a viable and important construction method [1]. There is something about this material that remains just as valuable today as it was 150 years ago [2]. The lime belt of Vidarbha area is not of industrial grade. To use for construction purpose it needs some improvement and alteration in the ingredients. This calls the development of an alternative approach to make it suitable for construction in large extent. Keywords:

  6. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands. PMID:24933893

  7. Respostas de tangerineiras 'Montenegrina' à calagem e adubação orgânica e mineral 'Montenegrina' tangerine responses to liming and to organic and mineral fertilizers

    Nestor Valtir Panzenhagen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou estudar a influência da calagem e de adubações minerais e orgânicas na produção de tangerineiras (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina, enxertadas em Poncirus trifoliata Raf. O plantio foi realizado em julho de 1988, num solo Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro, de textura franco-argilosa. O delineamento experimental constou de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições, usando três plantas úteis por parcela. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: testemunha (sem adubação e sem calagem; solo corrigido a pH 6,5 antes do plantio; adubações com esterco de aviário + calagem anualmente; adubações com esterco bovino + calagem anualmente; adubações com N e K + calagem anualmente; adubações com N e K + calagem anualmente + correção com P antes do plantio; adubações com N, P na dose simples e K + calagem anualmente; adubações com N, P na dose dupla e K + calagem anualmente; adubações anuais com N, P na dose simples e K, sem calagem. A adubação corretiva com P, na instalação do pomar, foi suficiente para assegurar uma produção de frutos similar à obtida pelas adubações de reposição anual deste nutriente, até oito anos após o plantio. A elevação dos teores foliares de N foi positivamente relacionada com o aumento da produção de frutos e com a diminuição do peso médio dos mesmos. O uso de sulfato de amônio acidifica o solo e requer maior quantidade de calagem de manutenção.The objectives of the present study were to investigate the influence of liming and mineral and organic fertilization on yields of cv. 'Montenegrina' tangerines (Citrus deliciosa Tenore grafted onto Poncirus trifoliata Raf. The grove was planted in July of 1988 on a Dark-Red Podzolic (Rhodic Paleudult soil. The experiment was set up in randomized blocks design composed of nine treatments and four replicates, with three plants per plot. The treatments were: control (without liming and fertilizers; soil acidity

  8. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044

  9. Surface application of lime ameliorates subsoil acidity and improves root growth and yield of wheat in an acid soil under no-till system Calagem superficial em solo ácido no sistema plantio direto melhora a acidez do subsolo e beneficia o crescimento radicular e a produção de trigo

    Eduardo Fávero Caires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop root growth and grain yield can be affected by chemical modifications in the soil profile due to surface lime application. A field trial was carried out on a loamy dystrophic Typic Hapludox at Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, to evaluate root growth and grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. CD 104, moderately susceptible to Al, about 10 years after surface liming (0, 2, 4, and 6 Mg ha-1 and three years after surface re-liming (0 and 3 Mg ha-1, in a long-term no-till cultivation system. Soil acidity limited wheat root growth and yield severely, probably as a result of extended water deficits during the vegetative stage. Surface liming caused increases up to 66% in the root growth (0-60 cm and up to 140% in the grain yield. Root density and grain yield were correlated positively with soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, and negatively with exchangeable Al3+ and Al3+ saturation, in the surface and subsurface layers.A calagem na superfície do solo em plantio direto ocasiona modificações químicas no perfil que podem influenciar o crescimento do sistema radicular e a produção de grãos das culturas. O crescimento de raízes e a produção de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. CD 104, moderadamente sensível ao Al, foram estudados cerca de 10 anos após a aplicação superficial de calcário (0, 2, 4 e 6 Mg ha-1 e três anos da reaplicação de calcário na superfície (0 e 3 Mg ha-1, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura média, manejado durante longo período no sistema plantio direto, em Ponta Grossa (PR. A acidez do solo limitou drasticamente o crescimento radicular e a produção de trigo, provavelmente por causa de prolongada falta de água ocorrida durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da cultura. A calagem na superfície ocasionou aumento de até 66% no crescimento radicular (0-60 cm e de até 140% na produção de trigo. A densidade de raízes e a produção de trigo correlacionaram-se positivamente com o pH e o

  10. Plant-conservative agriculture of acid and degraded Raña-grassland enhances diversity of the common soil mites (Oribatida

    Juan Jorrín

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The seminatural prairie of the Raña of Cañamero (Spain is a degraded and unproductive agrosystem with acid and stony soils, and low coverage of xerophytic grasses. In a project about secondary reconversion of the raña-prairie to a more productive cropland, an experimental field (EF was established to assess the effect on plot-productivity of the interaction between correction of soil pH (liming with three cropping systems: a no-tilled and annually fertilized and improved prairies, and a conventionally-tilled forage crop. The EF model of management was designed as plant-conservative, because no herbicide was applied after seeding to preserve the post-emergence of wild herbs and the natural grass diversity of the prairie. Between 2008 and 2012, we analysed the effect of managing factors (initial conventional-tillage, fertilization, liming and cropping and agricultural predictors (pH, C:N ratio, soil bulk density and herbaceous biomass on the alpha(α-diversity of one of the major group of soil animals, the oribatids. In relation to the raña-prairie, all EF-plots improved their soil bulk density (ρs and herbaceous biomass (t/ha, and enhanced desirable α-diversity values (richness, abundance and community equity. We conclude that the plant-conservative model: i do not affect statistically the species richness of the prairie; ii the desirable α-diversity responses are negatively correlated with soil bulk density and positively with herbaceous biomass, and iii the low input or minimum intervention model, of an initial and conventional till and annual fertilisation, is the threshold and optimal model of agricultural management to improving oribatids diversity of the raña-soil.

  11. INFLUENCE OF LIMING AND WASTE ORGANIC MATERIALS ON THE ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHATASE IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH NICKEL

    Beata Kuziemska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on soil following a two-year pot experiment that was conducted in 2009–2010, in three repetitions in Siedlce. The experiment included the following factors: 1 – amount of Ni in soil (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg·kg-1 soil by applying an aqueous NiSO4·7H2O solution; 2 – liming (0 and Ca according to 1 Hh as CaCO3; 3 – organic waste products (rye straw at a dose of 4 t·ha-1 and brown coal at a dose of 40 t·ha-1. In each experimental year, orchard grass was the test plant and four swaths were harvested. The activities of acidic and alkaline phosphatase, pH and the content of carbon in organic compounds were determined in the soil samples collected after each grass swath and in each experimental year. It was found that Ni at 75 mg·kg-1 soil activated the enzymes under study, whereas higher doses caused their statistically-confirmed inactivation. The lowest activity of the investigated enzymes was detected in soil supplemented with 225 Ni·kg-1 soil. Liming caused an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase and a reduction in the activity of acidic phosphatase. Straw and brown coal induced a substantial increase in the activity of both enzymes in the tested soil samples. Both liming and straw and carbon eliminated the negative effect of higher nickel doses on the activity of the enzymes under study.

  12. Effect of liming, manure, and NPK fertilizer application on growth and yield performance of soybean in swamp land

    A . Wijanarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and the expansion of planting area to potential land are two strategies to increase soybean production. Swamp land is one of potential land. Acidic soil, poor fertility, and toxicity become limiting factors for soybean development in this area. Objective of this research was to determine effect of liming, organic and NPK fertilizer application on soybean yields in swamp land. On-farm trial had been conducted on swamp land of C type in South Kalimantan. Treatments consisted of two factors, laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The fist factor was three doses of manure (0, 2.5, and 5.0 t/ha. The second factor was four combinations of NPK fertilization dosage, (1 0-0-0, (2 22,5-36-30, (3 22,5-54-60, and (4 45-72-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O per hectare. Combinations of these two factors were tested on two environments, without and with liming. Results revealed that soil acidity, poor P, K, Ca, and Mg, and high aluminum saturation became limiting factors for soybean growth and yield in swamp land of type C in South Kalimantan. Amelioration using 2.5 t/ha manure, liming with dolomite equivalent to 20% of Al saturation, and NPK fertilizer at dose of 45 kg N - 72 kg K2O – 60 kg P2O5 /ha improved soil properties and soybean growth, and increase productivity to 2.4 t/ha.

  13. Experimental and kinetic modelling studies on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant to levulinic acid

    Girisuta, B.; Danon, B.; Manurung, R.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental and modelling study on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of the water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) to optimise the yield of levulinic acid (LA) is reported (T = 150-175 degrees C, C-H2SO4 - 0.1-1 M, water hyacinth intake = 1-5 wt%). At high acid concentrations (> 0.5 M), LA was the major organic acid whereas at low acid concentrations (

  14. Modelo de producción de biomasa en suelos ácidos de raña corregidos con productos calizos Biomass production model for lime amended acid raña-soils

    E. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han realizado unos ensayos de campo de dos años de duración encaminados a la corrección de la acidez de un Typic Palexe­rult, de las formaciones de raña de la mese­ta norte de la provincia de León (España. El cultivo ensayado fue una variedad local de centeno, empleándose como materiales calizos en la enmienda del suelo el yeso, do­lomita, caliza y espumas de azucarería, con dosis de 6000 kg ha-1 de CaCO3 equivalente. Además de la analítica general, se determi­naron las formas de Al solubles y fácilmente intercambiables (Al-CaCl2, además del Al extraído con KCl y con BaCl2. Los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple de la producción total de biomasa demuestran que durante el primer año son el Al-CaCl2, pH y CICE los parámetros más explicativos de la varianza (R² = 0,82. Por el contrario, durante el segundo año de cultivo son el Al-KCl y el porcentaje de saturación de bases las varia­bles más correlacionadas con la producción (R² = 0,80.Field trials were carried out over a pe­riod of two years, aimed at correcting the acidity of a Typic Palexerult in raña for­mations in the northern mesa of León province (Spain. Gypsum, dolomite, limestone and sugar foam waste were em­ployed as liming materials to correct soil acidity, incorporating 6000 kg of CaCO3 equivalent per ha-1, and crop trials were carried out using a local variety of rye. In addition to carrying out a general analy­sis, soluble and easily exchanged forms of A1 were identified (Al-CaCl2, as was A1 extracted using KC1 and BaCl2. Multiple linear regression models for total biomass production show that in the first year, variance (R² = 0.82 was largely ex­plained by the parameters Al-CaCl2, pH and CECE. However, in the second year of crop trials, production was most closely correlated with the variables Al-KCl and base saturation percentage (R² = 0.80.

  15. Quantification of Abscisic Acid, Cytokinin, and Auxin Content in Salt-Stressed Plant Tissues

    Dobrev, P.; Vaňková, R. (Radomíra)

    2012-01-01

    Plant hormones cytokinins, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), and abscisic acid are central to regulation of plant growth and defence to abiotic stresses such as salinity. Quantification of the hormone levels and determination of their ratios can reveal different plant strategies to cope with the stress, e.g., suppression of growth or mobilization of plant metabolism. This chapter describes a procedure enabling such quantification. Due to the high variability of these hormones in plant tissues, it...

  16. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    Gallie, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps re...

  17. Effect of Reactivity of Quick Lime on the Properties of Hydrated Lime Sorbent for SO2 Removal

    H.G.Shin; H.Kim; Y.N.Kim; H.S.Lee

    2009-01-01

    The hydration of quick lime and the sulfation of hydrated lime were carried out for verification of relationship between the reactivity of quick lime and the properties of hydrated lime as a sorbent.The effect of reactivity of quick lime was investigated with the change of calcination temperature and time.Results obtained showed that the temperature rise during the hydration of quick limes varied from 31 to 69℃ with the variation of calcination temperature and time.The specific surface area and the sulfation ability of hydrated lime prepared by hydration of quick lime showed a proportional relationship with the reactivity of quick lime.The hydrated lime which was prepared by hydration of quick lime calcined at 1100℃ had the highest reactivity and showed 41.53 m2/g of the specific surface area, 0.16 cm3/g of the pore volume and 87% of the removal efficiency for SO2 removal.

  18. Liming effect in the degradation of 14C-glyphosate in soils

    Arantes, Sayonara A.C.M.; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mails: samoreno@esalq.usp.br; alavoren@esalq.usp.br; Tornisielo, Valdemar L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: vltornis@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Liming is soil fertility management practice essential in tropical soils, in general extremely acidic. This practice, by influencing physical, chemical and biological features of soils may influence the behavior of organic molecules in soils. The glyphosate is one the most widely used pesticides in Brazil in several cultures to pest management control. Studies on its fate in soil are still incipient, mainly under the effect of liming practice The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of liming practice in the degradation of glyphosate in Red Latosol (LE) and Quartzarenic Neosol (RQ) soils and also in the microbial activity of the same soils. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to two soils and two management conditions (with liming and without liming), with four replicates. The Radiometric technique was utilized to evaluate the evolution the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at intervals of 7 days, during 70 days. The study of microbial activity was conducted parallel to the degradation experiment, using the methodology of radiolabelled glucose ({sup 14}C-glucose), which was measured at intervals of fourteen days, during 70 days. The results showed that in the studied soils, the liming increased the {sup 14}C-glyphosate mineralization and the microbial activity. (author)

  19. Liming effect in the degradation of 14C-glyphosate in soils

    Liming is soil fertility management practice essential in tropical soils, in general extremely acidic. This practice, by influencing physical, chemical and biological features of soils may influence the behavior of organic molecules in soils. The glyphosate is one the most widely used pesticides in Brazil in several cultures to pest management control. Studies on its fate in soil are still incipient, mainly under the effect of liming practice The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of liming practice in the degradation of glyphosate in Red Latosol (LE) and Quartzarenic Neosol (RQ) soils and also in the microbial activity of the same soils. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to two soils and two management conditions (with liming and without liming), with four replicates. The Radiometric technique was utilized to evaluate the evolution the 14CO2 at intervals of 7 days, during 70 days. The study of microbial activity was conducted parallel to the degradation experiment, using the methodology of radiolabelled glucose (14C-glucose), which was measured at intervals of fourteen days, during 70 days. The results showed that in the studied soils, the liming increased the 14C-glyphosate mineralization and the microbial activity. (author)

  20. Advanced mineral calciner for regeneration of lime. Final report, March 1995--May 1997

    Namazian, M.; Nickeson, R.; Lovas, B.; Miller, G.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    There are approximately 800 pulp, paper and paperboard mills in the United States. Pulp and paper is the ninth largest industry in US, uses 2.8 quads of energy per year and ranks third among all domestic US industries in the cost of energy consumed. A significant fraction of the energy consumed in pulp and paper plants is needed to recover chemicals that are used in breaking down the wood chips into pulp. In particular, 0.1 quads of energy per year are used to regenerate lime. Furthermore, pulp and paper plant operations generate 9,870 tons of NOx per year. Additionally over two million tons of spent lime are sent to landfills each year. In addition, growth in paper demand and changes in plant processes (e.g., bleaching), as a result of environmental pressures, will continue to drive the need for more lime regeneration capacity. Unless the increased capacity can be delivered productively and inexpensively, the growth in pulp and paper may occur in overseas markets. Furthermore, if new environmental constraints cannot be met at low cost, existing US pulp and paper production capacity may also move off-shore. The advanced mineral calciner (AMC) technology was developed to address this lime regeneration need. Prior to describing the technology, and the program of work that was used to test the concept, conventional lime regeneration systems and their limitations are described.

  1. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    Roughan, G. (Horticulture Research Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Browse, J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Initial horticultural performance of nine ‘Persian’ lime selections grafted onto Swingle citrumelo

    Magno Guimarães Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Persian’ lime (PL [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka Tanaka] is an important species both for domestic fresh fruit consumption in Brazil as well as the export market, since the country is one of the largest producers in the world despite the fact that, in commercial plantations, it is still not uncommon to find trees with low productivity and high plant vigor of unknown origin. Selections of Persian lime ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, ‘IAC–5.1’, ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’, were therefore grafted onto Swingle citrumelo [C. paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] rootstocks and evaluated in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil in a field experiment conducted in a completely randomized block design with five replications and two trees per plot. The biometric attributes (canopy height, diameter and volume, yield parameters (yield during the off-season harvest period, yield per plant, production efficiency, and fruit quality traits, were evaluated. The ‘CNPMF–2001’, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘IAC–5’, and ‘Bearss’ selections had 5-11 % shorter trees than the other cultivars. ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’, and ‘5059’ presented higher yield efficiency values, between 3.1-3.4 kg m−3, and higher yield levels during the off-season harvest periods. The ‘Bearss’, ‘Persian–58’, ‘CNPMF–2000’, ‘IAC–5.1’ and ‘5059’ selections had more acid fruits and the latter three, smaller fruits. Based on their horticultural performance up to eight years of age, ‘CNPMF–01’, ‘CNPMF–02’, ‘Persian–58’ and ‘5059’ selections were the most promising varieties of Persian lime.

  3. Volume Change Measurement Of Collapsible Soil Stabilized With Lime And Waste Lime

    Khawla A. Al-Juari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the effects of lime and waste lime on the volume change and strength characteristics of moderately collapsible soil selected from Al-Rashidia in Mosul city. The tests are performed at different percentages of lime and waste lime of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% by dry weight of soil. One dimensional compression tests are conducted to clarify the influences of relative compaction, compaction water content, vertical stress level and curing time on the volume change and strength characteristics.The results of this study indicated a decrease in the plasticity, swelling potential and swelling pressure of treated soil. The soil became non-plastic at (3&6% of lime and waste lime respectively. Swelling pressure and swelling potential reached to zero at 2% lime and  2&7 days of curing time.Unconfined compressive strength (UCS reached to maximum value at optimum stabilizers content. The UCS of lime treated soil is more than that treated by waste lime at different curing time. The collapse index and potential of treated soil are found less than that of natural soil and decrease with increasing stabilizer content until drop to zero at 2% lime. Collapsing increased continuously with applied stresses, but with curing time reached a maximum value at 2 day. On the other hand, collapsing of treated soil with lime is less than that  of waste lime treated soil at different curing time and stresses.

  4. Effects of long-term N fertilizer application and liming on nitrification and ammonia oxidizers in acidic soils%长期施加氮肥及氧化钙调节对酸性土壤硝化作用及氨氧化微生物的影响

    张苗苗; 王伯仁; 李冬初; 贺纪正; 张丽梅

    2015-01-01

    High levels of N fertilization and acid deposition could cause soil acidification directly and indirectly. The nitrogen cycle, especially nitrification, makes a great contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils across China, which further leads to the mobilization of potentially toxic metals such as aluminum ( Al ) and manganese ( Mn ) and decerases crop yields. Chemicals ( e. g., CaO) are amended as soil conditioners to relieve soil acidification. Ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting step in the nitrification process, is driven by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria ( AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea ( AOA) . Increasing evidence demonstrates that pH is one of the most important factors determining the niche separation of AOA and AOB, and AOA play the more important role in nitrification of acidic soils. However, abundant AOB have been detected in acidic soils but little is known about their ecological function. In this study, the effects of long-term N fertilization practices and liming on nitrification and ammonia oxidizers in acidic soils were investigated using quantitative PCR and DGGE methods combined with soil physiochemical analysis. Compared with a previous study conducted 6 years ago at the same site, N fertilizer application without liming further decreased soil pH (3.35—3.47) and potential nitrification rate (PNR) (0.02—0.14 μg NO-2-N g-1 soil h-1), while 2 years liming alleviated soil acidification (pH 4.10—4.46) and increased PNR (0.22—0.34μg NO-2-N g-1 soil h-1) significantly. There was a significantly positive correlation between soil pH and PNR, indicating the increase in soil pH via liming had positive effects on nitrification in acidic soils. AOA amoA gene copy numbers ( 7. 40 × 107—4. 08 × 108 copies/g ) were significantly higher than their counterpart AOB (1.67 × 106—2.57 × 107 copies/g) in soils that received different chemical N fertilizers. Ratios of AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance ranged between 10. 9 and 44. 3

  5. Development of a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns

    Lixin Tao; Blom, Roger (FS Dynamics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Nordgren, Daniel (Innventia, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In the calcium loop of the recovery cycle in a Kraft process of pulp and paper production, rotary lime kilns are used to convert the lime mud, mainly CaCO3, back to quick lime, CaO, for re-use in the causticizing process. The lime kilns are one of the major energy consumption devices for paper and pulp industry. Because of the rising oil price and new emission limits, the pulp mills have been forced to look for alternative fuels for their lime kilns. One interesting alternative to oil, often easily available at pulp mills, is biofuels such as sawdust and bark. However the practical kiln operation often encounters some difficulties because of the uncertainties around the biofuel impact on the lime kiln performance. A deeper understanding of the flame characteristics is required when shifting from oil to biofuels. Fortunately recent advances in modern Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, have provided the possibility to study and predict the detailed flame characteristics regarding the lime kiln performance. In this project a three-dimensional CFD model for rotary lime kilns has been developed. To simulate a rotary lime kiln the developed CFD model integrates the three essential sub-models, i.e. the freeboard hot flow model, the lime bed model and the rotating refractory wall model and it is developed based on the modern CFD package: FLUENT which is commercially available on the market. The numerical simulations using the developed CFD model have been performed for three selected kiln operations fired with three different fuel mixtures. The predicted results from the CFD modelling are presented and discussed in order to compare the impacts on the kiln performance due to the different firing conditions. During the development, the lime kiln at the Soedra Cell Moensteraas mill has been used as reference kiln. To validate the CFD model, in-plant measurements were carried out in the Moensteraas lime kiln during an experiment campaign. The results obtained from the

  6. Volume Change Measurement Of Collapsible Soil Stabilized With Lime And Waste Lime

    Khawla A. Al-Juari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the effects of lime and waste lime on the volume change and strength characteristics of moderately collapsible soil selected from Al-Rashidia in Mosul city. The tests are performed at different percentages of lime and waste lime of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% by dry weight of soil. One dimensional compression tests are conducted to clarify the influences of relative compaction, compaction water content, vertical s...

  7. Local development of affordable lime in southern Africa

    Mitchell, C. J.; Inglethorpe, S.D.J.; Tawodzera, P.; Bradwell, S.; Evans, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    Lime is an important and versatile chemical used in a wide range of applications. The term lime, which is strictly calcium oxide (CaO), is applied to a range of products arising from the processing of limestone and dolomite. Many less developed countries do not have adequate lime production and this leads to problems associated with under-utilisation of lime. In particular, insufficient application of agricultural lime (aglime) can lead to soil acidification, with associated aluminium / manga...

  8. Plant water stress: Associations between ethylene and abscisic acid response

    Carolina Salazar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is severely impacted by water stress due either to excess (hypoxia/anoxia or deficit of water availability. Hypoxia/anoxia is associated with oxygen (O2 deficiency or depletion, inducing several anatomical, morphological, physiological, and molecular changes. The majority of these alterations are adaptive mechanisms to cope with low O2 availability; among them, alterations in shoot length, aerenchyma formation and adventitious roots have been described in several studies. The aim of this review was to address the association between abscisic acid (ABA and ethylene in function of water availability in plants. The major physiological responses to low O2 are associated with changes in root respiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and fermentation pathways in roots. In addition, several changes in gene expression have been associated with pathways that are not present under normal O2 supply. The expression of ethylene receptor genes is up-regulated by low O2, and ethylene seems to have a crucial role in anatomical and physiological effects during hypoxia/anoxia. During O2 depletion, ethylene accumulation down-regulates ABA by inhibiting rate-limiting enzymes in ABA biosynthesis and by activating ABA breakdown to phaseic acid. With regard to water deficit, drought is primarily sensed by the roots, inducing a signal cascade to the shoots via xylem causing physiological and morphological changes. Several genes are regulated up or down with osmotic stress; the majority of these responsive genes can be driven by either an ABA-dependent or ABA-independent pathway. Some studies suggest that ethylene shuts down leaf growth very fast after the plant senses limited water availability. Ethylene accumulation can antagonize the control of gas exchange and leaf growth upon drought and ABA accumulation.

  9. Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production

    Eriksson, Matias; Hökfors, Bodil; Backman, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The method used is based on multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations to predict process conditions. A generic model of a rotary kiln for lime production was validated against operational data and literature. T...

  10. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degrees of damage has resulted in a inore clear picture of the stress-conosion luechanisms involved. The effects of these on long tenn strength are discussed.

  11. Modulating plant hormones by enzyme action: The GH3 family of acyl acid amido synthetases

    Westfall, Corey S.; Herrmann, Jonathan; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Shiping; Jez, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Plants respond to developmental cues and environmental stresses by controlling both the level and activity of various hormones. One mechanism of modulating hormone action involves amino acid conjugation. In plants, the GH3 family of enzymes conjugates various amino acids to jasmonates, auxins and benzoates. The effect of conjugation can lead to activation, inactivation or degradation of these molecules. Although the acyl acid and amino acid specificities of a few GH3 enzymes have been examine...

  12. Effect of solar radiation and liming on the growth of soybean in red yellow podzol soils

    Effects of liming and shading on growth and yield of soybean examined. Treatments consisted of two factor, i.e. Liming at three levels (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 equivalent Al-dd) and shading at four levels (unshaded, shaded with one, two and three layers of Filtering clothes). The experiment was conducted at Research Station, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops. The treatment was arranged in split plot design. The faction on radiation reduced by one, two and three layers of filtering clothes were 35 percent, 50 percent and 60 percent respectively. Response of the crop liming is independent of shading (no interaction effect). In general, the effect increasing liming was not significant but higher liming reduced growth and yield of the crop. Furthermore, response of the crop to shading was quadratic. It was found that optimum radiation for growth and yield of soybean was between 275 and 340 Iy/day. There was an indication that optimum radiation intensity of more than 340 ly/day narrower planting space was suggested in order to obtain a leaf area index of more 4.0, while in areas with radiation intensity of less than 275 ly/day, wider planting space was preferable in order to obtain a maximum leaf area index of between 3.0 and 3.5

  13. Carbon isotope ratios in crassulacean Acid metabolism plants: seasonal patterns from plants in natural stands.

    Szarek, S R

    1976-09-01

    A year round study of photosynthesis and carbon isotope fractionation was conducted with plants of Opuntia phaeacantha Engelm. and Yucca baccata Torr. occurring in natural stands at elevations of 525, 970, 1450 and 1900 m. Plant water potentials and the daytime pattern of (14)CO(2) photosynthesis were similar for all cacti along the elevational gradient, despite significant differences in temperature regime and soil water status. Carbon isotope ratios of total tissue and soluble extract fractions were relatively constant throughtout the entire year. Additionally, the sigma(13)C values were similar in all plants of the same species along the elevational gradient, i.e. -12.5 +/- 0.86 per thousand for O. phaeacantha and -15.7 +/- 0.95 per thousand for Y. baccata. The results of this study indicate Crassulacean acid metabolism predominates as the major carbon pathway of these plants, which do not facultatively utilize the reductive pentose phosphate cycle of photosynthesis as the primary carboxylation reaction. PMID:16659680

  14. Critérios de calagem para a soja no sistema plantio direto consolidado Liming criteria for soybean in established no-tillage system

    Antonio Nolla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As recomendações de calagem desenvolvidas para o sistema convencional de preparo do solo estão sendo utilizadas no sistema plantio direto, onde há uma dinâmica diferenciada dos atributos de acidez decorrente do acúmulo superficial de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e menor toxidez por Al. Este trabalho relaciona diferentes indicadores de acidez de um Latossolo Vermelho aluminoférrico típico no sistema plantio direto com características de plantas de soja, para estabelecer critérios de calagem. Foram utilizados dois experimentos em plantio direto há oito anos, um iniciado a partir de lavoura convencional e outro de campo natural, com diferentes níveis de acidez, resultantes de aplicação anterior de doses de calcário. Amostras indeformadas de solo foram coletadas em colunas (PVC, e plantas de soja foram cultivadas por 25 dias. Os critérios de calagem foram obtidos a partir da derivação de equações relacionando o rendimento de grãos no campo e características de plantas de soja nas colunas com os seguintes indicadores de acidez do solo: pH em água e em CaCl2, Al trocável e sua saturação, relação Al/Ca + Mg trocáveis e saturação por bases. O pH em água de 5,5 e a saturação por bases de 62 % foram os critérios de calagem mais adequados, com amostragem do solo tanto na camada de 0-15 cm como na de 0-10 cm. Os critérios de calagem podem também ser estabelecidos, em curto prazo, por plantas desenvolvidas em amostras indeformadas de solo em colunas, de preferência utilizando características do sistema radicular.Lime recommendations developed for conventional systems are being used in no-tillage systems with different dynamics of the acidity attributes, due to organic matter and nutrient accumulation on the superficial layer and lower aluminum toxicity. This study associated different acidity indicators of a Rhodic Hapludox after eight years under no-tillage system with soybean plant characteristics in order to

  15. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    Loewus, F.A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry; Seib, P.A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  16. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants)

    Loewus, F.A. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. of Biological Chemistry); Seib, P.A. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Grain Science and Industry)

    1991-01-01

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  17. Chemical analysis of historic lime mortars: role of sample preparation

    Ševčík, Radek; Šašek, Petr; Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Viani, Alberto

    Zürich: Trans Tech Publications, 2015 - (Dvořák, K.; Gazdič, D.; Petránek, V.; Hájková, I.; Magrla, R.), s. 17-20 ISBN 978-3-03835-452-9. ISSN 1662-8985. [International Conference Binders and Materials (2nd ICBM) /2./. Brno (CZ), 04.12.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20374P Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : lime * mortars * calcite * acid digestion * Rietveld method Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Variation in common lime (Tilia x europaea L.) in Swedish gardens of the 17th and 18th centuries

    Bengtsson, Rune

    2005-01-01

    Trees of common lime (Tilia x europaea L.) have been planted in Swedish gardens and urban landscapes since at least the beginning of the 17th century. This is in accordance with the situation in most other European countries. The trees were initially imported from the Netherlands but later domestic production was started. The domestic material was collectively known as ‘Dutch lime’ even when propagated in Sweden. To understand the variation in common lime in Swedish gardens, the methods of pr...

  19. L-Ascorbic Acid: A Multifunctional Molecule Supporting Plant Growth and Development

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is as essential to plants as it is to animals. Ascorbic acid functions as a major redox buffer and as a cofactor for enzymes involved in regulating photosynthesis, hormone biosynthesis, and regenerating other antioxidants. Ascorbic acid regulates cell division and growth and is involved in signal transduction. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in animals, plants use multiple pathways to synthesize ascorbic acid, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Given the importance of ascorbic acid to human nutrition, several technologies have been developed to increase the ascorbic acid content of plants through the manipulation of biosynthetic or recycling pathways. This paper provides an overview of these approaches as well as the consequences that changes in ascorbic acid content have on plant growth and function. Discussed is the capacity of plants to tolerate changes in ascorbic acid content. The many functions that ascorbic acid serves in plants, however, will require highly targeted approaches to improve their nutritional quality without compromising their health.

  20. Amino Acid Export in Plants: A Missing Link in Nitrogen Cycling

    Sakiko Okumoto; Guillaume Pilot

    2011-01-01

    T The export of nutrients from source organs to parts of the body where they are required (e.g. sink organs) is a fundamental biological process. Export of amino acids, one of the most abundant nitrogen species in plant long-distance transport tissues (i.e. xylem and phloem), is an essential process for the proper distribution of nitrogen in the plant. Physiological studies have detected the presence of multiple amino acid export systems in plant cell membranes. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the molecular identity of amino acid exporters, partially due to the technical difficulties hampering the identification of exporter proteins. In this short review, we will summarize our current knowledge about amino acid export systems in plants. Several studies have described plant amino acid transporters capable of bi-directional, facilitative transport, reminiscent of activities identified by earlier physiological studies. Moreover, recent expansion in the number of available amino acid transporter sequences have revealed evolutionary relationships between amino acid exporters from other organisms with a number of uncharacterized plant proteins, some of which might also function as amino acid exporters. In addition, genes that may regulate export of amino acids have been discovered. Studies of these putative transporter and regulator proteins may help in understanding the elusive molecular mechanisms of amino acid export in plants.

  1. Simultaneous removal of colour, phosphorus and disinfection from treated wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Ogino, Akifumi; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    An agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (CSH-lime) was investigated for its ability to simultaneously remove the colour, phosphorus and disinfection from the effluents from wastewater treatment plants on swine farms. CSH-lime removed the colour and phosphate from the effluents, with the colour-removal effects especially high at pH 12, and phosphorous removal was more effective in strongly alkaline conditions (pH > 10). Colour decreased from 432 +/-111 (mean +/- SD) to 107 +/- 41 colour units and PO4(3-)P was reduced from 45 +/- 39 mg/L to undetectable levels at the CSH-lime dose of 2.0% w/v. Moreover, CSH-lime reduced the total organic carbon from 99.0 to 37.9 mg/L at the dose of 2.0% w/v and was effective at inactivating total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria. However, CSH-lime did not remove nitrogen compounds such as nitrite, nitrate and ammonium. Colour was also removed from dye solutions by CSH-lime, at the same dose. PMID:23837353

  2. ASHES AS AN AGENT FOR CEMENT-LIME BASED SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF THE HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Barbora Lyčkova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the common treatment methods for the hazardous waste is the cement and cement-lime based solidification/stabilization (S/S. This article deals with the possibility of currently used recipe modification using fluidized bed heating plant ashes as an agent.

  3. ASHES AS AN AGENT FOR CEMENT-LIME BASED SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF THE HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Barbora Lyčkova; Vladimir Huda

    2008-01-01

    One of the common treatment methods for the hazardous waste is the cement and cement-lime based solidification/stabilization (S/S). This article deals with the possibility of currently used recipe modification using fluidized bed heating plant ashes as an agent.

  4. A COMPARISON OF LIME AND ORANGE PECTIN BY HPSGC WITH MOLAR MASS AND VISCOSITY DETECTION

    Pectin was acid extracted from lime albedo by microwave heating under pressure. Extraction times ranged from 1 to 10 minutes. Solubilized pectin was characterized for molar mass (M), rms radius of gyration (Rg) and intrinsic viscosity (IV) by HPSEC with online light scattering and viscosity detect...

  5. External radiation assessment in a wet phosphoric acid production plant

    Bolivar, J.P.; Perez-Moreno, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ppmasb@us.es; Martin, J.E.; San Miguel, E.G. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The factories dedicated to the production of phosphoric acid by the so-called wet acid method are usually considered typical NORM industries, because the phosphate rock used as raw material usually contains high concentrations of {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. The magnitude and behaviour of the radionuclides involved in the production process revealed the need to determine its dosimetric impact on workers. This work aims to partially compensate this lack of knowledge through the determination of external effective dose rates at different zones in the process at a typical plant located in the southwest of Spain. To this end, two dosimetric sampling campaigns have been carried out at this phosphoric acid production plant. The first sampling was carried out when phosphate rocks originating in Morocco were processed, and the second one when phosphate rock processed came from the Kola Peninsula (Russia Federation). This differentiation was necessary because the activity concentrations are almost one order of magnitude higher in Moroccan phosphate rock than in Kola phosphate rock. The results obtained have reflected external dose rate enhancements as high as 1.4 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} (i.e., up to thirty times the external exposition due to radionuclides in unperturbed soils) at several points in the facility, particularly where the digested rock (pulp) is filtered. However, the most problematic points are characterised by a small occupation factor. That means that the increment in the annual effective external gamma dose received by the most-exposed worker is clearly below 1 mSv (European Commission limit for the general population) under normal production. Nevertheless, special care in the design and schedule of cleaning and maintaining work in the areas with high doses should be taken in order to avoid any possibility of exceeding the previously mentioned general population limit. In addition, the results of the dosimetric campaign showed no clear correlation between {sup

  6. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Urszula Małolepsza; Henryk Urbanek; Justyna Polit

    2013-01-01

    The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  7. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  8. Cadmium uptake by tobacco as affected by liming, N form, and year of cultivation

    Tobacco is able to accumulate cadmium and reduction of cadmium content can reduce health hazards to smokers. Soil pH and form of N fertilizers are among the factors affecting Cd uptake by tobacco. This hypothesis was tested in an acid soil in northern Greece by a four year field experiment. The variability of Cd uptake by tobacco was attributed to the variation of soil Cd availability as affected by soil pH. Liming with 3000 kg Ca(OH)2 ha-1 increased soil pH by 0.8 units and decreased extractable with DTPA soil and leaf Cd by 40% and 35%, respectively. The ammonium fertilizer caused the opposite, but weaker, effects. Liming reduced soil Cd more in the ammonium treatment than in nitrate or combined N treatments. The year of cultivation strongly affected soil and leaf Cd. Four years after tobacco cultivation, soil pH was reduced by 0.5 units, whereas soil and leaf Cd reduction was more than 60% in the limed treatments. Liming affected Cd uptake only in the first three years of cultivation. - Liming and N form affect Cd uptake by Virginia tobacco which contributes significantly to the great reduction of extractable soil Cd after three years of continuous cultivation

  9. Cadmium uptake by tobacco as affected by liming, N form, and year of cultivation

    Tsadilas, C.D. [National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Soil Classification and Mapping, 1 Theophrastos, Larissa 41335 (Greece)]. E-mail: tsadilas@lar.forthnet.gr; Karaivazoglou, N.A. [National Agricultural Research Foundation, Tobacco Institute, 66100 Drama (Greece); Tsotsolis, N.C. [National Agricultural Research Foundation, Tobacco Institute, 66100 Drama (Greece); Stamatiadis, S. [Soil Ecology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Gaia Center of the Goulandris Natural History Museum, 13 Levidou Street, 14562 Kifissia (Greece); Samaras, V. [National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Soil Classification and Mapping, 1 Theophrastos, Larissa 41335 (Greece)

    2005-03-01

    Tobacco is able to accumulate cadmium and reduction of cadmium content can reduce health hazards to smokers. Soil pH and form of N fertilizers are among the factors affecting Cd uptake by tobacco. This hypothesis was tested in an acid soil in northern Greece by a four year field experiment. The variability of Cd uptake by tobacco was attributed to the variation of soil Cd availability as affected by soil pH. Liming with 3000 kg Ca(OH){sub 2} ha{sup -1} increased soil pH by 0.8 units and decreased extractable with DTPA soil and leaf Cd by 40% and 35%, respectively. The ammonium fertilizer caused the opposite, but weaker, effects. Liming reduced soil Cd more in the ammonium treatment than in nitrate or combined N treatments. The year of cultivation strongly affected soil and leaf Cd. Four years after tobacco cultivation, soil pH was reduced by 0.5 units, whereas soil and leaf Cd reduction was more than 60% in the limed treatments. Liming affected Cd uptake only in the first three years of cultivation. - Liming and N form affect Cd uptake by Virginia tobacco which contributes significantly to the great reduction of extractable soil Cd after three years of continuous cultivation.

  10. Decontamination of acid water from uranium mining by ash filtration method

    The article discusses the applicability of power plant ashes for decontamination of acid mine water, with particular regard to the chemism and the factors influencing the purification efficiency. Enhanced use of power plant ashes will be a contribution to surface water protection. Mixtures of ash and lime are another interesting option. Natural precipitation will leach out part of the contaminants from the ash, so that special requirements must be made on ash tip design and construction. (orig.)

  11. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    Patricia Pértile; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; André da Costa; Maria Izabel Warmling

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a) changes in the physical and chemical properties of an a...

  12. Effects of Lime and Concrete Waste on Vadose Zone Carbon Cycling

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jessen, Søren; Postma, D.;

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate how lime and crushed concrete waste (CCW) affect carbon cycling in the vadose zone and explore whether these amendments could be employed to mitigate climate change by increasing the transport of CO2 from the atmosphere to the groundwater. We use a combination...... of experimental and modeling tools to determine ongoing biogeochemical processes. Our results demonstrate that lime and CCW amendments to acid soil contribute to the climate forcing by largely increasing the soil CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. In a series of mesocosm experiments, with barley (Hordeum vulgare L...... and lime treatments increased the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux by about 150 and 100%, respectively,compared to the controls. However, concurrent increases in the CO2 efflux to the atmosphere (ER) were more than one order of magnitude higher than increases in the DIC percolation flux...

  13. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  14. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  15. 77 FR 48433 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Register on December 23, 1971 (36 FR 24881). The first review of the Nitric Acid Plants NSPS was... requirements for new nitric acid production units? IV. Summary of Significant Changes Since Proposal A. How is..., Energy, and Economic Impacts of These Standards A. What are the impacts for Nitric Acid Production...

  16. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    2011-10-14

    ... of the Nitric Acid Plants NSPS was completed on June 19, 1979 (44 FR 35265). An additional review was... ) emission limit, which applies to each nitric acid production unit commencing construction, modification, or... questions about these proposed standards for nitric acid production units, contact Mr. Chuck French,...

  17. The Effect of Lime Addition on the Setting Time and Strength of Ambient Cured Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Binder

    Adam Andi Arham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations of geopolymer as the alternative binders in concrete is the necessity of heat curing. This study aimed to produce fly ash geopolymer binder subjected to ambient curing by adding a small proportion of lime and varying the activator dosage. The Class F fly ash from Mpanau coal-fired power plant was mixed with alkaline solution consists of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide with Na2O dosage of 5%, 7%, and 9%. To achieve ambient cured paste, 8%, 9%, and 10% slaked lime was added as the substitute for the fly ash. The setting time test was conducted for each mix and the compressive strength was performed at age of 7, 14 and 28 days. The test result shows that the setting time of the fly ash based geopolymer paste can be controlled by adding a small proportion of slaked lime. The addition of lime increased strength but decreased the setting time.

  18. Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment

    Angelidis, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment ANGELIDIS, C.1, STERLING, S.1, BREEN, A.2, BIAGI, K.1., and CLAIR, T.A.1 1Dalhousie University, christine.angelidis@dal.ca, 2Bluenose Coastal Action Foundation, andrew@coastalaction.org Southwestern Nova Scotia has some of the most acidic freshwaters in North America due to its location downwind of the major emission sources in eastern Canada and the US and due to a resistant geology which offers little acid buffering capacity (Clair et al. 2007). Because of the poor buffering and regionally high runoff values, hydrological events such as snowmelt and rain storms are frequent and can cause sudden changes in water chemistry which can have devastating effects on freshwater biota due to increases in acidity and metals (Dennis and Clair in press). Clair et al. (2001) have estimated the potential frequency of acidic episodes in this region based on a number of hydrological factors, though the technology available at the time to monitor short-term changes was not dependable. Recent advances in equipment have made the assessment of the frequency and severity of acidic episodes easier and more accurate, allowing better interpretation and prediction of hydrogeochemical changes with variations in weather and deposition patterns. Here we take advantage of these recent advances to monitor water chemistry in an experimental catchment, and explore the response to catchment liming. Catchment liming is one way of mitigating the effects of acid deposition in sensitive areas. We limed a 50 ha catchment at a rate of 5 t/ha in the Gold River watershed of southwest Nova Scotia to examine the interactions between application of lime with the geological and climatological conditions of this region and acid episode frequency. In order to assess changes of episode frequency caused by liming, we established two mobile environmental monitoring platforms in the catchment: a control site

  19. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  20. Continuous Production of Lime Juice by Vacuum Freeze Drying

    Wasan Theansuwan; Kitichai Triratanasirichai; Kiatfa Tangchaichit

    2008-01-01

    An experimental dryer was developed to determine the characteristics of lime juice powder that produced from freeze-drying processes on continuous production. The experimental process consists of two processes, freezing process (the air blast freezer type) and freeze-drying process (tray method with heating plate type). NaHCO3 (2% by weight of lime juice) was dissolved in lime juice as solid aid. The result was found that this experimental dryer can produce lime juice powder which has the sim...

  1. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  2. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa), oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus), velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of ...

  3. Phenolic acids act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe symbioses

    Mandal, Santi M.; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dey, Satyahari

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic acids are the main polyphenols made by plants. These compounds have diverse functions and are immensely important in plant-microbe interactions/symbiosis. Phenolic compounds act as signaling molecules in the initiation of legumerhizobia symbioses, establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and can act as agents in plant defense. Flavonoids are a diverse class of polyphenolic compounds that have received considerable attention as signaling molecules involved in plant-microbe in...

  4. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of ...

  5. Simultaneous determination of shikimic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in wild and transgenic Nicotiana langsdorffii plants exposed to abiotic stresses.

    Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-06-01

    The presence and relative concentration of phytohormones may be regarded as a good indicator of an organism's physiological state. The integration of the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (gr) in Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann plants has shown to determine various physiological and metabolic effects. The analysis of wild and transgenic N. langsdorffii plants, exposed to different abiotic stresses (high temperature, water deficit, and high chromium concentrations) was conducted, in order to investigate the metabolic effects of the inserted genes in response to the applied stresses. The development of a new analytical procedure was necessary, in order to assure the simultaneous determination of analytes and to obtain an adequately low limit of quantification. For the first time, a sensitive HPLC-HRMS quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and shikimic acid was developed and validated. The method was applied to 80 plant samples, permitting the evaluation of plant stress responses and highlighting some metabolic mechanisms. Salicylic, jasmonic and shikimic acids proved to be suitable for the comprehension of plant stress responses. Chemical and heat stresses showed to induce the highest changes in plant hormonal status, differently affecting plant response. The potential of each genetic modification toward the applied stresses was marked and particularly the resistance of the gr modified plants was evidenced. This work provides new information in the study of N. langsdorffii and transgenic organisms, which could be useful for the further application of these transgenes. PMID:26966898

  6. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  7. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  9. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  10. Nucleic acid probes in the diagnosis of plant viruses and viroids

    This paper presents an approach to the diagnosis of plant pathogens which utilizes the technique of nucleic acid hybridization. A nucleic acid probe, either labeled with a radioactive isotope or labeled nonisotopically, hybridizes to form a duplex with a target nucleic acid which is exactly complementary to itself. No such double-strand hybrid is formed with other nucleic acids. The specificity, sensitivity, and speed of molecular hybridization allows the method to be valuable adjunct to the more conventional immunological approaches used in diagnostic plant virology

  11. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth

    Atiyeh, R.M.; Lee, S.; Edwards, C.A.; Arancon, N.Q.; Metzger, J.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Soil Ecology Lab.

    2002-08-01

    Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of container medium, and tomato seedlings were grown in the mixtures. In the second experiment, humates extracted from pig manure and food wastes vermicomposts were mixed with vermiculite to provide a range of 0, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg of humate per kg of dry weight of the container medium, and cucumber seedlings were grown in the mixtures. Both tomato and cucumber seedlings were watered daily with a solution containing all nutrients required to ensure that any differences in growth responses were not nutrient-mediated. The incorporation of both types of vermicompost-derived humic acids, into either type of soilless plant growth media, increased the growth of tomato and cucumber plants significantly, in terms of plant heights, leaf areas, shoot and root dry weights. Plant growth increased with increasing concentrations of humic acids incorporated into the medium up to a certain proportion, but this differed according to the plant species, the source of the vermicompost, and the nature of the container medium. Plant growth tended to be increased by treatments of the plants with 50-500 mg/kg humic acids, but often decreased significantly when the concentrations of humic acids derived in the container medium exceeded 500-1000 mg/kg. These growth responses were most probably due to hormone-like activity of humic acids from the vermicomposts or could have been due to plant growth hormones adsorbed onto the humates. (author)

  12. Microstructure evolution of lime putty upon aging

    Mascolo, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Maria Cristina; Vitale, Alessandro; Marino, Ottavio

    2010-08-01

    The microstructure evolution of lime putty upon aging was investigated by slaking quicklime (CaO) with an excess of water for 3, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 66 months. The as-obtained lime putties were characterized in the water retention and in the particle size distribution using the static laser scattering (SLS). The same lime putties, dehydrated by lyophilization, were also investigated in the pore size distribution by mercury intrusion porosimetry, in the surface area by the BET method and, finally, in particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of the extended exposure of quicklime to water confirms a shape change from prismatic crystals of portlandite, Ca(OH) 2, into platelike ones. Simultaneously a growth of larger hexagonal crystals at the expense of the smallest ones (Ostwald ripening) favours a secondary precipitation of submicrometer platelike crystals of portlandite. The shape change and the broader particles size distribution of portlandite crystals upon aging seem to contribute to a better plasticity of lime putty.

  13. Antioxidant activities of plants enriched in rosmarinic acid

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Perez, María J.; Macias, Rócio I.R.; Domingues, M. R. M.; Marín, Jose J. G.; Cardoso, Susana M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Lavandula dentata and Mentha aquatica plant extracts. For that, ethanolic extracts of the two plants were prepared and their phenolic composition was determined through combined methods of HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts was estimated by: i) evaluation of DPPH scavenging potential and ii) monitoring the protective effects against the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  14. Organic matter fractions and soil fertility under the influence of liming, vermicompost and cattle manure

    Yagi Renato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates effects of cattle manure vermicompost in association with liming on soil fertility indexes. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions, in pots containing samples of a Typic Hapludox, medium-textured soil. Five levels of vermicompost (equivalent to 0, 28, 42, 56, and 70 t ha-1, dry weight and five liming levels (to raise base saturation to 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% were combined in a factorial scheme and samples were incubated for 180 days. Samples of the same soil received the equivalent to 70 t ha-1 of the cattle manure used to produce the vermicompost, and the same lime rates. Cattle manure was better than vermicompost to supply K and Mg. Small differences in P supply were observed between the manures. The vermicompost increased the levels of Ca, pH, organic matter (OM and CEC more than the manure. C-humic acids decreased and C-humin increased with vermicompost application. With liming, C-humic acids decreased, but the total content of OM was not affected.

  15. Genotype and liming effects on cadmium concentration in maize (Zea mays L.

    Kovačević Vlado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liming experiment with hydrated lime (73% CaO + 2-3% MgO + 21% water in the amounts 0, 5.0 and 20.0 t ha-1 was conducted in spring 2006 on acid soil. Each plot of liming (414m2 was divided in four sub-plots for receiving four replicates in level of the genotype. Six domestic maize hybrids (Os298P, Tvrtko303, Os499, Os444, Os596 and Os552 originating from Agricultural Institute Osijek was sown at beginning of May (basic plot 24 m2. The ear-leaf samples of maize were collected at flowering and grain in maturity stages. Mean grain yields of maize in the experiment were 11.63 and 4.83 t ha-1, for the 2006 and the 2007 growing season, respectively. Unfavorable weather characteristics in 2007 were main responsible for yield loss. Yield differences between liming treatments and the control were in both years non-significant. Liming effects on decreasing leaf-Cd in maize was found in both years (2-year means: 0.095 and 0.066, for the control and mean of two liming treatments, respectively. Considerable difference of leaf-Cd was found among the maize hybrids and it was in range from 0.040 to 0.160 mg Cd kg-1. Two hybrids (Os298P and Tvrtko 303 separated from remaining four hybrids by the higher leaf-Cd (2-year means 0.141 and 0.043 mg Cd kg-1, respectively. However, these differences are responsible for possible harmful dietary effects only in case of using these hybrids as silage maize because grain-Cd in maize was considerably lower (under detectable range = <0.02 mg Cd kg-1 and without effects on food contamination.

  16. Pit lake lime dosing: Assessment of the performance of the treatment based on a high-spatial resolution AUV survey

    Delgado, Jordi; García-Morrondo, David; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The acidity of mine waters is typically corrected with passive (where possible) and/or active (i.e. chemical additions) systems. In the case of active treatments, lime dosing is a widespread technique due to the relatively ease of implementation and reduced operational costs. While neutralization of acidic waters is routinely performed in circulating water treatment facilities this is not so simple in open waters (e.g. pit lakes) because an efficient treatment requires the adequate distribution of the alkaline reagents throughout the volume of interest. To cope with this problem, a number of technical approaches have been proposed including active stirring (bubbling, etc.), surface spread diffusion, etc. In the early times of flooding of the Meirama mine, managers considered the necessity of lime dosing to correct the initially acidic mine waters. However, lake evolution proved that liming was not necessary and it was desirable to allow a reasonably unmanned evolution of the reclaimed system. In order to ensure that the lime dosing system is in good operative conditions in case of necessity, according to a prescribed time schedule to time mine managers put it in operation. That give us the opportunity to perform a large-scale "tracer" experiment useful to test the efficiency of wet lime dosing in a large water body. Dry lime, which is kept in a storage silo, is directly dosed over the channel of a small stream discharging in the lake. Therefore, stream water becomes saturated with lime and a pH of approximately 12.3. Stream water flows in cascade to the lake so that a certain potential and kinetic energy transfer is delivered to the lake. That promotes currents that enhance the re-distribution of the alkalinity load. In order to check for the distribution of alkaline water in the top body of the lake, an autonomous underwater vehicle (Yellow Spring Instruments Inc. EcoMapper AUV) was used. This device allows for the high- frequency simultaneous measurement of a

  17. The Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Leaching Behavior of Havy Metals from Brick Made in MSWI Lime - ash%模拟酸雨对污泥焚烧灰渣砖中重金属浸出影响

    刘世宇; 童飞; 陈兴凡

    2012-01-01

    Bricks made in ted acid rain. Effect of soaking municipal sludge waste incineration (MSWI) lime - ash were soaked in kinks of simulatime of brick and pH of simulated acid rain on the leaching behavior of heavy metals from the bricks was investigated. Results showed that under the same dip in times, the total leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr, Mn, Cu and Fe, with the simulated acid rain pH accretion and drop. At the pH 4.4 of simulated acid rain, the order to leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr 〉 Mn 〉 Cu 〉 Fe, after 8 h dip in times. The total leaching concentration of Cd, Ni and Cu was lower than 0. 1 ppb, at the kinks of simulated acid rain.%用不同pH的模拟酸雨浸泡掺杂污泥焚烧灰渣自制的混凝土路面砖,探讨了相同浸泡时间时,模拟酸雨pH对自制路面砖中重金属浸出的影响。结果表明,在相同浸泡时间时,铬、锰、铜、铁的浸出浓度都随着模拟酸雨pH的增大而下降。在pH为4.4的模拟酸雨中,浸泡时间大于8小时后,铬、锰、铜、铁浸出浓度的大小关系是铬〉锰〉铜〉铁。而镉、镍、铅的浸出浓度在各种模拟酸雨中都小于0.1 ppb。

  18. The biosynthesis of salicylic acid in potato plants

    Spraying potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves with arachidonic acid (AA) at 1500 micrograms mL-1 led to a rapid local synthesis of salicylic acid (SA) and accumulation of a SA conjugate, which was shown to be 2-O-beta-glucopyranosylsalicylic acid. Radiolabeling studies with untreated leaves showed that SA was synthesized from phenylalanine and that both cinnamic and benzoic acid were intermediates in the biosynthesis pathway. Using radiolabeled phenylalanine as a precursor, the specific activity of SA was found to be lower when leaves were treated with AA than in control leaves. Similar results were obtained when leaves were fed with the labeled putative intermediates cinnamic acid and benzoic acid. Application of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid at 40 micromolar, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, prior to treatment with AA inhibited the local accumulation of SA. When the putative intermediates were applied to leaves in the presence of 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, about 40% of the expected accumulation of free SA was recovered, but the amount of the conjugate remained constant

  19. Effect of Plant Oils upon Lipase and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast

    Farshad Darvishi; Iraj Nahvi; Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani; Fariborz Momenbeik

    2009-01-01

    The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA), and single-cell protein (SCP) by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lip...

  20. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Solution by Aqueous Extract of Ajowan Plant as Green Inhibitor

    Aisha M. Al-Turkustani; Mona M. Al-Solmi

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition of aluminum corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid by Ajowan plant was studied using chemical (weight loss) and ectrochemical (impedance and polarization) methods. The Ajowan plant extract was found to be good inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid in the studied concentration range of inhibitor. Corrosion inhibition could be explained by considering an interaction between metal surface and the inhibitor molecules. Electrochemical measurements showed that Ajo...

  1. Production technology of boric acid in the Uhrineves plant

    The production is described of boric acid from colemanite (2CaO.3B2O3.5H2O) by decomposition with sulphuric acid. The resultant CaSO4 is separated by filtration and boric acid crystallizes from the sollution. Apart from this method, the decomposition of colemanite is possible by an aqueous solution of ammonia and carbon dioxide. The only consumed reagent is the carbon dioxide. Ammonia is released following decomposition and is recovered to production. Only losses should be made up for. High energy consumption is a constraint of this method. Another known method of boric acid production is colemanite decomposition using nitric acid. The advantage of this method is that calcium nitrate is obtained as waste which may be used as fertilizer. (Ha)

  2. Comparison of Extended Aeration Activated Sludge Process and Activated Sludge with Lime Addition Method for Biosolids Stabilization

    M. Farzadkia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to disposal biosolids from Serkan sewage treatment plant and lime stabilized biosolids, from April 2002 to March 2003. Lime stabilization of biosolids was performed in the reactor with 30-liter capacity at Hamadan medical sciences university. Average amounts of VS/TS ratio, SOUR, fecal coliform and viable helminth ova density in disposal biosolids from Serkan treatment plant were 0.754, 3.395 mg.02/g.vs.h, 1.93x108 MPN/g of dry solids and 1100 ova/4 g of dry solids, respectively. By lime addition ratio about 0.4 g Ca(OH2 /g of dry solids of biosolids, pH was not dropped under 12 and fecal coliform was not growth after 30 days. Disposal biosolids from Serkan treatment plant was raw. Lime addition could be stabilized this biosolid and the products could be well used as a landfill cover, or a soil conditioner. Capital and annual cost of activated sludge with lime stabilization biosolids was cheaper than extended aeration activated sludge about 45 and 55%, respectively.

  3. Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.

    Mattila, Pirjo; Kumpulainen, Jorma

    2002-06-19

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode-array detection (DAD) was used to identify and quantify free and total phenolic acids (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ellagic acid) in plant foods. Free phenolic acids were extracted with a mixture of methanol and 10% acetic acid. Bound phenolic acids were liberated using first alkaline and then acid hydrolysis followed by extraction with diethyl ether/ethyl acetate (1:1). All fractions were quantified separately by HPLC. After HPLC quantification, results of alkali and acid hydrolysates were calculated to represent total phenolic acids. Ellagic acid was quantified separately after long (20 h) acid hydrolysis. The methods developed were effective for the determination of phenolic acids in plant foods. DAD response was linear for all phenolic acids within the ranges evaluated, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. Coefficients of variation for 4-8 sample replicates were consistently below 10%. Recovery tests of phenolic acids were performed for every hydrolysis condition using several samples. Recoveries were generally good (mean >90%) with the exceptions of gallic acid and, in some cases, caffeic acid samples. PMID:12059140

  4. Comparison of Extended Aeration Activated Sludge Process and Activated Sludge with Lime Addition Method for Biosolids Stabilization

    M Farzadkia; A. H. Mahvi

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to disposal biosolids from Serkan sewage treatment plant and lime stabilized biosolids, from April 2002 to March 2003. Lime stabilization of biosolids was performed in the reactor with 30-liter capacity at Hamadan medical sciences university. Average amounts of VS/TS ratio, SOUR, fecal coliform and viable helminth ova density in disposal biosolids from Serkan treatment plant were 0.754, 3.395 mg.02/g.vs.h, 1.93x108 MPN/g of dry solids and 1100 ova/4 g of dry solids, r...

  5. Effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements in soybean and tomato plants

    The effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements (Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc, Ru, Rh and Re) in soybean and tomato were studied by a multitracer technique. The soybean and tomato plants were cultivated on soils at pH 6.4 (normal soil) and 4.2 (acid soil) and administered with a multitracer for 15-60 days. In general, the uptake of cationic elements in the leaves and stems of soybean plants cultivated on acid soil became higher than those of plants cultivated on normal soil during the late period of growth. However, the effect of soil acidification on the uptake of the anionic element, Se, was quite different from that on the cationic elements. The uptake of Se by the plants cultivated on normal soil was higher than that of the plants cultivated on acid soil at all four harvest points. The uptake behavior of these elements in soybean was discussed in relation to their adsorption behavior on the same soil as was used for soybean cultivation. The growth of tomato plants was seriously affected by the soil acidity and lowering of uptake of elements was observed for the plants cultivated on acidified soil

  6. Isolation of 14C labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants (Zea mais L.)

    A method of obtaining 14C labelled amino acids by biosynthesis in maize plants which had assimilated 14CO2, has been assayed. The plants were labelled for 60 minutes with 14CO2 produced from Ba 14CO3 (specific activity of 148 KBq/μmol). An extract of the soluble compounds was obtained with 80% ethanol and the amino acids were separated from the rest of the soluble compounds by ion exchange chromatography on column of Dowex 50-X8 resin. Finally, seventeen amino acids were isolated and identified from the purified extract. The acid amino acids were separated in anionic column (Dowex 1-X8) and the neutral and basic amino acids in cationic column (Dowex 50-X4). (Author) 56 refs

  7. Heterogeneous transcription of an indoleacetic acid biosynthetic gene in Erwinia herbicola on plant surfaces

    Brandl, M. T.; Quiñones, B.; Lindow, S E

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the spatial pattern of expression of ipdC, a plant inducible gene involved in indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola, among individual cells on plants to gain a better understanding of the role of this phenotype in the epiphytic ecology of bacteria and the factors involved in the regulation of ipdC. Nonpathogenic E. herbicola strain 299R harboring a transcriptional fusion of ipdC to gfp was inoculated onto bean plants, recovered fro...

  8. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  9. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N2O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH)3. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the α-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments

  10. Variation of free phenolic acids in medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family.

    Zgórka, G; Głowniak, K

    2001-08-01

    Ten species belonging to the family Lamiaceae and representing the most popular medicinal plants used in Polish phytotherapy were examined for the content of free phenolic acids (PhAs). Two depsides, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids, as well as eight simple PhAs, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, in different qualitative and quantitative proportions depending on the plant examined were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:11451645

  11. Mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids : degradation in OSPW and wetland plants

    Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Water Science and Technology Directorate

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed mass spectrometry of oil sands naphthenic acids and the degradation in OSPW and wetland plants. It presented background information on the Athabasca oil sands and naphthenic acids which involve a mixture of alkanes and cycloalkane carboxylic acids with aliphatic side chains. The presentation also discussed mass spectrometry with electrospray operating in negative ion modes. Loop injection, external standard methods and solid phase extraction were reviewed along with improved analysis by removing background ions. Other topics that were presented included hydroponic test systems and wetland plant toxicity, growth and transpiration. It was concluded that dissipation included species containing oxygen, ozone, O{sub 4}, and O{sub 5}. tabs., figs.

  12. Produtividade do cafeeiro e atributos de fertilidade de latossolo sob influência de adensamento da lavoura e manejo da calagem Coffee yield and fertility attributes of a latosol under influence of population density and liming management

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2004-10-01

    20 cm soil layer, and surface liming. As an additional treatment, liming (0 to 20 cm plus phosphogypsum were applied in an area with 10.000 pl ha-1. Soil samples were collected at soil depths of 0 to10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm, in four sampling times. The samples were analyzed for: pH, Ca and Mg exchangeable, P (Mehlich-1 solution, sulfate, nitrate e ammonium, and the saturation for bases. The liming management practices reduced the acidity until the soil depth of 0 to 10 cm. Transport of lime applied at soil surface was verified only at the forth sampling. The soil fertility attributes analyzed were not influenced by coffee population density. In average, the coffee yield in the higher plant density was 14 and 33 bags ha-1 higher than in the lower plant density, respectively in the first and second harvest seasons.

  13. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne;

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on......Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based...... the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid...

  14. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions.

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N2O and CH4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al(3+) toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N2O and CH4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH4 emissions and, under CT, abate N2O emissions. PMID:27235901

  15. The effect of the fast neutron current on the amino acid contents and nucleic acid synthesis in maize plants

    At the present time the effects of external influences on the genetic structures of the plant cells and the transmission of the accepted signals to other cellular structures and then to the whole organism have actively been studied. According to the opinion of a number of authors the gene expression and repression are immediate responses to the environment changes. To affect the plant genetic apparatus it is quite enough to expose it to some factors such as gamma rays, X- rays, neutron currents, saline-, temperature- or osmotic stresses. At the current stage of the research of the molecular mechanisms of the plant adaptation to the environment changes the priority goal is to ascertain the nature of the influence of the above mentioned factors on the processes of DNA replication and transcription, as the nucleic acids are the targets for external effects. The fast neutron current is one of the factors that influence the plant growth and development. Unlike gamma rays, the mechanism of the neutron irradiation on the plant genetic apparatus is very poorly studied. The objective of our research was the study of the fast neutron current effects on the DNA replication and transcription processes and amino acid synthesis in the irradiated maize plants

  16. Expanding the docosahexaenoic acid food web for sustainable production: engineering lower plant pathways into higher plants

    Petrie, James R.; Singh, Surinder P

    2011-01-01

    Background Algae are becoming an increasingly important component of land plant metabolic engineering projects. Land plants and algae have similar enough genetics to allow relatively straightforward gene transfer and they also share enough metabolic similarities that algal enzymes often function in a plant cell environment. Understanding metabolic systems in algae can provide insights into homologous systems in land plants. As examples, algal models are currently being used by several groups ...

  17. Metabolic engineering of chloroplasts for artemisinic acid biosynthesis and impact on plant growth

    Bhawna Saxena; Mayavan Subramaniyan; Karan Malhotra; Neel Sarovar Bhavesh; Shobha Devi Potlakayala; Shashi Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Chloroplasts offer high-level transgene expression and transgene containment due to maternal inheritance, and are ideal hosts for biopharmaceutical biosynthesis via multigene engineering. To exploit these advantages, we have expressed 12 enzymes in chloroplasts for the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid (precursor of artemisinin, antimalarial drug) in an alternative plant system. Integration of transgenes into the tobacco chloroplast genome via homologous recombination was confirmed by molecular analysis, and biosynthesis of artemisinic acid in plant leaf tissues was detected with the help of 13C NMR and ESI-mass spectrometry. The excess metabolic flux of isopentenyl pyrophosphate generated by an engineered mevalonate pathway was diverted for the biosynthesis of artemisinic acid. However, expression of megatransgenes impacted the growth of the transplastomic plantlets. By combining two exogenous pathways, artemisinic acid was produced in transplastomic plants, which can be improved further using better metabolic engineering strategies for commercially viable yield of desirable isoprenoid products.

  18. The putative Cationic Amino acid Transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis

    Huaiyu eYang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are major primary metabolites. Their uptake, translocation, compartmentation and re-mobilization require a diverse set of cellular transporters. Here, the broadly expressed gene product of CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 9 (CAT9 was identified as mainly localized to vesicular membranes that are involved in vacuolar trafficking, including those of the trans-Golgi network. In order to probe whether and how these compartments are involved in amino acid homeostasis, a loss-of-function cat9-1 mutant and ectopic over-expressor plants were isolated. Under restricted nitrogen supply in soil, cat9-1 showed a chlorotic phenotype, which was reversed in the over-expressors. The total soluble amino acid pools were affected in the mutants, but this was only significant under poor nitrogen supply. Upon nitrogen starvation, the major soluble amino acid leaf pools decreased. This decrease was lower in cat9-1 and augmented in the over-expressor. Over-expression generally affected total soluble amino acid concentrations and finally improved the survival upon severe nitrogen starvation. The results potentially identify a novel function of vesicular amino acid transport mediated by CAT9 in the cellular nitrogen-dependent amino acid homeostasis.

  19. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples. PMID:26413802

  20. Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress

    In-Jung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs and indoleacetic acid (IAA and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

  1. Características agronômicas, produtividade e qualidade fisiológica da soja "safrinha" sob semeadura direta, em função da cobertura vegetal e da calagem superficial Agronomic traits, yield and physiological quality of "safrinha" (off-season soybean under no till as a function of plant cover and surface liming

    Eduardo do Valle Lima

    2009-01-01

    ógica das sementes de soja cultivadas em "safrinha", com exceção da condutividade elétrica.Soybean productivity under the no till system (NTS can be influenced by the preceding type of plant cover and surface liming. However, the effects of this technique on yield components and the seed physiological quality have been little studied, especially in ("safrinha" off-season soybean under NTS. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate some agronomic traits, yield components, productivity, and physiological quality of soybean grown during the off-season ("safrinha", as a function of different cover plants, with or without surface liming, under NTS. The experiment was conducted during the 1999/00 cropping season on the Lageado Experimental Farm, FCA/UNESP/Botucatu-SP, Brazil. The experimental design was organized as randomized blocks in split-plots, with 4 replications. The 6m × 10m plots consisted of broomcorn (Sorghum bicolor, millet (Pennisetum americanum, fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum, spontaneous vegetation, and no vegetation. At 53 days after emergence the cover plants were desiccated and lodged, and a surface application of 3.1 t.ha-1 lime was made in half of the plots, in order to increase V% to 70. Soybean (cv. IAC-19 was sown two weeks later, during the off-season ("safrinha". Determinations were made for the final stand, first pod height, plant height, total number of pods and blank pods per plant, total number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and yield. As to seed physiological quality, determinations were made for germination, artificial aging, germination at 18°C, plantlet D.M., and electric conductivity. During NTS implementation, plant cover type and surface liming did not affect the agronomic traits studied, yield components, seed productivity, and physiological quality of soybean seeds grown in the off-season ("safrinha" system, except for electric conductivity.

  2. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  3. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium in birch and lime from the Bor region.

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Šerbula, Snežana S; Tošić, Snežana B; Pavlović, Aleksandra N; Petrović, Jelena V

    2013-11-01

    Copper production in the Bor region (east Serbia) during the last 100 years has influenced the quality of soil, water, and air. This pollution has endangered not only the biotope but all living organisms, including humans. Contents of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) were analyzed in Betula sp. (birch) and Tillia sp. (lime) within the Bor region with the aim to investigate the bioaccumulation of these highly toxic, nonessential trace elements in selected plants, which may be important for biomonitoring and bioremediation purposes. The results of statistical data analysis showed that several factors influenced the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the examined plants, of which soil pH, soil content, and mechanism of accumulation were the main factors. The greatest As and Cd concentrations were found in plant material from the Bor center sampling site in the urban/industrial zone, which is in close proximity to the pollution source, due to the greatest metal concentrations in soil and the lowest soil pH. The low values of biological accumulation coefficients (bioconcentration factor mobility ratio <1) pointed to a low rate of uptake and accumulation of As and Cd in lime and birch. Trace elements showed different patterns of behavior and accumulation in the trees. Lime showed a high ability of assimilation through leaves, whereas birch showed a better potential to express a linear correlation between concentrations in plant parts and soil. PMID:23963120

  4. The elimination of Salmonella typhimurium in sewage sludge by aerobic mesophilic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization.

    Plachá, Iveta; Venglovský, Ján; Maková, Zuzana; Martinéz, José

    2008-07-01

    This study observed the effects of two methods, aerobic mesophilic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization of sewage sludge upon the survival of Salmonella typhimurium. Raw (primary) sludges from the mechanical biological municipal sewage treatment plant were used. Aerobic stabilization and lime hydrated stabilization were carried out in a laboratory fermentor. Aerobic stabilization was carried out in the mesophilic temperature range (from 25.70+/-0.40 to 37.82+/-1.38 degrees C). Lime hydrated was used at an amount of 10 kg/m(3) for the stabilization. Sludge samples were inoculated with a broth culture of S. typhimurium. Quantitative and qualitative examinations of the presence of S. typhimurium were carried out. Aerobic mesophilic stabilization caused elimination S. typhimurium within 48 h. The T(90) value of S. typhimurium was 6.66+/-0.20 h. During the lime hydrated stabilization pH values significantly increased from 5.66+/-0.07 to 12.12+/-0.02 (Plime hydrated was significantly more effective than the aerobic mesophilic stabilization, (P<0.01). PMID:17931859

  5. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Shinsuke Kuwaki; Nobuyoshi Nakajima; Hidehiko Tanaka; Kohji Ishihara

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids...

  6. Planting tests on reclaimed land filled with coal wastes

    This paper discusses the research of planting tests on a reclaimed subsidence trough filled with coal wastes in the Keiluan coal mining area in China. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of coal wastes indicated that they were strongly acidic. Thus, the key of planting vegetation was the neutralization of these acidic conditions. Based on the planting tests, it was found that neutralization of the acidity required liming at a rate of 150 mt/ha. The required thickness of soil cover was found to be more than 500 mm for planting row crops, and 300 mm for planting trees. The available species of row crops were soybean, mung bean, and sweet potato. The suitable species of trees included the locust, tree of heaven, and poplar

  7. Imperial Limes - Projections in Medieval Imperial Idea

    Z.Z. Zhekov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman imperial limes from I - V BC was the first state border in world history, which in some sense corresponds to the modern concept of political boundary. It represents sustainable political, military and economic barrier between the Romans and the rest of the world. With minor modifications it retains their basic strategic concept during the period as expressed from the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Limes become powerful barrier that separates cultural Roman Hellenistic world of the wild barbarian but at the same time limits the constructed infrastructure of roads, forts and towns became a natural cultural, commercial and political mediator between these two initially hostile worlds. In border towns developed a lively trade between Romans and barbarians. Roman traders penetrate inside the barbarian lands getting to know their culture and history. Studying foreign peoples and countries they convey information gathered imperial legate of the Roman population. The same process was developed and of course in the opposite direction. Exchange of information on the other promotes mutual understanding and open living on both sides of the Roman Limes.

  8. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  9. Effect of the structure of gallic acid and its derivatives on their interaction with plant ferritin.

    Wang, Qunqun; Zhou, Kai; Ning, Yong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2016-12-15

    Gallic acid and its derivatives co-exist with protein components in foodstuffs, but there is few report on their interaction with proteins. On the other hand, plant ferritin represents not only a novel class of iron supplement, but also a new nanocarrier for encapsulation of bioactive nutrients. However, plant ferritin is easy to be degraded by pepsin in the stomach, thereby limiting its application. Herein, we investigated the interaction of gallic acid and its derivatives with recombinant soybean seed H-2 ferritin (rH-2). We found that these phenolic acids interacted with rH-2 in a structure-dependent manner; namely, gallic acid (GA), methyl gallate (MEGA) and propyl gallate (PG) having three HO groups can bind to rH-2, while their analogues with two HO groups cannot. Consequently, such binding largely inhibited ferritin degradation by pepsin. These findings advance our understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of phenolic acids. PMID:27451180

  10. Biolistic inoculation of plants with pospiviroid nucleic acids

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Orctová, Lidmila; Steger, G.; Riesner, D.

    Rennes : INRARennesService communication, 2004. s. 68. [EAPR Virology Section Meeting /12./. 13.06.2004-19.06.2004, Rennes] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5051014; GA MZe QC1183; GA ČR GA521/03/0072; GA MŠk ME 662 Keywords : plant pathology * viroids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  12. Bacterial diversity in soil in response to different plans, phosphate fertilizers and liming Diversidade bacteriana do solo em resposta a diferentes plantas, fertilizantes fosfatados e calagem

    Paulo da Silva; Ely Nahas

    2002-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial isolates from soil in response to different plants (control, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Cajanus cajan), fertilization (control, simple superphosphate and rock phosphate) and liming (with and without lime) was evaluated. Phenotypic and physiological characteristics of the isolates were recorded and organized in a file to identify the bacteria. Among the isolates, 95% were Gram-positive and 5% Gram-negative rods. Soil cultivated with B. ruziziensis favored the nonspor...

  13. Efeito da calagem e sulfato de amônio no algodão: II - Concentração de cátions e ânions na solução do solo e absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas Effect of liming and ammonium sulfate in cotton: II - Concentration of cations and anions in the soil solution and plant nutrient uptake

    José Salvador Simoneti Foloni

    2006-06-01

    soil mobilization. Nitrogen fertilization adds anions that can increase the solubility of basic cations of the soil due to formation of ionic pairs. The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamics of anions (SO4(2- and NO3- and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ in the soil solution, and the nutrient uptake by cotton plants subjected to different lime application forms and ammonium sulfate fertilization, with straw on the soil surface. Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were grown for 60 days in PVC columns filled with a distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol. The soil had lime incorporated into the 0-20 cm layer, liming on the soil surface, or received no lime. Nitrogen was used at rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 as ammonium sulfate. The pots consisted of PVC columns of 20 cm diameter and 50 cm height, totaling 15.71 dm³. Porous capsules were installed at a depth of 15-20 cm to extract soil solution. The SO4(2- of the soil solution was increased by the nitrogen fertilization, independently of the lime application form. Nitrification was favored in the short-term with the application of ammonium sulfate only in the condition of incorporated lime. After 50 days of plant growth, however, nitrate in the soil solution increased, even in the soil that had not been limed. The Ca, Mg and K concentrations in the soil solution were increased as a response to the nitrogen top dressing. The anion SO4(2- presented greater affinity than NO3- in the formation of ionic pairs with the basic cations in the soil solution. The application of ammonium sulfate was most effective in promoting Ca and Mg uptake by the cotton plants when lime was incorporated.

  14. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators on fatty acids composition in Jatropha curcas L. callus culture.

    Hernandez, Ludwi Rodríguez; Mendiola, Martha A Rodríguez; Castro, Carlos Arias; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on callus formation, its morphology and fatty acids profile were examined from Jatropha curcas L. Embryo from seeds of J. curcas L. were sown in Murashige and skoog (MS) medium with NAA and BAP. All treatments induced callus formation, however callus morphology was different in most of the treatments. Higher callus biomass was presented with 1.0 NAA + 0.5 BAP mg/L. Plant growth regulators modifies the fatty acids profile in callus of J. curcas L. BAP was induced linoleic and linolenic acids. PMID:25757437

  16. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  17. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  19. Extraction of essential oils from lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide

    Ana Cristina Atti-Santos; Marcelo Rossato; Luciana Atti Serafini; Eduardo Cassel; Patrick Moyna

    2005-01-01

    In this work lime essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide. In the case of hydrodistillation, the parameters evaluated were extraction time and characteristics of the plant material. In supercritical extraction, the parameters evaluated were temperature, pressure, CO2 flow, extraction time and material characteristics. Considering citral content, the best results for hydrodistillation were obtained with a distillation time of 3 hours using whole peel...

  20. Slow-release and organic fertilizers on early growth of Rangpur lime

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado; Cícero Cartaxo de Lucena; Dierlei dos Santos; Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira; Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo; Tiago Barbosa Struiving

    2011-01-01

    Slow-release and organic fertilizers are promising alternatives to conventional fertilizers, as both reduce losses by leaching, volatilization and problems of toxicity and/or salinity to plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different rates of the organic fertilizer Humato-Macota® compared with the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote® on the growth and nitrogen content in the dry matter of Rangpur lime. A field experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomi...

  1. Hormone Signaling Pathways in Plants: The Role of Jasmonic Acid in Plant Cell Signaling

    TİRYAKİ, İskender

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and metabolism are affected by various biotic and abiotic stimuli including microorganisms and insects attack as well as light and environmental stresses. Such a diverse plant response requires a communication system that uses a group of chemical messengers called hormones. Hormones promote, inhibit, or qualitatively modify plant growth and development. This complex process requires a signal transduction that defines a specific information pathway within a cell that translat...

  2. Fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways in plants. A review.

    Fauconnier, M. L.; Marlier, M

    1997-01-01

    The present paper focusses on the fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways, mainly hydroperoxide lyase and hydroperoxide dehydrase. For each enzyme, the definition, occurrence and subcellular localization is presented. Particular attention is given to reaction mecanisms and to substrate specificity. Physiological roles of reaction products are also discussed.

    El presente artículo se centra en las rutas de los hidroperóxidos de ácidos grasos, principalmente la hidroperóxido liasa ...

  3. Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of temperature

    Routaboul Jean-Marc; Browse John

    2002-01-01

    The biophysical reactions of light harvesting and electron transport during photosynthesis take place in a uniquely constructed bilayer, the thylakoid. In all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the complement of atypical glycerolipid molecules that form the foundation of this membrane are characterised by sugar head-groups and a very high level of unsaturation in the fatty acids that occupy the central portion of the thylakoid bilayer. alpha-linolenic (18:3) or a combination of 18:3 and hexadecatrien...

  4. Ionophorous functions of phosphatidic acid in the plant cell

    Medvedev, S.S.; Tankelyun, O.V.; Batov, A.Y.; Voronina, O.V.; Martinec, Jan; Macháčková, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2006), s. 39-47. ISSN 1021-4437 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME825 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation for Basic Research 05-04-49619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Zea mays * phosphatidic acid * membrane vesicles Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2006

  5. Physiological response of marigold (calendula officinalis L.) plants to gamma radiation, gibberellic acid and kinetin

    This study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 at the Experimental Field of Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas in a newly reclaimed sandy loam soil. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation, gibberellic acid or kinetin and their interaction on the growth, flowering and the productivity of pot-marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plants. The experimental trials included two factorial experiments; the first one was to study the effect of gamma radiation and gibberellic acid and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation and kinetin and the interaction between them on pot-marigold plants. Pot-marigold seeds were irradiated before sowing with gamma rays at 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays. After planting, plants were sprayed with either gibberellic acid (at the concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 ppm) or kinetin (at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40 ppm). Generally, gamma rays treatments (50, 100 and 150 Gy) increased plant height, branch number/plant, leaf area, vegetative growth and roots fresh and dry weights of pot-marigold plants. Also, the same gamma doses accelerated flowering and decreased the period from sowing until flowering while increased flower head diameter, flower number/plant and flowers fresh and dry weights per plant and per feddan. In addition, gamma rays (50 - 150 Gy) increased volatile oil yield in flowers, leaf chlorophyll content, carotenoids and beta carotene in flowers, total soluble sugars and NPK %. The best values were obtained by 50 Gy dose of gamma rays, whereas the dose of 200 Gy gave the lowest values.

  6. Role of different superplasticizers on hydrated lime pastes and mortars

    Alvarez, J. I.; Fernandez, J M; Sirera, R. (Rafael); Perez-Nicolas, M. (María); Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Duran, A

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of different superplasticizers admixtures was assessed for hydrated lime pastes and mortars. Sometimes, air lime pastes and mortars were modified with two supplementary cementing materials (SCMs), namely nanosilica (NS) and metakaolin (MK). Two different polycarboxylate ethers, a lignosulfonate and a naphthalene condensed sulfonate superplasticizer were added to lime pastes and mortars and their effects on fresh-state properties as well as on the mechanical strengths were evalua...

  7. Fatty acid constituents of Peganum harmala plant using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy.

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid contents of the Peganum harmala plant as a result of hexane extraction were analyzed using GC-MS. The saturated fatty acid composition of the harmal plant was tetradecanoic, pentadecanoic, tridecanoic, hexadecanoic, heptadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, while the saturated fatty acid derivatives were 12-methyl tetradecanoic, 5,9,13-trimethyl tetradecanoic and 2-methyl octadecanoic acids. The most abundant fatty acid was hexadecanoic with concentration 48.13% followed by octadecanoic with concentration 13.80%. There are four unsaturated fatty acids called (E)-9-dodecenoic, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic, (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic. The most abundant unsaturated fatty acid was (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic with concentration 14.79% followed by (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic with concentration 10.61%. Also, there are eight non-fatty acid compounds 1-octadecene, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, (E)-15-heptadecenal, oxacyclohexadecan-2 one, 1,2,2,6,8-pentamethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.1]dec-8-en-10-one, hexadecane-1,2-diol, n-heneicosane and eicosan-3-ol. PMID:27081366

  8. Nucleic acid content in the leaves of woody plants under urban and forest planting conditions. [Aesculus hippocastanum; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Tarabrin, V.P.; Tetenova, T.R.

    1973-01-01

    The nucleic acid content in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum and Rovinia pseudoacacia was studied under urban and forest planting conditions. At the beginning of the growth period, the DNA+RNA content was highest in leaves from plants located in the urban areas. By the end of the growth period, in July, the DNA+RNA content of the leaves of the urban Aesculus was greatly reduced. The author concluded that the reduction of DNA+RNA in the leaves was caused by urban air and soil pollutants. 13 references, 2 tables.

  9. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  10. Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2 in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization

    Aaron B. Margolin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  11. Effect of nitrogen, potassium and lime on soil and manganese availability and uptake by bean

    A pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of nitrogen, potassium and lime on the availability of soil Zn and Mn and the absorption of these elements by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.). The TE (Terra Roxa Estruturada) soil, used in this experiment, had been uniformily labelled with 65Zn and 54Mn and incubated prior to the seeding. The nitrogen favoured the absorption of manganese and zinc, tripling the manganese content in the plant and increasing by 2.5 fold the Zn content. The potassium also increased significantly the manganese uptake, but did not affect the zinc uptake. In the case of the Zn, however, the effect continued, though with less intensity. The lime alone reduced by almost 5 times the Mn content in the plant and by 50% the Zn content. Based on the results of the soil analysis (pH, CaCl2 O.5M extractable Mn and EDTA + CaCl2 extractable Zn) and on the 65Zn and 54Mn specific activities, it is suggested that the effets of nitrogen and potassium could be, partly, of synergic nature and that of the lime, due, also partly, to Ca-Mn and Ca-Zn antagonism in the plant. (Author)

  12. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    Qiong eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P, and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and SA accumulation during defense activation.

  13. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

  14. Use of Sewage Sludge After Liming as Fertilizer for Maize Growth

    M.K.JAMALI; T.G.KAZI; M.B.ARAIN; H.I.AFRIDI; A.R.MEMON; N.JALBANI; A.SHAH

    2008-01-01

    The use of sewage sludge on agricultural land provides an alternative for its disposal.Therefore,the aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using industrial sewage sludge produced in Pakistan,as an agricultural fertilizer.The agricultural soil amended with 250 g kg-1 sewage sludge with or without lime treatment was used for the growth of the common local grain crop,maize (Zea maize).The mobility of the trace and toxic metals in the sludge samples was assessed by applying a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure.The single extraction procedure was comprised of the application of a mild extractant (CaC12) and water,for the estimation of the proportion of easily soluble metal fractions.To check the precision of the analytical results,the concentrations of trace and toxic metals in every step of the sequential extraction procedure were summed up and compared with total metal concentrations.The plant-available metal contents,as indicated by the deionized water and 0.01 tool L-1 CaCl2 solution extraction fractions and the exchangeable fraction of the sequential extraction,decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with lime application because of the reduced metal availability at a higher pH,except in the cases of Cd and Cu,whose mobility was slightly increased.Sludge amendment enhanced the dry weight yield of maize and the increase was more obvious for the soil with lime treatment.Liming the sewage sludge reduced the trace and toxic metal contents in the grain tissues,except Cu and Cd,which were below the permissible limits of these metals.The present experiment demonstrates that liming was an important factor in facilitating the growth of maize in sludge-amended soil.

  15. Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plant Signaling: Nitro-Linolenic Acid Induces the Molecular Chaperone Network in Arabidopsis.

    Mata-Pérez, Capilla; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Padilla, María N; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Luque, Francisco; Melguizo, Manuel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Peñas-Sanjuán, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2016-02-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are the product of the reaction between reactive nitrogen species derived of nitric oxide (NO) and unsaturated fatty acids. In animal systems, NO2-FAs are considered novel signaling mediators of cell function based on a proven antiinflammatory response. Nevertheless, the interaction of NO with fatty acids in plant systems has scarcely been studied. Here, we examine the endogenous occurrence of nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in Arabidopsis and the modulation of NO2-Ln levels throughout this plant's development by mass spectrometry. The observed levels of this NO2-FA at picomolar concentrations suggested its role as a signaling effector of cell function. In fact, a transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq technology established a clear signaling role for this molecule, demonstrating that NO2-Ln was involved in plant defense response against different abiotic-stress conditions, mainly by inducing heat shock proteins and supporting a conserved mechanism of action in both animal and plant defense processes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that NO2-Ln was also involved in the response to oxidative stress conditions, mainly depicted by H2O2, reactive oxygen species, and oxygen-containing compound responses, with a high induction of ascorbate peroxidase expression. Closely related to these results, NO2-Ln levels significantly rose under several abiotic-stress conditions such as wounding or exposure to salinity, cadmium, and low temperature, thus validating the outcomes found by RNA-seq technology. Jointly, to our knowledge, these are the first results showing the endogenous presence of NO2-Ln in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and supporting the strong signaling role of these molecules in the defense mechanism against different abiotic-stress situations. PMID:26628746

  16. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA-Deficient Tomato Plants

    Francesca Secchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling.

  17. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of Mexican lime tree infected with "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia"

    Nekouei Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    interaction of Mexican lime trees with "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". These results should help to elucidate the molecular basis of the infection process and to identify genes that could be targeted to increase plant resistance and inhibit the growth and reproduction of the pathogen.

  18. Design and experiment of pros spiral lime spreading machine%正反螺旋式土壤改良石灰播撒机设计与试验

    高自成; 李立君; 阳涵疆; 祝强; 周鹰; 闵淑辉

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of industry, environment pollution such as soil acidification and heavy metal pollution of soil becomes increasingly serious, especially in the acidic soil region of southern China. Liming is a traditional and effective method to improve acidic soil. Manual spreading is a kind of traditional method of liming, but it is inefficient and has some side effects like skin damage of workers because of the corrosive property of lime. In order to solve the deficiencies of manual liming and compensate the technology gap of liming machine between domestic and overseas market, we designed a lime spreading machine which was able to be assembled with other agricultural machinery to become combined machine. The development of liming machine has great significance to improve liming efficiency and working conditions. This paper discussed the structure and working principle of the pros spiral lime spreading machine. The machine used the spread roller which was similar to the structure of pros spiral as working parts, used the overlapped waist-shaped hole as the lime spreading outlet, and controlled the waist-shaped hole overlapping area through adjusting assembly to adjust the lime spreading amount. Through experiment we determined the lime outlet size and the lime spreading roller’s rotation speed of the lime spreading machine, and experiment results showed that: Firstly, when the lime spreading roller speed was below 125 turn per minute, for the same waist-shaped lime spreading outlet, the lime spreading amount per turn of lime spreading roller could be treated as a constant value, i.e. the spreading amount and lime spread roller’s rotation speed were in a linear relationship; Secondly, when the number of lime spreading plate was 40, the hole was waist-shaped hole with the size of 25 mm×10 mm and the rotation speed of the roller was in 120 turn per minute, we got the lime spreading amount of 1 500 kg/h which met the maximum requirements of lime

  19. Acidity produced by leguminous plants through symbiotic dinitrogen fixation

    Liu, Wencheh; Lund, L.J.; Page, A.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    Red clover (Trifolium prateuse L.), sweet clover (Meliotus alba Medik.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and crown vetch (Vica villosa Roth) were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland's solution in a declining nutrient condition. Increases in acidity of the nutrient solutions were recorded over the experimental period. In general, the excess bases and the excess bases/nitrogen ratio varied considerably among harvests. Significant positive relationships between total N and proton efflux, excess bases and H+ excretion, and dry weight and H+ efflux were observed. The milligrams H+ produced per gram N fixed for the four legumes were 49 for red clover, 43 for crown vetch, 42 for alfalfa, and 37 for sweet clover. By extrapolating the protons produced per gram dry weight in this study to yields commonly observed in the field, annual hydrogen production per hectare would amount to 9.7 kg for red clover, 4.6 kg for sweet clover, 15.2 kg for alfalfa, and 4.5 kg for crown vetch. The amounts of acidity produced per hectare per year calculated from the values of N{sub 2} fixation were 5.2 to 14 kg by alfalfa, 4.2 to 9.4 kg by red clover, 3.2 to 7.1 kg by sweet clover, and 3.9 to 6.8 kg by crown vetch. The study demonstrates that production of H+ through symbiotic fixation by legumes is an important source of acidity in agricultural ecosystems. The acidifying effect of legumes could, in the long-term, result in acidification of the bulk soil causing the downward leaching of exchangeable cations and a decrease in base saturation.

  20. A decade of studies at Loch Fleet, Galloway (Scotland): A catchment liming project and restoration of a brown trout fishery

    Howells, Gwyneth; Dalziel, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Loch Fleet is a small upland lake in the hills of Galloway in southwest Scotland. In the 1970s the waters of the loch became more acidic and a brown trout fishery failed. This account summarises an experimental project, the "Loch Fleet Project" initiated in 1984, designed to reverse acidification of the loch by liming parts of the catchment. Liming about 40% of the catchment in 1986 and 1987 raised the pH and calcium levels, and reduced toxic aluminium concentrations. The improved conditions ...

  1. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  2. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  3. Biosynthesis of 14C-labelled erucic acid by means of rape plants

    For the biosynthetic preparation of 14C-erucic adid (C21H41COOH) by means of rape plants cv. sollux the plants were supplied with 14CO2 and additionally fed with 14C-Sodium acetate after anthesis. After saponification of the extracted lipids the erucic acid was isolated and purified. The substance was identified by gas chromatography. The incorporation of the applied radioactive (34 MBq 14CO2; 37 MBq 14C-natrium acetate) into the fatty acids amounted to 1,2 per cent. The erucic acid could be isolated from the fatty acids mixture with a specific radioactivity of 1,001 MBq/mmol and a purity of 97,2 per cent. (orig.)

  4. Dry flue gas scrubbing technology for power plants, waste- and biomass burning facilities using hydrated lime or sodium biocarbonate as sorbent; Trockene Abgasreinigung fuer Grossdampferzeuger, Biomasse- und Muellverbrennungsanlagen unter Einsatz von Kalkhydrat und Natriumbicarbonat

    Adema, Andries [BBE GmbH, Laar (Germany); Blass, Erich; Engel, Ralf [BHKW Flohr GmbH, Neuwied (Germany); Buhlmann, Peter; Graf, Rolf [Graf-Wulff GmbH, Rosbach (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The article describes the GRAF-WULFF Flue Gas Scrubbing (FGS) Technology for solid fuel-fired boilers with a flue gas rate between 30,000 m{sup 3}/h and 3,000,000 m{sup 3}/h for each plant. The GRAF-WULFF Technology basically consists of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) for absorption of gaseous pollutants. In the paper the technology and the first operation experiences of a flue gas cleaning plant for a two-furnace line waste incineration with exceptional high demands on efficiency, will be presented. Furthermore it is reported about our project of a one-line flue gas cleaning plant for a coal-fired boiler. (orig.)

  5. Zooplankton of Lake Orta after liming: an eleven years study

    Andrea PASTERIS

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (N. Italy was severely polluted from 1927 by an effluent from a rayon factory, which discharged great amounts of ammonium nitrogen and copper into the lake. In the mid nineteen fifties, some plating factories also started dumping chromium and aluminum. As a result of ammonium oxidation, the lake became very acid and the concentration of metals in the waters reached very high values. Phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish disappeared suddenly from the lake which was by 1930 classified as “sterile”. Later on, about the fifties, a small population of Cyclops abyssorum re-colonised the lake together with some rotifers, in particular Hexarthra fennica. In mid eighties following the introduction of anti-pollution legislation, ammonium loads were greatly reduced and Daphnia obtusa was recorded. The lake waters however were still very acid, prompting the proposal of the Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia to lime the lake with calcium carbonate to neutralise the excess acidity and reconstruct the alkaline reserve. This was done successfully from May 1989 to June 1990. pH values began to rise and in the same time the metal concentrations decreased, so that at present the lake waters are almost “normal”. In the meantime, due to the increased pH values, D. obtusa was replaced by D. longispina and, as toxic metal concentrations became lower, Megacyclops viridis, Bosmina longirostris, Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Keratella quadrata, Asplanchna priodonta. and other Brachionidae species appeared. Diaptomidae are still absent, except for some specimens of Arctodiaptomus wierzejskii.

  6. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposures and Incident Cancers among Adults Living Near a Chemical Plant

    Barry, Vaughn; Winquist, Andrea; Steenland, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic chemical ubiquitous in the serum of U.S. residents. It causes liver, testicular, and pancreatic tumors in rats. Human studies are sparse. Objective: We examined cancer incidence in Mid-Ohio Valley residents exposed to PFOA in drinking water due to chemical plant emissions. Methods: The cohort consisted of adult community residents who resided in contaminated water districts or worked at a local chemical plant. Most participated in a 200...

  7. Characterization of N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria and their role in plant growth under humic acid treatment

    Diazo trophic bacteria isolated from rice belonged to the six genera i.e. Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Xanthobacter, Flavobacterium and Zoogloea. During reinoculation studies it was observed that the rice roots grow well under humic acid treatment. The maximum root length 49.5 cm, was recorded at 10 ppm in plants inoculated with Azospirillum strain K-1. The total plant dry weight increase was also observed with the same organism at the similar humic acid concentration. In wheat the bacterial inoculation or humic acid treatment separately increased the dry weight of plant, however the humic acid treatment followed by inoculation of bacteria always cause decrease in total dry weight of plants. (author)

  8. Reduction of copper phytotoxicity by liming: A study of the root anatomy of young vines (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Ambrosini, Vítor Gabriel; Rosa, Daniel José; Corredor Prado, Jenny Paola; Borghezan, Marcelo; Bastos de Melo, George Wellington; Fonsêca de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; Comin, Jucinei José; Simão, Daniela Guimarães; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Frequent applications of copper (Cu)-based fungicides on vines causes the accumulation of this metal in vineyard soils, which can cause toxicity in young vines. However, liming may reduce these toxic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Cu toxicity on the root anatomy of young vines and the alleviation of Cu toxicity by lime applications to contaminated sandy soil. The treatments consisted of the addition of lime (0.0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha(-1)) and two Cu concentrations (0 and 50 mg kg(-1)) to Typic Hapludalf soil. Young vines 'Niágara Branca' (Vitis labrusca L.) were obtained by micropropagation and cultivated for 70 days. The young vines grown with Cu and without liming presented a disorganized root structure; reduced root cap size; increased diameter (47%), cortex area (128%), vascular cylinder area (93%), and number of cortical layers and cells containing phenolic compounds (132%); and reduced root (41%), stem (44%) and leaf dry mass (21%) and height increase (55%). Moreover, Cu exposure reduced Ca concentrations (13%) and increased Cu concentrations (371%) in the roots. Liming, primarily with the highest tested dose, increased the soil pH (from 4.4 to 5.4-6.1), decreased the Cu concentration in the soil (extracted by CaCl2), increased the calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) uptake by plants, prevented root anatomical changes and benefited young vine growth in soil with higher Cu concentrations. PMID:26318144

  9. Binuclear Metal Centers in Plant Purple Acid Phosphatases: Fe-Mn in Sweet Potato and Fe-Zn in Soybean

    Schenk, Gerhard; Ge, Yubin; Carrington, Lyle E; Wynne, Ceridwen J.; Searle, Iain R.; Carroll, Bernard J; Hamilton, Susan E.; de Jersey, John

    1999-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases comprise a family of binuclear metal-containing acid hydrolases, representatives of which have been found in animals, plants, and fungi. The goal of this study was to characterize purple acid phosphatases from sweet potato tubers and soybean seeds and to establish their relationship with the only well-characterized plant purple acid phosphatase, the FeIII–ZnII-containing red kidney bean enzyme. Metal analysis indicated the presence in the pu...

  10. Effects of lime on bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of water hyacinth.

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-06-01

    In the present study composting of water hyacinth was done with cattle manure and saw dust (6:3:1) ratio and effects of addition of lime (1%, 2% and 3%) on heavy metal bioavailability and leachability was evaluated during 30 days of composting period. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and extractable heavy metal contents were measured. Results showed that the total concentration of heavy metals was increased during the composting process. Due to addition of lime initial pH of the compost was raised effectively, caused a decrease in water soluble, diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA) and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable metal contents in the final compost. Water soluble metals (Ni, Pb and Cd) and DTPA extractable metals (Pb and Cd) were not detected during water soluble fraction. Addition of lime significantly reduced the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting process. PMID:23612174

  11. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  12. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  13. Fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways in plants. A review.

    Fauconnier, M. L.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focusses on the fatty acid hydroperoxides pathways, mainly hydroperoxide lyase and hydroperoxide dehydrase. For each enzyme, the definition, occurrence and subcellular localization is presented. Particular attention is given to reaction mecanisms and to substrate specificity. Physiological roles of reaction products are also discussed.

    El presente artículo se centra en las rutas de los hidroperóxidos de ácidos grasos, principalmente la hidroperóxido liasa y la hidroperóxido dehidrasa. Se presenta para cada enzima, la definición, distribución y localización subcelular. Se da atención particular a los mecanismos de reacción y a la especificidad de sustrato. También se discuten los papeles fisiológicos de los productos de reacción.

  14. Study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction.

    Yang, Fuwei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qinglin

    2010-06-15

    Replacing or repairing masonry mortar is usually necessary in the restoration of historical constructions, but the selection of a proper mortar is often problematic. An inappropriate choice can lead to failure of the restoration work, and perhaps even further damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of the original mortar technology and the fabrication of appropriate replacement materials are important research goals. Many kinds of materials have been used over the years in masonry mortars, and the technology has gradually evolved from the single-component mortar of ancient times to hybrid versions containing several ingredients. Beginning in 2450 BCE, lime was used as masonry mortar in Europe. In the Roman era, ground volcanic ash, brick powder, and ceramic chip were added to lime mortar, greatly improving performance. Because of its superior properties, the use of this hydraulic (that is, capable of setting underwater) mortar spread, and it was adopted throughout Europe and western Asia. Perhaps because of the absence of natural materials such as volcanic ash, hydraulic mortar technology was not developed in ancient China. However, a special inorganic-organic composite building material, sticky rice-lime mortar, was developed. This technology was extensively used in important buildings, such as tombs, in urban constructions, and even in water conservancy facilities. It may be the first widespread inorganic-organic composite mortar technology in China, or even in the world. In this Account, we discuss the origins, analysis, performance, and utility in historic preservation of sticky rice-lime mortar. Mortar samples from ancient constructions were analyzed by both chemical methods (including the iodine starch test and the acid attack experiment) and instrumental methods (including thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy). These analytical results show that the ancient masonry

  15. Effects of Ascorbic Acid Application in Strawberry Plants During Heat Stress

    Sergul ERGIN; AYDOGAN, Cigdem; OZTURK, Nilufer; Turhan, Ece

    2014-01-01

    Frigo seedlings of ‘Redlands Hope’ (R. Hope) and ‘Festival’ strawberry cultivars, which are heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive, respectively were grown in a controlled greenhouse. When the seedlings had 5-6 leaves (11 weeks old); half of the plants were sprayed with 3 mM ascorbic acid (AA) every three days for 3 weeks (7 applications) in order to investigate whether AA is effective on heat stress tolerance of the cultivars, the other half ones were used as control plants. Plants were then trans...

  16. Coordinations between gene modules control the operation of plant amino acid metabolic networks

    Galili Gad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being sessile organisms, plants should adjust their metabolism to dynamic changes in their environment. Such adjustments need particular coordination in branched metabolic networks in which a given metabolite can be converted into multiple other metabolites via different enzymatic chains. In the present report, we developed a novel "Gene Coordination" bioinformatics approach and use it to elucidate adjustable transcriptional interactions of two branched amino acid metabolic networks in plants in response to environmental stresses, using publicly available microarray results. Results Using our "Gene Coordination" approach, we have identified in Arabidopsis plants two oppositely regulated groups of "highly coordinated" genes within the branched Asp-family network of Arabidopsis plants, which metabolizes the amino acids Lys, Met, Thr, Ile and Gly, as well as a single group of "highly coordinated" genes within the branched aromatic amino acid metabolic network, which metabolizes the amino acids Trp, Phe and Tyr. These genes possess highly coordinated adjustable negative and positive expression responses to various stress cues, which apparently regulate adjustable metabolic shifts between competing branches of these networks. We also provide evidence implying that these highly coordinated genes are central to impose intra- and inter-network interactions between the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid metabolic networks as well as differential system interactions with other growth promoting and stress-associated genome-wide genes. Conclusion Our novel Gene Coordination elucidates that branched amino acid metabolic networks in plants are regulated by specific groups of highly coordinated genes that possess adjustable intra-network, inter-network and genome-wide transcriptional interactions. We also hypothesize that such transcriptional interactions enable regulatory metabolic adjustments needed for adaptation to the stresses.

  17. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)

  18. De-liming of hides and skins by using boiler flue gases (carbon dioxide) in leather manufacturing industry

    The principal action of De-liming is to neutralize the alkali in the hides gradually to avoid violent changes in pH which could lead to distortion or disruption of the tissues. At present a number of De-liming agents such as, Ammonium Salts, Organic Acids and Mineral Acids are being used for this purpose. The research in this field is mainly directed towards two objectives; to achieve the cost effectiveness of the process and to minimize the environmental impact of the effluent produced. This paper deals with the advanced technique of De-liming by using CO/sub 2/. The system developed locally to experiment this technique is termed as CO/sub 2/ De-liming System. The unique feature of the process involved in this system is, the use CO/sub 2/ present in the boiler off gases. This paper elucidates the technique of De-liming of large bovine hides (cow and buffalo) as well as skins (goats and sheep) by using CO/sub 2/ present in boiler off gases along with environmental and financial benefits. The results show that in case of skins, the use of Ammonium Sulfate can be completely eliminated where as in case of bovine hides the reduction in use of Ammonium Sulfate can be 20 to 50% (w/w), depending upon the thickness of the pelt (limed hides or skins). This result in proportional reduction of Ammonia gas produced along with the reduction in concentration of BOD, COD and Sulfate ions by the same amount. Additionally, the system can also produce hot water while cooling the boiler off gases from 280-220 deg. C to 105 deg. C. The quantity of hot water generated depends upon the quantity of boiler off gases being cooled. The pay back period of the system is between 1-2 years, depending upon the size of installation as well as the type of hides/skins being processed. (author)

  19. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Pengjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

  20. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering. PMID:22442054

  1. Actual state of plant decline phenomena due to acid rain and others

    Recently, Japanese mass communication earnestly reports on the effect that acid rain exerts to natural environment. Also the researches have been carried out on the present state of rainwater acidification, the mechanism of the effect of acid rain to plants, the experiment using artificial acid rain, and the foreign theories on the cause of the decline of forests. But the example of the damage of trees and plants in fields, of which the true cause is understood to be acid rain, is not found. The author has engaged in the research on forest protection for long years, and according to his experience, in the present Japanese research on acid rain, there are a number of important pitfalls. Acid rain theory is only one of many hypotheses. It must be verified by the proper research, and this point is important. Ibaraki Prefectural Forest Experiment station has carried out the consultation on the diagnosis and restoration of tree conditions, and the decline of trees and its cause are reported according to the examples of investigation. In the consultation in the last nine years, the decline of trees caused by acid rain was not confirmed. (K.I.)

  2. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  3. Engineering Properties of Bentonite Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum

    Kumar Sujeet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the California bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The results reveal that the dry unit weight and optimum moisture content of bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The percentage of swell increased and the free swell index decreased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum to the bentonite + 8 % lime mix. The unconfined compressive strength of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum as well as an increase in the curing period up to 14 days. The liquid limit and plastic limit of the bentonite + 8 % lime increased, whereas the plasticity index remained constant with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum. The California bearing ratio, modulus of subgrade reaction, and secant modulus increased for the bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum. The coefficient of the consolidation of the bentonite increased with the addition of 8 % lime and no change with the addition of 8 % phosphogypsum.

  4. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  5. A nano approach to consolidation of degraded historic lime mortars

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana; Ziegenbalg, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2009), s. 13-22. ISSN 1662-5250 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : lime water * calcium hydroxide nanosuspension * lime mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2009

  6. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    A Basumajumdar; A K Das; N Bandyopadhyay; S Maitra

    2005-04-01

    The reaction between fly ash (FA) and lime is extensively exploited for the manufacture of building bricks, blocks and aggregates. To get a better idea of this reaction, FA from different sources were mixed in different ratios with lime and compacted. The compacts were treated both by ordinary water and hydrothermal curing to promote lime bearing hydrate bond formation e.g. CaO–SiO2–H2O (C–S–H), CaO–Al2O3–H2O (C–A–H) etc. The decrease in free lime content in these compacts was measured as a function of curing time and curing process. This drop in this content was correlated to the chemical composition of the fly ashes. The mathematical relationships between free lime remaining in the compacts after its maximum decrease in concentration and lime binding modulus (a ratio between the amount of added lime and the total amount of lime binding constituents present in FA) for both types of curing were developed. Further, the rate of decrease in free CaO content under both types of curing conditions was compared from kinetic study. From this study the orders of the reactions and rate constants were found out.

  7. Liming and forest production. Vad haender med skogdproduktionen

    Popovic, Budimir (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1988-01-01

    The growth reaction to the liming registered in different liming experiments could be defined as very weak and of longterm character. One of the most relevant factors was an initial decline of forest growth during the first 10-15 years after liming, followed by a slight increase in growth for the rest of the experimental period. The length of period varied depending on the tree species and site quality. Results obtained from shorter observation periods cannot give a complete picture of the liming effect on forest growth. The liming effect on growth might, like the soil effect, be of very long duration, perhaps as long as 70 years. The combination of liming with other fertilization might be a good solution, especially on poor sites with nitrogen deficiency as a factor limiting tree growth. The experiences of evaluated experiments indicate a deteriorated availability of nitrogen with liming. The air pollution influences forest soil and trees and in this situation it could be reasonable to discuss forest liming as a measure to counter air pollutants by improving soil conditions in a way which is not only beneficial to forest growth but also to ground and surface water. (author) (10 ills., 14 tabs., 12 refs.).

  8. Amendment of Acid Soils with Crop Residues and Biochars

    YUAN Jin-Hua; XU Ren-Kou; WANG Ning; LI Jiu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The liming potential of some crop residues and their biochars on an acid Ultisol was investigated using incubation experiments. Rice hulls showed greater liming potential than rice hull biochar, while soybean and pea straws had less liming potential than their biochars. Due to their higher alkalinity, biochars from legume materials increased soil pH much compared to biochars from non-legume materials. The alkalinity of biochars was a key factor affecting their liming potential,and the greater alkalinity of biochars led to greater reductions in soil acidity. The incorporation of biochars decreased soil exchangeable acidity and increased soil exchangeable base cations and base saturation, thus improving soil fertility.

  9. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  10. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    Custódio Lobo Roriz; Lillian Barros; Ana Maria Carvalho; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index and photodiode array, respectively). C. citratus revealed th...

  11. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  12. Temporary changes of radiological effectiveness of soil liming contaminated with Cs137 and Sr90 radionuclides

    Analysis of coefficient of variation of radionuclide transfer into crops and determination of temporary changes of radiological effectiveness of lime application in soils polluted by Cs137 and Sr90 radionuclides was realized in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus. Dynamics of changes of Sr90 coefficient of variation taking into consideration the acidity of sod-podzolic sandy, loamy soils, as well as the dynamics of changes of Cs137 and Sr90 accumulation by crops depending on doses of ameliorants were found out in the experiment. Research result showed that over the last ten years the indices of Sr90 transfer in the majority of cases increased on the acidic sandy soils (on 38 %) and in a less degree (9 %) - on light loamy acid-free sod-podzolic soils. Effectiveness of the influence of soil acidity neutralization on lowering of Sr90 transfer did not stop over the time and did not depend on soil structure, but depended on its initial acidity. Liming of the medium acid soils till the optimal intervals of pH in 1989-1993 made it possible to lower the Sr90 transfer on 21-22%. Effectiveness of soil liming in 1999-2003 was 31-33%. In the stationary field experiments on sod-podzolic sandy soils realized in 2003-2006 it was found out, that the effectiveness and the aftereffect influence of the optimal and heightened doses of ameliorants on Cs137 transfer was a bit lower than in 1993-1995 while the transfer of Sr90 was higher on 23-31%

  13. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process. PMID:26584561

  14. Sorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Obtained from Rice Husks by Treatment with Lime

    The sorption studies of rice husk char prepared by carbonization and activation with lime, caustic soda and sulphuric acid have been investigated. Prior to impregnation with the lime; on a micro processing scale the pre-carbonization temperature of rice husk were determined by using TG-DTA thermal analysis. The impregnation with chemical was made after carbonization and the impregnated chars were subjected to activation at appropriate temperatures of about 300 C to 500 C depending on the impregnated chars. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared chars were tested by conventional and modern techniques. Sorption capacities with respect to colored dyes were determined for each of the char. These sorption capacities are indicative of the decolorizing nature and the acid or basic nature. The sorption capacities of the prepared chars towards the uptake of metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were also studied and the lime activated char exhibits high adsorptive capacities for all the metals compared to other prepared chars as well as the commercial wood char. The evaluation of the sorption capacities of this chars were made on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir monolayer coverage equations. Thus, based on batch dosage method and breakthrough flow method, the uptake of the metals were found to be in following order for the lime activated rice husk char; Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd. From this investigation, it can be inferred that a rice husk char impregnated with 20% technical grade CaO has the potential effect to be used as an effective metal adsorbent particularly for the uptake of toxic heavy metals in the secondary stage of water treatment processes.

  15. Jasmonic acid and herbivory differentially induce carnivore-attracting plant volatiles in Lima bean plants

    Dicke, M.; Gols, R.; Ludeking, D.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lima bean plants respond to feeding damage of two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with the emission of a complex blend of volatiles that are products of several different biosynthetic pathways. These volatiles attract the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of

  16. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  17. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2013-0048 when contacting the NRC about...

  18. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    V. W. Francis Thoo; N. Zainuddin; Matori, K. A.; S.A. Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA). Soda lime silica glasses (SLS), mainly composed of silica (SiO2), have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2) and GWX 2 (replacing Si...

  19. Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth Efeito de diferentes níveis de calagem na produção de biomassa e no rendimento de extração de óleo essencial de Cunila galioides Benth

    AJ. Mossi; GF. Pauletti; L. Rota; S Echeverrigaray; IBI. Barros; JV. Oliveira; N. Paroul; RL. Cansian

    2012-01-01

    Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L-1) and a completely random experimental...

  20. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci.

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles-especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  1. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  2. Plant responses against invasive nucleic acids: RNA silencing and its suppression by plant viral pathogens

    Alvarado, Veria; Herman B Scholthof

    2009-01-01

    RNA silencing is a common strategy shared by eukaryotic organisms to regulate gene expression, and also operates as a defense mechanism against invasive nucleic acids such as viral transcripts. The silencing pathway is quite sophisticated in higher eukaryotes but the distinct steps and nature of effector complexes vary between and even within species. To counteract this defense mechanism viruses have evolved the ability to encode proteins that suppress silencing to protect their genomes from ...

  3. Strigolactone regulates anthocyanin accumulation, acid phosphatases production and plant growth under low phosphate condition in Arabidopsis.

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available Phosphate is an essential macronutrient in plant growth and development; however, the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi in soil is often suboptimal for crop performance. Accordingly, plants have developed physiological strategies to adapt to low Pi availability. Here, we report that typical Pi starvation responses in Arabidopsis are partially dependent on the strigolactone (SL signaling pathway. SL treatment induced root hair elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, activation of acid phosphatase, and reduced plant weight, which are characteristic responses to phosphate starvation. Furthermore, the expression profile of SL-response genes correlated with the expression of genes induced by Pi starvation. These results suggest a potential overlap between SL signaling and Pi starvation signaling pathways in plants.

  4. Fatty acid profiling: a feasible typing system to trace yeast contamination in wine bottling plants.

    Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Tareco, M; Loureiro, V

    1997-09-16

    The long-chain fatty acid composition of yeast strains was determined for several species associated with the wine industry. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Brettanomyces/Dekkera spp., Pichia anomala, Pichia membranaefaciens and Lodderomyces elongisporus species presented distinct fatty acid profiles after multivariate statistical analysis. The Zygosaccharomyces rouxii species showed profiles similar to Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The use of fatty acid profiling in wine bottling plants and wines makes it possible to trace the origin of the strains responsible for spoiling the final product. In one case the origin was found at the outlet of the finishing filter and identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii. In the other case the source of contamination was discovered in the heads of the filling machine and assigned to the Pichia membranaefaciens species. The results point out the discriminating power and the industrial applicability of the technique described in this work to analyse yeast long-chain fatty acid compositions. PMID:9506280

  5. Impact of anthropogenic induced nitrogen input and liming on phosphorous leaching in forest soils

    Holzmann, Stefan; Puhlmann, Heike; Wilpert, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Phosphorous (P) is essential for sustainable forest growth, yet the impact of anthropogenic impacts on P leaching losses from forest soils are hardly known. Methods: We conducted an irrigation experiment with 128 mesocosms of 7.4 cm diameter containing 20 cm mineral soil plus the organic layer from three forest sites representing a gradient of resin extractable P of the A-horizon. On each site we selected a Fagus sylvatica and a Picea abies managed subsite. Half of the cylinders where planted with seedlings of the respective species to access the plant impact. We simulated ambient rain (AR), anthropogenic nitrogen input (NI) of 100 kg/ha/a and forest liming (FL) with a dolomite input of 0.3 Mg/ha/a. Soil solution was extracted from the organic layer and at 20 cm depth. We collected the soil solution over a period of 13.5 months and analyzed it separated by 5 periods. The soil solution was analyzed for total phosphorous (TP) by measuring the molybdane reactive phosphorous after acid digestion. To analyze the multivariate dataset we applied random forest modelling and used partial (co-)dependency plots to interpret the results. Results: The TP content of the soil solution from the organic horizon was approximately ten times higher than the soil solution content of the mineral soil. The NI treatment did increase the TP content on all sites. The increase was more pronounced in the organic layer than in the mineral layer. The FL treatment lead to a slight increase of TP in the organic layer while we could observe a slight decrease in the mineral horizon. Both the organic layer and the mineral horizon showed a seasonal cycle with the exception of one Picea abies subsite which displayed a constant increase in TP in the organic layer. The seasonal cycle of the organic horizon had a minimum during the period of April to July, while the minimum at the mineral horizon was during November to January. Conclusion: TP in the soil solution is highest in the organic

  6. Influence of curing conditions on lime and lime-metakaolin mortars

    Faria, Paulina; Martins, A

    2011-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada ao XII DBMC - International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, Porto, April 12th-15th, 2011 Air-lime mortars with or without pozzolanic components were largely used in historic buildings. Due to natural or accidental degradation it is often necessary the application of repair mortars, durable and compatible with the masonries of historic buildings. Within this context and associating the improvement of mortars characteristics to the ne...

  7. STUDY OF HYDRATION PRODUCTS IN THE MODEL SYSTEMS METAKAOLIN-LIME AND METAKAOLIN-LIME-GYPSUM

    Matus Zemlicka; Eva Kuzielova; Kuliffayova Marta; Tkacz Jakub; Palou Martin

    2015-01-01

    Possible preferential formation of ettringite instead of required calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (CASH) phases when aluminosilicates were added to the blended cements was investigated on the model systems comprising of metakaolin, lime and gypsum. Compressive strength, microstructure and phase composition of the samples were evaluated after 7 days of curing at 50oC, using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction techniques and scanning electronic microscopy. Sam...

  8. Optimisation of a wet FGD pilot plant using fine limestone and organic acids

    Frandsen, Jan; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2001-01-01

    The effects of adding an organic acid or using a limestone with a fine particle size distribution (PSD) have been examined in a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant. Optimisation of the plant with respect to the degree of desulphurisation and the residual limestone content of the gypsum......, but the residual limestone content in the gypsum increased to somewhere between 19 and 30 wt%, making this pH range unsuitable for use in a full-scale plant. The investigations have shown that both the addition of organic acids and the use of a limestone with a fine PSD can be used to optimise wet FGD......-7 mM were employed. The overall degree of desulphurisation in the plant increased from 83% at 0 mM to 90% at 3 mM and the residual limestone level was reduced from 4.6 to 1.4 wt%. Increasing the slurry concentration of adipic acid above 3 mM gave only a slightly higher degree of desulphurisation. The...

  9. Functional analyses of carnivorous plant-specific amino acid residues in S-like ribonucleases.

    Arai, Naoki; Nishimura, Emi; Kikuchi, Yo; Ohyama, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    Unlike plants with no carnivory, carnivorous plants seem to use S-like ribonucleases (RNases) as an enzyme for carnivory. Carnivorous plant-specific conserved amino acid residues are present at four positions around the conserved active site (CAS). The roles of these conserved amino acid residues in the enzymatic function were explored in the current study by preparing five recombinant variants of DA-I, the S-like RNase of Drosera adelae. The kcat and kcat/Km values of the enzymes revealed that among the four variants with a single mutation, the serine to glycine mutation at position 111 most negatively influenced the enzymatic activity. The change in the bulkiness of the amino acid residue side-chain seemed to be the major cause of the above effect. Modeling of the three dimensional (3D) structures strongly suggested that the S to G mutation at 111 greatly altered the overall enzyme conformation. The conserved four amino acid residues are likely to function in keeping the two histidine residues, which are essential for the cleavage of RNA strands, and the CAS in the most functional enzymatic conformation. PMID:26235877

  10. Influence of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on fenugreek plants in sandy and clay soils

    SHAHIRA A. TARRAF; Talaat, Iman M.; ABO EL-KHAIR B. EL-SAYED; LAILA K. BALBAA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Tarraf SA, Talaat IM, El-Sayed AEB, Balbaa LK. 2015. Influence of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on fenugreek plants in sandy and clay soils. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 33-37. Two pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of foliar application of algae extract and amino acids mixture on the growth and chemical constituents of fenugreek plants (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Plants were sprayed with different concentrations of algae extract (0.0, 2....

  11. Defense signaling among interconnected ramets of a rhizomatous clonal plant, induced by jasmonic-acid application

    Chen, Jin-Song; Lei, Ning-Fei; Liu, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Resource sharing between ramets of clonal plants is a well-known phenomenon that allows stoloniferous and rhizomatous species to internally transport water, mineral nutrients and carbohydrates from sites of high supply to sites of high demand. Moreover, vascular ramet connections are likely to provide an excellent means to share substances other than resources, such as defense signals. In a greenhouse experiment, the rhizomatous sedge Carex alrofusca, consisting of integrated ramets of different ages, was used to study the transmission of defense signals through belowground rhizome connections in response to local spray with jasmonic-acid. A feeding preference test with the caterpillar Gynaephora rnenyuanensis was employed to assess benefits of rhizome connections on defense signaling. Young ramets were more responsive to jasmonic-acid treatment than middle-aged or old ramets. Condensed tannin content in the foliage of young ramets showed a significant increase and soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen content showed marginally significant decreases in the 1 mM jasmonic-acid treatment but not in control and/or 0.0001 mM jasmonic-acid treatments. The caterpillar G. rnenyuanensis preferentially grazed young ramets. After a localized spray of 1 mM jasmonic-acid, the leaf area of young ramets consumed by herbivores was greatly reduced. We propose that defense signals may be transmitted through physical connections (stolon or rhizome) among interconnected ramets of clonal plants. Induced resistance to herbivory may selectively enhance the protection of more vulnerable and valuable plant tissues and confer a significant benefit to clonal plants by a modular risk-spreading strategy, equalizing ontogenetic differences of unevenly-aged ramets in chemical defense compounds and nutritional properties of tissue.

  12. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased. PMID:25485934

  13. Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash

    ZHANG Ji-ru; CAO Xing

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to study the individual and admixed effects of lime and fly ash on the geotechnical characteristics of expansive soil. Lime and fly ash were added to the expansive soil at 4% -6% and 40% - 50% by dry weight of soil, respectively. Testing specimens were determined and examined in chemical composition, grain size distribution, consistency limits, compaction, CBR ,free swell and swell capacity. The effect of lime and fly ash addition on reducing the swelling potential of an expansive soil is presented.It is revealed that a change of expansive soil texture takes place when lime and fly ash are mixed with expansive soil. Plastic limit increases by mixing lime and liquid limit decreases by mixing fly ash, which decreases plasticity index. As the amount of lime and fly ash is increased, there are an apparent reduction in maximum dry density,free swell and swelling capacity under 50 kPa pressure, and a corresponding increase in the percentage of coarse particles, optimum moisture content and CBR value. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by lime and fly ash.

  14. Effects of different liming agencies in forests. A literature review

    Nihlgaard, B.; Budimir, P.

    1984-07-01

    In the introduction of this report the different reasons for acidification of forest soils are summarized. The buffering systems of the soil are reviewed: the carbonate, silicate, aluminium and the iron buffering systems and the cation exchange system. Results of soil acidification are mentioned. Different liming agencies in use are described. Changes in the chemical soil processes due to liming are described. From a soil biology point of view liming means that the turnover of carbon and nitrogen is increased, with lowered C/N-ratio as a consequence. The tree production might be influenced, sometimes strongly positively but more often with slightly lowered volume production. This decrease is mainly interpreted as a result of disturbed mycorrhiza, possibly a negative nitrate-effect, and sometimes as a relative magnesium or bor deficiency. Increased production seems mainly to appear when liming is done in young stands or before reforestation. The conclusions are - that liming has a long term positive effect on the chemical soil status in preventing the resolution of aluminum and other metals, subsequently with positive effects on the soil and ground water in the long run - that one has to be careful with liming in old stands, in order not to get a decreased volume production - that one probably has to compensate for the acidification leaching effects in the soil by adding eg magnesium and bor together with lime in many forest soils.

  15. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID AND CHITOSAN ON RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS, L. VAR. SATIVUS) PLANTS SUBJECTED TO CADMIUM STRESS

    Farouk, S.; Mosa, A.; Taha, A.; Ibrahim, Heba; El-gahmery, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Humic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil) on radish plant growth and some physiol...

  16. Effect of liming and fertilizer on mineral content and productivity of Brachiaria Decumbens grass forage

    To restore a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens, located in Sao Carlos - SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate, an experiment was carried out to study the effects of limestone, buried or not buried in the soil, and fertilizer use on mineral content and forage yield, after 3 years of treatment. Limestone and phosphorus were applied once, one month before starting. NK were applied after each cutting, for fertilized plots, four to five times a year. Experimental design was a random block (100 m2), with 6 replications and 4 treatments. Each block received 4 t/ha of limestone, except the control. Forage samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the mineral contents. Dry matter yield was affected positively with liming when compared with the limestone control, but the effect of limestone use was more pronounced with the concomitant use of NK fertilizer. The contents of Ca, Cs, Fe, La, Mg, Rb, Sc, Sm and Th in forage were negatively affected with the NK use, perhaps due to a dilution effect, while a reverse were observed for K, Cl, perhaps due to input of KCl, besides Br, Mn and Se. It seems that limestone is not a key input to restore degraded tropical pastureland, grown on acid soils, when nitrogen is lacking. INAA allowed the monitoring of some not routine elements that may be under observation to avoid potential plant nutritional disorders in production systems with high limestone and fertilizer use. (author)

  17. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  18. Increasing early crops of unprotected tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. with naphthoxyacetic acid applied on whole plants

    Krystyna Górecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A parthenocarpy-inducing preparation, Betokson, containing beta-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA as an active ingredient, was applied by spraying whole plants. As one of the controls, dipping the trusses in NOA solution was used according to a currently recommended technique. NOA applied by each of these treatment increased the very early yield (first 4 pickings by 4-11 times in cv. Venture and 3-4 times in cv. New Yorker in comparison with the untreated controls. Treating the whole plant increased the very early yield more than did dipping the trusses. The early yield (first 8 pickings was also increased in cv. Venture by NOA applied by both methods. Treatments with NOA decreased, however, the late yield. This decline was more marked with the higher NOA concentration and when the whole-plant-spray was applied. Gibberellic acid (GA3 applied alone as a whole-plant-spray at a concentration of 25 mg·dm-3, did not increase the very early yield but in combination with NOA, increased the early yield in cv. New Yorker. GA3 alone, or in combination with NOA, applied as a spray on the whole plant caused marked chlorosis of the leaves and marked decline of the total yield.

  19. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption

  20. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  1. A Pilot Plant for the Production of Sulphonic Acids by Gamma Irradiation in Presence of Water

    The reaction of industrial long-chain paraffins with sulphur dioxide and oxygen initiated by gamma irradiation to produce the corresponding sulphonic acids was tested in a continuously operating pilot plant. The aqueous reaction mixture is irradiated in a 50- litre reactor by a 10 000-Ci cobalt source and transferred to a separator in which the sulphonic acid is obtained as an aqueous extract by phase separation. The non-reacted hydrocarbon, with which feedstock paraffin is admixed, is recirculated to the reactor and reacted with the recycled gaseous mixture. Yields of up to 1 kg/h of sulphonic acids were obtained. The paper deals with the influence of dose and dose rate of the gamma irradiation and of the residence time in the radiation field on product and yield. Apart from the temperature dependency of sulphoxidation, results will also be presented on the effect of gas composition and cycle speed of the gas on the reaction rate. The water-clear extracts obtained in the separator contain 10 to 30% sulphonic acid and equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid, depending on water addition. All extracts can be processed by well- known methods to give the corresponding sulphonates with excellent surface-active properties. Estimates for a large-scale plant are discussed on the basis of the results. (author)

  2. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. PMID:26779817

  3. Effect of Temperature on Kaffir Lime Oil by Using Hydro-Diffusion Steam Distillation System

    Extraction temperature is one of an important parameter that can give large effect on output yield and quality of essential oils. For that reason, temperature is chosen as a process variable in this study. Fruit of kaffir limes was collected from orchards around Dengkil area around January 2013. Fresh peels of kaffir lime undergo weighing process. A 0.35 kg grounded kaffir lime peels for each steam temperature setting which are 80, 90, 95 degree Celsius and uncontrolled temperature (100 degree Celsius). The steam temperature setting was achieved by using a HFPID controller scheme by controlling the voltage fed to the heater. The proposed research applied the concept of hydro diffusion where steam and extract (water and essential oil) move naturally downwards by earth gravity downwards to the condenser. The hydro diffusion steam distillation plant enhances oil recovery by minimizing oil waste in boiling water and its opposite from the conventional steam extraction where steam goes upward. From the results, it can be concluded that different temperature will give different effects on the quality and quantity of essential oil. For each steam temperature setting, it produces a different composition of the constituents. (author)

  4. Lime treatment experiments gob revegetation in Illinois: A twenty-five year record

    In 1971 and 1972, an attempt was made to achieve direct coal refuse revegetation on an Illinois coal refuse (gob) pile by testing six lime application rates and six grass and legume species. Following achievement of some initial success, a larger plot employing best treatment was established. Additionally, a small test was installed using best treatment and six-inch thick soil cover. In 1976, early results were published, in which short term success was presented. At that time, the prevailing question seemed to be, how long will the vegetation persist? In 1984 and 1985, the gob pile excluding the research plots, was lime-treated and revegetated, but the research plot was left undisturbed. In 1997, after a 25-year time lapse, the original plots were re-staked from original records, and plot-by-plot, existing vegetation on the plots was evaluated. Data is presented correlating for each treatment (each treatment repeated three times), sulfur analysis, vegetation status and lime adequacy. Related research is discussed. Ramifications concerning relevant acid mine drainage is addressed. Eleven conclusions are offered at the end of the paper

  5. Increasing early crops of unprotected tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with naphthoxyacetic acid applied on whole plants

    Krystyna Górecka; Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2013-01-01

    A parthenocarpy-inducing preparation, Betokson, containing beta-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA) as an active ingredient, was applied by spraying whole plants. As one of the controls, dipping the trusses in NOA solution was used according to a currently recommended technique. NOA applied by each of these treatment increased the very early yield (first 4 pickings) by 4-11 times in cv. Venture and 3-4 times in cv. New Yorker in comparison with the untreated controls. Treating the whole plant increase...

  6. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  7. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1 by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  8. Pore structure and carbonation in blended lime-cement pastes

    Álvarez, J. I.; Arandigoyen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to gain a fuller understandingof the curing process in lime pastes (100, 90, 80, 70,60, 50 and 40% lime) blended with cement by analyzingcarbonation in these materials. A hydrated, airslaked lime powder and CEM II A/L 32.5 Portlandcement were used for the blends. These materialswere singled out for research primarily because theymay be used in the restoration of heritage monuments.Variation in weight was used as an indicator for carbonation.A new parameter, A, was found...

  9. Traditional methods of mortar preparation: the hot lime mix

    Margalha, Goreti; Veiga, Rosário; Santos Silva, António; Brito, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of maturation on mortars prepared according to a traditional method of slaking quicklime mixed with sand and kept wet until used (hot lime mix). Two lime/aggregate weight proportions were considered, a rich one (1:5) and a normal one (1:13). The quicklime was used as pieces of crushed calcined limestone and as micronized quicklime, both from industrial production. The mortars prepared with hot lime were kept wet for periods of 1, 7, 45 and 90 days, before mouldin...

  10. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  11. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... higher in the VEG diet than in the FM diet (93 versus 92%; t-test, Pb0.05), supporting that protease inhibitors from plant protein ingredients were not the cause of the delay. The apparent digestibility coefficient of carbohydrates (calculated as nitrogen-free extract (NFE)) was much lower in the VEG...... two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient was...

  12. Plant-conservative agriculture of acid and degraded Raña-grassland enhances diversity of the common soil mites (Oribatida)

    Juan Jorrín; Pedro González-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    The seminatural prairie of the Raña of Cañamero (Spain) is a degraded and unproductive agrosystem with acid and stony soils, and low coverage of xerophytic grasses. In a project about secondary reconversion of the raña-prairie to a more productive cropland, an experimental field (EF) was established to assess the effect on plot-productivity of the interaction between correction of soil pH (liming) with three cropping systems: a no-tilled and annually fertilized and improved prairies, and a co...

  13. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0...

  14. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinal...

  15. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    Lin Zhou; Hui Xu; Sue Mischke; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Dapeng Zhang; Xujun Zhu; Xinghui Li; Wanping Fang

    2014-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant under drought stress is essential to develop drought-tolerant tea genotypes, along with crop management practices that can mitigate drought stress. The objective of the present investigation is evaluat...

  16. Water stress and gibberellic acid effects on growth of fenugreek plants

    Alhadi, Fatima Ahmad; Yasseen, Bassam Taha; Jabr, Mahmoud

    1998-01-01

    Fenugreek plant is susceptible to water stress during the vegetative growth stages, since a soil matric potential lower than -0.3 MPa causes substantial reduction in growth parameters such as height, weight and total leaf area. Gibberellic acid (GA3) application to the seeds before sowing caused slight changes in growth parameters as well as some physiological and biochemical aspects under water deficit conditions. Water stress decreased the area of leaves by reducing the number and volume of...

  17. Quantitative analysis of changes in the phosphoproteome of maize induced by the plant hormone salicylic acid

    Wu, Liuji; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Shunxi; Tian, Lei; Pang, Yanjie; Han, Zanping; Wu, Liancheng; Chen, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in regulating various physiological and biochemical processes. Our previous study identified several protein kinases responsive to SA, suggesting that phosphorylation events play an important role in the plant response to SA. In this study, we characterized the phosphoproteome of maize in response to SA using isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology and TiO2 enrichment method. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, ...

  18. Determination of rutin, total quercetin, chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds in some European medicinal plants

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Chmelová, Š.

    Lublin: Medical University of Lublin, 2006. s. 80. ISBN 83-910239-8-2. [5th International Symposium on Chromatography of Natura. 19.06.2006-22.06.2006, Lublin] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rutin * quercetin * chlorogenic acid * medicinal plants Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  19. Analysis and Simulation of Circadian Multi-Oscillator Systems in a Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant

    Bohn, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is an adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to drought stress: improved water-use efficiency is achieved by an optimized temporal arrangement of photosynthetic subprocesses, which are driven by an endogenous pacemaker, i.e. a circadian clock. The present work deals with the hypothesis that the circadian rhythm of gas-exchange of entire leaves of the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana has to be understood as the collective signal of the population of cells i...

  20. PLANT PENTACYCLIC TRITERPENIC ACIDS AS MODULATORS OF LIPID MEMBRANE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Prades, J.; Vogler, O.; Alemany, R; Gomez-Florit, M.; Funari, S.S.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V.; Barcelo, F

    2011-01-01

    Free triterpenic acids (TTPs) present in plants are bioactive compounds exhibiting multiple nutriceutical activities. The underlying molecular mechanisms have only been examined in part and mainly focused on anti-inflammatory properties, cancer and cardiovascular diseases, in all of which TTPs frequently affect membrane-related proteins. Based on the structural characteristics of TTPs, we assume that their effect on biophysical properties of cell membranes could play a role for their biologic...

  1. Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM; Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The test...

  2. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    Edemar Moro; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Heitor Cantarella; Adriano Stephan Nascente; Adriana Lima Moro; Fernando Broetto

    2013-01-01

    The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS) in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of ric...

  3. Beyond plant defense: insights on the potential of salicylic and methylsalicylic acid to contain growth of the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea

    Dieryckx, Cindy; Gaudin, Vanessa; Dupuy, Jean-William; Bonneu, Marc; Girard, Vincent; Job, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Using Botrytis cinerea we confirmed in the present work several previous studies showing that salicylic acid, a main plant hormone, inhibits fungal growth in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect was also observed for the two salicylic acid derivatives, methylsalicylic and acetylsalicylic acid. In marked contrast, 5-sulfosalicylic acid was totally inactive. Comparative proteomics from treated vs. control mycelia showed that both the intracellular and extracellular proteomes were affected in the pr...

  4. Competing mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl acid accumulation in plants revealed using an Arabidopsis model system.

    Müller, Claudia E; LeFevre, Gregory H; Timofte, Anca E; Hussain, Fatima A; Sattely, Elizabeth S; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) bioaccumulate in plants, presenting a human exposure route if present in irrigation water. Curiously, accumulation of PFAAs in plant tissues is greatest for both the short-chain and long-chain PFAAs, generating a U-shaped relationship with chain length. In the present study, the authors decouple competing mechanisms of PFAA accumulation using a hydroponic model plant system (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to a suite of 10 PFAAs to determine uptake, depuration, and translocation kinetics. Rapid saturation of root concentrations occurred for all PFAAs except perfluorobutanoate, the least-sorptive (shortest-chain) PFAA. Shoot concentrations increased continuously, indicating that PFAAs are efficiently transported and accumulate in shoots. Tissue concentrations of PFAAs during depuration rapidly declined in roots but remained constant in shoots, demonstrating irreversibility of the translocation process. Root and shoot concentration factors followed the U-shaped trend with perfluoroalkyl chain length; however, when normalized to dead-tissue sorption, this relationship linearized. The authors therefore introduce a novel term, the "sorption normalized concentration factor," to describe PFAA accumulation in plants; because of their hydrophobicity, sorption is the determining factor for long-chain PFAAs, whereas the shortest-chain PFAAs are most effectively transported in the plant. The present study provides a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained PFAA accumulation trends in plants and suggests that shorter-chained PFAAs may bioaccumulate more readily in edible portions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1138-1147. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26383989

  5. Abscisic acid - an overlooked player in plant-microbe symbioses formation?

    Stec, Natalia; Banasiak, Joanna; Jasiński, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an ubiquitous plant hormone and one of the foremost signalling molecules, controlling plants' growth and development, as well as their response to environmental stresses. To date, the function of ABA has been extensively investigated as an abiotic stress molecule which regulates the plants' water status. However, in the context of symbiotic associations, ABA is less recognized. In contrast to well-described auxin/cytokinin and gibberellin/strigolactone involvement in symbioses, ABA has long been underestimated. Interestingly, ABA emerges as an important player in arbuscular mycorrhiza and legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The plant's use of stress hormones like ABA in regulation of those interactions directly links the efficiency of these processes to the environmental status of the plant, notably during drought stress. Here we provide an overview of ABA interplay in beneficial associations of plants with microorganisms and propose ABA as a potential factor determining whether the investment in establishing the interaction is higher than the profit coming from it. PMID:26828669

  6. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  7. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  8. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  9. Effect of abscisic acid and blue radiation on photosynthesis and growth of pea plants

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the net photosynthetic rate (PN), the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities, the chlorophyll (Chl) content and growth of pea plants (Pisum sativum) grown under ''white'' (WR) or blue radiation (BR), were investigated. BR as compared to WR enhanced PN, the activities of examined enzymes, and Chl content. In spite of higher PN of the plants grown under BR, dry matter of their shoots was lower in comparison with WR. ABA-treated plants grown under both WR and BR showed reduction in PN. ABA had no effect on the activities of both RuBPC and PEPC and the Chl content. Independent on the radiation quality, ABA reduced stem elongation, but did not affect the biomass of whole shoots

  10. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  11. Priming of plant resistance by natural compounds. Hexanoic acid as a model

    Paz eAranega Bou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some alternative control strategies of currently emerging plant diseases are based on the use of resistance inducers. This review highlights the recent advances made in the characterization of natural compounds that induce resistance by a priming mechanism. These include vitamins, chitosans, oligogalacturonides, volatile organic compounds, azelaic and pipecolic acid, among others. Overall, other than providing novel disease control strategies that meet environmental regulations, natural priming agents are valuable tools to help unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the induced resistance phenomenon. The data presented in this review reflect the novel contributions made from studying these natural plant inducers, with special emphasis placed on hexanoic acid (Hx, proposed herein as a model tool for this research field. Hx is a potent natural priming agent of proven efficiency in a wide range of host plants and pathogens. It can early activate broad-spectrum defenses by inducing callose deposition and the SA and JA pathways. Later it can prime pathogen-specific responses according to the pathogen’s lifestyle. Interestingly, Hx primes redox-related genes to produce an anti-oxidant protective effect, which might be critical for limiting the infection of necrotrophs. Our Hx-induced resistance (Hx-IR findings also strongly suggest that it is an attractive tool for the molecular characterization of the plant alarmed state, with the added advantage of it being a natural compound.

  12. Method of processing boric acid-containing liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants

    Purpose: To process boric acid-containing liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants by ultrafiltration, further process the filtrates with ion exchange resins and recover the processed liquid as primary coolants. Method: Boric acid-containing liquid wastes are sent from a storage tank into a circulation tank, removed with suspended substances through filters and then supplied to an ultrafiltration film module. The liquid suspensions separated in the ultrafiltration film module are returned to the circulation tank. While on the other hand, the filtrates from the ultrafiltration film module are sent into an ion exchange resin column, where ionic impurities are removed. The liquid discharged from the ion exchange resin column is a pure boric acid solution, which is recovered as primary coolants and used again. The suspension substances concentrated in the ultrafiltration film module are then solidified by cements or the likes. (Moriyama, K.)

  13. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions.

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  14. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  15. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  16. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    Edemar Moro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of rice and its components. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial three (levels of soil acidity x five (micronutrients sources with four replications. The addition of micronutrients does not affect levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil; soil acidity significantly affects levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil, concentration of micronutrients in rice plants and crop yield and its components; medium soil acidity (pH 5.5 result in medium to high levels of Cu and Fe, medium level of Zn and Mn, high nitrate reductase activity, resulting in higher dry matter, tillers, panicles, spikelets, weight of 100 grains and hence grain yield.

  17. Photosynthesis and water relations in tomato plants cultivated long-term in media containing (+)-usnic acid.

    Latkowska, E; Lechowski, Z; Bialczyk, J; Pilarski, J

    2006-09-01

    The influence of (+)-usnic acid on rates of gas exchange (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration) in long-term cultivation of tomato plants was studied. The effect was dose-dependent. Plants grown in media containing the maximum concentration of (+)-usnic acid (30 muM) had photosynthetic and respiration rates reduced by 41% and 80%, respectively. The effect on photosynthesis rate may be the result of a multidirectional effect at various stages of this process, which at the highest usnic acid concentration underwent reduction: content of chlorophylls by 30%, carotenoids by 35%, and Hill reaction activity by 75%. Usnic acid also raises the susceptibility of chlorophyll to photodegradation. Under some conditions, transpiration was reduced by 2.1-fold in light and 3.7-fold in dark. This result was correlated with (1) an increase in the diffusive resistance of the stomata (3.1-fold in upper and 1.5-fold in lower surface of leaf), (2) a reduction of stomata density (by 60% on upper and 40% on lower surface), and (3) a 12.3-fold decrease in root hydraulic conductance. PMID:16902819

  18. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Demyanenko DV; Demyanenko VG; Breusova SV

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS) causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and...

  20. Calcium hydroxide based consolidation of lime mortars and stone

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    Lisabon : LNEC, 2008 - (kk, k.), s. 299-308 ISBN 978-972-49-2135-8. [Stone consolidation in cultural heritage. Lisabon (PT), 06.05.2008-07.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : lime water * lime mortar consolidation * nanotechnology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fund...

  2. Local development of affordable lime in southern Africa

    Mitchell, C. J.; Inglethorpe, S.D.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    In many less developed countries, especially in southern Africa, there is a shortage of locally available, low-cost lime. This has serious implications, especially for farming where insufficient application of agricultural lime can lead to soil acidification, with associated aluminium / manganese toxicity and poor crop yields. As part of the UK Government’s programme of technical aid to developing countries, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has recently carried out a project ‘Local develop...

  3. Mechanical properties of masonry repair dolomitic lime-based mortars

    Lanas, J.; Perez, J. L.; Bello, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Alvarez, J.I. (José Ignacio)

    2006-01-01

    180 different mortars made with a dolomitic lime and different aggregates were prepared in order to be used in restoration works. This paper focuses on the effect of technological variables on pore structure and mechanical properties of magnesian lime-based mortars. Compressive and flexural strengths of the specimens were discussed according to curing time, binder : aggregate ratios, attributes of the aggregates and porosity, at long-term tests. A strong increase in the strength of mortar...

  4. Behavior of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Rice Husk Ash & Lime

    B.Suneel Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In India the soil mostly present is Clay, in which the construction of sub grade is problematic. In recent times the demands for sub grade materials has increased due to increased constructional activities in the road sector and due to paucity of available nearby lands to allow excavate fill materials for making sub grade. In this situation, a means to overcome this problem is to utilize the different alternative generated waste materials, which cause not only environmental hazards and also the depositional problems. Keeping this in view stabilization of weak soil in situ may be done with suitable admixtures to save the construction cost considerably. The present investigation has therefore been carried out with agricultural waste materials like Rice Husk Ash (RHA which was mixed with soil to study improvement of weak sub grade in terms of compaction and strength characteristics. Silica produced from rice husk ashes have investigated successfully as a pozzolanic material in soil stabilization. However, rice husk ash cannot be used solely since the materials lack in calcium element. As a result, rice husk ash shall be mixed with other cementitious materials such as lime and cement to have a solid chemical reaction in stabilization process. Lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is the name of the natural mineral (native lime CaO occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered lime stone xenoliths in volcanic ejection. In this study RHA and Lime is mixed in different percentage like (RHA as 5%, 10%, and 15% and (Lime as 3%, 6%, 9% and laboratory test CBR is done with a curing period of 4, 7 and 14 days with different percentages of RHA & Lime and Lime+ RHA.

  5. Micromachining soda-lime glass by femtosecond laser pulses

    Jia, Wei; Yu, Jian; Chai, Lu; Wang, Ching-Yue

    2015-08-01

    The physical process of forming a modified region in soda-lime glass was investigated using 1 kHz intense femtosecond laser pulses from a Ti: sapphire laser at 775 nm. Through the modifications induced by the femtosecond laser radiation using selective chemical etching techniques, we fabricated reproducible and defined microstructures and further studied their morphologies and etching properties. Moreover, a possible physical mechanism for the femtosecond laser modification in soda-lime glass was proposed.

  6. Shock, release, and tension response of soda lime glass

    This work describes the result of shock wave experiments on soda lime glass in which the shock wave profiles were recorded simultaneously at or near the impact surface and the free surface of the glass specimen by means of multi-beam VISAR. Since earlier work indicated that the glass under shock compression does not follow the Gladstone-Dale model, these profiles provide accurate and self consistent values of transit times for shock, release, and tensile waves propagating in soda lime glass

  7. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  8. How to eliminate the formation of chlorogenic acids artefacts during plants analysis? Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) in the HPLC analysis of chlorogenic acids and their native derivatives in plants.

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-09-01

    The analytical procedures for determining plant constituents involve the application of sample preparation methods to fully isolate and/or pre-concentrate the analyzed substances. High-temperature liquid extraction is still applied most frequently for this purpose. The present paper shows that high-temperature extraction cannot be applied for the analysis of chlorogenic acids (CQAs) and their derivatives in plants as it causes the CQAs transformation leading to erroneous quantitative estimations of these compounds. Experiments performed on different plants (black elder, hawthorn, nettle, yerba maté, St John's wort and green coffee) demonstrate that the most appropriate method for the estimation of CQAs/CQAs derivatives is sea sand disruption method (SSDM) because it does not induce any transformation and/or degradation processes in the analyzed substances. Owing to the SSDM method application we found that the investigated plants, besides four main CQAs, contain sixteen CQAs derivatives, among them three quinic acids. The application of SSDM in plant analysis not only allows to establish a true concentration of individual CQAs in the examined plants but also to determine which chlorogenic acids derivatives are native plant components and what is their concentration level. What is even more important, the application of SSDM in plant analysis allows to eliminate errors that may arise or might have arisen in the study of chlorogenic acids and their derivatives in plant metabolism. PMID:26231294

  9. Effects of a sedimentary humic acid on plant growth: study of the general mechanisms of action upon root application in cucumber plants (Cucumis Sativus l. Cv Ashley).

    Olaetxea-Indaburu, M. (Maite); Baigorri-Ekisoáin, R. (Roberto); Garcia-Mina, J.M. (José María)

    2015-01-01

    HS (humic substances) constitute one of the most abundant forms of organic matter in the biosphere. Many studies reported the ability of humic acids (HAs) isolated from HS to affect plant the plant development of diverse plant species. However, the mechanism of action that is behind these events is scarcely understood and it is not integrated into a holistic view. To this end, the aim of this work was to study the mechanism of action of an specific sedimentary humic acid (SHA) under roots ...

  10. Plant and Soil Emissions of Amines and Amino Acids: A Source of Secondary Aerosol Precursors

    Jackson, M. L.; Doskey, P. V.; Pypker, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the most abundant alkaline gas in the atmosphere and forms secondary aerosol by neutralizing sulfuric and nitric acids that are released during combustion of fossil fuels. Ammonia is primarily emitted by cropping and livestock operations. However, C2 and C3 amines (pKb 3.3-3.4), which are stronger bases than NH3 (pKb 4.7) have been observed in nuclei mode aerosol that is the precursor to secondary aerosol. Mixtures of amines and amino acids have been identified in diverse environments in aerosol, fog water, cloud water, the soluble fraction of precipitation, and in dew. Glycine (pKb 4.2), serine (pKb 4.8) and alanine (pKb 3.7 and 4.1 for the D and L forms, respectively) are typically the most abundant species. The only reported values of gas-phase glycine, serine and alanine were in marine air and ranged from 6-14 pptv. The origin of atmospheric amines and amino acids has not been fully identified, although sources are likely similar to NH3. Nitrate assimilation in plants forms glycine, serine, and L-alanine, while D-alanine is present in bacterial cell walls. Glycine is converted to serine during C3 plant photorespiration, producing CO2 and NH3. Bacteria metabolize glycine and alanine to methylamine and ethylamine via decarboxylation. Likely sources of amino acids are plants and bacteria, thus concentrations near continental sources are likely greater than those measured in marine air. The overall goal of the research is to examine seasonal variations and relationships between the exchange of CO2, NH3, amines, and amino acids with a corn/soybean rotation in the Midwest Corn Belt. The study presents gaseous profiles of organic amine compounds from various species of vegetation using a mist chamber trapping technique and analysis of the derivatized species by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Amino acid and amine profiles were obtained for red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), white pine (Pinus

  11. Plant growth and phosphorus uptake in mycorrhizal rangpur lime seedlings under different levels of phosphorus Crescimento e absorção de fósforo por plântulas de limão 'Cravo' micorrizadas sob diferentes níveis de fósforo

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of rangpur lime (Citrus limonia to arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, under P levels ranging from low to excessive. Plants were grown in three levels of soluble P (25, 200 and 1,000 mg kg-1, either inoculated with Glomus intraradices or left noninoculated, evaluated at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after transplanting (DAT. Total dry weight, shoot P concentration and specific P uptake by roots increased in mycorrhizal plants with the doses of 25 and 200 mg kg-1 P at 90 DAT. With 1,000 mg kg-1 P, mycorrhizal plants had a transient growth depression at 90 and 120 DAT, and nonmycorrhizal effects on P uptake at any harvesting period. Root colonization and total external mycelium correlated positively with shoot P concentration and total dry weight at the two lowest P levels. Although the highest P level decreased root colonization, it did not affect total external mycelium to the same extent. As a result, a P availability imbalance affected negatively the mycorrhizal symbiosis and, consequently, the plant growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do limão 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia à micorriza arbuscular (Glomus intraradices, com variações de níveis de P de baixo a excessivo. As plantas foram cultivadas em três níveis de P solúvel (25, 200 e 1.000 mg kg-1, com inoculação de Glomus intraradices ou sem inoculação, e avaliadas aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias depois do transplantio (DAT. A biomassa seca total, a concentração de P na parte aérea, e a absorção específica de P pelas raízes aumentaram nas plantas micorrizadas nas doses de 25 e 200 mg kg-1 de P aos 90 DAT. Na dose de 1.000 mg kg-1 de P, houve depressão transiente de crescimento nas plantas micorrizadas, aos 90 e 120 DAT, e não houve efeito micorrízico sobre a absorção de P em qualquer época de colheita. A colonização radicular e o micélio externo total correlacionaram-se positivamente com a

  12. Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Field on Healthy and Infected Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Trees with Phytoplasma

    Fatemeh Abdollahi; Vahid Niknam; Faezeh Ghanati; Faribors Masroor; Seyyed Nasr Noorbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the C...

  13. Nutritional characteristics of two pigeon pea hybrids – Liming and phosphated fertilization

    Marcia Atauri Cardelli de Lucena; Valdinei Tadeu Paulino; Karen Marques Santos; Alline Mariá Schumann; Rosana Aparecida Possenti

    2012-01-01

    The use of legumes in animal production systems can be a sustainable alternative as a protein source in rotational grazing system and/or as a protein bank. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) figure as an example of success of this use on animal nutrition. The development of this species can be limited by the high acidity and low soil phosphorus content. There is a lack of scientific information on the effects of liming and phosphorus fertilization on some nutritional variables of two pig...

  14. First evidence of lime burning in southern Scandinavia: lime kilns found at the royal residence on the west bank of Lake Tissø

    Henriksen, Peter Steen; Holst, Sandie

    corresponds well with the dating of the erection of the hall in the third construction phase at Fugledegård. Finds of mud-and-wattle with whitewashing show that the lime was used to whitewash the halls at Tissø in both the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Age. Analyses of lime from the lime kilns and the...

  15. Design and development of a small scale lime kiln for production of custom-made lime binder

    Válek, Jan; Matas, Tomáš; Jiroušek, Josef

    Glasgow: University of the West of Scotland, 2013 - (Hughes, J.) ISBN 978-1-903978-44-3. [Historic mortars conference /3./. Glasgow (GB), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV010 Keywords : experimental lime kiln * small scale lime production * replicas of historic mortars * cultural heritage protection Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Multiple targets of salicylic acid and its derivatives in plants and animals

    Daniel F. Klessig

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs, as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, High Mobility Group Box protein (HMGB and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions, but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms.

  17. Phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D promotes RNA replication of a plant RNA virus.

    Kiwamu Hyodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids, but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV. We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate.

  18. Multiple Targets of Salicylic Acid and Its Derivatives in Plants and Animals

    Klessig, Daniel F.; Tian, Miaoying; Choi, Hyong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a critical plant hormone that is involved in many processes, including seed germination, root initiation, stomatal closure, floral induction, thermogenesis, and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Its central role in plant immunity, although extensively studied, is still only partially understood. Classical biochemical approaches and, more recently, genome-wide high-throughput screens have identified more than two dozen plant SA-binding proteins (SABPs), as well as multiple candidates that have yet to be characterized. Some of these proteins bind SA with high affinity, while the affinity of others exhibit is low. Given that SA levels vary greatly even within a particular plant species depending on subcellular location, tissue type, developmental stage, and with respect to both time and location after an environmental stimulus such as infection, the presence of SABPs exhibiting a wide range of affinities for SA may provide great flexibility and multiple mechanisms through which SA can act. SA and its derivatives, both natural and synthetic, also have multiple targets in animals/humans. Interestingly, many of these proteins, like their plant counterparts, are associated with immunity or disease development. Two recently identified SABPs, high mobility group box protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are critical proteins that not only serve key structural or metabolic functions but also play prominent roles in disease responses in both kingdoms. PMID:27303403

  19. Deoxygenation of Plant Fatty Acid using NiSnK/ SiO2 as Catalyst

    Environmental friendly bio-oil which offers supply reliability as a potential alternative fuel, has spurred to rapid development of bio fuels technology. Palm oil is a potential renewable energy source for bio fuels production in the future and Malaysia is one of the world largest palm oil producers. However, undesired oxygen content in the plant fatty acid that contributes to low energy density, high viscosity, and low stability, makes the palm oil not effective to be used as bio fuels directly. In the present study, the performance of silica supported trimetal catalyst, NiSnK/ SiO2, on deoxygenation of used palm oil was evaluated. In addition, the effects of operating parameters, such as reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity were investigated. Conversion of palmitic acid as high as 90 % was achieved in deoxygenation of used palm oil at reaction temperature 350 degree Celsius. In order to have a better understanding on the deoxygenation reaction, model compound system using the major saturated fatty acid in the used palm oil, palmitic acid was also carried out. Palmitic acid was found mainly decarboxylated into n-pentadecane with some decarboxylation and isomerization products. (author)

  20. Preliminary characterization of uranium rare earth from phosphates and wet phosphoric acid fertilizer plant

    A preliminary characterization of several samples of phosphate rocks (phosrock), various fertilizer products, phosphoric acid, and phosphogypsum (PG) waste product from the Philippine Phosphate Fertilizer Corporation (Philphos) was conducted. The objective is to determine the concentration of uranium, rare earth elements and other valuable resources that may be present in the phosrock and phosphoric acid for added economic benefit as well as in the various produced fertilizers and phosphogypsum for environmental purposes. At the Philphos plant in Isabel, Leyte, in-situ measurements of uranium and thorium with the use of a portable gamma ray spectrometer were undertaken on phosrocks and PG waste, including several localities within the plant particularly in areas were the wet phosphoric acid is intermediately produced prior to fertilizer production. Several feed ore phosrock samples, various fertilizer products and a PG waste sample were analyzed for uranium by fluorimetry and for other nine elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at the Nuclear Materials Research Section of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Similarly, the feed ore phosrock samples and two phosphoric acids produced from Egypt and Peru phosrocks were analyzed for uranium by gamma spectrometry at the Nuclear Reactor Section of PNRI. Likewise, the two phosphoric acids from Egypt and Peru phosrocks were analyzed for uranium, thorium, rare earth elements and others by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry at the National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines. Presented are the results of the in-situ gamma ray measurements and the different analytical methods used. While the results are very preliminary, the present study revealed the presence uranium and other useful resources in significant amount to warrant further investigations. (Author)

  1. Impacts of acid precipitation on decomposition and plant communities in lakes

    Hendrey, G R; Barvenik, F W

    1978-01-01

    Over the past few decades the acidity of lakes and rivers has been increasing in several areas of the world. In southern Norway, western Sweden, the Canadian Shield, and the northeastern United States, acidification of fresh waters has become a major environmental problem. It has been clearly established that acid precipitation is the cause of decreasing pH levels in waters of the affected areas. Over most all of northern Europe, southern Scandinavia, and essentiallly all of the U.S. east of the Mississippi River, the mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations in precipitation, expressed as pH, are below 5.0. Furthermore, the regions affected by very acid precipitation (pH < 4.5) are rapidly expanding. The effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems depend primarily on the geology of the region, but also on the evaluation (orographic precipitation). The regions now known to be the most seriously affected are mountainous districts of southern Scandinavia and the northeastern United States which are located hundreds of kilometers from SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions sources. Regions of the United States which are potentially sensitive to acid inputs because of their geology and surface water alkalinity are also found in the western United States. Local acid precipitation problems are now known on the West Coast, and some lakes in the Puget Sound region appear to be acidified aquatic flora and fauna at all ecosystem levels are greatly impoverished in acidified freshwaters. The numbers of species are reduced and changes in the biomass of some groups of plants and animals have been observed. Decomposition of leaf litterand other organic substrates is hampered, nutrient recycling appears to be retarded, and nitrofication inhibited at pH levels frequently observed in acid-stressed waters.

  2. Slow-release and organic fertilizers on early growth of Rangpur lime

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Slow-release and organic fertilizers are promising alternatives to conventional fertilizers, as both reduce losses by leaching, volatilization and problems of toxicity and/or salinity to plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different rates of the organic fertilizer Humato-Macota® compared with the slow-release fertilizer Osmocote® on the growth and nitrogen content in the dry matter of Rangpur lime. A field experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design with an additional treatment (4 x 4 +1. The first factor consisted of four Humato­Macota® rates (0, 1, 2, and 3% applied to the substrate; the second factor consisted of the same Humato-Macota® concentrations, but applied as fortnightly foliar sprays; the additional treatment consisted of application of 5 kgm-3 Osmocote® 18-05-09. Means of all growth characteristics (plant height, total dry matter, root/shoot ratio and leaf area and the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were higher when plants were fertilized with the slow-release fertilizer. The organic fertilizer applied alone did not meet the N requirement of Rangpur lime.

  3. Effect of gibberellic acid on growth and indole metabolism of dwarf-pea plants

    A study was conducted to describe the pathway of biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan (TPP) and determine the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on this system. Treatment of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L. var Little Marvel) with 0.8 μg GA3/plant resulted in increase in plant height along with increased auxin level. A cell-free preparation of pea shoot tissue was able to convert D,L-tryptophan-3-14C into different indole metabolites. The acidic and neutral fractions obtained after TPP incubation were subjected to thin-layer chromatography. In the neutral fraction, two peaks of radioactivity were found and these matched the Rfs for indole-acetaldehyde (IAAId) and indole-3-ethanol (IEt). One major peak of radioactivity was observed in the radiochromatograms of the acidic fraction and it corresponded with a authentic IAA. The enzymes involved in the conversion of TPP to IAA involved, in the first step, a transaminase (tryptophan aminotransferase, EC 2 x 6 x 1) reaction. The aminotransferase was purified about 82-fold by acetone precipitation and Sephadex G-200 filtration. It had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 400C. With α-ketoglutarate a co-substrate, the enzyme transaminated aromatic as well as aliphatic amino acids including D,L-tryptophan, D,L-alanine and D,L leucine. D-TPP was found to be more effective than L-TPP as a substrate. GA3 treatment to dwarf pea plants results in increase in the specific activity of the enzyme over the observation period. In the second step of TPP conversion, IPyA is decarboxylated by an enzyme to IAAId. In plants treated with GA3, the enzyme activity was significantly higher three days after treatment but remained unaffected at all other stages when observations were made. The final step enzyme is a dehydrogenase that can convert IAAId to IAA in the presence of MAD as a co-factor

  4. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease. PMID:27095400

  5. Effect of Plant Oils upon Lipase and Citric Acid Production in Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast

    Farshad Darvishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades very efficiently hydrophobic substrates to produce organic acids, single-cell oil, lipases, and so forth. The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical behavior and simultaneous production of valuable metabolites such as lipase, citric acid (CA, and single-cell protein (SCP by Yarrowia lipolytica DSM 3286 grown on various plant oils as sole carbon source. Among tested plant oils, olive oil proved to be the best medium for lipase and CA production. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 produced 34.6 ± 0.1 U/mL of lipase and also CA and SCP as by-product on olive oil medium supplemented with yeast extract. Urea, as organic nitrogen, was the best nitrogen source for CA production. The results of this study suggest that the two biotechnologically valuable products, lipase and CA, could be produced simultaneously by this strain using renewable low-cost substrates such as plant oils in one procedure.

  6. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  7. Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments

    Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio; McElrone, Andrew J.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of t...

  8. Hidrólise da cana-de-açúcar com cal virgem ou cal hidratada Hydrolysis of cane sugar with lime or hydrated lime

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do tratamento alcalino da cana-de-açúcar com cal virgem ou cal hidratada sobre a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 3, composto de três formas de processamento da cana (in natura; cana hidrolisada com 0,5% de cal virgem; e cana hidrolisada com 0,5% de cal hidratada e três tempos de armazenamento (12, 36 e 60 horas. As formas de processamento influenciaram os teores de matéria orgânica, matéria mineral, carboidratos totais e hemicelulose, assim como os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais. Os tempos de armazenamento influenciaram os teores de proteína bruta, matéria orgânica, carboidratos totais e hemicelulose. Entre os minerais, somente o teor de cálcio teve aumento com a inclusão de ambos os tipos de cal em relação à cana-de-açúcar, que não sofreu o processo de hidrólise. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro aumentaram com a hidrólise da cana em comparação à cana in natura. A hidrólise com cal hidratada ou com cal virgem mantém o valor nutricional da cana-de-açúcar, permitindo que possa ser utilizada depois de até 60 horas de armazenamento.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the alkaline treatment of sugarcane with virgin lime or hydrated lime on the bromatologic composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. It was used a complete random design with a 3 × 3 factorial scheme composed by three forms of of sugarcane processing (in natura sugarcane; hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.5% virgin lime; and hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.5% hydrated lime and three storage times (12, 36 and 60 hours. The forms of processing changed the contents of organic matter

  9. Rosmarinic acid is a homoserine lactone mimic produced by plants that activates a bacterial quorum-sensing regulator.

    Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Ortega, Alvaro; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication mechanism that controls genes, enabling bacteria to live as communities, such as biofilms. Homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules function as quorum-sensing signals for Gram-negative bacteria. Plants also produce previously unidentified compounds that affect quorum sensing. We identified rosmarinic acid as a plant-derived compound that functioned as an HSL mimic. In vitro assays showed that rosmarinic acid bound to the quorum-sensing regulator RhlR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and competed with the bacterial ligand N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid stimulated a greater increase in RhlR-mediated transcription in vitro than that of C4-HSL. In P. aeruginosa, rosmarinic acid induced quorum sensing-dependent gene expression and increased biofilm formation and the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and elastase. Because P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection induces rosmarinic acid secretion from plant roots, our results indicate that rosmarinic acid secretion is a plant defense mechanism to stimulate a premature quorum-sensing response. P. aeruginosa is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects plants and animals; therefore, identification of rosmarinic acid as an inducer of premature quorum-sensing responses may be useful in agriculture and inform human therapeutic strategies. PMID:26732761

  10. Wood residues as fuel source for lime kilns. Final report

    Philip, R.J.; Azarniouch, M.K.

    1982-11-01

    Despite flow problems encountered when feeding wet hog fuel with mill-produced lime mud directly into the cold end of a pilot kiln, a decrease in fossil fuel consumption of approximately 20%, based on long term average product flow rates, was obtained. The flow problems consisted of material adherence onto the kiln wall, increased dusting and feed-end losses. The lime produced with hog fuel showed higher reactivity than lime produced without hog fuel. Upon causticizing a high-sulphidity mill green liquor, the equilibrium causticizing efficiency was not affected by the use of wood residues in calcining. However, there was some deterioration in the settling and filtration characteristics of the lime mud due to the presence of hog fuel contaminants. The normal fuel requirement per ton of lime in mill kilns is only about one third of that in the pilot kiln. Because most of the problems and limitations encountered in the pilot kiln were associated with the very high mass ratio of hog fuel to lime mud required to achieve even 20% replacement, fossil fuel substitution of 30 to 50% might be attainable in commercial-scale lime kilns. The ultimate goal of complete or near-complete substitution of fossil fuel by wood residues can be achieved by additional firing of dried (moisture content 10-15%) fines from the hot end of the kiln. Since this latter type of fuel is substantially more costly than wet, non-comminuted hog fuel, its usage should be minimized. 14 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of the lime-cooking and tortilla making properties of quality protein maize hybrids grown in Mexico.

    Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Amaya Guerra, Carlos A; Herrera Macias, Pedro; Melesio Cuellar, Jose L; Preciado Ortiz, Ricardo E; Terron Ibarra, Arturo D; Vazquez Carrillo, Gricelda

    2008-09-01

    Eleven experimental and three commercial white quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids and two regular endosperm controls were planted at Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico with the aim of comparing grain physical characteristics, protein quality, lime-cooking and tortilla making properties. All genotypes were planted under irrigation using a density of 80,000 plants/ha and fertilized with 250 kg N-60 P-60 K per hectare. When compared with the controls these QPM genotypes had lower test (77.4 vs. 76.5 kg/hL) and 1,000 kernel weights (327 vs. 307 g), softer endosperm texture (2.5 vs. 1.8 where 1 = soft, 2 intermediate and 3 hard endosperm), lower protein (10.0 vs. 8.0%), higher nixtamal water uptake after 30 min lime-cooking (50.0 vs. 53.1% moisture) and lower pericarp removal scores. The lower thousand-kernel weight and softer endosperm texture observed in the QPM genotypes lowered the optimum lime-cooking time as estimated with regression equations. Most QPM genotypes had higher amounts of lysine, tryptophan and albumins/globulins when compared with the controls. QPMs HEC 424973, HEC 774986 and HEC 734286 had the best grain traits for nixtamalization and therefore the best potential for industrial utilization. The commercial use of these QPM hybrids should benefit Mexicans who depend on tortillas as the main staple. PMID:18600459

  12. The effect of plant sterols and different low doses of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil on lipoprotein subclasses

    Jacobs, D.M.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Vervoort, J.; Dorsten, F.A. van; Ras, R.T.; Demonty, I.; Trautwein, E.A.; Duynhoven, J. van

    2015-01-01

    Scope: Consumption of a low-fat spread enriched with plant sterols (PS) and different low doses (<2 g/day) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil reduces serum triglycerides (TGs) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Chol) and thus beneficially affects tw

  13. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Tertiary Chemical Treatment - Lime Precipitation Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 6.

    Petrasek, Al, Jr.

    This guide describes the standard operating job procedures for the tertiary chemical treatment - lime precipitation process of wastewater treatment plants. Step-by-step instructions are given for pre-start up, start-up, continuous operation, and shut-down procedures. In addition, some theoretical material is presented along with some relevant…

  14. Long-term effects of gap creation and liming on understory vegetation with a focus on tree regeneration in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forest

    N. Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of gap creation and liming on tree regeneration and understory competition were examined in a mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica stand on a nutrient-poor site. In 1989, trees were felled to create four 30 m wide circular gaps, and 3 t ha-1 fine dolomite was applied to two of these gaps and the surrounding area, whereas the remaining two gaps and most parts of the stand remained untreated. In 2010, the stand density was 153 trees x ha-1 and the basal area was 29.51 m2 x ha-1. Testing a factorial combination of two levels of canopy cover (gap and stand and two levels of lime application (limed and unlimed, the results of the case study partly support our initial hypothesis that the combined or single effects of liming and canopy removal on understory plant communities last for more than 20 years. Some effects disappeared slowly over time, while others did not. Understory vegetation of the unlimed gaps and thelimed and unlimed stands was rapidly dominated by beech regeneration, whereas limed gaps were dominated by fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium, bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg. and raspberry (Rubus ideaus for around 14 years. There, the density of the beech regeneration was reduced by competitive ground vegetation species. Plant species richness (n/100 m² was still significantly different after 23 years, with an average 10 species per 100 m² in the limed stand area, 5 species in the unlimed stand area, 25 species in the limed gaps, and only 5 species in the unlimed gaps. Only the combination of liming and canopy removal enhanced the species richness in the long run. On our study site, this combination of liming and canopy opening had a long lasting influence on the ground vegetation in terms of retarding the beech regeneration and enhancing species’ richness.

  15. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia. PMID:27088716

  16. Day-to-night variations of cytoplasmic pH in a crassulacean acid metabolism plant.

    Hafke, J B; Neff, R; Hütt, M T; Lüttge, U; Thiel, G

    2001-01-01

    In crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) large amounts of malic acid are redistributed between vacuole and cytoplasm in the course of night-to-day transitions. The corresponding changes of the cytoplasmic pH (pHcyt) were monitored in mesophyll protoplasts from the CAM plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier by ratiometric fluorimetry with the fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6-)carboxyfluorescein as a pHcyt indicator. At the beginning of the light phase, pHcyt was slightly alkaline (about 7.5). It dropped during midday by about 0.3 pH units before recovering again in the late-day-to-early-dark phase. In the physiological context the variation in pHcyt may be a component of CAM regulation. Due to its pH sensitivity, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase appears as a likely target enzyme. From monitoring delta pHcyt in response to loading the cytoplasm with the weak acid salt K-acetate a cytoplasmic H(+)-buffer capacity in the order of 65 mM H+ per pH unit was estimated at a pHcyt of about 7.5. With this value, an acid load of the cytoplasm by about 10 mM malic acid can be estimated as the cause of the observed drop in pHcyt. A diurnal oscillation in pHcyt and a quantitatively similar cytoplasmic malic acid is predicted from an established mathematical model which allows simulation of the CAM dynamics. The similarity of model predictions and experimental data supports the view put forward in this model that a phase transition of the tonoplast is an essential functional element in CAM dynamics. PMID:11732184

  17. A family of conserved bacterial effectors inhibits salicylic acid-mediated basal immunity and promotes disease necrosis in plants

    DebRoy, Sruti; Thilmony, Roger; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Nomura, Kinya; He, Sheng Yang

    2004-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated host immunity plays a central role in combating microbial pathogens in plants. Inactivation of SA-mediated immunity, therefore, would be a critical step in the evolution of a successful plant pathogen. It is known that mutations in conserved effector loci (CEL) in the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae (the ΔCEL mutation), Erwinia amylovora (the dspA/E mutation), and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (the wtsE mutation) exert particularly strong negative effect...

  18. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. PMID:27155486

  19. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. PMID:26851887

  20. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass......–clover mixture (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P < 0.005), and independent of species BH rate...

  1. Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of cadmium from Cd-Ni zinc plant residues.

    Safarzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Moradkhani, Davood; Ojaghi-Ilkhchi, Mehdi

    2009-04-30

    Cd-Ni filtercakes are produced continuously at the third purification step in the electrolytic production of zinc in the National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company (NILZ) in northwestern Iran. In this research, the dissolution kinetics of cadmium from Cd-Ni residues produced in NILZ plant has been investigated. Hence, the effects of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size and stirring speed on the kinetics of cadmium dissolution in sulfuric acid were studied. The dissolution kinetics at 25-55 degrees C and tshrinking core model, with inter-diffusion of cadmium and sulfate ions through the porous region of alloying layer (Cd(5)Ni, Cd(2)Ni(1.9) and Cd(10)Cu(3)) as the rate determining step. This finding is in accordance with the apparent activation energy (E(a)) of 13.363 kJ/mol and a linear relationship between the rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle size. Arrhenius constant was calculated as 6.3942 min(-1). The order of reaction with respect to sulfuric acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio and particle size were also achieved. The rate of reaction at first 5 min based on diffusion-controlled process can be expressed by a semi-empirical equation as:It was determined that the dissolution rate increased with increasing sulfuric acid concentration and decreasing particle size. PMID:18755541

  2. Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soil, plants, and water by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Li, Ying-Hui; Huang, Bi-Xia; Shan, Xiao-Quan

    2003-03-01

    Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soils and plants by capillary zone electrophoresis was accomplished using a phthalate buffer and indirect UV detection mode. The influence of some crucial parameters, such as pH, buffer concentration and surfactant were investigated. A good separation of seven organic acids was achieved within 5 min using an electrolyte containing 15 mmol L(-1) potassium hydrogen phthalate, 0.5 mmol L(-1) myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), and 5% methanol (MeOH) (v/v) at pH 5.60, separation voltage -20 kV, and temperature 25 degrees C. The relative standard deviation (n=5) of the method was found to be in range 0.18-0.56% for migration time and 3.2-4.8% for peak area. The limit of detection ranged between 0.5 micro mol L(-1) to 6 micro mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The recovery of standard organic acids added to real samples ranged from 87 to 119%. This method was simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the simultaneous determination of organic acids in environmental samples. PMID:12664177

  3. Liming and electrochemical attributes of an oxisol under no tillage Calagem e atributos eletroquímicos de um latossolo sob sistema de semeadura direta

    Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni; Fernando César Bachiega Zambrosi; Silvino Guimarães Moreira; Luís Ignácio Prochnow; Volnei Pauletti

    2003-01-01

    No tillage areas are increasing in Brazil especially due to a general improvement in water and nutrient availability to plants. Few results have reported the effect of liming on soil electrochemical attributes in areas under the no tillage system. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liming (at the soil surface and incorporated to 0.2 m) on soil pH, point of zero salt effect (PZSE), electric potential, soil organic matter (SOM), and yield of soybean and corn, cultivated on an Ty...

  4. Acid Raindrops Keep Fallin' in My Lake.

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates acid rain falling into lakes using vinegar and explores the effects on different types of solids such as chalk, sand, and lime. Includes instructor information and student worksheets. (YDS)

  5. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  6. HPLC method validated for the simultaneous analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides in Echinacea purpurea plants and products

    Mølgaard, Per; Johnsen, Søren; Christensen, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed to determine caffeic acid derivatives, for example, cichoric acid, and alkamides in plant parts and herbal products of Echinacea purpurea. The method consists of an extraction procedure whereby the hydrophilic...... used as an internal standard, as no other flavanones are present in the extract and it does not interfere with any of the compounds under investigation. Analysis of Danish-grown plant material shows that it is possible to raise plants of a very high chemical quality in Denmark. A selection...

  7. A study of fly ash-lime granule unfired brick

    P. Chindaprasirt; K. Pimraksa [Khon Kaen University (Thailand). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, the properties of fly ash-lime granule unfired bricks are studied. Granules were prepared from mixtures of fly ash and lime at fly ash to hydrated lime ratios of 100:0 (Ca/Si = 0.2), 95:5 (Ca/Si = 0.35) and 90:10 (Ca/Si = 0.5). After a period of moist curing, the microstructure and mineralogy of the granules were studied. Microstructure examination reveals that new phases in the form of needle-like particles are formed at the surface of granule. The granules were used to make unfired bricks using hydrothermal treatment at temperature of 130 {+-} 5{sup o}C and pressure of 0.14 MPa. The microstructures, mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and environmental impact of bricks were determined. The results reveal that the strengths of unfired bricks are dependent on the fineness of fly ash. The strength is higher with an increase in fly ash fineness. The strengths of the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick are excellent at 47.0-62.5 MPa. The high strength is due to the formation of new products consisting mainly of hibschite and Al-substituted 11 {angstrom} tobermorite. The main advantage of utilization of granule is the ability to increase the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash through moisture retained in the granule. In addition, the heavy elements, in particular Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn are efficiently retained in the fly ash-lime granule unfired brick.

  8. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  10. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +}. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} at 55 C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96{+-}7% recovery of CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +} from oyster tissue and 93{+-}7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. (orig.)

  11. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching.

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH3 201Hg+. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L(-1) HNO3 at 55 degrees C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96 +/- 7% recovery of CH3 201Hg+ from oyster tissue and 93+/-7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. PMID:15662514

  12. Plant SILAC: stable-isotope labelling with amino acids of arabidopsis seedlings for quantitative proteomics.

    Dominika Lewandowska

    Full Text Available Stable Isotope Labelling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC is a powerful technique for comparative quantitative proteomics, which has recently been applied to a number of different eukaryotic organisms. Inefficient incorporation of labelled amino acids in cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana has led to very limited use of SILAC in plant systems. We present a method allowing, for the first time, efficient labelling with stable isotope-containing arginine and lysine of whole Arabidopsis seedlings. To illustrate the utility of this method, we have combined the high labelling efficiency (>95% with quantitative proteomics analyses of seedlings exposed to increased salt concentration. In plants treated for 7 days with 80 mM NaCl, a relatively mild salt stress, 215 proteins were identified whose expression levels changed significantly compared to untreated seedling controls. The 92 up-regulated proteins included proteins involved in abiotic stress responses and photosynthesis, while the 123 down-regulated proteins were enriched in proteins involved in reduction of oxidative stress and other stress responses, respectively. Efficient labelling of whole Arabidopsis seedlings by this modified SILAC method opens new opportunities to exploit the genetic resources of Arabidopsis and analyse the impact of mutations on quantitative protein dynamics in vivo.

  13. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family

    Maryam Shekarchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g -1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .

  14. Performance of Caro's acid as an oxidant at the Nabarlek Mill

    Pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) was originally chosen as the oxidant at the Nabarlek Mill in northern Australia. Subsequent laboratory and plant trial investigations showed that if Caro's acid were to replace pyrolusite, acid consumption in the leaching circuit could be reduced by 15-20% for the same uranium extraction. Lime required to neutralize the tailings/raffinate slurry could also be similarly reduced. A Caro's acid generator was commissioned at Nabarlek in April 1983. Caro's acid is manufactured at the mill site by reaction of hydrogen peroxide with concentrated sulphuric acid. This installation is the first commercial utilization of Caro's acid in uranium processing. The system has operated successfully for three months and reagent savings have resulted in a reduction in operating costs of greater than $3.t-1 ore processed. (author)

  15. Shock response of soda lime glass at 6 GPA

    Dandekar, Dattatraya

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a variety of shock wave experiments performed on soda lime glass to understand the modifying influence of so called "Failure wave" on its compression, under single shock, release, and tension. These experiments were done to a peak shock induced stress of around 6-7 GPa. Shock induced response was recorded by means of VISAR. The results of these experiments performed on soda lime glass at 6-7 GPa indicate that: (i) The effect of failure wave propagation is to lower the impedances of failed glass under both shocked compressed and released states and the effect is not initiated instantaneously at the impact surface. (ii) Failure wave velocity is determined to be 1.42 km/s. (iii) The spall strength of soda lime glass in the region transversed by failure wave is not negligible i.e., the pull-back velocity is around 50 m/s.

  16. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg

  17. Interactions between uptake of amino acids and inorganic nitrogen in wheat plants

    E. Gioseffi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-borne amino acids may constitute a source of nitrogen (N for plants in various terrestrial ecosystems but their importance for total N nutrition is unclear, particularly in nutrient-rich arable soils. One reason for this uncertainty is lack of information on how the absorption of amino acids by plant roots is affected by the simultaneous presence of inorganic N forms. The objective of the present study was to study absorption of glycine (Gly and glutamine (Gln by wheat roots and their interactions with nitrate (NO3 and ammonium (NH4+ during uptake. The underlying hypothesis was that amino acids, when present in nutrient solution together with inorganic N, may lead to down-regulation of the inorganic N uptake, thereby resulting in similar total N uptake rates. Amino acids were enriched with double-labelled 15N and 13C, while NO3 and NH4+ acquisition was determined by their rate of removal from the nutrient solution surrounding the roots. The uptake rates of NO3 and NH4+ did not differ from each other and were generally about twice as high as the uptake rate of organic N when the different N forms were supplied separately in concentrations of 2 mM. Nevertheless, replacement of 50% of the inorganic N with organic N was able to restore the N uptake to the same level as that in the presence of only inorganic N. Co-provision of NO3 did not affect glycine uptake, while the presence of glycine down-regulated NO3 uptake. The ratio between 13C and 15N were lower in shoots than in roots and also lower than the theoretical values, reflecting higher C losses via respiratory processes compared to N losses. It is concluded that organic N can constitute a significant N-source for wheat plants and that there is an interaction

  18. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  19. Influence of water-repellent treatment on the properties lime and lime pozzolan mortars

    Fortes Revilla, C.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence that water-repellent products can have on physical and micro-structural properties of lime mortars, and lime plus pozzolan mortars has been studied. Three water repellent products have been used. Mixes of the previously mentioned three water repellents plus a biocide product were also applied. Treatments make the total porosity and saturation coefficient of both mortars to decrease, while colorimetric coordinates bear little alteration. All treatments with water repellent products provided mortars with a hydrophobic property index close to 100%. Durability of such mortars has been also studied: salt crystallization test, frost-thaw and dry-wet cycles, as well as ultraviolet radiation test were carried out. Relationship between mortars behavior and their porosity and saturation coefficient were found.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la influencia de la aplicación de productos hidrofugantes a morteros de cal y morteros de cal y puzolana sobre sus propiedades físicas y microestructurales. Se han estudiado tres productos hidrofugantes. También han sido estudiados dichos productos junto con un biocida. La porosidad total y el coeficiente de saturación de ambos tipos de morteros se ve reducido por el efecto de los tratamientos mientras que las coordenadas colorimétricas se ven poco alteradas. Todos los tratamientos confieren un índice de hidrofobicidad a los morteros próximo al 100%. Asimismo, también se ha estudiado la durabilidad de dichos morteros frente a la cristalización de sales, hielo-deshielo, los ciclos de humedad-sequedad y radiaciones ultravioleta. Se relaciona el comportamiento de los morteros con su porosidad y el coeficiente de saturación.

  20. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants; Biologia da mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), em tres plantas hospedeiras

    Pena, Marcia R.; Silva, Neliton M. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil).Lab. de Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: marciarpena@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: nmarques@ufam.edu.br; Venframim, Jose D.; Haddad, Marineia de L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Resistencia de Plantas e Plantas Inseticidas], e-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mlhaddad@esalq.usp.br; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br

    2009-03-15

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)