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  1. Antiretroviral intensification and valproic acid lack sustained effect on residual HIV-1 viremia or resting CD4+ cell infection.

    Nancie M Archin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection that persists despite antiretroviral therapy (ART is a daunting problem. Given the limited evidence that resting CD4+ T cell infection (RCI is affected by the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA, we measured the stability of RCI and residual viremia in patients who added VPA with or without raltegravir (RAL, or enfuvirtide (ENF with or without VPA, to standard ART. METHODS: Patients with plasma HIV RNA50% was seen in six volunteers after the addition of RAL and VPA. In 4 of the 6 patients this lack of effect might be attributed to intermittent viremia, low VPA levels, or intermittent study therapy adherence. Overall, there was no effect of the addition of RAL or ENF on low-level viremia measured by SCA. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective addition of VPA and RAL, VPA and ENF, or ENF failed to progressively reduce the frequency of RCI, or ablate intermittent and low-level viremia. New approaches such as more potent HDAC inhibition, alone or in combination with intensified ART or other agents that may disrupt proviral latency must be pursued.

  2. ANALYSIS OF A NETWORK OF COOPERATION IN MISIONES, ARGENTINA: BENEFITS AND LACKS FOR LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Juan Carlos, Michalus; Gilberto, Hernández Pérez

    2012-01-01

    We present a case study of a network of existing cooperation in the province of Misiones, Argentina, composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Elaboration of black tea and a group of SMEs from sawn wood, formed from the particular initiative of the tea entrepreneur. The aim is to identify the benefits of working in cooperation and, in turn, highlight the lacks when these processes are not performed in a planned and sustainable local oriented development. The case study that is exposed i...

  3. ANALYSIS OF A NETWORK OF COOPERATION IN MISIONES, ARGENTINA: BENEFITS AND LACKS FOR LOCAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Juan Carlos, Michalus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a network of existing cooperation in the province of Misiones, Argentina, composed of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs Elaboration of black tea and a group of SMEs from sawn wood, formed from the particular initiative of the tea entrepreneur. The aim is to identify the benefits of working in cooperation and, in turn, highlight the lacks when these processes are not performed in a planned and sustainable local oriented development. The case study that is exposed is a unique, contemporary data survey with establishments belonging to the cooperative network, interviews with entrepreneurs and managers of production, which led to evidence the benefits of cooperation, which include: use of waste, generation of trust between employers and contribution to environmental stewardship. There were also major shortcomings that prevent greater profit derived from the lack of an appropriate methodological instrument to implement this type of cooperative enterprises, among which stands out: poor use of idle resources, lack of process improvements through innovations joint, non-participation of major players and systematic orientation towards the local sustainable development.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Murine Embryos Lacking Endogenous Retinoic Acid Signaling

    Marie Paschaki; Carole Schneider; Muriel Rhinn; Christelle Thibault-Carpentier; Doulaye Dembélé; Karen Niederreither; Pascal Dollé

    2013-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active derivative of the liposoluble vitamin A (retinol), acts as an important signaling molecule during embryonic development, regulating phenomenons as diverse as anterior-posterior axial patterning, forebrain and optic vesicle development, specification of hindbrain rhombomeres, pharyngeal arches and second heart field, somitogenesis, and differentiation of spinal cord neurons. This small molecule directly triggers gene activation by binding to nuclear receptors (RAR...

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of murine embryos lacking endogenous retinoic acid signaling.

    Marie Paschaki

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA, an active derivative of the liposoluble vitamin A (retinol, acts as an important signaling molecule during embryonic development, regulating phenomenons as diverse as anterior-posterior axial patterning, forebrain and optic vesicle development, specification of hindbrain rhombomeres, pharyngeal arches and second heart field, somitogenesis, and differentiation of spinal cord neurons. This small molecule directly triggers gene activation by binding to nuclear receptors (RARs, switching them from potential repressors to transcriptional activators. The repertoire of RA-regulated genes in embryonic tissues is poorly characterized. We performed a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of murine wild-type and Retinaldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 null-mutant (Raldh2 (-/- embryos - unable to synthesize RA from maternally-derived retinol - using Affymetrix DNA microarrays. Transcriptomic changes were analyzed in two embryonic regions: anterior tissues including forebrain and optic vesicle, and posterior (trunk tissues, at early stages preceding the appearance of overt phenotypic abnormalities. Several genes expected to be downregulated under RA deficiency appeared in the transcriptome data (e.g. Emx2, Foxg1 anteriorly, Cdx1, Hoxa1, Rarb posteriorly, whereas reverse-transcriptase-PCR and in situ hybridization performed for additional selected genes validated the changes identified through microarray analysis. Altogether, the affected genes belonged to numerous molecular pathways and cellular/organismal functions, demonstrating the pleiotropic nature of RA-dependent events. In both tissue samples, genes upregulated were more numerous than those downregulated, probably due to feedback regulatory loops. Bioinformatic analyses highlighted groups (clusters of genes displaying similar behaviors in mutant tissues, and biological functions most significantly affected (e.g. mTOR, VEGF, ILK signaling in forebrain tissues; pyrimidine and purine

  6. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase.

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2016-02-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  7. Acid sphingomyelinase gene knockout ameliorates hyperhomocysteinemic glomerular injury in mice lacking cystathionine-β-synthase.

    Krishna M Boini

    Full Text Available Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM has been implicated in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys-induced glomerular oxidative stress and injury. However, it remains unknown whether genetically engineering of ASM gene produces beneficial or detrimental action on hHcys-induced glomerular injury. The present study generated and characterized the mice lacking cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs and Asm mouse gene by cross breeding Cbs(+/- and Asm(+/- mice. Given that the homozygotes of Cbs(-/-/Asm(-/- mice could not survive for 3 weeks. Cbs(+/-/Asm(+/+, Cbs(+/-/Asm(+/- and Cbs(+/-/Asm(-/- as well as their Cbs wild type littermates were used to study the role of Asm(-/- under a background of Cbs(+/- with hHcys. HPLC analysis revealed that plasma Hcys level was significantly elevated in Cbs heterozygous (Cbs(+/- mice with different copies of Asm gene compared to Cbs(+/+ mice with different Asm gene copies. Cbs(+/-/Asm(+/+ mice had significantly increased renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O(2.(- level compared to Cbs(+/+/Asm(+/+, while Cbs(+/-/Asm(-/- mice showed significantly reduced renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O(2.(- level due to increased plasma Hcys levels. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that colocalization of podocin with ceramide was much lower in Cbs(+/-/Asm(-/- mice compared to Cbs(+/-/Asm(+/+ mice, which was accompanied by a reduced glomerular damage index, albuminuria and proteinuria in Cbs(+/-/Asm(-/- mice. Immunofluorescent analyses of the podocin, nephrin and desmin expression also illustrated less podocyte damages in the glomeruli from Cbs(+/-/Asm(-/- mice compared to Cbs(+/-/Asm(+/+ mice. In in vitro studies of podocytes, hHcys-enhanced O(2.(- production, desmin expression, and ceramide production as well as decreases in VEGF level and podocin expression in podocytes were substantially attenuated by prior treatment with amitriptyline, an Asm inhibitor. In conclusion, Asm gene knockout or corresponding enzyme

  8. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues. PMID:24607804

  9. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregula...

  10. Amino acid absorption and homeostasis in mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1.

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Fenselau, Henning; Marth, Mena Katharina; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-07-01

    The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 mediates the uptake of di- and tripeptides derived from dietary protein breakdown into epithelial cells. Whereas the transporter appears to be essential to compensate for the reduced amino acid delivery in patients with mutations in amino acid transporter genes, such as in cystinuria or Hartnup disease, its physiological role in overall amino acid absorption is still not known. To assess the quantitative importance of PEPT1 in overall amino acid absorption and metabolism, PEPT1-deficient mice were studied by using brush border membrane vesicles, everted gut sacs, and Ussing chambers, as well as by transcriptome and proteome analysis of intestinal tissue samples. Neither gene expression nor proteome profiling nor functional analysis revealed evidence for any compensatory changes in the levels and/or function of transporters for free amino acids in the intestine. However, most plasma amino acid levels were increased in Pept1(-/-) compared with Pept1(+/+) animals, suggesting that amino acid handling is altered. Plasma appearance rates of (15)N-labeled amino acids determined after intragastric administration of a low dose of protein remained unchanged, whereas administration of a large protein load via gavage revealed marked differences in plasma appearance of selected amino acids. PEPT1 seems, therefore, important for overall amino acid absorption only after high dietary protein intake when amino acid transport processes are saturated and PEPT1 can provide additional absorption capacity. Since renal amino acid excretion remained unchanged, elevated basal concentrations of plasma amino acids in PEPT1-deficient animals seem to arise mainly from alterations in hepatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:21350187

  11. PREPARATION OF SUSTAINED-RELEASE TIABROFENIC ACID BEADS

    Y. OZSOY, A. ARAMAN, A. YILDIZ, D. SENSOY, A. BAYTOKOVA,

    2015-01-01

    Tiaprofenic acid (TA), has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyreticproperties; it is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. The usual oral dose bymouth is 600 mg daily; this may be given in 2 or 3 divided doses or once daily as a sustained-release preparation. TA is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It has a short half-life of about 2 hours.Sodium alginate is a natural, biodegradable and biocornpatible polymer usedas suspending and gelling agent in pharmaceutical techno...

  12. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  13. Sustainability

    Frank Fogarty; Amy Villamagna; Allen Whitley; Kelly Pippins

    2013-01-01

    Many businesses today are striving to improve their environmental sustainability for a variety of reasons, ranging from consumer demand for “greener†products to potential cost-savings. For many business decision-makers who lack formal environmental training, the process of identifying facets of their organization that can be improved is unclear and challenging. Inspired by the fields of biomimicry, industrial ecology and organizational ecology, this paper draws on the inherent capacity to...

  14. Aminoaciduria and altered renal expression of luminal amino acid transporters in mice lacking novel gene collectrin.

    Malakauskas, Sandra M; Quan, Hui; Fields, Timothy A; McCall, Shannon J; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Kourany, Wissam M; Frey, Campbell W; Le, Thu H

    2007-02-01

    Defects in renal proximal tubule transport manifest in a number of human diseases. Although variable in clinical presentation, disorders such as Hartnup disease, Dent's disease, and Fanconi syndrome are characterized by wasting of solutes commonly recovered by the proximal tubule. One common feature of these disorders is aminoaciduria. There are distinct classes of amino acid transporters located in the apical and basal membranes of the proximal tubules that reabsorb >95% of filtered amino acids, yet few details are known about their regulation. We present our physiological characterization of a mouse line with targeted deletion of the gene collectrin that is highly expressed in the kidney. Collectrin-deficient mice display a reduced urinary concentrating capacity due to enhanced solute clearance resulting from profound aminoaciduria. The aminoaciduria is generalized, characterized by loss of nearly every amino acid, and results in marked crystalluria. Furthermore, in the kidney, collectrin-deficient mice have decreased plasma membrane populations of amino acid transporter subtypes B(0)AT1, rBAT, and b(0,+)AT, as well as altered cellular distribution of EAAC1. Our data suggest that collectrin is a novel mediator of renal amino acid transport and may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of a number of human disease correlates. PMID:16985211

  15. Lack of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in mice does not promote fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

    Tasseva, Guergana; van der Veen, Jelske N; Lingrell, Susanne; Jacobs, René L; Vance, Dennis E; Vance, Jean E

    2016-02-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) converts phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the liver. Mice lacking PEMT are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and exhibit increased whole-body energy expenditure and oxygen consumption. Since skeletal muscle is a major site of fatty acid oxidation and energy utilization, we determined if rates of fatty acid oxidation/oxygen consumption in muscle are higher in Pemt(-/-) mice than in Pemt(+/+) mice. Although PEMT is abundant in the liver, PEMT protein and activity were undetectable in four types of skeletal muscle. Moreover, amounts of PC and PE in the skeletal muscle were not altered by PEMT deficiency. Thus, we concluded that any influence of PEMT deficiency on skeletal muscle would be an indirect consequence of lack of PEMT in liver. Neither the in vivo rate of fatty acid uptake by muscle nor the rate of fatty acid oxidation in muscle explants and cultured myocytes depended upon Pemt genotype. Nor did PEMT deficiency increase oxygen consumption or respiratory function in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Thus, the increased whole body oxygen consumption in Pemt(-/-) mice, and resistance of these mice to diet-induced weight gain, are not primarily due to increased capacity of skeletal muscle for utilization of fatty acids as an energy source. PMID:26603903

  16. Hemodynamic profile, responsiveness to anandamide, and baroreflex sensitivity of mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Pacher, Pál; Bátkai, Sándor; Osei-Hyiaman, Douglas; Offertáler, László; Liu, Jie; Harvey-White, Judy; Brassai, Attila; Járai, Zoltán; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Kunos, George

    2005-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide exerts neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, and immune-regulatory effects through cannabinoid receptors (CB). Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme responsible for the in vivo degradation of anandamide. Recent experimental studies have suggested that targeting the endocannabinergic system by FAAH inhibitors is a promising novel approach for the treatment of anxiety, inflammation, and hypertension. In this study, we compared the cardiac performance of FAAH k...

  17. A review of the genus Bulbothrix Hale: the species with medullary salazinic acid lacking vegetative propagules

    Michel Benatti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are presented for the seven known Bulbothrix (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Fungi species with salazinic acid in the medulla and without vegetative propagules. Bulbothrix continua, previously considered as a synonym of B. hypocraea, is recognized as independent species. The current delimitations are confirmed for B. enormis, B. hypocraea, B. meizospora, B. linteolocarpa, B. sensibilis, and B. setschwanensis. New characteriscs and range extensions are provided.

  18. Novel sustainable polymers derived from renewable rosin and fatty acids

    Wilbon, Perry

    In the work of this dissertation, polymers derived from renewable bio-based resources prepared by various polymerization techniques were investigated. The properties of these polymeric materials were characterized and discussed. Rosin was first converted into acrylate or methacrylate monomers for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Second, rosin was combined with vegetable oil to produce completely renewable novel polyesters by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. Third, degradable block copolymers were synthesized composed of polycaprolactone and rosin grafted polycaprolactone with the aid of ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Finally, degradable polyesters were produced using vegetable oil derivatives as starting materials. These new rosin and fatty acid based renewable polymer materials will have potential applications as sustainable thermoplastics, thermoplastic elastomers, etc.

  19. Australia lacks stem succulents but is it depauperate in plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)?

    Holtum, Joseph Am; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Crisp, Michael D; Crayn, Darren M; Sage, Rowan; Winter, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the flora of Australia, the driest vegetated continent, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), the most water-use efficient form of photosynthesis, is documented in only 0.6% of native species. Most are epiphytes and only seven terrestrial. However, much of Australia is unsurveyed, and carbon isotope signature, commonly used to assess photosynthetic pathway diversity, does not distinguish between plants with low-levels of CAM and C3 plants. We provide the first census of CAM for the Australian flora and suggest that the real frequency of CAM in the flora is double that currently known, with the number of terrestrial CAM species probably 10-fold greater. Still unresolved is the question why the large stem-succulent life - form is absent from the native Australian flora even though exotic large cacti have successfully invaded and established in Australia. PMID:27088716

  20. Lack of inhibitory effects of Lactic acid bacteria on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors in rats

    Wei Li; Chong-Bi Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: A myriad of healthful effects has been attributed to the probiotic lactic acid bacteria, perhaps the most controversial issue remains that of anticancer activity. This study was aimed at investigating the putative anti-cancer effects of lactic acid bacteria strains on the progression of colon tumor in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated animals.METHODS: The strain of lactic acid bacteria used in this study was lactic acid bacteria NZ9000 that conformed to the characteristics of plasmid free. Sixty male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt or saline once a week for 10 weeks. The rats were divided into 6 experimental groups. After the last DMH injection,animals in groups 1 and 4 were gavaged with 1 mi of lactic acid bacteria at a dose of 5×109 per day or vehide until sacrifice at the end of week 22 or week 52. Animals in groups 1-3 were killed at the end of week 22 for histopathological examination.The whole period of experimental observation was 52 weeks.RESULTS: By the end of 22nd week, final average body weights of the rats treated with DMH alone and all animals receiving lactic acid bacteria were significantly decreased compared with the vehicle control (P<0.05). No differences in tumor inridence, multiplicity, dimensions and stage in the colonic mucosa were observed among the groups. At week 52, the survival rate of the rats administered lactic acid bacteria was lower than that of the rats treated with DMH that were fed on control fluids of non-lactococcus lactis. The mean survival time of lactic acid bacteria-treated animals was 39 weeks.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that lactic acid bacteria lacks inhibitory effects on the progression of colon tumor in DMH-treated animals, and does not support the hypothesis that alteration of colonic flora may exert an influence on the progression of colon tumor.

  1. Lack of evolvability in self-sustaining autocatalytic networks constraints metabolism-first scenarios for the origin of life.

    Vasas, Vera; Szathmáry, Eörs; Santos, Mauro

    2010-01-26

    A basic property of life is its capacity to experience Darwinian evolution. The replicator concept is at the core of genetics-first theories of the origin of life, which suggest that self-replicating oligonucleotides or their similar ancestors may have been the first "living" systems and may have led to the evolution of an RNA world. But problems with the nonenzymatic synthesis of biopolymers and the origin of template replication have spurred the alternative metabolism-first scenario, where self-reproducing and evolving proto-metabolic networks are assumed to have predated self-replicating genes. Recent theoretical work shows that "compositional genomes" (i.e., the counts of different molecular species in an assembly) are able to propagate compositional information and can provide a setup on which natural selection acts. Accordingly, if we stick to the notion of replicator as an entity that passes on its structure largely intact in successive replications, those macromolecular aggregates could be dubbed "ensemble replicators" (composomes) and quite different from the more familiar genes and memes. In sharp contrast with template-dependent replication dynamics, we demonstrate here that replication of compositional information is so inaccurate that fitter compositional genomes cannot be maintained by selection and, therefore, the system lacks evolvability (i.e., it cannot substantially depart from the asymptotic steady-state solution already built-in in the dynamical equations). We conclude that this fundamental limitation of ensemble replicators cautions against metabolism-first theories of the origin of life, although ancient metabolic systems could have provided a stable habitat within which polymer replicators later evolved. PMID:20080693

  2. Hypercapnic ventilatory response in mice lacking the 65 kDa isoform of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65

    Bissonnette John M

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have shown that there are developmental changes in theventilatory response to hypercapnia in the rat. These are characterizedby an initial large response to carbon dioxide immediately after birthfollowed by a decline with a trough at one week of age, followed by areturn in sensitivity. A second abnormality is seen at postnatal day 5(P5 rats in that they cannot maintain the increase in frequency for 5min of hypercapnia. In mice lacking GAD65 the release of GABA duringsustained synaptic activation is reduced. We hypothesized that thisdevelopmental pattern would be present in the mouse which is also lessmature at birth and that GABA mediates this relative respiratorydepression. Methods In awake C57BL/6J and GAD65-/- mice the ventilatory response to 5%carbon dioxide (CO2 was examined at P2, P4, P6, P7, P12.5, P14.5 andP21.5, using body plethysmography. Results Minute ventilation (VE relative to baseline during hypercapnia from P2through P7 was generally less than from P12.5 onwards, but there was notrough as in the rat. Breaking VE down into its two components showedthat tidal volume remained elevated for the 5 min of exposure to 5% CO2.At P6, but not at other ages, respiratory frequency declined with timeand at 5 min was less that at 2 and 3 min. GAD65-/- animals at P6 showeda sustained increase in respiratory rate for the five mins exposure toCO2. Conclusion These results show, that in contrast to the rat, mice do not show adecline in minute ventilatory response to CO2 at one week of age.Similiar to the rat at P5, mice at P6 are unable to sustain an increasein CO2 induced respiratory frequency and GAD65 contributes to this falloff.

  3. Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and transport are hallmarks in analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR and humans. Triglyceridemia is nearly 3- to 5-fold higher in female NAR than in control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR. Also, NAR present with a severe plasma free fatty acid (FFA deficit. There are conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying NAR hypertriglyceridemia. Objective We aimed at investigating whether liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates into the plasma contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia in NAR. We also studied whether heparin or albumin administration would release the hypothesized lipolysis inhibition in NAR. Methods The incorporation of tritiated water into lipids and the linear accumulation rate of plasma triglycerides after Triton WR1339 injection were the measures of liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates. Results Lipogenesis (596 ± 40 vs. 929 ± 124 μmol 3H2O/g/h and triglyceride (4.25 ± 1.00 vs. 7.04 ± 1.68 mg/dL/min secretion rates were slower (P ≤ 0.05 in fasted NAR than in control SDR. The injection of either heparin or albumin elicited an increase in NAR plasma FFA levels over time. FFA levels reached control levels 90 min after the albumin administration, increasing from 0.36 ± 0.05 to 1.34 ± 0.16 mEq/L (P ≤ 0.05. These results indicate that the lack of plasma albumin inhibits intravascular lipolysis and causes the FFA deficit observed in NAR. Conclusion NAR hepatic triglyceride synthesis and output do not contribute to NAR hypertriglyceridemia. We propose that the lack of albumin diminishes intravascular lipolysis which reduces the plasma triglyceride removal rate and explain both NAR hypertriglyceridemia and FFA deficiency.

  4. The Cell Wall Polymer Lipoteichoic Acid Becomes Nonessential in Staphylococcus aureus Cells Lacking the ClpX Chaperone

    Bowman, Lisa; Millership, Charlotte; Dupont Søgaard, Mia; Kaever, Volkhard; Siljamäki, Pia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and a promising target for the development of vaccines and antimicrobial compounds against Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the conditionally essential ltaS (LTA synthase) gene arise spontaneously in an S. aureus mutant lacking the ClpX chaperone. A wide variety of ltaS mutations were selected, and among these, a substantial portion resulted in premature stop codons and other changes predicted to abolish LtaS synthesis. Consistent with this assumption, the clpX ltaS double mutants did not produce LTA, and genetic analyses confirmed that LTA becomes nonessential in the absence of the ClpX chaperone. In fact, inactivation of ltaS alleviated the severe growth defect conferred by the clpX deletion. Microscopic analyses showed that the absence of ClpX partly alleviates the septum placement defects of an LTA-depleted strain, while other phenotypes typical of LTA-negative S. aureus mutants, including increased cell size and decreased autolytic activity, are retained. In conclusion, our results indicate that LTA has an essential role in septum placement that can be bypassed by inactivating the ClpX chaperone. PMID:27507828

  5. Genetic basis for the lack of N-glycolylneuraminic acid expression in human tissues and its implication to human evolution

    Suzuki, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Sialic acid is a family of acidic monosaccharides and consists of over 30 derivatives. Two major derivatives are N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), and the hydroxylation of CMP-NeuAc is the rate limiting reaction for the production of NeuGc. The hydroxylation was carried out by a complex formed with hydroxylase, cytochrome b5, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. Mouse hydroxylase was purified from the cytosolic fraction of the liver and its cDNA was cloned. N...

  6. Engineering oilseeds for sustainable production of industrial and nutritional feedstocks: solving bottlenecks in fatty acid flux.

    Cahoon, Edgar B; Shockey, Jay M; Dietrich, Charles R; Gidda, Satinder K; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2007-06-01

    Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated fatty acids for industrial uses and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for farmed fish feed, have met with only modest success. The collective results from these studies point to metabolic 'bottlenecks' in the engineered plant seeds that substantially limit the efficient or selective flux of unusual fatty acids between different substrate pools and ultimately into storage triacylglycerol. Evidence is emerging that diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol assembly, is an important contributor to the synthesis of unusual fatty acid-containing oils, and is likely to be a key target for future oilseed metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:17434788

  7. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  8. Lack of effect of entorhinal kindling on L-[3H]glutamic acid presynaptic uptake and postsynaptic binding in hippocampus

    Sodium-independent L-[3H]glutamic acid binding and sodium-dependent L-[3H]glutamic acid high affinity uptake were measured in hippocampal membranes of rats administered electroshock seizures or kindled to class 5 seizures by entorhinal cortical stimulation. There were no differences in these glutamatergic synaptic markers among electroshocked, kindled, or surgical control animals. Entorhinal kindling is not a reflection of activity-regulated facilitation of perforant path glutamatergic neurotransmission

  9. Extremely acidic mine lake ecosystems in Lusatia (Germany) : characterisation and development of sustainable, biology-based acidity removal technologies

    Fyson, A. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus, (Germany)]|[Inst. of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin (Germany); Deneke, R.; Nixdorf, B. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus, (Germany); Steinberg, C.E.W. [Inst. of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    There are approximately 500 infilled open-cast lignite pits in Germany that are extremely acidic because of high concentrations of dissolved metals, mostly iron and aluminium. The mining lakes have pH values of 2.4 to 3.4 and also have high sulphate concentrations. Efforts are being made to neutralize the lakes for recreational purposes. The acidity can be removed from the lakes in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner by flooding through diversion of neutral, nutrient-rich river water. This paper described the living conditions of the acidic mining lakes in the Lausitz region of Germany and summarized the benefits of the controlled eutrophication approach to enhance natural, self-sustaining processes for acid neutralization. Compared to infilling with river water, eutrophication increases lake productivity and removes acidity through sediment bound and water column biologically-mediated processes. The study involved basic research on particle transport in streams and lakes, pelagic food web interactions and submerged macrophyte metabolism. It also looked at the role of wetlands, bacterial interactions at the water-sediment interface, and modelling. It was shown that the addition of phosphorus and carbon to the water column can enhance primary production. Future studies will examine environmentally acceptable treatment strategies that offer an alternative to chemical treatment. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. Extremely acidic mine lake ecosystems in Lusatia (Germany) : characterisation and development of sustainable, biology-based acidity removal technologies

    There are approximately 500 infilled open-cast lignite pits in Germany that are extremely acidic because of high concentrations of dissolved metals, mostly iron and aluminium. The mining lakes have pH values of 2.4 to 3.4 and also have high sulphate concentrations. Efforts are being made to neutralize the lakes for recreational purposes. The acidity can be removed from the lakes in an economical and environmentally sustainable manner by flooding through diversion of neutral, nutrient-rich river water. This paper described the living conditions of the acidic mining lakes in the Lausitz region of Germany and summarized the benefits of the controlled eutrophication approach to enhance natural, self-sustaining processes for acid neutralization. Compared to infilling with river water, eutrophication increases lake productivity and removes acidity through sediment bound and water column biologically-mediated processes. The study involved basic research on particle transport in streams and lakes, pelagic food web interactions and submerged macrophyte metabolism. It also looked at the role of wetlands, bacterial interactions at the water-sediment interface, and modelling. It was shown that the addition of phosphorus and carbon to the water column can enhance primary production. Future studies will examine environmentally acceptable treatment strategies that offer an alternative to chemical treatment. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  11. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    Full text: Agricultural systems may be called sustainable if the management of the resources for agriculture successfully meets the human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. Among the major threats to sustainable soil productivity related to soil acidity are: (i) H+, Al and Mn toxicities (ii) low availability (P, Mo) and supply of nutrients (N, Ca, Mg), (iii) high nutrient (base) losses. One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. Improved acid soil-tolerant germplasm may contribute to minimise the maintenance fertilizer-applications through different pathways: (i) deeper root growth - more efficient uptake of nutrients from subsoil: less leaching, (ii) more biomass production - less seepage, less leaching, more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of a higher soil organic-matter content, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. The main objectives of the EU-INCO Programme ERBIC 18CT 960063 on which this presentation is mainly based, are: - To advance breeding strategies and breed maize cultivars with improved adaptation to acid soils high in Al and low in P. - To develop screening procedures for aluminium (Al) resistance and phosphorus (P) efficiency in maize based on an improved in-depth knowledge of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. - To improve the quantitative understanding of the comparative contributions of genetic and agronomic approaches to sustainable maize production on acid soils. The results suggest that large genetic variability in adaptation of plants to acid soils exist. There is a range of different morphological and physiological plant characteristics that contribute to acid soil tolerance. Their understanding has contributed to develop quick screening

  12. Lack of effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid administration on markers of oxidative stress during early pregnancy in mice.

    Dinamarca, Vinka Margarita; Hidalgo, María Eliana; Cavieres, María Fernanda

    2007-07-31

    Induction of oxidative stress by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) both as a pure compound and in commercial formulation was investigated during early pregnancy in mice. Pregnant animals were exposed to increasing doses of the herbicide (0.01, 0.1 and 100mg/kg/d) during gestation days 0-9, after which animals were euthanized and their blood analyzed for catalase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Number of corpora lutea and uterine implantations and resorptions were also determined. Herbicide exposure did not cause any overt signs of maternal toxicity at any of the doses administered; neither did it cause an effect on developmental parameters. Catalase activity and TBARs were not modified by herbicide exposure although TAC was significantly decreased at 100mg/kg/d of both pure and formulated compound. Thus, 2,4-D does not seem to induce oxidative stress during early pregnancy in mice at the doses administered, indicating that this mechanism is probably not involved in mediating herbicide toxicity at these dose levels. Furthermore, since no manifestations of developmental toxicity were observed after administration of the herbicide, it is also possible that 2,4-D may not produce any early developmental toxicity at the low environmentally relevant doses tested in this animal model. PMID:17582670

  13. Oxidative acid treatment and characterization of new biocarbon from sustainable Miscanthus biomass.

    Anstey, Andrew; Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Rodriguez-Uribe, Arturo; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar Kumar

    2016-04-15

    Oxidative acid treatments of biochar produced from Miscanthus were performed in this study using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and a mixture of both. The structural and morphological changes of the acid-treated biochar were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, organic elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Improved surface functionality of the treated biochars was observed in their respective FT-IR spectra through the presence of nitro and carboxylic acid functional groups. SEM-EDS and elemental analysis revealed a large increase in the oxygen to carbon ratio in the biochar, which was evidence of chemical oxidation from the acid treatment. Further, TGA study showed the reduced thermal stability of acid-treated biochar over 200°C due to the increased oxygen content. Acid treatments also influenced the graphitic structure of the biochar, as observed in the Raman spectra. The results suggest that biochar can be successfully functionalized for composite applications and provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon additives. PMID:26820927

  14. Hyaluronic acid liposomal gel sustains delivery of a corticoid to the inner ear.

    El Kechai, Naila; Mamelle, Elisabeth; Nguyen, Yann; Huang, Nicolas; Nicolas, Valérie; Chaminade, Pierre; Yen-Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Gueutin, Claire; Granger, Benjamin; Ferrary, Evelyne; Agnely, Florence; Bochot, Amélie

    2016-03-28

    The inner ear is one of the most challenging organs for drug delivery, mainly because of the blood-perilymph barrier. Therefore, local rather than systemic drug delivery methods are being developed for inner ear therapy. In this work, we have evaluated the benefit of a hyaluronic acid liposomal gel for sustained delivery of a corticoid to the inner ear after local injection into the middle ear in a guinea pig model. The liposomal gel was easily injectable as a result of the shear-thinning behavior of hyaluronic acid. A prolonged residence time at the site of injection as well as in the round window were achieved without any negative effect on the hearing thresholds of the animals. The presence of liposomes in the formulation resulted in sustained release of the drug in the perilymph for 30days and promoted the conversion of the prodrug loaded within the liposomes (dexamethasone phosphate) into its active form (dexamethasone). In this way, therapeutic doses were attained in the perilymph. A small amount of intact liposomes was visualized in the perilymph, whereas the main proportion of liposomes seemed to be trapped in the round window resulting in a reservoir effect. Thus, the administration of hyaluronic acid liposomal gel to the middle ear is an efficient strategy for delivering corticoids to the inner ear in a sustained manner. PMID:26860286

  15. Modeling analysis of the benefits of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for sustainable agriculture in arid regions

    Bartlett, M. S.; Vico, G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    In view of the pressing needs to sustainably manage water and soil resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, here we propose a new carbon assimilation model that couples a simple yet mechanistic description of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis to the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The model captures the full coupling of the CAM photosynthetic pathway with fluctuations in environmental conditions (cycles of light availability and air humidity, changes in soil moisture as driven by plant transpiration and rainfall occurrence). As such, the model is capable of reproducing the different phases of CAM, including daytime stomatal closure and photosynthesis from malic acid, afternoon stomatal opening for direct carbon assimilation, and nighttime stomatal opening for CO2 uptake and malic acid synthesis. Thanks to its versatility, our model allows us to relate CAM productivity, for both obligate and facultative CAM plants, to various soil moisture conditions including hydroclimatic scenarios of rainfall frequency and intensity as well as different night-time conditions of temperature, wind speed, and humidity. Our analyses show the potential productive benefits of CAM cultivation in dryland environments as feedstock and possible biofuel source, in terms of sustainable water use and economic benefits. In particular, the model is used to explore conditions where CAM plant resiliency to water stress makes these plants a more sustainable alternative to C3 and C4 species for potential deficit irrigation.

  16. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  17. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  18. Preparation of coated valproic acid and sodium valproate sustained-release matrix tablets

    Phaechamud T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the technique for preparation of coated valproic acid and sodium valproate sustained-release matrix tablets. Different diluents were tested and selected as the effective absorbent for oily valproic acid. Effect of the amount of absorbent and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose on drug release from valproic acid-sodium valproate matrix tablets prepared with wet granulation technique was evaluated in pH change system. Colloidal silicon dioxide effectively adsorbed liquid valproic acid during wet granulation and granule preparation. The amounts of colloidal silicon dioxide and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose employed in tablet formulations affected drug release from the tablets. The drug release was prominently sustained for over 12 h using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-based hydrophilic matrix system. The mechanism of drug release through the matrix polymer was a diffusion control. The drug release profile of the developed matrix tablet was similar to Depakine Chrono; , providing the values of similarity factor (f2 and difference factor (f1 of 85.56 and 2.37, respectively. Eudragit; L 30 D-55 was used as effective subcoating material for core matrix tablets before over coating with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose film with organic base solvent. Drug release profile of coated matrix tablet was almost similar to that of Depakine Chrono; .

  19. Sustaining Sustainabilities

    Egmose, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    exemplary case study in the field of urban sustainability to address how sustainability planning can more actively integrate civic aspirations as part of broader societal transformations towards sustainability. Conceptualised by the notion of sustaining sustain-abilities the role of planning implies...... strengthening possibilities for ecological and social life to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence. In this context the basis the paper exemplifies how action research methodologies can help strengthening transformative orientations towards future sustainability across citizens’ everyday...

  20. Phosphate fertilisers and management for sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils

    Extensive research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the management of plant nutrients, especially N and P, for crop production on acidic infertile tropical soils. Under certain conditions, the use of indigenous phosphate rock (PR) and modified PR products, such as partially acidulated PR or compacted mixtures of PR with superphosphates, are attractive alternatives, both agronomically and economically, to the use of conventional water-soluble P fertilisers for increasing crop productivity on Oxisols and Ultisols. A combination of the effects of proper P and N management including biological N2 fixation, judicious use of lime, and the use of acid-soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in cropping systems that enhance nutrient cycling and use efficiency, can provide an effective technology to sustainably increase crop productivity and production in tropical agro-ecosystems dominated by these acid soils. (author)

  1. Lack of the matricellular protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine attenuates liver fibrogenesis in mice.

    Catalina Atorrasagasti

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC is a matricellular protein involved in many biological processes and found over-expressed in cirrhotic livers. By mean of a genetic approach we herein provide evidence from different in vivo liver disease models suggesting a profibrogenic role for SPARC. METHODS: Two in vivo models of liver fibrosis, based on TAA administration and bile duct ligation, were developed on SPARC wild-type (SPARC(+/+ and knock-out (SPARC(-/- mice. Hepatic SPARC expression was analyzed by qPCR. Fibrosis was assessed by Sirius Red staining, and the maturation state of collagen fibers was analyzed using polarized light. Necroinflammatory activity was evaluated by applying the Knodell score and liver inflammatory infiltration was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Hepatic stellate cell activation was assessed by α-SMA immunohistochemistry. In addition, pro-fibrogenic genes and inflammatory cytokines were measured by qPCR and/or ELISA. Liver gene expression profile was analyzed in SPARC(-/- and SPARC(+/+ mice using Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 array. RESULTS: SPARC expression was found induced in fibrotic livers of mouse and human. SPARC(-/- mice showed a reduction in the degree of inflammation, mainly CD4+ cells, and fibrosis. Consistently, collagen deposits and mRNA expression levels were decreased in SPARC(-/- mice when compared to SPARC(+/+ mice; in addition, MMP-2 expression was increased in SPARC(-/- mice. A reduction in the number of activated myofibroblasts was observed. Moreover, TGF-β1 expression levels were down-regulated in the liver as well as in the serum of TAA-treated knock-out animals. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA analysis suggested several gene networks which might involve protective mechanisms of SPARC deficiency against liver fibrogenesis and a better established machinery to repair DNA and detoxify from external chemical stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our data suggest that

  2. Ferroplasma and relatives, recently discovered cell wall-lacking archaea making a living in extremely acid, heavy metal-rich environments.

    Golyshina, Olga V; Timmis, Kenneth N

    2005-09-01

    For several decades, the bacterium Acidithiobacillus (previously Thiobacillus) has been considered to be the principal acidophilic sulfur- and iron-oxidizing microbe inhabiting acidic environments rich in ores of iron and other heavy metals, responsible for the metal solubilization and leaching from such ores, and has become the paradigm of such microbes. However, during the last few years, new studies of a number of acidic environments, particularly mining waste waters, acidic pools, etc., in diverse geographical locations have revealed the presence of new cell wall-lacking archaea related to the recently described, acidophilic, ferrous-iron oxidizing Ferroplasma acidiphilum. These mesophilic and moderately thermophilic microbes, representing the family Ferroplasmaceae, were numerically significant members of the microbial consortia of the habitats studied, are able to mobilize metals from sulfide ores, e.g. pyrite, arsenopyrite and copper-containing sulfides, and are more acid-resistant than iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria exhibiting similar eco-physiological properties. Ferroplasma cell membranes contain novel caldarchaetidylglycerol tetraether lipids, which have extremely low proton permeabilities, as a result of the bulky isoprenoid core, and which are probably a major contributor to the extreme acid tolerance of these cell wall-less microbes. Surprisingly, several intracellular enzymes, including an ATP-dependent DNA ligase have pH optima close to that of the external environment rather than of the cytoplasm. Ferroplasma spp. are probably the major players in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and sulfide metals in highly acidic environments, and may have considerable potential for biotechnological applications such as biomining and biocatalysis under extreme conditions. PMID:16104851

  3. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. This paper is based mainly on on-going work within an EU-funded project combining basic research on plant adaptation mechanisms by plant physiologists, and field experimentation on acid soils in Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia and Guadeloupe by breeders, soil scientists and a agronomists. The results suggest that large genetic variability exists in adaptation of plants to acid soils. A range of morphological and physiological plant characteristics contribute to tolerance of acid soils, elucidation of which has contributed to the development of rapid techniques for screening for tolerance. Incorporation of acid-soil-tolerant species and cultivars into cropping systems contributes to improved nutrient efficiency overall, and thus reduces fertilizer needs. This may help to minimize maintenance applications of fertiliser through various pathways: (i) deeper root growth resulting in more-efficient uptake of nutrients from the sub-soil and less leaching, (ii) more biomass production resulting in less seepage and less leaching, with more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of higher soil organic-matter content, and, consequently, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. (author)

  4. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA.

    Isabella, Vincent M; Clark, Virginia L

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. Gonococcal fatty acid profiles confirmed that NGO1024 was involved in UFA synthesis anaerobically, but not aerobically, demonstrating that gonococci contain two distinct pathways for the production of UFAs, with a yet unidentified aerobic mechanism, and an anaerobic mechanism involving NGO1024. Expression of genes involved in classical anaerobic UFA synthesis, fabA, fabM and fabB, was toxic in gonococci and unable to complement a NGO1024 mutation, suggesting that the chemistry involved in gonococcal anaerobic UFA synthesis is distinct from that of the classical pathway. NGO1024 homologues, which we suggest naming UfaA, form a distinct lineage within the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamily, and are found in many facultative and obligate anaerobes that produce UFAs but lack fabA, suggesting that UfaA is part of a widespread pathway involved in UFA synthesis. PMID:21895795

  5. [Absolute bioavailability of a special sustained-release acetylsalicylic acid formulation].

    Lücker, P W; Swoboda, M; Wetzelsberger, N

    1989-03-01

    Absolute Bioavailability of a Special Acetylsalicylic Acid Sustained Release Formulation. The absolute bioavailability of an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sustained release formulation (Contrheuma retard), containing 300 mg ASA as initial dose and 350 mg in a retard formulation, was determined in comparison to a standard ASA solution for intravenous administration in a two-treatment, two-period cross-over trial with 6 healthy male volunteers by comparing the areas under the plasma-fluctuation-time curves of the primary metabolite. In addition, it was examined by comparison of the mean times after administration of both formulations, whether the test formulation meets the requirements of a sustained release formulation. The investigations led to the following results: The absolute bioavailability of the test formulation was 95%. The statistical comparison of the areas under the concentration-time courses allowed no decision (neither for equivalence nor difference). The maximal concentration of SA after intravenous administration of the standard formulation was reached after 0.4 h on an average and amounted to 62 micrograms/ml. After oral administration of the test formulation, a mean concentration maximum of 28 micrograms/ml was calculated, which had been reached after about 2 h. The differences are statistically significant. The mean time for SA was 6 h after the standard formulation, whereas after administration of the test compound, a mean of 11.5 h was calculated. 24 h following administration, the concentration of SA was 1.3 micrograms/ml after intravenous administration of the standard formulation and 5.5 micrograms/ml after administration of the test formulation. These differences, too, are statistically significant. From the comparison of the mean time for SA, a retard factor of 1.9 was calculated. PMID:2757664

  6. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘

  7. Green Chemistry in Protected Horticulture: The Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as a Sustainable Strategy

    Gilda Carrasco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field.

  8. Green Chemistry in Protected Horticulture: The Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as a Sustainable Strategy

    Carrasco, Gilda; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field. PMID:20559497

  9. Fertilizer management for sustainable crop production in acid savannah soils of Latin America and Africa

    As development of more agricultural lands is limited in highly populated Asia, the greatest potential for expanding crop production to feed an increasing world population lies in the tropical savannah regions dominated by acid, infertile soils (Oxisols and Ultisols) of Latin America and Africa. The major soil-related chemical constraints of acid savannah soils are deficiency of most of the plant nutrients plus aluminium (Al) toxicity and high phosphorus (P) fixation. Phosphorus is probably the single most widespread limiting nutrient on plant growth in Oxisols and Ultisols. Use of conventional water-soluble P fertilizers such as TSP or SSP at high P rates can be agronomically effective but may be economically prohibitive to resource-poor farmers. Under certain conditions, use of indigenous phosphate rocks (PR) and modified PR products such as partially acidulated PR (PAPR) or compaction of PR with TSP/SSP are potentially attractive alternatives to the use of water-soluble P fertilizers, both agronomically and economically, in increasing crop production on acid Oxisols and Ultisols. Additionally, reactive PR sources may provide Ca nutrient and reduce Al saturation that in turn may reduce Al toxicity to plants. Some PR sources may also contain micronutrients such as Zn, Mo. A combination of the effects of proper P and nitrogen (N) management including biological N fixation, judicious use of lime, and the development of acid soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in a sustainable cropping system can provide an effective technology to increase crop yield in these acid savannah soils. Nuclear techniques including 15N and 32P isotopes as tracers are powerful tools to study: (1) efficiency of N and P from mineral and organic sources, (2) transformations of N and P in soil, (3) biological N fixation, and (4) recycling of N and P in the soil-plant system. It was shown that Sechura PR (Peru) was 78% as effective as TSP in biological N fixation by soybean in an Ultisol

  10. The retinoic acid signaling pathway regulates anterior/posterior patterning in the nerve cord and pharynx of amphioxus, a chordate lacking neural crest

    Escriva, Hector; Holland, Nicholas D.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Laudet, Vincent; Holland, Linda Z.

    2002-01-01

    Amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, has a notochord, segmental axial musculature, pharyngeal gill slits and dorsal hollow nerve cord, but lacks neural crest. In amphioxus, as in vertebrates, exogenous retinoic acid (RA) posteriorizes the embryo. The mouth and gill slits never form, AmphiPax1, which is normally downregulated where gill slits form, remains upregulated and AmphiHox1 expression shifts anteriorly in the nerve cord. To dissect the role of RA signaling in patterning chordate embryos, we have cloned the single retinoic acid receptor (AmphiRAR), retinoid X receptor (AmphiRXR) and an orphan receptor (AmphiTR2/4) from amphioxus. AmphiTR2/4 inhibits AmphiRAR-AmphiRXR-mediated transactivation in the presence of RA by competing for DR5 or IR7 retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). The 5' untranslated region of AmphiTR2/4 contains an IR7 element, suggesting possible auto- and RA-regulation. The patterns of AmphiTR2/4 and AmphiRAR expression during embryogenesis are largely complementary: AmphiTR2/4 is strongly expressed in the cerebral vesicle (homologous to the diencephalon plus anterior midbrain), while AmphiRAR expression is high in the equivalent of the hindbrain and spinal cord. Similarly, while AmphiTR2/4 is expressed most strongly in the anterior and posterior thirds of the endoderm, the highest AmphiRAR expression is in the middle third. Expression of AmphiRAR is upregulated by exogenous RA and completely downregulated by the RA antagonist BMS009. Moreover, BMS009 expands the pharynx posteriorly; the first three gill slit primordia are elongated and shifted posteriorly, but do not penetrate, and additional, non-penetrating gill slit primordia are induced. Thus, in an organism without neural crest, initiation and penetration of gill slits appear to be separate events mediated by distinct levels of RA signaling in the pharyngeal endoderm. Although these compounds have little effect on levels of AmphiTR2/4 expression, RA

  11. Determination of free D-proline and D-leucine in the brains of mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity.

    Hamase, K; Inoue, T; Morikawa, A; Konno, R; Zaitsu, K

    2001-11-15

    A new procedure to accurately measure a trace amount of d-proline in biological samples has been developed. This D-amino acid was derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole and was determined by a column-switching HPLC system, a combination of a micro-ODS column and a chiral column. The detection limit for D-proline spiked in a mouse cerebrum sample is 1 fmol (injection amount, S/N = 3). Within-day precision and day-to-day precision obtained for spiked d-proline (10 fmol) are 2.14 and 5.35% (RSD), respectively. Using the new method, the amount of free D-proline in eight brain regions and sera of mutant ddY/DAO- mice, lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity, and control ddY/DAO+ mice was determined. The amount of free D-leucine was also investigated. The amount and distribution of D-proline in the brains of ddY/DAO+ mice and ddY/DAO- mice are almost the same, and relatively high amounts of D-proline have been observed in the pituitary gland and in the pineal gland. On the other hand, the amount of D-leucine is different between the two strains. In the brains of ddY/DAO+ mice, a relatively high amount of D-leucine has been observed in the pineal gland compared with other regions. In the brains of ddY/DAO- mice, D-leucine amounts are approximately 10 times higher than those obtained in ddY/DAO+ mice and regional difference has not been observed, while the amounts of L-proline and L-leucine are not significantly different between the two strains. In the serum, the amounts of both free D-proline and d-leucine are significantly higher in the ddY/DAO- mice than those obtained in ddY/DAO+ mice. PMID:11700980

  12. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N.; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty ...

  13. Review: Sustainable production of hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid: Challenges and opportunities

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) are two of the most promising chemicals derived from biomass owing to their convertibility into a large number of chemicals having applications in diverse industries. Their transition from niche products to mass-produced chemicals, however, requires their production from sustainable biomass feedstocks at low costs using environment-friendly techniques. In this review, the numerous reaction systems that have been developed to produce HMF and LA from various substrates have been looked at and their merits, demerits and requirements for commercialisation outlined. Special attention has been paid to microwave irradiation-heated systems due to their dual advantages of high product yields and low environmental footprint. - Highlights: • HMF and LA are promising biorefinery platform chemicals. • Lignocellulose biomass is preferred for viable commercial-scale production. • One-pot reaction systems reduce feedstock pre-treatment and purification. • Microwave irradiation based reaction is a promising synthesis route. • HMF and LA isolation techniques need to be optimized

  14. Sustained Effect of Hyaluronic Acid in Subcutaneous Administration to the Cochlear Spiral Ganglion

    Inagaki, Yozo; Fujioka, Masato; Kanzaki, Sho; Watanabe, Kotaro; Oishi, Naoki; Itakura, Go; Yasuda, Akimasa; Shibata, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hirotaka James; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of drugs in the inner ear cannot be precisely evaluated because of its small area and complex structure. In the present study, we used hyaluronic acid (HA)-dispersed luciferin to image transgenic mice and to determine the effect of HA on controlled drug delivery to the cochlea. GFAP-luc mice, which express luciferase in cochlear spiral ganglion cells, were subcutaneously administered HA-luciferin (HA-sc) or luciferin dissolved in saline (NS-sc) or intraperitoneally administered luciferin dissolved in saline (NS-ip). The bioluminescence of luciferin was monitored in vivo in real time. The peak time and half-life of fluorescence emission were significantly increased in HA-sc-treated mice compared with those in NS-sc- and NS-ip-treated mice; however, significant differences were not observed in peak photon counts. We detected differences in the pharmacokinetics of luciferin in the inner ear, including its sustained release, in the presence of HA. The results indicate the clinical potential of using HA for controlled drug delivery to the cochlea. PMID:27099926

  15. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  16. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  17. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic) Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    M.R. Nurul Fazita; Krishnan Jayaraman; Debes Bhattacharyya; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Mohamad Haafiz, M. K.; Abdul Khalil H.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic) acid (BF-PLA) composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength), thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial...

  18. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    Hopperton, Kathryn E., E-mail: kathryn.hopperton@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Duncan, Robin E., E-mail: robin.duncan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Bazinet, Richard P., E-mail: richard.bazinet@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Archer, Michael C., E-mail: m.archer@utoronto.ca [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 3E2 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from {sup 14}C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as {sup 14}C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare

  19. Fatty acid synthase plays a role in cancer metabolism beyond providing fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis or sustaining elevations in glycolytic activity

    Fatty acid synthase is over-expressed in many cancers and its activity is required for cancer cell survival, but the role of endogenously synthesized fatty acids in cancer is unknown. It has been suggested that endogenous fatty acid synthesis is either needed to support the growth of rapidly dividing cells, or to maintain elevated glycolysis (the Warburg effect) that is characteristic of cancer cells. Here, we investigate both hypotheses. First, we compared utilization of fatty acids synthesized endogenously from 14C-labeled acetate to those supplied exogenously as 14C-labeled palmitate in the culture medium in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and untransformed breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). We found that cancer cells do not produce fatty acids that are different from those derived from exogenous palmitate, that these fatty acids are esterified to the same lipid and phospholipid classes in the same proportions, and that their distribution within neutral lipids is not different from untransformed cells. These results suggest that endogenously synthesized fatty acids do not fulfill a specific function in cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed that cancer cells excrete endogenously synthesized fatty acids, suggesting that they are produced in excess of requirements. We next investigated whether lipogenic activity is involved in the maintenance of high glycolytic activity by culturing both cancer and non-transformed cells under anoxic conditions. Although anoxia increased glycolysis 2–3 fold, we observed no concomitant increase in lipogenesis. Our results indicate that breast cancer cells do not have a specific qualitative or quantitative requirement for endogenously synthesized fatty acids and that increased de novo lipogenesis is not required to sustain elevations in glycolytic activity induced by anoxia in these cells. - Highlights: • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is over-expressed in cancer but its function is unknown. • We compare utilization of

  20. Complete nucleotide and derived amino acid sequence of cDNA encoding the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue: lack of a mitochondrial targeting presequence.

    Ridley, R. G.; Patel, H. V.; Gerber, G E; Morton, R C; Freeman, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone spanning the entire amino acid sequence of the nuclear-encoded uncoupling protein of rat brown adipose tissue mitochondria has been isolated and sequenced. With the exception of the N-terminal methionine the deduced N-terminus of the newly synthesized uncoupling protein is identical to the N-terminal 30 amino acids of the native uncoupling protein as determined by protein sequencing. This proves that the protein contains no N-terminal mitochondrial targeting prepiece and that a t...

  1. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  2. Lack of an association of depression with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids in healthy adults.

    Mamalakis, G.; Kiriakakis, M.; Tsibinos, G.; Jansen, E.; Cremers, H.; Strien, C.; Hatzis, C.; Moschandreas, J.; Linardakis, M.; Kromhout, D.; Kafatos, A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both adi

  3. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Jackson, Price [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Physical Sciences, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Universite Laval, Department of Radiology, Quebec City (Canada); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  4. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of 177Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  5. Impact of sustainable feeds on omega-3 long-chain fatty acid levels in farmed Atlantic salmon, 2006-2015.

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Tocher, D R

    2016-01-01

    As the global population and its demand for seafood increases more of our fish will come from aquaculture. Farmed Atlantic salmon are a global commodity and, as an oily fish, contain a rich source of the health promoting long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Replacing the traditional finite marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil, in farmed salmon diets with sustainable alternatives of terrestrial origin, devoid of EPA and DHA, presents a significant challenge for the aquaculture industry. By comparing the fatty acid composition of over 3,000 Scottish Atlantic salmon farmed between 2006 and 2015, we find that terrestrial fatty acids have significantly increased alongside a decrease in EPA and DHA levels. Consequently, the nutritional value of the final product is compromised requiring double portion sizes, as compared to 2006, in order to satisfy recommended EPA + DHA intake levels endorsed by health advisory organisations. Nevertheless, farmed Scottish salmon still delivers more EPA + DHA than most other fish species and all terrestrial livestock. Our findings highlight the global shortfall of EPA and DHA and the implications this has for the human consumer and examines the potential of microalgae and genetically modified crops as future sources of these important fatty acids. PMID:26899924

  6. Identification of a conserved protein involved in anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in Neiserria gonorrhoeae: implications for facultative and obligate anaerobes that lack FabA

    Isabella, Vincent M.; Clark, Virginia L.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of the facultative anaerobe, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, revealed that many genes of unknown function were induced under anaerobic conditions. Mutation of one such gene, NGO1024, encoding a protein belonging to the 2-nitropropane dioxygenase-like superfamiliy of proteins, was found to result in an inability of gonococci to grow anaerobically. Anaerobic growth of an NG1024 mutant was restored upon supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), but not with the saturated ...

  7. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  8. Misunderstood or lacking legitimacy?

    Cohen, G.; Sims, D

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the rising interest in marketing within professional service firms in the last twenty years, past research has identified a reluctant acceptance and application of marketing within these organisations. The present paper will debate whether this is due to lack of understanding of the role of marketing, lack of acceptance as a valid management discipline suitable for professional services or lack of legitimacy as a profession in its own right. A brief overview of the role of marketi...

  9. Sustainable processes using heterogeneous acid catalysts. Some examples of industrial interest.

    Gliozzi, Gherardo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the need for the design of more sustainable processes and the development of alternative reaction routes to reduce the environmental impact of the chemical industry has gained vital importance. Main objectives especially regard the use of renewable raw materials, the exploitation of alternative energy sources, the design of inherently safe processes and of integrated reaction/separation technologies (e.g. microreactors and membranes), the process intensification, the reduction...

  10. Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.

    Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

  11. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects

    Blomstrand, E.; Møller, K.; Secher, Niels Henry;

    2005-01-01

    both trials, but returned to the basal level at 180 min of exercise. In both trials, BCAA were taken up by the brain while glutamine was released. CONCLUSION: The present data show that both tryptophan and BCAA are taken up by the brain during prolonged exercise, and we suggest that the cerebral uptake......AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on two...... occasions; either supplemented with a 6% carbohydrate solution or with flavoured water (placebo). Catheters were inserted into the right internal jugular vein and the radial artery of the non-dominant arm. The brain exchange of amino acids during exercise was calculated from the arterial-jugular venous...

  12. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon. PMID:25567511

  13. Lactic acid-mediated tandem one-pot synthesis of 2-aminothiazole derivatives: A rapid, scalable, and sustainable process

    Mohan Reddy Bodireddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally benign and biodegradable lactic acid is identified as alternative solvent and catalyst for the tandem one-pot synthesis of Hantzsch 2-aminothiazole derivatives (4 from readily available aralkyl ketones (1 through in situ regioselective α-bromination using N-bromosuccinimide (2 followed by heterocyclization using thiourea (3 at 90–100°C. The major advantages of the present method include short reaction times (10–15 min, practical, simple to perform, easy work-up, good yield of products (up to 96%, productive for large-scale applications, free from apply of α-bromoketones (lachrymator as substrates, avoids column purification. Hence, the present method meets with the concepts of both Wender’s “ideal synthesis” and sustainable chemical process.

  14. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  15. Sustainable activity of hydrothermally synthesized mesoporous silicates in acetic acid esterification

    ŞİMŞEK, VELİ; DEĞİRMENCİ, LEVENT; MÜRTEZAOĞLU, KIRALİ

    2015-01-01

    A hydrothermal method was applied in the synthesis of mesoporous silicates containing silicotungstic acid (STA). The synthesis procedures were developed by modification of procedures previously applied in the synthesis of MCM-41 and SBA-15. The synthesized catalysts were named MCM-41-S and SBA-15-S based on MCM-41 and SBA-15. Their activities were investigated in ethyl acetate production, which was selected as the model reaction. The results indicated that the activity of SBA-15-S catalysts i...

  16. Sustainable consumption and marketing

    Van Dam

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘importance’ of ‘sustainability’ has a meaning that is not directly translated into purchases. The cognitive and motivational perceptual structures of sustainability among light us...

  17. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite

  18. Carboxylic acid functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for sustained release of diphenhydramine hydrochloride

    Zargarian, S. Sh.; Haddadi-Asl, V., E-mail: haddadi@aut.ac.ir; Hematpour, H. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) (cylindrical shape with external diameter and length in the range of 30–80 nm and 0.2–1 µm, respectively) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) from hydroxyl groups by a coupling reaction. Subsequently, maleic anhydride was attached to the APTES moieties to yield carboxylic acid-functionalized HNT. Loading and subsequent release of a model drug molecule diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) on modified and unmodified nanotubes were investigated. Morphology of HNT was studied by electron microscopy. Successful attachment of APTES and carboxylic acid groups to halloysite and drug loading were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amount of surface modification and drug adsorption capacity were calculated via thermogravimetric analysis. The ordered crystal structure of loaded drug was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. UV–Visible spectrophotometer was used to study drug release from modified and unmodified samples. Carboxylated halloysite exhibits higher loading capacity and prolonged release of DPH as compared to that of the natural halloysite.

  19. Sustainable Universities

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn......, has put a counter pressure on the university, forcing it to review its role as a driver for sustainable development. Today, universities and intergovernmental institutions have developed more than 31 SHE declarations, and more than 1400 universities have signed a SHE declaration globally. However, it...... is well known that signing a declaration does not necessarily lead to implementation. This is due to the lack of incentive structures. The article examines the discursive interaction between university and intergovernmental declarations that form the basis for the design of sustainable universities...

  20. Amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives toward the design of micelles for the sustained delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

    Mayol, Laura; Biondi, Marco; Russo, Luisa; Malle, Birgitte M; Schwach-Abdellaoui, Khadija; Borzacchiello, Assunta

    2014-02-15

    The idea of this study was to combine hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation and a local/controlled delivery of a hydrophobic anti-inflammatory drug. To this aim, we investigated the ability of an octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified HA (OSA-HA), to act as a solubility enhancer and as a platform for slow release of hydrophobic drug(s). This novel HA derivative could act as a viscosupplementation agent and, for this reason, a rheological study was conducted along with calorimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results revealed that the ability of HA to sequester water is enhanced by the introduction of lipophilic functions within HA molecules, resulting in a decrease of the fraction of free water able to freeze compared to the unmodified HA. Moreover, OSA-HA solutions appear to be an appropriate tool to be used in viscosupplementation therapy owing to their suitable viscoelastic features. Our results indicate that OSA-HA is able to self-assemble into micelles, load a hydrophobic drug and release the active molecule with controlled kinetics. In particular, the analysis of release profiles showed that, in all cases, drug diffusion into the gel is faster compared to gel/drug dissolution, being the dissolution contribution more relevant as the OSA-HA concentration increases. PMID:24507262

  1. Sustained Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Drug Delivery System for Betulinic Acid

    Julia M. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely utilized as a novel drug carrier with promising future applications in biomedical therapies due to their distinct characteristics. In the present work, carboxylic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs were used as the starting material to react with anticancer drug, BA to produce f-SWCNTs-BA conjugate via π-π stacking interaction. The conjugate was extensively characterized for drug loading capacity, physicochemical properties, surface morphology, drug releasing characteristics, and cytotoxicity evaluation. The results indicated that the drug loading capacity was determined to be around 20 wt% and this value has been verified by thermogravimetric analysis. The binding of BA onto the surface of f-SWCNTs was confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Powder XRD analysis showed that the structure of the conjugate was unaffected by the loading of BA. The developed conjugate was found to release the drug in a controlled manner with a prolonged release property. According to the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the conjugate was not toxic in a standard fibroblast cell line, and anticancer activity was significantly higher in A549 than HepG2 cell line. This study suggests that f-SWCNTs could be developed as an efficient drug carrier to conjugate drugs for pharmaceutical applications in cancer chemotherapies.

  2. Mechanisms of HIV non-progression; robust and sustained CD4+ T-cell proliferative responses to p24 antigen correlate with control of viraemia and lack of disease progression after long-term transfusion-acquired HIV-1 infection

    Geczy Andrew F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elite non-progressors (plasma viral load Results A survival advantage was conferred on 12 of 13 subjects, who had at least one host genetic factor (HLA, chemokine receptor or TLR polymorphisms or viral attenuating factor (defective nef associated with slow progression. However, antiviral immune responses differentiated the course of disease into and beyond the second decade of infection. A stable p24-specific proliferative response was associated with control of viraemia and retention of non-progressor status, but this p24 response was absent or declined in viraemic subjects. Strong Gag-dominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses were identified in most LTNP, or Pol dominant-CTL in those with nef-defective HIV infection. CTL were associated with control of viraemia when combined with p24 proliferative responses. However, CTL did not prevent late disease progression. Individuals with sustained viral suppression had CTL recognising numerous Gag epitopes, while strong but restricted responses to one or two immunodominant epitopes was effective for some time, but failed to contain viraemia over the course of this study. Viral escape mutants at a HLA B27-restricted Gag-p24 epitope were detected in only 1 of 3 individuals, whereas declining or negative p24 proliferative responses occurred in all 3 concurrent with an increase in viraemia. Conclusion Detectable viraemia at study entry was predictive of loss of LTNP status and/or disease progression in 6 of 8, and differentiated slow progressors from elite LTNP who retained potent virological control. Sustained immunological suppression of viraemia was independently associated with preserved p24 proliferative responses, regardless of the strength and breadth of the CTL response. A decline in this protective p24 response preceded or correlated with loss of non-progressor status and/or signs of disease progression.

  3. Energy brands lack vitality

    The three Dutch energy companies (Nuon, Essent and Eneco Energie) have relatively little brand strength. The brands are not perceived to be sufficiently different from one another and are not valued by consumers. With liberalisation imminent, this is hardly a strong starting point. How can you win over consumers if it is not clear what is on offer? In the business market, decision-makers are better placed to distinguish between brands. However, the brands lack vitality in this sector of the market too. The only consolation is that the situation is by no means exclusive to the Netherlands

  4. Dietary omega-3 PUFA and health: stearidonic acid-containing seed oils as effective and sustainable alternatives to traditional marine oils.

    Surette, Marc E

    2013-05-01

    The daily consumption of dietary omega-3 PUFA is recommended by governmental agencies in several countries and by a number of health organizations. The molecular mechanisms by which these dietary PUFA affect health involve the enrichment of cellular membranes with long-chain 20- and 22-carbon omega-3 PUFA that impacts tissues by altering membrane protein functions, cell signaling, and gene expression profiles. These changes are recognized to have health benefits in humans, especially relating to cardiovascular outcomes. Cellular membrane enrichment and health benefits are associated with the consumption of long-chain omega-3 PUFA found in marine oils, but are not generally linked with the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid, the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA found in plant seed oils. However, the supply of omega-3 PUFA from marine sources is limited and may not be sustainable. New plant-derived sources of omega-3 PUFA like stearidonic acid-soy oil from genetically modified soybeans and Ahiflower oil from Buglossoides arvensis seeds that are enriched in the 18-carbon omega-3 PUFA stearidonic acid are being developed and show promise to become effective as well as sustainable sources of omega-3 PUFA. An example of changes in tissue lipid profiles associated with the consumption of Ahiflower oil is presented in a mouse feeding study. PMID:23417895

  5. Applying Limestone or Basalt in Combination with Bio-Fertilizer to Sustain Rice Production on an Acid Sulfate Soil in Malaysia

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of applying ground magnesium limestone (GML or ground basalt in combination with bio-fertilizer to sustain rice production on an acid sulfate soil in Malaysia. Soils from Kelantan Plains, Malaysia, were treated with GML, ground basalt, bio-fertilizer, GML + bio-fertilizer, and ground basalt + bio-fertilizer (4 t·ha−1 each. Results showed that soil fertility was improved by applying the soil amendments. GML and basalt contain some Zn and Cu; thus, application of these amendments would increase their contents in the soil needed for the healthy growth of rice. Basalt applied in combination with bio-fertilizer appeared to be the best agronomic option to improve the fertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice production in the long run. In addition to increasing Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu reserves in the soil, water pH increased and precipitated Al3+ and/or Fe2+. Ground basalt is cheaper than GML, but basalt dissolution in the acidic soil was slow. As such, its ameliorative effects could only be seen significantly from the second season onwards. The specially-formulated bio-fertilizer for alleviating the infertility of acid sulfate soil could also enhance rice growth. The use of the bio-fertilizer fortified with N2-fixing bacteria is a green technology that would help reduce NO3− and/or NO2− pollution and reduce the cost of rice production. The phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB present in the bio-fertilizer not only increased the available P, but also helped release organic acids that would inactivate Al3+ and/or Fe2+ via the process of chelation.

  6. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: A sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO3 and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m3/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g.(m2 day)-1, more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g.(m2 day)-1 value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. - Highlights: → Novel reactive mixture enable 20 month of high hydraulic conductivity. → Acid load reduction improved 10 times comparing to vertical flow wetland. → High biotic and abiotic iron oxidation and removal. → Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V water removal. - A high permeable alkaline reactive substrate offers a sustainable option to remediate severely polluted acid mine drainage in the Odiel basin

  7. Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

    Lee CH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Hung Lee,1,2 Yu-Huang Lin,3 Shang-Hung Chang,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Yen Chu,4 Chao-Jan Wang,5 Ming-Yi Hsu,5 Hung Chang,6 Gwo-Jyh Chang,7 Kuo-Chun Hung,1 Ming-Jer Hsieh,1 Fen-Chiung Lin,1 I-Chang Hsieh,1 Ming-Shien Wen,1 Yenlin Huang81Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, 4Laboratory of Cardiovascular Physiology, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 5Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, 6Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicinal Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Linkou, 8Department of Anatomical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanAbstract: Incomplete endothelialization, blood cell adhesion to vascular stents, and inflammation of arteries can result in acute stent thromboses. The systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid decreases endothelial dysfunction, potentially reducing thrombus, enhancing vasodilatation, and inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis; but, this is weakened by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study proposes a hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers, for the local, sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid to injured artery walls. Biodegradable nanofibers are prepared by first dissolving poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and acetylsalicylic acid in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The solution is then electrospun into nanofibrous tubes, which are then mounted onto commercially available bare-metal stents. In vitro release rates of pharmaceuticals from nanofibers are characterized using an elution method, and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay. The experimental results suggest that biodegradable nanofibers

  8. When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack.

    Pickering, Neil

    2015-12-01

    In their recent article "A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy," Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that "lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack" as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. PMID:26631232

  9. Sustainability curricula in design education

    Casais, M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.

    2012-01-01

    While sustainability in Design finds much attention in the literature, the education of sustainability in Design courses lacks discussion regarding curricula and importance. In an attempt to map the way sustainability is taught in Design Bachelor and Master Courses in the European Union, we began an

  10. Sustained Release of Hydrophilic l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate Magnesium from Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold—A Study across Blend, Coaxial, and Emulsion Electrospinning Techniques

    Xinxin Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to achieve a sustained release of hydrophilic l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium (ASP from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds, so as to promote the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells for bone tissue engineering (TE. ASP was loaded and electrospun together with PCL via three electrospinning techniques, i.e., coaxial, emulsion, and blend electrospinning. For blend electrospinning, binary solvent systems of dichloromethane–methanol (DCM–MeOH and dichloromethane–dimethylformamide (DCM–DMF were used to achieve the desired ASP release through the effect of solvent polarity and volatility. The scaffold prepared via a blend electrospinning technique with a binary solvent system of DCM–MeOH at a 7:3 ratio demonstrated a desirable, sustained ASP release profile for as long as two weeks, with minimal burst release. However, an undesirable burst release (~100% was observed within the first 24 h for scaffolds prepared by coaxial electrospinning. Scaffolds prepared by emulsion electrospinning displayed poorer mechanical properties. Sustained releasing blend electrospun scaffold could be a good potential candidate as an ASP-eluting scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Carbachol induces a rapid and sustained hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositide in bovine tracheal smooth muscle measurements of the mass of polyphosphoinositides, 1,2-diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid

    Takuwa, Y.; Takuwa, N.; Rasmussen, H.

    1986-11-05

    The effects of carbachol on polyphosphoinositides and 1,2-diacylglycerol metabolism were investigated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring both lipid mass and the turnover of (/sup 3/H)inositol-labeled phosphoinositides. Carbachol induces a rapid reduction in the mass of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and a rapid increase in the mass of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. These changes in lipid mass are sustained for at least 60 min. The level of phosphatidylinositol shows a delayed and progressive decrease during a 60-min period of carbachol stimulation. The addition of atropine reverses these responses completely. Carbachol stimulates a rapid loss in (/sup 3/H)inositol radioactivity from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate associated with production of (/sup 3/H)inositol trisphosphate. The carbachol-induced change in the mass of phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid is not affected by removal of extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and does not appear to be secondary to an increase in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/. These results indicate that carbachol causes phospholipase C-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown, resulting in the production of inositol trisphosphate and a sustained increase in the actual content of 1,2-diacylglycerol. These results strongly suggest that carbachol-induced contraction is mediated by the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides with the resulting generation of two messengers: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol.

  12. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Christopher Ash

    Full Text Available Shredded card (SC was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water. We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4. Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49 were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC. In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC. In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC. In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil, and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC. A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption. SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  13. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  14. Identification and application of keto acids transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Hongwei Guo; Peiran Liu; Catherine Madzak; Guocheng Du; Jingwen Zhou; Jian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Production of organic acids by microorganisms is of great importance for obtaining building-block chemicals from sustainable biomass. Extracellular accumulation of organic acids involved a series of transporters, which play important roles in the accumulation of specific organic acid while lack of systematic demonstration in eukaryotic microorganisms. To circumvent accumulation of by-product, efforts have being orchestrated to carboxylate transport mechanism for potential clue in Yarrowia lip...

  15. The Henrietta Lacks legacy grows

    Greely, Henry T.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Now that the NIH has reached an agreement with Henrietta Lacks's family concerning the use of the HeLa cell line, what lessons can we learn about informed consent and the unforeseen use of biological samples?

  16. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils

    Geraldo Carvalho Jr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world’s arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha–1 grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha–1 independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries.

  17. Back to Acid Soil Fields: The Citrate Transporter SbMATE Is a Major Asset for Sustainable Grain Yield for Sorghum Cultivated on Acid Soils.

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti, Marcos; Viana, Joao Herbert Moreira; Menezes, Cicero Bezerra; Silva, Lidianne Assis; Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira; Coelho, Antonio Marcos; Kochian, Leon V; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Magalhaes, Jurandir Vieira

    2016-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma membrane transporter that mediates Al exclusion from sensitive regions in the root apex. As is the case with other known Al tolerance genes, SbMATE was cloned based on studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions, in nutrient solution. Therefore, its impact on grain yield on acid soils remains undetermined. To determine the real world impact of SbMATE, multi-trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in hydroponics, and, in the field, revealed a large-effect QTL colocalized with the Al tolerance locus AltSB, where SbMATE lies, conferring a 0.6 ton ha(-1) grain yield increase on acid soils. A second QTL for Al tolerance in hydroponics, where the positive allele was also donated by the Al tolerant parent, SC283, was found on chromosome 9, indicating the presence of distinct Al tolerance genes in the sorghum genome, or genes acting in the SbMATE pathway leading to Al-activated citrate release. There was no yield penalty for AltSB, consistent with the highly localized Al regulated SbMATE expression in the root tip, and Al-dependent transport activity. A female effect of 0.5 ton ha(-1) independently demonstrated the effectiveness of AltSB in hybrids. Al tolerance conferred by AltSB is thus an indispensable asset for sorghum production and food security on acid soils, many of which are located in developing countries. PMID:26681519

  18. Sustainable Astronomy

    Blaha, C.; Goetz, J.; Johnson, T.

    2011-09-01

    Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently "retire" observing equipment to local schools. While public evenings continue to be popular, the donated equipment was underutilized due to a lack of trained student observing assistants. With sponsorship from NASA's IYA Student Ambassador program, the sustainable astronomy project began in 2009 to generate greater interest in astronomy and train middle school and high school students as observing assistants. Carleton physics majors developed curricular materials and instituted regular outreach programs for grades 6-12. The Northfield High School Astronomy Club was created, and Carleton undergraduates taught high school students how to use telescopes and do CCD imaging. During the summer of 2009, Carleton students began the Young Astronomers Summer Experience (YASE) program for middle school students and offered a two-week, astronomy-rich observing and imaging experience at Goodsell Observatory. In concert with NASA's Summer of Innovation initiative, the YASE program was offered again in 2010 and engaged a new group of local middle school students in hands-on scientific experiments and observing opportunities. Members of the high school astronomy club now volunteer as observing assistants in the community and graduates of the YASE programs are eager to continue observing as members of a public service astronomy club when they enter the Northfield High School. These projects are training future scientists and will sustain the public's interest in astronomy long after the end of IYA 2009.

  19. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Raaymakers, J S; Saris, W H;

    1995-01-01

    1. An increased uptake of tryptophan in the brain may increase serotoninergic activity and recently has been suggested to be a cause of fatigue during prolonged exercise. The present study, therefore, investigates whether ingestion of tryptophan or the competing branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs...... tryptophan ingestion caused a 7- to 20-fold increase. Exercise time to exhaustion was not different between treatments (122 +/- 3 min). 3. The data suggest that manipulation of tryptophan supply to the brain either has no additional effect upon serotoninergic activity during prolonged exhaustive exercise......) affect performance. Ten endurance-trained male athletes were studied during cycle exercise at 70-75% maximal power output, while ingesting, ad random and double-blind, drinks that contained 6% sucrose (control) or 6% sucrose supplemented with (1) tryptophan (3 g l-1), (2) a low dose of BCAA (6 g l-1...

  20. Sustainable marketing for sustainable development

    Marcel Meler; Dragan Magaš

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the mutual interrelation between sustainable marketing and sustainable development. Sustainable development is viewed as an established three-dimensional concept comprising economic sustainability and prosperity, social equity and environmental quality. In order to achieve their full synergy, it is necessary to activate sustainable marketing, which is understood not only as a sustainable and profitable relationship with the customers, natural and social environmen...

  1. Formulation of polylactide-co-glycolic acid nanospheres for encapsulation and sustained release of poly(ethylene imine-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers complexed to oligonucleotides

    Wheatley Margaret A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs have been shown to induce dystrophin expression in muscles cells of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and in the mdx mouse, the murine model of DMD. However, ineffective delivery of AOs limits their therapeutic potential. Copolymers of cationic poly(ethylene imine (PEI and non-ionic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG form stable nanoparticles when complexed with AOs, but the positive surface charge on the resultant PEG-PEI-AO nanoparticles limits their biodistribution. We adapted a modified double emulsion procedure for encapsulating PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes into degradable polylactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanospheres. Formulation parameters were varied including PLGA molecular weight, ester end-capping, and sonication energy/volume. Our results showed successful encapsulation of PEG-PEI-AO within PLGA nanospheres with average diameters ranging from 215 to 240 nm. Encapsulation efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%, and zeta potential measurements confirmed shielding of the PEG-PEI-AO cationic charge. Kinetic measurements of 17 kDa PLGA showed a rapid burst release of about 20% of the PEG-PEI-AO, followed by sustained release of up to 65% over three weeks. To evaluate functionality, PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes were loaded into PLGA nanospheres using an AO that is known to induce dystrophin expression in dystrophic mdx mice. Intramuscular injections of this compound into mdx mice resulted in over 300 dystrophin-positive muscle fibers distributed throughout the muscle cross-sections, approximately 3.4 times greater than for injections of AO alone. We conclude that PLGA nanospheres are effective compounds for the sustained release of PEG-PEI-AO polyplexes in skeletal muscle and concomitant expression of dystrophin, and may have translational potential in treating DMD.

  2. Conceptual basis for the european sustainability footprint

    PELLETIER NATHANIEL; Maas, Rob; GORALCZYK MALGORZATA; WOLF Marc-Andree

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is central to the policy objectives of the European Commission (EC), but a widely accepted integrated sustainability assessment framework in support of policy analysis and development is currently lacking. Here, we describe the conceptual basis for the proposed European Sustainability Footprint (ESF) - an integrated sustainability assessment framework for establishing a baseline and tracking trends with respect to the sustainability of European production and consumption. This ...

  3. UK Building Procurement System and Sustainability

    Zhou, Lei; Lowe, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Under the pressure of sustainable construction, research and development into sustainability and procurement is emerging. As the bridge between design and construction, the building procurement system, therefore, is critical to delivering sustainability in practice. It is the key for the successful implementation of sustainability to conventional construction process. However, there is a lack of research between UK building procurement system and sustainability. This paper reviews the concept...

  4. Public understanding of sustainable tourism

    Miller, G; Rathouse, K; Scarles, C; Holmes, K.; Tribe, J

    2010-01-01

    If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism’s impact ...

  5. Sustainability curricula in design education

    Casais, M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.

    2012-01-01

    While sustainability in Design finds much attention in the literature, the education of sustainability in Design courses lacks discussion regarding curricula and importance. In an attempt to map the way sustainability is taught in Design Bachelor and Master Courses in the European Union, we began analysing faculties from a number of EU countries and present the initial results in the form of graphics, and, in addition to that, we discuss curricular contents. Furthermore, we looked at the Unit...

  6. Lack of influence of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg daily) on platelet survival time, beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Minar, E.; Ehringer, H.; Jung, M.; Koppensteiner, R.; Stuempflen, A.

    1988-11-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of low-dose (100 mg daily) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on In-platelet survival time (PST) and on plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF 4) in 30 patients (median age: 60 years) with arteriographically proven peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a chronic stable phase. We observed no significant changes of PST during therapy with ASA (weighted mean: 169.8----166 (median) hours; multiple hit: 168.3----170.6 hours), and also the plasma levels of beta-TG (median: 31.8----32.3 ng/ml) and of PF 4 (3.6----3.9 ng/ml) remained unchanged.

  7. Recovery of oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2-deficient cardiomyocytes by sustained release of ferulic acid from injectable hydrogel.

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Ching; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Aging-related oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Cisd2 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein and plays an important role in controlling the lifespan of mammals. Ferulic acid (FA), a natural antioxidant, is able to improve cardiovascular functions and inhibit the pathogenetic CVD process. However, directly administering therapeutics with antioxidant molecules is challenging because of stability and bioavailability issues. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel containing FA was used to treat Cisd2-deficient (Cisd2(-/-)) cardiomyocytes (CM) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Cisd2(-/-) murine under oxidative stress. The results revealed that the developed hydrogel could provide a sustained release of FA and increase the cell viability. Post-treatment of FA-loaded hydrogel effectively decreased the oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2(-/-) CM via increasing catalase activity and decreasing endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The in vivo biocompatibility of FA-loaded hydrogel was confirmed in subcutaneously injected rabbits and intramyocardially injected Cisd2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-loaded hydrogel could rescue Cisd2(-/-) CM from oxidative stress-induced damage and may have potential applications in the future treatment of CVD. PMID:27392289

  8. Towards a life-cycle based european sustainability footprint framework: theory, concepts, applications

    PELLETIER NATHANIEL; MAAS Rob; GORALCZYK MALGORZATA; WOLF Marc-Andree

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is central to the policy objectives of the European Commission, but an integrated sustainability assessment framework in support of policy analysis and development is currently lacking. Arriving at an integrated sustainability assessment framework requires clearly articulated definitions of sustainability and sustainable development. Here, we describe the conceptual basis for the proposed European Sustainability Footprint - an integrated sustainability assessment framework for ...

  9. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  10. The Seven Challenges of Sustainable Cities

    2004-01-01

    The departing point for this paper is that we do not know what a sustainable city is. The present situation is characterised be small demonstration projects and strategies for urban sustainable development that are not coherent. The modern city can be viewed as a complex technological system. The...... urban infrastructure, the buildings and their users interact in numerous and increasingly complex ways. The paper analyses some of the challenges cities meet in their quest for sustainability: Lack of awareness and ethics; Lack of tools for decision making; Lack of models for sustainable urban...

  11. Sustainable Transportation

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the...... transportation sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  12. Sustainable development

    Navrátilová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses theoretical aspects of sustainable development and practical use of this concept in the Czech Republic and the European Union. In the theoretical part is presented history of the sustainable development, its principles, pillars and indicators. The next part discusses balanced development, which is a very close concept to the sustainable development. In the last part is situated an analysis of practical approach to sustainable development in the Czech Republic and the Europ...

  13. Sustainability in Store

    Lehner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Retailers across Western Europe are faced with the challenge to integrate the idea of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) into their operations. The difficulty hierin lies in the the lack of any clear understanding or agreement for what the term implies for retailers and how to implement it in retailers’ daily operations. Instead, retailers need to handle a number of different – at times competing – understandings of SCP among their stakeholders and combine these into a strategy that...

  14. Sustainability in a nutshell.

    Silvertown, Jonathan

    2004-06-01

    Sustainable exploitation is widely advocated as a strategy for reconciling economic pressures upon natural habitats with nature conservation. Two recent papers examine different aspects of the sustainability of the nut harvest on wild populations of Brazil nut trees Bertholletia excelsa in Amazonia. Peres et al. find that many populations of the Brazil nut tree lack juvenile trees and are not regenerating. In a socioeconomic study, Escobal and Aldana find that nut-gathering provides insufficient income on its own to support nut-gatherers and that their other income-raising activities damage the forest. The existence of a market for rainforest products is, therefore, not sufficient on its own to prevent habitat destruction or the overexploitation of the resource and a more sophisticated approach to sustainability is required. Development of a market in ethically traded Brazil nuts might be one solution. PMID:16701269

  15. Computational sustainability

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  16. Really sustainable?

    Hadjimichael, Maria; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    concept of sustainability is an important additional issue. Experience from the MSC demonstrates that standardization of what is considered sustainable creates a monopoly-like situation. This produces a difficult situation for those who are least able to respond to new market requirements as well as those...... who respond to calls for sustainability in different ways compared to those that have received the approval of a few, large certification schemes such as the MSC....

  17. SUSTAINABLE WELFARE

    Ahmet Güngör Keşci

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the principle of sustainability in the development of companies and countries. The article touches various important points on the sustainability on the public policy, financial issues, customer happiness, environment, industrial development, international trade, ethics, and corporate governance. The author recalls the definition of sustainability and its importance to the economy and politics in the modern world. Then the author has identified five m...

  18. Sustainable transformation

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... different theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  19. The regional soul of sustainability

    Michele Pinelli

    2013-01-01

    Profits and social-environmental performance have always been perceived as in contrast with one another. Governments and super-national authorities felt that corporations were lacking the incentives to pursue sustainable practices, which then had to be imposed through regulation. Such situation opens space to (at least) two debates: the first one is about whether or not entrepreneurs can help regulations and policies to implement sustainable development; the second one concerns how the curren...

  20. Bioequivalence of nicotinic acid sustained-release tablets in healthy volunteers%烟酸缓释片在健康人体的生物等效性

    葛苗苗; 卫乐乐; 方凯; 黄露; 黎维勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究烟酸缓释片(广谱凋血脂药)在健康人体的药代动力学,并评价其生物等效性.方法 30名男性健康志愿者随机交叉单剂量口服试验制剂或参比制剂1.5 g,用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定血浆中烟酸浓度.结果 单剂量口服烟酸试验制剂或参比制剂1.5 g,药代动力学参数如下:AUC0-t分别为(20.05±16.29),(21.61±18.06)μg·h·mL-1;AUC0-∞分别为(20.81±16.30),(22.81±18.47)μg·h·mL-1;Cmax分别为(8.72±6.81),(9.57±8.22)μg·mL-1;tmax分别为(4.41±1.34),(4.31±1.29)h;t1/2分别为(4.00±4.90),(2.91±3.39)h,烟酸缓释片的相对生物利用度为(96.6±30.9)%.结论 受试制剂与参比制剂生物等效.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics of nicotinic acid sustained-release tablets in healthy volunteers and evaluate the bioequivalence. Methods Single oral dose ( 1.5 g of test and reference formulations) were given to 30 volunteers in an open randomized crossover way.The concentrations of nicotinic acid in plasma were determined by HPLC- MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and the bioequivalence of two formulations were evaluated by DAS program.Results The main pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference preparations obtained from single oral dose were as follows: AUC0-t were (20. 05±16.29),(21.61 ± 18.06) μg · h · mL-1;AUC0-∞ were (20. 81 ± 16. 30 ), ( 22. 81 ± 18.47 ) μg · h · mL - 1; Cmax were ( 8. 72 ±6.81),(9.57 ±8.22) μg · mL-1;tmax were(4.41 ± 1.34), (4.31 ±1.29)h; t1/2 were ( 4. 00 ±4.90),(2.91 ±3.39)h. Conclusion The two preparations were bioequivalent.

  1. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice

  2. Sustainability report

    2013-01-01

    The "Sustainability reports" reflect the activities of the Games organizers in the area of sustainability. The key goal of these reports is to provide accessible and transparent information about the initiatives and projects of key players involved in the organization and staging the Games for all interested parties.

  3. Sustainable Universities

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in tu...

  4. Sustainable leadership

    Tideman, S.G.; Arts, M.; Zandee, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a definition of the type of leadership that is necessary for creating sustainable organisations: sustainable leadership. After exploring shifts in economic and organisational theory caused by new insights from fields such as (social) neuroscience, and mega-trends in the macro-econo

  5. Computational Sustainability

    Eaton, Eric; University of Pennsylvania; Gomes, Carla P.; Cornell University; Williams, Brian; Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Computational sustainability problems, which exist in dynamic environments with high amounts of uncertainty, provide a variety of unique challenges to artificial intelligence research and the opportunity for significant impact upon our collective future. This editorial provides an overview of artificial intelligence for computational sustainability, and introduces this special issue of AI Magazine.

  6. Sustainable cities

    The Sustainable City Project, a collaboration among the cities of Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco and San Jose, California, aims at developing and implementing sustainable energy planning methods and programs for cites. For a period of two years (1989-90), the three project cities worked in parallel, yet pursued independent courses to develop appropriate sustainable urban energy practices to meet local needs and aspirations. Central to the Sustainable City Project was finding ways to manage today's urban energy needs without jeopardizing the needs of future generations. Sustainability implies that nothing should go to waste, but rather should contribute to the proper balance between the natural environment and the built environment Sustainable urban energy systems encompass more than energy efficiency and energy conservation measures: they must be diverse, flexible, self-reliant, renewable, and integrated. Since local governments make decisions affecting land use, building codes, transportation systems, waste disposal, and power plants--all of which impact energy resource use--local jurisdictions can do much to ensure their own sustainable future. This paper will present an accounting of the specific steps that each city took to determine and begin implementation of their respective approaches to sustainable energy planning, with a specific focus on the City of San Jose activities. Useful tools for facilitating community process, program planning and implementation, and quantitative analysis will also be discussed

  7. Management practices for improving sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils. Results of a coordinated research project organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    As a result of the burgeoning world population, there is an urgent need to increase food crop production. This can be achieved through intensification, diversification and specialization of agricultural production systems in existing cultivated land or by expansion of the land under cultivation. According to FAO estimates, only 11% of the earth's surface is currently cultivated (1406 Mha) and about 24% (3900 Mha) is potentially arable, most of which, 2500 Mha, is composed of acid soils with 1700 Mha located in the humid tropics. Thus, the greatest potential for expanding agricultural land lies in the tropical forest and savannah regions dominated by highly weathered, acid, infertile soils, mostly Oxisols and Ultisols. Soil acidification problems are also likely to increase, with rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere, continuous use of ammonium-based nitrogenous fertilizers, removal of nutrients in farm products without replenishment and nitrate leaching. The savannahs are mainly located in humid and subhumid tropical areas and suitable for rainfed cropping conditions. They comprise a sizeable amount of the agricultural land in many countries of Africa and Latin America and include also the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia. The acid savannah soils are mostly considered marginal because of their inherent low fertility and high susceptibility to rapid degradation. The cultivation of these soils without proper soil management and conservation practices has resulted in an accelerated rate of degradation of the natural resource base. Therefore, management practices must be developed/improved to avoid further degradation of the resource base and to sustain cop productivity in tropical acid soils. This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was conceived as a follow-up of the CRP on 'The use of nuclear and related techniques to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers in particular rock phosphates' (1993-1998), where P fertilizer management

  8. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a prevalent state of dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with wide-ranging impact on human reproductive health. Based on recent insights in community ecology of the vaginal microbiome, we hypothesize that sustained vaginal DL-lactic acid enrichment will enhance the recruitment of lactobacilli, while counteracting bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. We therefore aimed to develop an intravaginal device that would be easy to insert and remove, while providing sustained DL-lactic acid release into the vaginal lumen. The final prototype selected is a vaginal ring matrix system consisting of a mixture of ethylene vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer loaded with 150 mg DL-lactic acid with an L/D-lactic acid ratio of 1:1. Preclinical safety assessment was performed by use of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test, a non-vertebrate assay to evaluate vaginal mucosal irritation, which revealed no irritation. Clinical safety was evaluated in a phase I trial with six healthy nulliparous premenopausal volunteering women, with the investigational drug left in place for 7 days. Colposcopic monitoring according to the WHO/CONRAD guidelines for the evaluation of vaginal products, revealed no visible cervicovaginal mucosal changes. No adverse events related to the investigational product occurred. Total release from the intravaginal ring over 7 days was estimated through high performance liquid chromatography at 37.1 (standard deviation 0.9) mg DL-lactic acid. Semisolid lactic acid formulations have been studied to a limited extent in the past and typically consist of a large volume of excipients and very high doses of lactic acid, which is of major concern to mucosal safety. We have documented the feasability of enriching the vaginal environment with pure DL-lactic acid with a prototype intravaginal ring. Though the efficacy of this platform remains to be established possibly requiring further development, this approach may offer a

  9. Sustainable Development

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  10. Sustainable consumption

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim;

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive and...... systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  11. Sustainable Cities

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003). But......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  12. Sustainable Consumption

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how...... consumption patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the...

  13. Sustained growth but non-sustainable urbanisation in Penang, Malaysia

    Wangel, Arne; Fold, Niels

    1998-01-01

    trade unions, which lack the strength to substantially improve wages or influence the institutions of the labour market. So a frenzied labour market tries to balance the upgrading of skills and the control of wages. The paper concludes that a focus on sustainable urbanisation will renew the debate on...

  14. Sustainable finance

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  15. Debt Sustainability

    Mirela Anca Postole

    2013-01-01

    In the conducted research the author started form the reality according to which debt sustainability, in general terms, refers to the capacity of a state to consistently pay off its debts, internal and external, contracted as subjects of both public and private law, without impacting the growth and economic development perspectives. The main risks involved in the management of sovereign debt are analysed. The author also approaches aspects regarding the main sustainability indicators for debt...

  16. Seeking Sustainability

    Clive L Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  17. Local Sustainability

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  18. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  19. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    Suliman L. Kh. M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.

  20. Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge

    Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide

    2006-01-01

    Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…

  1. Sustainability and specialisation

    John Cairns Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Society depends heavily on its major universities and independent research organisations for new ideas. Arguable, sustainable use of the planet will require conceptual paradigms unprecedented in human history. Educational systems, especially major universities and research organisations, must produce students in all phases of the educational continuum who are capable of transdisciplinary activities. A much larger group of such students will be required to implement these new undertakings. Until the perception of the need for transdisciplinary education becomes widespread, nothing significant is likely to happen. One major obstacle is the lack of employment for transdisciplinary individuals. A commitment to sustainable use of the planet will provide employment and make better use of increasingly scarce resources.

  2. Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory

    Griessler, Erich; Littig, Beate

    2005-01-01

    The sustainability concepts of the 'Brundtland-Report' and the 'Rio documents' call for a combination of ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects of social development. This paper describes briefly several models of sustainability and discusses social sustainability as conceptualised in selected sustainability indicators. In an attempt to remedy the lack of sociological theory, the paper proposes a sustainability concept, which is based on the concepts of needs and work, as an a...

  3. Enforcing sustainable sourcing: A framework based on best practices

    Tkachenko, Sergii; Rib, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Problem – Companies are increasingly focusing on sustainability issues in response to internal and external pressure. Research on sustainable performance of focal companies is vast; however there is a lack of guidelines for managing sustainability in extended supply chains. Scholars claim a need for additional research on intra- and inter-organizational diffusion of best sustainable practices. Besides, the outcomes of sustainable sourcing practices are still uncertain. The gap between potenti...

  4. Trajectories of sustainability reporting by MNCs

    Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing attention to sustainable business, reporting by Multinational Corporations (MNCs) about the social and environmental dimensions of their activities - alongside their economic impacts - has become rather common. While research has documented sustainability reporting and looked at reports' contents, studies on MNC reporting as institutionalised phenomenon, considering evolving patterns at the firm level, have been lacking. This paper presents developments and trajectories of sus...

  5. The Seven Challenges of Sustainable Cities

    Elle, Morten; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    The departing point for this paper is that we do not know what a sustainable city is. The present situation is characterised be small demonstration projects and strategies for urban sustainable development that are not coherent. The modern city can be viewed as a complex technological system. The urban infrastructure, the buildings and their users interact in numerous and increasingly complex ways. The paper analyses some of the challenges cities meet in their quest for sustainability: Lack o...

  6. Sustainability Design and Software: The Karlskrona Manifesto

    Becker, Christoph; Chitchyan, Ruzanna; Duboc, Leticia; Easterbrook, Steve; Penzenstadler, Birgit; Seyff, Norbert; Venters, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a broad concern for society. Many engineering disciplines have been grappling with challenges in how we sustain technical, social and ecological systems. In the software engineering community, for example, maintainability has been a concern for a long time. But too often, these issues are treated in isolation from one another. Misperceptions among practitioners and research communities persist, rooted in a lack of coherent understanding of sustainability, and how...

  7. Synergy by secretory phospholipase A2 and glutamate on inducing cell death and sustained arachidonic acid metabolic changes in primary cortical neuronal cultures

    Kolko, M; DeCoster, M A; de Turco, E B;

    1996-01-01

    glutamate and sPLA2 from bee venom. sPLA2, at concentrations eliciting low neurotoxicity (acid into triacylglycerols. Free [3H]arachidonic acid accumulated at higher enzyme concentrations......, from Taipan snake venom. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked glutamate effects and partially inhibited sPLA2 OS2 but not sPLA2 from bee venom-induced arachidonic acid release. Thus, the synergy with glutamate and very low concentrations of exogenously added sPLA2 suggests a potential role for...

  8. Sustainable Transition

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable......What. The chapter addresses designing for sustainability as interventions in socio-technical systems and social practices of users and communities. It calls for reflexive design practices challenging dominant regimes and shaping alternative design spaces. The specific case is the reconfiguration of...... including the perspective of structural changes (transition of socio-technical systems and social practices) and Design as metadesign; an reflexivity on contextual framework of the design practice (regimes/design spaces)....

  9. Sustainable responsibilities?

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    This working paper analyzes the conceptions of corporate responsibility for sustainable development in EU policies on CSR. The notion of corporate responsibility has until recently been limited to economical and legal responsibilities. Based on this narrow conception of corporate responsibility.......e. a combination of destruction and construction, this chapter will deconstruct conceptions of responsibility for sustainable development in these EU documents on CSR. A deconstructive conceptual analysis involves destructing dominant interpretations of a text and allowing for constructions of...... a particular concept such as sustainability actually means, but on what the concept says and does not say. A deconstructive analysis of EU policies on CSR, then, pinpoints that such policies are sites of conceptual struggles. This kind of analysis is suitable for studying conceptions of corporate...

  10. Roundtabling Sustainability

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of public authority to delegate social and environmental regulation to the private sector has varied from sector to sector, but has often led to the establishment of ‘voluntary’ standards and certifications on sustainability. Many of these have taken the form of ‘stewardship......-specific sustainability situations into a form that not only ‘hears more voices’ (as in ‘multi-stakeholder’), but also portrays to give them equal standing at the table of negotiations (roundtable), thus raising higher expectations on accountability, transparency and inclusiveness. In this article, I examine to what...

  11. Sustainable Transport

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    I assume we’ll want to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it to be effective and desirable, and of course, only if we think we can afford to sustain it. Over time, we’ve abandoned any number of modes that failed those tests — horsecars, trolleycars, and pullmancars, among others; and we’ve kept those that passed the tests — most notably motorcars, airplanes, and ships. In retrospect, it seems we’ve been pretty draconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in the market p...

  12. Production of Glycolic Acid by Chemolithotrophic Iron- and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria and Its Role in Delineating and Sustaining Acidophilic Sulfide Mineral-Oxidizing Consortia▿

    Ñancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2009-01-01

    Glycolic acid was detected as an exudate in actively growing cultures of three chemolithotrophic acidophiles that are important in biomining operations, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus (At.) ferrooxidans, and At. caldus. Although similar concentrations of glycolic acid were found in all cases, the concentrations corresponded to ca. 24% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in cultures of L. ferriphilum but only ca. 5% of the total DOC in cultures of the two Acidithiobacill...

  13. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of simvastatin and nicotinic acid double layer sustained release tablets%辛伐他汀-烟酸双层缓释片的制备及其体外质量评价

    金蓉; 谷福根

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare simvastatin (SVT) -nicotinic acid (NA) double layer sustained release tablets and e-valuate its quality in vitro. Methods The formulation composition of NA sustained release layer and SVT immediate release layer was established by orthogonal experiment and single factor test respectively. The SVT-NA double layer sustained release tablets were then prepared. The relative labeled content of the 2 active drugs in the sustained tablets was determined by HPLC. The release profile of NA in the sustained layer was investigated and the similar factor value (fz) was calculated with the marketed NA sustained tablets as the reference drug. The dissolution of SVT in the imme-diate release layer was determined according to the related qualifications for SVT tablets in the China Pharmacopoeia E-dition (2010). Results The release characteristics of NA in the sustained release layer were similar to those of the marketed NA sustained release tablets and also conformed to the Higuchi equation. The calculated /z was greater than 75. The cumulative dissolution of SVT in the immediate release layer was above 98% in 30 min and met the requirement of SVT tablets in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion The formulation of SVT-NA double layer sustained release tablets is reasonable. The production process is stable and reproducible. The preparation may become a new SVT-NA product%目的 制备辛伐他汀(SVT) -烟酸(NA)双层缓释片并进行体外质量评价.方法 分别通过正交实验和单因素实验,筛选NA缓释层与SVT常释层处方,确定最佳处方组成并制备SVT-NA双层缓释片,测定缓释片中NA与SVT的含量.以国内已上市NA缓释片为参比制剂,测定自制双层缓释片中NA的释放度,计算释放度相似因子(f2),并进行方程拟合.按照中国药典2010版中SVT普通片溶出度测定条件,测定自制双层缓释片常释层中SVT的溶出度.结果 自制双层缓释片中NA的释放度与市售NA缓释片相似(f2

  14. [Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene.].

    Kurz-Müller, K; Zenz, M

    1991-12-01

    Dextropropoxyphene is a mild opioid analgesic whose analgesic potency corresponds to that of acetylsalicylic acid and paracetamol. It has a similar analgesic effect to codeine but also a considerably lower addiction and dependence potential. Dextropropoxyphene is a therapeutic alternative to other weak opioids such as codeine or dihydrocodeine. In the case of absolute intolerance of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, their analgesic effect can be replaced by that of dextropropoxyphene. In case of relative intolerance, i.e. occurrence of non-tolerable side-effects, the dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents can be kept low by additional administration of dextropropoxyphene, which simultaneously enhances analgesia. Analgesics are prescribed according to a definite time schedule for the long-term treatment of chronic pain. The oral route of administration is preferred since it enables the patient to be independent of the nursing staff. Sustained-release drugs with a duration of action of at least 8 h are used in preference to other preparations. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene provides analgesia for 8-12 h. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene clearly differs from non-sustained-release dextropropoxyphene in its pharmacokinetics. Repeated administration of the sustained-release form at the therapeutically recommended intervals does not lead to cumulation, and the risk of accidental overdosage is extremely low. Intoxication can only occur after simultaneous ingestion of alcohol or other centrally depressant substances or in the presence of hepatic and/or renal failure. Sustained-release dextropropoxyphene is a sensible and undeniable alternative for the second stage in the analgesic ladder of chronic pain therapy. PMID:18415177

  15. Sustainable development

    Marcel Boiteux evokes the results of the work on the sustainable development by the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. This is a vast political programme with the goal of allowing all humanity to live well in growing unity while protecting the environment and favouring economic growth. (author)

  16. Exergy sustainability.

    Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  17. Sustainable finance

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustai

  18. Sustainable Buildings

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that...

  19. Sustainable processing

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  20. Sustainability reporting

    A. Kolk

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published. Subseq

  1. Sustainability reporting

    A. Kolk

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. It The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published. Sub

  2. Production of glycolic acid by chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and its role in delineating and sustaining acidophilic sulfide mineral-oxidizing consortia.

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Johnson, D Barrie

    2010-01-01

    Glycolic acid was detected as an exudate in actively growing cultures of three chemolithotrophic acidophiles that are important in biomining operations, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus (At.) ferrooxidans, and At. caldus. Although similar concentrations of glycolic acid were found in all cases, the concentrations corresponded to ca. 24% of the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in cultures of L. ferriphilum but only ca. 5% of the total DOC in cultures of the two Acidithiobacillus spp. Rapid acidification (to pH 1.0) of the culture medium of At. caldus resulted in a large increase in the level of DOC, although the concentration of glycolic acid did not change in proportion. The archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum grew in the cell-free spent medium of At. caldus; glycolic acid was not metabolized, although other unidentified compounds in the DOC pool were metabolized. Glycolic acid exhibited levels of toxicity with 21 strains of acidophiles screened similar to those of acetic acid. The most sensitive species were chemolithotrophs (L. ferriphilum and At. ferrivorans), while the most tolerant species were chemoorganotrophs (Acidocella, Acidobacterium, and Ferroplasma species), and the ability to metabolize glycolic acid appeared to be restricted (among acidophiles) to Firmicutes (chiefly Sulfobacillus spp.). Results of this study help explain why Sulfobacillus spp. rather than other acidophiles are the main organic carbon-degrading bacteria in continuously fed stirred tanks used to bioprocess sulfide mineral concentrates and also why temporary cessation of pH control in these systems, resulting in rapid acidification, often results in a plume of the archaeon Ferroplasma. PMID:19933342

  3. Use and usefulness of sustainability economics

    Bartelmus, Peter [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Sustainable development is at the roots of sustainability economics. Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) define sustainability economics as the combination of economic efficiency and justice in the distribution of nature's services. Van den Bergh (in press) criticizes their approach as 'axiomatic' and incomplete, lacking a discussion of environmental externalities and dogmas like the 'GDP dogma'. The focus on non-measurable welfare or happiness in both articles impairs the use and usefulness of their sustainability notions for applied economics and policy. Alternatively, environmentally modified national accounts offer a quantifiable sustainability concept of produced and natural capital maintenance. For practical reasons, sustainability economics should therefore deal with sustainable economic performance and growth. Coordination with other social goals has to be left to politics. (author)

  4. Photo-crosslinked networks prepared from fumaric acid monoethyl ester-functionalized poly(D,L-lactic acid) oligomers and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone for the controlled and sustained release of proteins

    Jansen, Janine; Tibbe, Martijn P.; Mihov, George; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Photo-crosslinked networks were prepared from fumaric acid monoethyl ester-functionalized poly (D,L-lactic acid) oligomers and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Two model proteins, lysozyme and albumin, were incorporated into the network films as solid particles and their release behavior was studied. By varyi

  5. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste. PMID:27474315

  6. Sustainability or Bust: Malaysian Home Buyers’ Stated Preferences for Sus-Tainable Housing

    Syahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of data on sustainable home buying behaviour in developing countries such as Malaysia is due to the absence of sustainable housing itself. However, it is still possible to solicit home buyers for their stated preferences and quantify its effects on housing demand. In this study, a sample of 300 responses to a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE on sustainable housing features was analysed using the “support.CEs” program. This study found that the addition of sustainable features; renewable energy generation, enhanced soundproofing and ventilation, energy saving features, and higher green area ratios significantly increase home buyer’s willingness to pay (WTP for sustainable housing.

  7. Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?

    Davidson, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

  8. Explicating the Sustainable Design of Technical Artefacts

    Vissonova, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable design of technical artefacts is referred to as if it were a kind of design with some specific characteristics. However, in design research and practice alike, there appears to be a lack of shared conceptions of what such a design might entail. Furthermore, we have no clear grounds for...... evaluating what makes the sustainable design solutions permissible. The lack of shared conceptions is largely due to ambiguities associated with the notion of sustainability. In response to these challenges, the aim of my study is to offer a definition of sustainable design of technical artefacts. I argue...... that despite the ambiguities, there are discernible necessary and sufficient conditions by which the design may qualify as the sustainable kind. My claims are constructed based on two assumptions: the first being the presence of side effects of the design of technical artefacts, and the second being...

  9. Positive net movements of amino acids in the hindlimb after overnight food deprivation contribute to sustaining the elevated anabolism of neonatal pigs

    During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown du...

  10. Ports sustainability

    Zrnić, Nenad Đ.; Jerman, Boris; Vujičić, Andrija

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present and evaluate the latest trends in the cargo handling equipment (CHE) industry, aimed at mitigating the environmental impact of container terminal operations and contributing to the sustainability of ports. The most common machines for handling containers are described and dealt with separately, with a focus on electric CHE, usually referred to as zero emission CHE. In a separate chapter, recommendations on methodologies suitable for investigation of the en...

  11. Sustainable Bergslagen

    Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bergslagen in south-central Sweden is an informal region with a long history of intensive land use. The legacies of than 2000 years of integrated use of ore, forests and water major national and international economic importance now involve several challenges for the maintenance of landscapes. This includes sustainability of rural and urban communities, of green infrastructures for natural capital and human well-being as well as of forests, river basins and mining. ...

  12. Architecture Sustainability

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/wUGHvocfix0 is an audio interview in which Davide Falessi speaks with guest editors Paris Avgeriou and Rich Hilliard about the importance of architecture sustainabil...

  13. Sustainability reporting

    Kolk, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an overview of developments in sustainability (also sometimes labelled corporate social responsibility) reporting. The article will first briefly indicate how accountability on social and environmental issues started, already in the 1970s when social reports were published. Subsequently, more detailed trends and their peculiarities are given for the period from the early 1990s onwards, based on longitudinal research in which the author has been involved. In addition to data...

  14. Tools for territorial sustainability policies

    Industrial ecology and sustainable development share the concept of territory. Two models of territorial development are proposed: Eco industrial Parks and Italian Districts. Both models use industrial-ecology concepts and strategies, but both are still far from incorporating sustainability. This ideal could be pursed by more and better networking, in the first case to strengthen links with the local community, and in the second to increase financial resources. The Masurin project, co-funded by the EU, provides a response to this lack. This article describes Batter (one of the Masurin tolls) and its application to the city of Venice)

  15. New approach addressing sustainability in urban areas using sustainable city models

    Barbosa, José Amarilio; Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    A brief analysis of the environmental, social and economic paradigm of nowadays cities, allows reaching a simple conclusion: current cities are not sustainable. Considering this, it is very important to study the causes of cities problems and to develop city models implementing sustainability practices. There are a limited number of studies developing sustainable city models, but the scientific community lacks even more studies about the rehabilitation of current cities to implement these mod...

  16. Multicistronic lentiviral vector-mediated striatal gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and GTP cyclohydrolase I induces sustained transgene expression, dopamine production, and functional improvement in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Azzouz, Mimoun; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Barber, Robert D; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Carter, Emma E; Rohll, Jonathan B; Kingsman, Susan M; Kingsman, Alan J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2002-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This loss leads to complete dopamine depletion in the striatum and severe motor impairment. It has been demonstrated previously that a lentiviral vector system based on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) gives rise to highly efficient and sustained transduction of neurons in the rat brain. Therefore, a dopamine replacement strategy using EIAV has been investigated as a treatment in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD. A self-inactivating EIAV minimal lentiviral vector that expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic amino acid dopa decarboxylase (AADC), and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (CH1) in a single transcription unit has been generated. In cultured striatal neurons transduced with this vector, TH, AADC, and CH1 proteins can all be detected. After stereotactic delivery into the dopamine-denervated striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat, sustained expression of each enzyme and effective production of catecholamines were detected, resulting in significant reduction of apomorphine-induced motor asymmetry compared with control animals (p < 0.003). Expression of each enzyme in the striatum was observed for up to 5 months after injection. These data indicate that the delivery of three catecholaminergic synthetic enzymes by a single lentiviral vector can achieve functional improvement and thus open the potential for the use of this vector for gene therapy of late-stage PD patients. PMID:12451130

  17. Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: Interconnecting the Reporting Process and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability

    Kim Ceulemans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable increase in the publication of sustainability reports in the corporate world in the last decade, sustainability reporting in higher education institutions is still in its early stages. This study’s aim was to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and organizational change management for sustainability in higher education. A survey was sent to higher education institutions worldwide that have published sustainability reports in the last ten years. The survey was answered by 23 institutions out of a total of 64. The findings showed that sustainability reporting has been predominantly driven by internal motivations, and that the sustainability reporting process leads to incremental changes, such as an increase in awareness of sustainability and improvements in communication with internal stakeholders. Some factors impeding change are the absence of an external stakeholder engagement process, the lack of inclusion of material impacts in reports, and the lack of institutionalization of sustainability reporting in the higher education system. The paper proposes that higher education institutions need to consider sustainability reporting as a dynamic tool to plan sustainability changes, and not just as a communication activity.

  18. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    RIZZUTO G.; BUCELLI F.; M. Sciaccaluga; AVATANEO O.

    2015-01-01

    Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production o...

  19. Urban sustainability and community development: Creating healthy sustainable urban communities

    Malo André Hutson

    2011-01-01

    Increased urbanization has also led to many challenges for urban residents. In the United States, land use and zoning, transportation and infrastructure, lack of affordable housing, and disinvestment have severely affected the quality of life of poor urban populations. Despite these challenges, opportunities do exist to make economically disadvantaged urban communities more sustainable, livable, and healthy. This working paper discusses the challenges facing urban communities and then conside...

  20. The use of fiscal instruments in sustainable building policies

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Although progressive government guidelines and knowledge about sustainable building exist, sustainability measures are not adopted in large scale. Several barriers have been identified, especially the perceived costs of implementing environmental management and the lack of market demand. The choice of fiscal instruments is an important issue in sustainable building policies. This paper presents an analysis of economic measures that are currently used to support sustainable building in the Eur...

  1. An Exploratory Journey into Sustainability Changemakers Learning Programs

    Azuma, Chieko; Coletinha, Elvio; Villoch, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is facing highly complex challenges at a global scale. A new sort of conscious sustainability changemakers is needed to face the sustainability challenge. However the mainstream entrepreneurship education tends to focus on business as usual skills, with a significant lack of comprehensive understanding of the whole system and the inner work needed to face the mental barriers to become sustainability changemakers. While the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development was used as a...

  2. Sustainability reporting in European cooperative banks: An exploratory analysis

    BOLLAS ARAYA, HELENA MARÍA; Seguí Mas, Elíes; Polo Garrido, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Cooperative banks, as a social economy institution, have a special relationship with sustainability. Given the lack of previous studies, we aim to develop an exploratory analysis on sustainability reporting in European cooperative banks. On one hand, we studied the sustainability reporting evolution to know whether the crisis influenced on this practice. On the other hand, we compared cooperative reports with banks' reports. Moreover, we analysed the sustainability reports...

  3. The Tragedy of Maldistribution: Climate, Sustainability, and Equity

    Stanton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is an initial exploration of the dimensions of the equity/sustainability linkage from the perspective of public goods analysis. Sustainability requires an abundance of public goods. Where these commons lack governance, sustainability is at risk. Equity is a critical component of sustainability that can itself be viewed as a public good, subject to deterioration (maldistribution) when left ungoverned. As is the case for so many forms of environmental degradation, the private benefit...

  4. Discursive Closure and Discursive Openings in Sustainability

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    , and collective action (Jahdi & Acikdilli, 2009; Kolk, 2003). This essay, by contrast, explores the potential of appreciating and embracing ambiguity in the sustainability arena. We argue that lack of a clear-cut sustainability definition has potential to mobilize stakeholders to challenge existing......Sustainability is an ambiguous and open-ended concept with many different meanings. Researchers as well as practitioners often express frustration with this fact and frequently call for more consistent, measurable, and univocal definitions of sustainability to ensure agreement, mutual understanding......-ended conceptualization may stimulate sensitivity, quick adaption, and innovative solutions. We refer to this practice as “license to critique.” Instead of presuming to provide final answers to sustainability issues, sustainability program can, as a license to critique, authorize and invite stakeholders to participate...

  5. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  6. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  7. Interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy

    Emilia Mioara CÂMPEANU; Carmen Valentina RĂDULESCU

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainable economy are mostly used concepts. Understanding clearly their meaning allows their use in an appropriate context and, therefore, their boundaries in terms of theoretical and practical approaches on which occasion it can be given their interdependencies. The paper aim is to analyze the interdependences between sustainable development and sustainable economy.

  8. The Lack of Successors in Family Farms

    Alessandro Corsi

    2005-01-01

    The traditional process of farm transmission within the family is threatened by the increasing age of operators and by their children’s preference for other activi-ties. After describing the national patterns of agricultural labour ageing, this es-say aims at quantifying the proportion of those family farms that will probably have no successors and analysing their characteristics, using a random sample of individual farm data from Piedmont drawn from the 2000 Agricultural Census. The lack of ...

  9. The Role of Banks In Process Of Sustainable Development and Sustainable Banking Practices in Turkey

    Emine ÖNER KAYA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available After environmental and social problems such as seasonal changes, natural resources at the verge of extinction, decrease in plant diversity, unemployment and poverty are started to be felt globally, sustainable development approach began to substitute the approach focusing only on the economical development in 1970s. Sustainable development covers environmental and social sustainability elementsbesides economical development. Companies, financial sector, nongovernmental organizations, particularly states and all other groups are responsible in this sustainable development process. However awareness on environmental and social issues in financial sector undergone a far slower development compared to the other sectors due to fact that it regarded itself as an environment-friendly sector. Since 1990s, it has began to accepted by a wide proportion that financial institutions take into consideration social and environmental results besides the economical effects and they should take an effective role in the sustainable development process. Today it is seen that sustainable finance approach is adopted by many financial institutions especially in developed countries. In eveloping countries, lack of legal arrangements, unstable sustainable development policies, financial institutions' lack of knowledge in sustainable finance and lace of public awareness on sustainable development issue stand out as the reasons preventing the development of sustainable finance understanding.

  10. Sustainability: role of thorium

    The task to renew the world's energy infrastructure, where fossil fuels account for 80% of supply, is enormous. The two carbon neutral energy sources - renewable and nuclear - should be the base of the world's future energy mix. Nuclear, however, suffers from a bad public opinion and lack of government support in many parts of the world. We can conclude that the world needs an 'on demand' energy source that is affordable, clean, safe and scalable. Thorium energy could be that energy source. It is the most energy dense solution we know, fitting well to the modular and size-constrained requirements of an urbanizing world. No part of society can create a sustainable world on their own and markets are too slow to drive transformational changes. We need new partnerships between governments, business, civil society and academia where each part is delivering on their specific responsibilities and roles

  11. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  12. Sustainability; Sustentabilidade

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter analyses the production chain of ethanol, considering the impacts on the quality of the air, water supplies, soil occupation and biodiversity, and the efforts for the soil preservation. It is pointed out the activities of the production cycle and use of bio ethanol due to great uncertainties as far the environmental impacts is concerning and that will deserve more attention in future evaluations. At same time, the chapter highlights another activities where the present acknowledge is sufficient to assure the control and/or prediction of consequences of the desired intervention on the environment media to accommodate the sugar and ethanol production expansion. The consideration is not conservative but to promote the sustainable development.

  13. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  14. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  15. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  16. A lacking term in the proton spin

    The spin structure of an elementary particle shows that the center of mass and center of charge of the particle are two different points. Dirac's spin operator is the angular momentum of the particle with respect to the center of charge. This implies that the addition of the three Dirac spin operators of the three quarks cannot produce the spin of the proton. It is necessary to add at least, the angular momenta of the three quarks with respect to their corresponding center of mass. This lacking term, which is related to the separation between both points has a clear relationship with Dirac's electric dipole term.

  17. Software Sustainability: The Modern Tower of Babel

    Venters, Colin; Jay, Caroline; Lau, Lydia; Michael K Griffiths; Holmes, Violeta; Ward, Rupert; Austin, Jim; Dibsdale, Charlie E.; Xu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable software has been identified as one of the key challenges in the field of computational science and engineering. However, there is currently no agreed definition of the concept. Current definitions range from a composite, non-functional requirement to simply an emergent property. This lack of clarity leads to confusion, and potentially to ineffective and inefficient efforts to develop sustainable software systems. The aim of this paper is to explore the emerging...

  18. SBA-15-incorporated nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for chromium(VI) removal from groundwater: Mechanism, effect of pH, humic acid and sustained reactivity

    Sun, Xia, E-mail: lygsunxia@163.com [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lianyungang 222005 (China); Yan, Yubo [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Jiansheng, E-mail: lijsh@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Han, Weiqing [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were incorporated in the pores of SBA-15 rods. • Mechanism of the Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15 was proposed. • A low pH value was in favor of the Cr(VI) removal. • Humic acid (HA) had a negligible effect on the reactivity of NZVIs/SBA-15. • The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. -- Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) were incorporated inside the channels of SBA-15 rods by a “two solvents” reduction technique and used to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. The resulting NZVIs/SBA-15 composites before and after reaction were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results helped to propose the mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by NZVIs/SBA-15, where Cr(VI) in aqueous was firstly impregnated into the channels of the silica, then adsorbed on the surfaces of the incorporated NZVIs and reduced to Cr(III) directly in the inner pores of the silica. Corrosion products included Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO(OH), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}FeO{sub 4}. Batch experiments revealed that Cr(VI) removal decreased from 99.7% to 92.8% when the initial solution pH increased from 5.5 to 9.0, accompanied by the decrease of the k{sub obs} from 0.600 to 0.024 min{sup −1}. Humic acid (HA) had a little effect on the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) by NZVIs/SBA-15 but could decrease the reduction rate. The stable reduction of NZVIs/SBA-15 was observed within six cycles. NZVIs/SBA-15 composites offer a promising alternative material to remove heavy metals from groundwater.

  19. Enhanced loading efficiency and sustained release of doxorubicin from hyaluronic acid/graphene oxide composite hydrogels by a mussel-inspired catecholamine.

    Byun, Eunkyoung; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogels have been widely investigated as depots and carriers for drug delivery. For example, hydrogels have been successfully used to encapsulate a variety of pharmaceuticals, such as peptides and proteins. Recently, carbon material/hydrogel hybrid systems have been of interest as new hydrogel systems because of the attractiveness of structural reinforcement for biomedical applications. In particular, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have been recognized as novel biomaterials with unique physical, electrical, and thermal properties. Among the various applications of these materials, many research groups are intensively exploring the biomedical applications of graphene and GO. In this study, we propose a new role for GO in hybrid hydrogels, with the inclusion of GO in the gel network resulting in a nearly 90% enhancement in the loading of small, hydrophobic drugs (e.g., doxorubicin, Dox) compared to the hydrogel without encapsulated GO. The hydrogels were prepared from hyaluronic acid (HA), with a mussel-inspired crosslinking chemistry used to prepare the HA hydrogels. Dox was then loaded into the hydrogels. The HA/GO composite hydrogel not only enhanced the loading amount but also exhibited long-lasting anticancer activity over 10 days. We believe that these graphene oxide-containing composite hydrogels can solve one of the challenges in the application of hydrogels by improving the loading efficiency of small-molecule drugs. PMID:25942800

  20. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C; Borland, Anne M; Edwards, Erika J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A; Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J Andrew C; De Paoli, Henrique C; Weston, David J; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul; Stewart, J Ryan; Guo, Hao-Bo; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A; Petereit, Juli; Nair, Sujithkumar S; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L; Ceusters, Johan; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-García, Casandra; Andrade, José Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltrán, Juan D; Dever, Louisa V; Boxall, Susanna F; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2015-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management. PMID:26153373

  1. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  2. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  3. Effects of five years of frequent N additions, with or without acidity, on the growth and below-ground dynamics of a young Sitka spruce stand growing on an acid peat: implications for sustainability

    L. J. Sheppard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A field manipulation study was established to demonstrate effects of simulated wet N and S deposition on a young (planted 1986 stand of Sitka spruce growing on a predominantly organic soil in an area of low (8–10 kg N ha-1 yr-1 background N deposition in the Scottish borders. From 1996, treatments (six were applied to the canopies of ten-tree plots in each of four blocks. N was provided as NH4NO3, either with H2SO4 (pH 2.5 at 48 or 96 kg N ha-1 yr-1 inputs or without, at 48 kg N ha-1 yr-1 along with wet (rain water and dry controls (scaffolding and a S treatment (Na2SO4. Positive responses (+ >20% over 5 years with respect to stem area increment were measured in response to N inputs, irrespective of whether acid was included. The positive response to N was not dose related and was achieved against falling base cation concentrations in the foliage, particularly with respect to K. The results suggest young trees are able to buffer the low nutrient levels and produce new growth when there is sufficient N. Inputs of 96 kg N ha-1 yr-1, in addition to ambient N inputs, on this site exceeded tree demand resulting in elevated foliar N, N2O losses and measurable soil water N. These excessive N inputs did not reduce stem area growth. Keywords: acid, canopy application, nitrogen, acid organic soil, simulated wet deposition, soil water, sulphur, young Sitka spruce

  4. Sustainable Scientists

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  5. FINANCING MODE FOR SUSTAINABLE FARMLAND CONSOLIDATION

    BAO Hai-jun; XU Bao-gen; WU Ci-fang; ZHOU Wang-yue

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable farmland consolidation covers ecology, economy and society, which means, its only goal is to protect eco-environment, in accordance with public benefits and economic laws. China is still a developing country, facing capital-lacking, an important but difficult problem, while sustainable farmland consolidation will need more money than common farmland consolidation. To solve the problem, this paper put forward and designed a new financing mode for farmland consolidation: BOT(Build-Operate-Transfer), which can effectively solve the financing problem and investment reclamation by the way of concession, and make sustainable farmland consolidation be realized in China.

  6. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  7. Vacation homes, spatial planning and sustainability

    Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    patterns of vacation homes are highly relevant to environmental sustainability. Unlike the spatial planning for urban areas where the urban environmental problamatique has been highly recognized and theories of sustainable urban development and planning relatively fully developed, vacation home has been a...... missing component in sustainable spatial development and planning both in theories and practice. Moreover, spatial planning for urban areas and vacation homes cannot be separated as they mutually influence each other. Against this background, the paper is concerned with how and to what extent concerns on...... sustainability of vacation homes is integrated into the spatial planning in the Danish context. The lack of ontological and theoretical debates on the environmental sustainability of vacation homes will be reflected upon before investigating the Danish case. A deep realist approach is adopted to explore the...

  8. Green GDP and Sustainable Development in Malaysia

    Negin Vaghefi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has become an important concept in economic growth and development in the world. Malaysia, as a rapidly developing economy in Asia, has been able to achieve a positive economic growth; however, there is a big question: is it on a sustainable growth path? Due to weaknesses of traditional GDP in reflecting sustainability path, Green GDP as an indicator of sustainability could be implemented with adjustments in calculations. This paper aims to calculate the Green GDP for Malaysia. This measure will almost give policy makers a more arguable estimate for the area of environmental challenges. This paper highlights the role of natural resources depletion and environmental damages in sustainable development of the country. Green GDP is associated with some uncertainties such as lack of comprehensive calculations in estimating data and difficulties in setting the price of natural resources. These uncertainties and how Malaysia would be able to implement more accurate Green GDP in future were also discussed.

  9. Vorinostat with sustained exposure and high solubility in poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) micelle nanocarriers: characterization and effects on pharmacokinetics in rat serum and urine.

    Mohamed, Elham A; Zhao, Yunqi; Meshali, Mahasen M; Remsberg, Connie M; Borg, Thanaa M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Takemoto, Jody K; Sayre, Casey L; Martinez, Stephanie E; Davies, Neal M; Forrest, M Laird

    2012-10-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, known as vorinostat, is a promising anticancer drug with a unique mode of action; however, it is plagued by low water solubility, low permeability, and suboptimal pharmacokinetics. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(DL-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles of vorinostat were developed. Vorinostat's pharmacokinetics in rats was investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (10 mg/kg) and oral (p.o.) (50 mg/kg) micellar administrations and compared with a conventional polyethylene glycol 400 solution and methylcellulose suspension. The micelles increased the aqueous solubility of vorinostat from 0.2 to 8.15 ± 0.60 and 10.24 ± 0.92 mg/mL at drug to nanocarrier ratios of 1:10 and 1:15, respectively. Micelles had nanoscopic mean diameters of 75.67 ± 7.57 and 87.33 ± 8.62 nm for 1:10 and 1:15 micelles, respectively, with drug loading capacities of 9.93 ± 0.21% and 6.91 ± 1.19%, and encapsulation efficiencies of 42.74 ± 1.67% and 73.29 ± 4.78%, respectively. The micelles provided sustained exposure and improved pharmacokinetics characterized by a significant increase in serum half-life, area under curve, and mean residence time. The micelles reduced vorinostat clearance particularly after i.v. dosing. Thus, PEG-b-PLA micelles significantly improved the p.o. and i.v. pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of vorinostat, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22806441

  10. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  11. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Sustainability in Transport Planning

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Greve, Carsten

    Contribution to session J: Joint University Sustainability Initiatives. This session will provide an inspiring overview of interdisciplinary research and teaching activities on sustainability bridging DTU, KU, and CBS, and introduce the joint collaboration Copenhagen Sustainability Initiative (CO...

  13. Sustainable Campus: Engaging the Community in Sustainability

    Too, Linda; Bajracharya, Bhishna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors necessary for engaging university campus community in sustainability. While general awareness in sustainability issues has improved in recent years through mass media coverage, this knowledge is not always translated into actual sustainable practice. Studies have indicated that…

  14. Corporate Sustainability: A Research on Firms That Issue Sustainability Reports in Turkey

    Funda Özçelik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, because of stakeholders' transparency demand from enterprises and want information about financial performance as well as environmental and social performance, sustainability reporting attracts more attention of stakeholders. In this study, a survey was conducted on firms that issue sustainability reports in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to examine the issues that lead enterprises to sustainable activities, enterprises’ priorities, barriers, training and technical support requirements. According to the results of the research, sustainability practices have been seen as an important element of corporate reputation; areas that are regulated by law are among priorities of enterprises; areas that bring additional cost are not among priorities of enterprises. It is identified that lack of incentives for sustainability performance has been seen as an obstacle for sustainability practices.

  15. The Social in Assessing for Sustainability. Fisheries in Australia.

    Kate Barclay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion that sustainability rests on three pillars – economic, environmental and social – has been widely accepted since the 1990s. In practice, however, the economic and environmental aspects have tended to dominate the sustainability agenda, and social aspects have been sidelined. Two reasons for this are: 1 there is a lack of data collected about which to build meaningful pictures of social aspects of sustainability for populations over time, and 2 there is a lack of recognition of the role of social factors in sustainability, and a related lack of understanding of how to analyse them in conjunction with economic and environmental factors. This paper surveys the literature about sustainability in fisheries, focussing on Australia, and focussing on the way social aspects have been treated. The paper finds that the problems that have been identified for assessing the social in sustainability in general are certainly manifest in fisheries. Management of Australian fisheries has arguably made great improvements to biological sustainability over the last decade, but much remains to be done to generate similar improvements in social sustainability for fishing communities. This is the case for government-run resource management as well as for initiatives from the private sector and conservation organizations as part of movements for corporate social responsibility and ethical consumerism. A significant challenge for improving sustainability in Australian fisheries, therefore, lies in improving data collection on social factors, and in bridging disciplinary divides to better integrate social with economic and biological assessments of sustainability.

  16. Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, and Culture

    Náray-Szabó, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    In his article "Conservative Evolution, Sustainability, and Culture" Gábor Náray-Szabó argues that evolution is conservative in the sense that throughout the history of the universe old constructs like elementary particles, amino acids, and living cells remained conserved while the world evolved/evolves in complexity. A similar process can be observed in cultural evolution as components of society and culture continue to evolve. Considering the increasing pressure on natural resources by mate...

  17. Sustainable development and energy resources

    (a) The paper describes the substance and content of sustainability as well as the elements, which determine the objective. Sustainability is high on national and international political agendas. The objective is of a long term nature. The focus of the paper is on hydrocarbon emissions (CO2); (b) International approaches and policies are addressed such as the Climate change convention and the Kyoto protocol. The burden for change on the energy sector to achieve sustainability is very large in particular for OECD countries and those of central and Eastern Europe. Scepticism is expresses whether the goals of the protocol and be reached within the foreseen timeframe although governments and industry are active in improving sustainability; (c) Future Trends of demand and supply examines briefly the growth in primary energy demand as well as the reserve situation for oil, gas and coal. Renewable energy resources are also assessed in regard to their future potential, which is not sufficient to replace hydrocarbons soon. Nuclear power although not emitting CO2 is faced with grave acceptability reactions. Nevertheless sustainability is not threatened by lack of resources; (d) Energy efficiency and new technologies are examined vis-a-vis their contribution to sustainability as well as a warning to overestimate soon results for market penetration; (e) The impact of liberalization of energy sectors play an important role. The message is not to revert back to command and control economies but rather use the driving force of competition. It does not mean to renounce government energy policies but to change their radius to more market oriented approaches; (f) Conclusions centre on the plea that all options should be available without emotional and politicized prejudices. (author)

  18. Sustainable development and energy resources

    (a) The paper describes the substance and content of sustainability as well as the elements, which determine the objective. Sustainability is high on national and international political agendas. The objective is of a long term nature. The focus of the paper is on hydrocarbon emissions (CO2); (b) International approaches and policies are addressed such as the climate change convention and the Kyoto protocol. The burden for change on the energy sector to achieve sustainability is very large in particular for OECD countries and those of central and Eastern Europe. Scepticism is expresses whether the goals of the protocol and be reached within the foreseen timeframe although governments and industry are active in improving sustainability; (c) Future trends of demand and supply examines briefly the growth in primary energy demand as well as the reserve situation for oil, gas and coal. Renewable energy resources are also assessed in regard to their future potential, which is not sufficient to replace hydrocarbons soon. Nuclear power although not emitting CO2 is faced with grave acceptability reactions. Nevertheless sustainability is not threatened by lack of resources; (d) Energy efficiency and new technologies are examined vis-a-vis their contribution to sustainability as well as a warning to overestimate soon results for market penetration; (e) The impact of liberalization of energy sectors play an important role. The message is not to revert back to command and control economies but rather use the driving force of competition. It does not mean to renounce government energy policies but to change their radius to more market oriented approaches; (f) Conclusions centre on the plea that all options should be available without emotional and politicized prejudices. (author)

  19. Sustained volunteerism: justification, motivation and management

    Renes, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a society such as ours, where the tendency exists to always weigh costs against benefits (“what’s in it for me?”), unselfish volunteerism seems difficult to understand. An unselfish act such as sustained volunteerism lacks clear-cut, visible extrinsic rewards or benefits. The present thesis tries

  20. Sustaining Shipments

    accordingly are being denied options for competitive choice of services. Shippers too often are met by a lack of standardisation in documentation. And, of course, worst of all, is when shipping lines deny, or withdraw from services. This situation inevitably can drive consignors to consider charter options; but this is not a panacea. Charters can mean reduced shipping schedules, and a lack of delivery flexibility. This, in turn, results in increased overall inventory holdings, and increased total shipping and other related business costs. And of course, use of slower, smaller charter vessels increases the potential risk of security breaches by potentially diverting cargoes away from mainstream access terminals to small ports or terminals, and the potential for piracy. This paper examines reasons for increasing delays and denials of shipments. It examines the impact delays and denials are having on industry, and describes the various international initiatives to address the problem including industry efforts through the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). Just as the problems of denial and delay are varied and multi-layered, so too are the possibilities for responding to them at all levels - international, regional, national and local. A number of suggestions for further action are advanced. These include the need to cast the training net to a wider cross section of stakeholders; moves towards a more harmonised approach by the various authorities within a national jurisdiction; and the need for more regular, collective exchanges within countries between those whose job it is to develop and enforce the regulations and standards for Class 7 transport, and those whose job it is to operate within them. If denials and delays of shipments are to be overcome, then all stakeholders, intergovernmental organisations, national governments and industry must work together, without let up, to exchange experiences, and ideas to develop positi

  1. Sustaining Shipments

    Bonnardel-Azzarelli, Betty [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 4th Floor, 310-312 Regent Street, London, London W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    . Producer shippers accordingly are being denied options for competitive choice of services. Shippers too often are met by a lack of standardisation in documentation. And, of course, worst of all, is when shipping lines deny, or withdraw from services. This situation inevitably can drive consignors to consider charter options; but this is not a panacea. Charters can mean reduced shipping schedules, and a lack of delivery flexibility. This, in turn, results in increased overall inventory holdings, and increased total shipping and other related business costs. And of course, use of slower, smaller charter vessels increases the potential risk of security breaches by potentially diverting cargoes away from mainstream access terminals to small ports or terminals, and the potential for piracy. This paper examines reasons for increasing delays and denials of shipments. It examines the impact delays and denials are having on industry, and describes the various international initiatives to address the problem including industry efforts through the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). Just as the problems of denial and delay are varied and multi-layered, so too are the possibilities for responding to them at all levels - international, regional, national and local. A number of suggestions for further action are advanced. These include the need to cast the training net to a wider cross section of stakeholders; moves towards a more harmonised approach by the various authorities within a national jurisdiction; and the need for more regular, collective exchanges within countries between those whose job it is to develop and enforce the regulations and standards for Class 7 transport, and those whose job it is to operate within them. If denials and delays of shipments are to be overcome, then all stakeholders, intergovernmental organisations, national governments and industry must work together, without let up, to exchange experiences, and ideas to develop positive responses. (author)

  2. Conservation business: sustaining Africa's future

    I.P. Sonnekus

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas in Africa are threatened by a lack of funds to conduct their work effectively and by extremely poor communities that surround their resource-rich areas. We believe that conservation staff suffer from mental blocks. They assume that business and profitability reflect unethical processes that destroy natural resources. We developed a workshop process that allows conservationists to integrate entrepreneurial thinking with conservation principles and ethics. We measured perceptions both before and after such a workshop to assess the impact of the process. The process assisted conservationists at the Southern African Wildlife College to develop the integrated mental frameworks that are required to develop conservation into a sustainable business. The group internalised the new mental framework, whereby conservation and business, when integrated in an ethical manner, are viewed as virtually synonymous. The group also identified many innovative ways in which they could derive sustainable income from their natural resources while simultaneously achieving their conservation objectives.

  3. Evaluating Sustainability Education: Lessons from International Development Experience

    Koehn, Peter H.; Uitto, Juha I.

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, a series of international declarations that recognize the critical link between environmental sustainability and higher education have been endorsed and signed by universities around the world. While academic initiatives in sustainability are blossoming, higher education lacks a comprehensive evaluation framework that is…

  4. Education for Sustainability: Assessing Pathways to the Future

    Huckle, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper John Huckle reflects on the outlook of environmental education based on conferences in 1972 and 1992 regarding the lack of sustainable development being realized. Huckle points "education for sustainability" along a pathway provided by critical theory and pedagogy and uses theory to examine the nature of ecological crisis,…

  5. Organizing for Sustainability

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  6. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  7. Tourism Development from the Perspectives of Sustainability in Melaka State

    Alam A. S. A. Ferdous; Er A. C.; Begum Halima

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is an important development tool and it is considered the second largest contributor to the Malaysian economy. Even though the visitors are satisfied by the prevailing facilities, a few shortcomings need to be addressed on sustainable tourism such as the lack of knowledge on sustainable tourism in different sectors, and the neglected local communities in making decisions on sustainability. The aim of this study is to realize the relationship between three factors namely economy, envir...

  8. SGI: a framework for increasing the sustainability of gamification impact

    AlMarshedi, Alaa; Wills, Gary; Wanick, Vanissa; Ranchhod, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Gamification is defined as the use of game design elements in non-gaming contexts. It is been getting a lot of attention in recent years. However, the amount of research undertaken on gamification is limited. One of the problems it faces is sustainability. Designers might overlook the elements that increase sustainability due to lack of a standard framework that contains the essential components to achieve that goal. This paper proposes a framework that aims to increase the sustainability of ...

  9. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  10. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    Güzel, Günduz

    As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase and chemi......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase...... and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  11. Evolution of sulfide oxidation and attenuation mechanisms controlling acid mine drainage in decommissioned low-sulfide tailings

    Parviainen, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Environmental hazards derived from mining have been a major concern worldwide in the past years. Understanding of the consequences of malpractice in waste management and the lack of aftercare is crucial to the sustainability of the future mining industry. Mineralogical and geochemical studies are key to predicting the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and to evaluating the stability of a tailings system at an advanced stage of weathering. Site-specific data also assist in selecting the r...

  12. Sustainability ROI measurement: Towards a more comprehensive model on sustainability investment decision-making – A case study

    Tarkkonen, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability is a growing trend, which has resulted in companies around the world seeking ways to utilize it as a source of competitive advantage (Willard 2012; Laszlo & Zhexembayeva 2011). However, according to the literature on sustainability (Epstein & Rejc Buhovac 2014; Porter et al. 2012), regardless of the trend, most companies still lack adequate metrics to measure their sustainability performance and to link the results to their financial performance, which in turn, has hindered th...

  13. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  14. Early recognition of atypical Francisella tularensis strains lacking a cysteine requirement.

    Bernard, K; Tessier, S; Winstanley, J; D. Chang; Borczyk, A

    1994-01-01

    Seven cultures referred to in our laboratories as unidentified gram-negative bacilli or Haemophilus species were identified as atypical strains of Francisella tularensis lacking a requirement for cysteine or enriched medium for growth. The use of cellular fatty acid composition analysis facilitated early recognition of this pathogen and prompt implementation of appropriate biosafety measures.

  15. CIRP Design 2012 Sustainable Product Development

    2013-01-01

    During its life cycle, a product produces waste that is over 20 times its weight. As such it is critical to develop products that are sustainable. Currently product development processes lack high quality methods and tools that are empirically validated to support development of sustainable products. This book is a compilation of over forty cutting edge international research papers from the 22nd CIRP International Design Conference, written by eminent researchers from 15 countries, on engineering design process, methods and tools, broadly for supporting sustainable product development.   A variety of new insights into the product development process, as well as a host of methods and tools that are at the cutting edge of design research are discussed and explained covering a range of diverse topics. The areas covered include: ·Sustainable design and manufacturing, ·Design synthesis and creativity, ·Global product development and product life cycle management, ·Design for X (safety, reliability, manufactu...

  16. Sustainable Marketing : The Importance of Being a Sustainable Business

    Reutlinger, Janina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with sustainable marketing, as well as the necessity for more sustainability. The purpose of this thesis was to determine the importance of sustainable marketing for companies. The theoretical part is divided into sustainability and sustainable marketing. Sustainability covers current issues and sustainable development, which form a background for a better understanding of sustainable marketing. Sustainable marketing includes a definition of the concept, as well as susta...

  17. Conceptualising sustainability assessment

    Sustainability assessment is being increasingly viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainability. However, this is a new and evolving concept and there remain very few examples of effective sustainability assessment processes implemented anywhere in the world. Sustainability assessment is often described as a process by which the implications of an initiative on sustainability are evaluated, where the initiative can be a proposed or existing policy, plan, programme, project, piece of legislation, or a current practice or activity. However, this generic definition covers a broad range of different processes, many of which have been described in the literature as 'sustainability assessment'. This article seeks to provide some clarification by reflecting on the different approaches described in the literature as being forms of sustainability assessment, and evaluating them in terms of their potential contributions to sustainability. Many of these are actually examples of 'integrated assessment', derived from environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), but which have been extended to incorporate social and economic considerations as well as environmental ones, reflecting a 'triple bottom line' (TBL) approach to sustainability. These integrated assessment processes typically either seek to minimise 'unsustainability', or to achieve TBL objectives. Both aims may, or may not, result in sustainable practice. We present an alternative conception of sustainability assessment, with the more ambitious aim of seeking to determine whether or not an initiative is actually sustainable. We term such processes 'assessment for sustainability'. 'Assessment for sustainability' firstly requires that the concept of sustainability be well-defined. The article compares TBL approaches and principles-based approaches to developing such sustainability criteria, concluding that the latter are more appropriate, since they avoid many

  18. Lack of Stem Cells May Be Key to Repeat Miscarriages

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157663.html Lack of Stem Cells May Be Key to Repeat Miscarriages Potential clues ... March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A lack of stem cells in the lining of the uterus may cause ...

  19. The Sustainable Shopper

    2012-01-01

    Many industries, including textiles, have modernized their supply chains by implementing sustainable practices in product manufacturing that decrease the use of water, energy and chemicals. While sustainable product manufacturing is important to U.S. consumers,

  20. Sustainable development. First part

    This paper summarizes a collective effort and represents the second edition of: Environment, energy, economy: a sustainable future. In this work are reported various interventions on sustainable development problem

  1. Handbook of sustainable engineering

    Lee, Kun-Mo

    2013-01-01

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook’s content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key asse...

  2. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices. PMID:27263015

  3. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development

    Any discussion of 21st century energy trends must take into account the global energy imbalance. Roughly 1.6 billion people still lack access to modern energy services, and few aspects of development - whether related to living standards, health care or industrial productivity - can take place without the requisite supply of energy. As we look to the century before us, the growth in energy demand will be substantial, and 'connecting the unconnected' will be a key to progress. Another challenge will be sustainability. How can we meet these growing energy needs without creating negative side effects that could compromise the living environment of future generations? Nuclear power is not a 'fix-all' option. It is a choice that has a place among the mix of solutions, and expectations for the expanding use of nuclear power are rising. In addition to the growth in demand, these expectations are driven by energy security concerns, nuclear power's low greenhouse gas emissions, and the sustained strong performance of nuclear plants. Each country must make its own energy choices; one size does not fit all. But for those countries interested in making nuclear power part of their sustainable development strategies, it is important that the nuclear power option be kept open and accessible

  4. Marketing and sustainability

    Charter, Martin; Peattie, Ken; Ottman, Jacqueline; Polonsky, Michael

    2002-01-01

    'Marketing and sustainability' is based on an original booklet written by Martin Charter in 1990. The text has been updated and re-written to take account of the changing and emerging debate of marketing’s role in relation to sustainable development. This booklet has been produced as a supporting publication for the Sustainable Marketing Knowledge Network (Smart: Know-Net) a web-based information and communication platform for marketers interested in sustainability, available at www...

  5. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  6. Measuring Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Eugen Nicolăescu; Cristina Alpopi; Constantin Zaharia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the evolving character of sustainability management in corporations, the significance of environmental protection and sustainability, and barriers to carrying out an incorporated and strategic firm-wide advance of social responsibility. In the present paper, we focus on the contribution of sustainability undertakings towards enhancing corporate performance, the financial involvements of sustainability position and operation, and the chie...

  7. Sustainable CALL development

    Blin, Françoise; Jalkanen, Juha; Taalas, Peppi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of technological development, along with the uncertainty and unpredictability that characterise the knowledge society, have brought to the fore the issue of sustainability and sustainable development on various international, national and local educational research and policy agendas. Sustainability is a complex concept that gives rise to many definitions and interpretations. In this chapter, we draw on environmental/ecological definitions of sustainability and s...

  8. The Macroecology of Sustainability

    Mace, Georgina M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological principles must govern sustainability, yet sustainability science is largely concerned with social-environmental interactions and barely considers physical limits on resource use. Whether it is possible to overcome such limits can be contested, but the issues raised by a macroecological perspective should be a fundamental part of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).

  9. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  10. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  11. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  12. The sustainable development

    In the framework of the sustainable development week (june 2003), Actu Environnement published a complete document on the sustainable development to inform the public, recall the main steps of this notion (Rio conference and the following conferences) and the possible employments. It presents also the main organizations acting in the sustainable development domain. (A.L.B.)

  13. Education for sustainable development

    Breiting, Søren

    2009-01-01

     An introduction to the idea of sustainable development (SD) and education for sustainable development (ESD) with reference to the international Decade for Education for Sustainable Development . The chapter includes a focus on conflicting interests between present and future generations related to...

  14. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP, the...... content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus is on...... environmental and social sustainability. Economic sustainability will be considered as manufacturing productivity. © 2013 CIRP....

  15. Sustainability in Business

    Tollin, Karin; Vej, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    marketing. The central contribution of the typology is a strategic and managerial view on sustainability. Furthermore, the typology shows that sustainability in business is enacted from different areas of competences and fields in the literature (e.g. supply chain management, corporate branding, value...... creation, product innovation and business model innovation). The empirical basis for the typology is an exploratory study of managers' mindsets about sustainability as strategy. Ten top managers involved with integrating sustainability within their companies have been interviewed. In order to reveal...... managers' mindsets, a framework addressing sustainability from four organisational learning schools was designed and followed...

  16. From sustainable buildings to sustainable business

    M. Andelin

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative reports that buildings are responsible for more than 40 percent of global energy use and over one third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction and real estate sector has the potential to play a significant role in the response to climate change. During the latest years the increase in attention to sustainability and green building by planners, developers, and investors has been remarka...

  17. Sustainable Building Operation

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts and that...... sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...... sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive...

  18. Sustainability index for Taipei

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  19. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    Egmose, Jonas

    to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  1. Towards a Sustainability Education Framework: Challenges, Concepts and Strategies—The Contribution from Urban Planning Perspectives

    Yosef Jabareen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Education for sustainability is becoming a critical component in achieving a sustainable life and protecting our planet and human habitats. However, a review of the sustainability literature reveals a great deal of confusion and misinterpretation regarding the concepts, themes, and goals of education for sustainability. Education for sustainability, including the themes that should be derived and taught, lacks an interdisciplinary conceptual framework. In addition, the literature of education for sustainability mostly lacks the aspects of urban and community planning and the significant contribution of the planning profession. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework, Sustainability Education Framework, which is composed of concepts that derived from different disciplines. At the heart of the conceptual framework rests the normative category and its concepts. The epistemological foundation of the conceptual framework of education for sustainability is based on the unresolved paradox between ‘sustainability’ and ‘development’.

  2. Health and sustainability.

    Kjӕrgård, Bente; Land, Birgit; Bransholm Pedersen, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the 'duality of structure' is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion and sustainability. Third, we use examples from agriculture and food production to illustrate that health and sustainability are mutually enabling and constraining. We conclude that while the renewed focus on food security and food inequalities has brought the health and sustainability dimensions of the food system onto the political agenda, the conceptualization of duality between health and sustainability could be a new platform for a critical and theoretical stance towards the market-oriented food system strategy. Thinking along the lines of duality means that the integration of health promotion strategies and sustainable development strategies cannot be based on an approach to integration in which either health or sustainability is given precedence over the other. From a duality perspective, integration means conceiving sustainability from a health perspective and health from a sustainability perspective. PMID:23300191

  3. Sustainable Synthesis of Gamma-Valerolactone

    Hengst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was the sustainable synthesis of gamma-valerolactone over non-noble metal catalysts in batch autoclave (screening) and a continuous flow set-up. In order to further develop an environmentally benign process, formic acid which is generated as a by-product, was considered directly as hydrogen source.

  4. Sustainable Supply Chain Engagement in a Retail Environment

    Anika Berning

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a key requirement for business success and is often regarded a competitive advantage if strategically managed. Sustainability-mature organisations look to their value chains where the retailer-supplier collaboration becomes critical in embedding sustainability. With this in mind, it is important to monitor retailer-supplier collaboration to determine whether it is effective. To facilitate this monitoring, the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement was consulted. The research question aimed to determine the progress of a prominent South African retailer regarding their sustainable supply chain management (SSCM and collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, this study attempts to apply the Supplier Engagement Continuum, extracted from the UN Global Compact Supply Chain Sustainability: A Guide for Continuous Improvement, in order to determine how the retailer is progressing in sustainable supply chain management. The qualitative and exploratory nature of the study necessitated a case study research design, while the technique of purposive sampling was used to select the sample of three suppliers. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews facilitated by an interview guide, and data analysis was conducted with Atlas.ti software. It was found that the retailer’s sustainable supply chain management can only be located on level one of the continuum. Supply chain sustainability in organisations lack the theoretical foundation of what sustainability really is. Therefore, the model was amended and an additional level was added to incorporate the education of sustainability.

  5. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Je Min Lee; Hyungjae Lee; SeokBeom Kang; Woo Jung Park

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human phys...

  7. RELATIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    YE Dai-fu

    2004-01-01

    From the realism of science, and taking the guide of EINSTEIN's Relativity as guide, this article called in question the present theory of the sustainable development by the rational thinking of philosophy and a close logic inference. It is found that there are many paradoxes to the theory. Through more deepening and meticulous inference, we arrived at philosophic language of science about the sustainable development. The sustainable development is "non-sustainable development", and the non-sustainable development is "the best sustainable development''. While carrying out philosophical principle thinking and repeating science demonstration for the sustainable development, this article got further confirmation that the existence of human being at the minimum environment cost may help them obtain motive power of the sustainable development. In fact, this foundation motive power exists in the flow of development in different organization levels, meanwhile it exists in strategy of intuition living of the ancient people. Only in relative lower environment cost to live can we get the support system of science for the sustainable development, and be able really to achieve the basic goal of the sustainable development.

  8. [What is sustainability science?].

    Wu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Qian, Gui-Xia; Niu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Cun-Zhu; Zhang, Qing; Li, Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is the theme of our time and also the grandest challenge to humanity. Since the 1970s, the term, sustainable development, has frequently appeared in the scientific literature, governmental documents, media promotions for public goods, and commercial advertisements. However, the science that provides the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for sustainable development--sustainability science--only began to emerge in the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, the field has rapidly developed in depth and expanded in scope during the past decade, with its core concepts and research methods coalescing. China, as the most populous country in the world and home to the philosophical root of sustainability science-the unity of man and nature, is obligated to take upon the challenge of our time, to facilitate global sustainability while pursuing the Chinese Dream, and to play a leading role in the development of sustainability science. Toward this grandiose goal, this paper presents the first Chinese introduction to sustainability science, which discusses its basic concepts, research questions, and future directions. Sustainability science is the study of the dynamic relationship between humans and the environment, particularly focusing on the vulnerability, robustness, resilience, and stability of the coupled human-environment system. It is a transdisciplinary science that integrates natural sciences with humanities and social sciences. It hinges on the environment-economy-society nexus, and merges basic and applied research. The key components of sustainability often change with time, place, and culture, and thus sustainability science needs to emphasize multi-scale studies in space and time, with emphasis on landscapes and regions over a horizon of 50 to 100 years. It needs to focus on the relationship between ecosystem services and human well-being, as influenced by biodiversity and ecosystem processes as well as climate change, land use

  9. Evaluating Water Management Practice for Sustainable Mining

    Xiangfeng Zhang; Lei Gao; Damian Barrett; Yun Chen

    2014-01-01

    To move towards sustainable development, the mining industry needs to identify better mine water management practices for reducing raw water use, increasing water use efficiency, and eliminating environmental impacts in a precondition of securing mining production. However, the selection of optimal mine water management practices is technically challenging due to the lack of scientific tools to comprehensively evaluate management options against a set of conflicting criteria. This work has pr...

  10. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns

    Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

  11. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  12. Sustainability in Biobanking: Model of Biobank Graz.

    Sargsyan, Karine; Macheiner, Tanja; Story, Petra; Strahlhofer-Augsten, Manuela; Plattner, Katharina; Riegler, Skaiste; Granitz, Gabriele; Bayer, Michaela; Huppertz, Berthold

    2015-12-01

    Research infrastructures remain the key for state-of-the-art and successful research. In the last few decades, biobanks have become increasingly important in this field through standardization of biospecimen processing, sample storage, and standardized data management. Research infrastructure in cohort studies and other sample collection activities are currently experiencing a lack of long-term funding. In this article, the Biobank Graz discusses these aspects of sustainability including the definition of sustainability and necessity of a business plan, as well as cost calculation model in the field of biobanking. The economic state, critical success factors, and important operational issues are reviewed and described by the authors, using the example of the Biobank Graz. Sustainability in the field of biobanking is a globally important matter of necessity, starting from policy making and ending with security and documentation on each operational level. PMID:26697910

  13. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject. PMID:26764957

  14. Sustainable Concrete Technology

    Sim J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.

  15. Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard

    Traverso, Marzia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Jørgensen, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    One method to assess the sustainability performance of products is life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which assesses product performance considering the environmental,economic, and social dimensions of the life cycle. The results of LCSA can be used to compare different products or to...... sustainability is the communicability of the results by means of a graphical representation (a cartogram), characterized by a suitable chromatic scale and ranking score. The integration of LCSA and the dashboard of sustainability into a so-called Life Cycle Sustainability Dashboard (LCSD) is described here. The...... support decision making toward sustainable production and consumption. In both cases, LCSA results could be too disaggregated and consequently too difficult to understand and interpret by decision makers. As non-experts are usually the target audience of experts and scientists, and are also involved in...

  16. Measuring Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Eugen Nicolăescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the evolving character of sustainability management in corporations, the significance of environmental protection and sustainability, and barriers to carrying out an incorporated and strategic firm-wide advance of social responsibility. In the present paper, we focus on the contribution of sustainability undertakings towards enhancing corporate performance, the financial involvements of sustainability position and operation, and the chief function of values in corporate policy. Our paper contributes to the literature by supplying proof of elements that lead to the triumph of business patterns for sustainable development, processes through which stakeholders are affecting corporate sustainability conduct, and the link between economic growth and the environment.

  17. Health and Sustainability

    Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Kjærgård, Bente

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we explore how sustainable development strategies and health promotion strategies can be bridged. The concept of the ‘duality of structure’ is taken as our starting point for understanding the linkages between health promotion and sustainable development, and for uncovering...... the structural properties or conditions which either enable or constrain sustainable public health initiatives. We argue that strategies towards health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development, and thus political strategies aimed at solving health problems...... or sustainability problems may cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental or health problems. First, we explore how the relation between health and sustainability is articulated in international policy documents. Next, we develop a model for understanding the relation between health promotion...

  18. ICT innovations for sustainability

    Aebischer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ICT Innovations for Sustainability is an investigation of how information and communication technology can contribute to sustainable development. It presents clear definitions of sustainability, suggesting conceptual frameworks for the positive and negative effects of ICT on sustainable development. It reviews methods of assessing the direct and indirect impact of ICT systems on energy and materials demand, and examines the results of such assessments. In addition, it investigates ICT-based approaches to supporting sustainable patterns of production and consumption, analyzing them at various levels of abstraction – from end-user devices, Internet infrastructure, user behavior, and social practices to macro-economic indicators.   Combining approaches from Computer Science, Information Systems, Human-Computer Interaction, Economics, and Environmental Sciences, the book presents a new, holistic perspective on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S). It is an indispensable resource for anyone working in the area of ICT...

  19. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld;

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  20. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  1. Action Research for Sustainability

    Egmose, Jonas

    eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens......Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  2. Listeria monocytogenes mutants lacking phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C are avirulent

    1991-01-01

    A number of bacterial species secrete phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). In this report, we show that the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, contains a gene, plcA, predicting a polypeptide with 31% amino acid identity to a Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC. Accordingly, L. monocytogenes secretes PI-PLC activity, while a mutant with a transposon insertion in plcA lacks detectable PI-PLC activity. In addition, expression of plcA in B. subtilis...

  3. Postreceptoral contributions to the light-adapted ERG of mice lacking b-waves

    Shirato, Suguru; Maeda, Hidetaka; Miura, Gen; Frishman, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of postreceptoral neurons to the light-adapted ERG of the Nob mouse, a model for complete-type congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) that lacks a b-wave from depolarizing bipolar cells. Ganzfeld ERGs were recorded from anesthetized adult control mice, control mice injected intravitreally with L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Control APB mice) to remove On pathway activity, and Nob mice. ERGs also were recorded after PDA (c...

  4. Farm Auditing for Sustainability

    Measures, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Policy makers have now established sustainability as the new aim for UK farming. The development of the Farm Audit for Sustainability involved identifying the objectives of sustainable farming, based on the Principles of organic farming as set out by the International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) and establishment of indicators to assess the effectiveness of individual farms in meeting these objectives. On-farm use of the Farm Audit demonstrated that the tool was able to pr...

  5. Social Sciences and Sustainability

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-01-01

    At the time when the journal Sustainability [1] was launched, as a chemist and a scientist, I started to believe that social sciences may be more important to make humans sustainable. The broad journal title Social Sciences presents the opportunity for all social science scholars to have integrated consideration regarding the sustainability of humanity, because I am sure that science and technology alone cannot help. Science and technology may have in fact been contributing to accelerate the ...

  6. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk

  7. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk].

  8. What is sustainability economics?

    Baumgärtner, Stefan; Quaas, Martin

    2009-01-01

    While economists have been contributing to the discussion of various aspects of sustainability for decades, it is just recently that the term “sustainability economics” was used explicitly in the ecological, environmental, and resource economics community. Yet, the contributions that use the term “sustainability economics” do not refer to any explicit definition of the term, and are not obviously joined by common or unifying characteristics, such as subject focus, methodology, or institutiona...

  9. ICT and Sustainable Development

    Hilty, Lorenz M.; Hercheui, Magda David

    2010-01-01

    We discuss various views and conceptual frameworks put forward in the discussion of ICT and sustainable development: An optimistic and a pessimistic view of ICT with regard to sustainability, the three-pillar approach to sustainable development, the three-level approach to ICT impacts, the claim of human, social and ecological compatibility of ICT and the plain use of ICT for development. We show that each of these approaches has its problems and limitations and conclude with formulating the ...

  10. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  11. Sustainable Water Systems

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is ...

  12. Implementing Sustainable Development Strategies

    Zhang Cuiying

    2004-01-01

    China's national sustainable development strategies were drafted under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping's theory on socialist construction with Chinese distinguishing features and, the theory and practice of sustainable development has further enriched and perfected Deng Xiaoping's theory. An in-depth study of Deng Xiaoping's theory is significant if we are to accurately understand our sustainable development program and how to best implement the strategies.

  13. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier...

  14. Development, Urbanization and Sustainability

    Kamil Khan Mumtaz

    2011-01-01

    Kamil Khan Mumtaz looks at how the perpetual increase in production and consumption implied by the economic growth model of development and modern urbanization is unsustainable. A sustainable economy would fully recycle all that it consumes, while sustainable cities would be structurally integrated with the regions from which they derive their basic sustenance. Above all, sustainable development requires a paradigm change that must begin with a redefinition of the goals of development.

  15. Sustainability and Transport

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the term “sustainable development” was popularized in the Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987), the U.S. government turned its attention towards application of the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In response to a 2003 request by the Secretary of Transportation, the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Research Council established a committee to consider how sustainability could be integrated into transpo...

  16. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  17. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    Edgeman, Rick

    2013-01-01

    , the UN Global Compact 10 Principles, and criteria of the European Quality Award and America’s Baldrige National Quality Award. From these a model and key criteria are distilled, maturity scales developed, and a simple means of assessment presented. Findings: A compact model and supporting maturity......, together with a means of maturity assessment. Keywords: Governance, Innovation for Sustainability, Maturity Assessment, Performance Dashboard, Resilience, Sustainable Enterprise Excellence, Sustainable Innovation, SWOT Plot Narrative, Triple Bottom Line Performance, Triple Top Line Strategy. Article...

  18. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  19. Hacking for Sustainability

    Zapico Lamela, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    ICT for Sustainability is a growing research area looking at the potential of information and communication technologies for contributing to sustainability. The existing work in this area can be grouped in four main categories: The optimization of existing systems using ICT, the dematerialization of cultural assets and presence, the use of technology for behavioral change, and the support of sustainability practice and research. Within this research area, this thesis focuses on exploring how ...

  20. Environmental sustainability and industry

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Jasic, Midhat; Sokolovic, Slobodan; Cvrk, Ramzija

    2013-01-01

    Increasing population and living standards cause consumption rate to grow and cannot do forever. Finding ways to use materials more efficiently is a prerequisite for a sustainable future. Recent global attention to the issues and challenges of sustainable development is forcing industries to conduct self-assessments to identify where they stand within theframework for sustainability, and more importantly, to identify opportunities, strategies and technologies that support achieving this g...

  1. Kenya; Debt Sustainability Analysis

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This report of the Debt Sustainability Analysis (DSA) indicates that the envisaged strategy of a partial substitution of domestic debt by increased inflows of external grants and concessional loans, as well as a rescheduling of external debt by the Paris and London Clubs, would facilitate the achievement of debt sustainability. The DSA also confirms that such a debt rescheduling could constitute an appropriate exit strategy for Kenya. The DSA also shows that debt sustainability would improve ...

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  3. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    Niinimäki, Kirsi (editor)

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  4. Sustainable wireless networks

    Zheng, Zhongming; Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    This brief focuses on network planning and resource allocation by jointly considering cost and energy sustainability in wireless networks with sustainable energy. The characteristics of green energy and investigating existing energy-efficient green approaches for wireless networks with sustainable energy is covered in the first part of this brief. The book then addresses the random availability and capacity of the energy supply. The authors explore how to maximize the energy sustainability of the network and minimize the failure probability that the mesh access points (APs) could deplete their

  5. Predicting Sustainable Work Behavior

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable work behavior is an important issue for operations managers – it has implications for most outcomes of OM. This research explores the antecedents of sustainable work behavior. It revisits and extends the sociotechnical model developed by Brown et al. (2000) on predicting safe behavior....... Employee characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work condition are included in the extended model. A survey was handed out to 654 employees in Chinese factories. This research contributes by demonstrating how employee- characteristics and general attitudes towards safety and work...... condition influence their sustainable work behavior. A new definition of sustainable work behavior is proposed....

  6. Perspectives on sustainable waste management.

    Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams. PMID:24910921

  7. Ideas towards sustainable water security

    Dalin, Carole

    2016-04-01

    With growing global demands and a changing climate, ensuring water security - the access to sufficient, quality water resources for health and livelihoods and an acceptable level of water related risk - is increasingly challenging. While a billion people still lack access to water, over-exploitation of this resource increases in many developed and developing parts of the world. While some solutions to water stress have been known for a long time, financial, cultural and political barriers often prevent their implementations. This talk will highlight three crucial areas that need to be addressed to progress towards sustainable water security. The first point is on scale, the second on the agricultural sector and irrigation, and the third on food trade and policy.

  8. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  9. 29 CFR 18.602 - Lack of personal knowledge.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lack of personal knowledge. 18.602 Section 18.602 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.602 Lack of personal knowledge. A... witness has personal knowledge of the matter. Evidence to prove personal knowledge may, but need...

  10. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  11. A Model and Selected Instances of Green and Sustainable Software

    Dick, Markus; Naumann, Stefan; Kuhn, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    The power consumption of ICT is still increasing. To date it is not clear if the energy savings through ICT overbalance the energy consumption by ICT or not. Where manifold efforts of Green IT address the environmental aspects of sustainability considering computer hardware, there is a lack of models, descriptions, or realizations in the area of computer software. In this paper we present some results that form the basis towards a definition of the term "Sustainable Software", an outline of a...

  12. Sustainable bonuses: Sign of corporate responsibility or window dressing?

    Kolk, A.; Perego, P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a strong plea for integrating sustainability goals into traditional corporate bonus schemes, a comprehensive implementation of these systems has been lacking until recently. This article explores four illustrative cases from the Netherlands, where several multinationals started to pioneer with sustainable bonuses in the past few years. The article examines the setups and the different elements of bonus programmes used, in terms of performance criteria (focusing in particular on extern...

  13. The philosophy of interdisciplinarity: sustainability science and problem-feeding

    Thorén, Henrik; Persson, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, interdisciplinarity has been taken to require conceptual or theoretical integration. However, in the emerging field of sustainability science this kind of integration is often lacking. Indeed sometimes it is regarded as an obstacle to interdisciplinarity. Drawing on examples from sustainability science, we show that problem-feeding, i.e. the transfer of problems, is a common and fruitful-looking way of connecting disparate disciplines and establishing interdisciplinarity. We id...

  14. Creating A Sustainable Model of Spine Care in Underserved Communities

    Haldeman, Scott; Nordin, Margareta; Outerbridge, Geoff;

    2015-01-01

    The world lacks sustainable models of care to manage spinal disorders in poor and underserved communities. The purpose of this article is to: (1) review the rationale and importance of developing a sustainable evidence-based model of care at low cost for people with spinal disorders in underserved...... with sound leadership, research and a model of care, there is an opportunity to help reduce the burden of the leading cause of disability in the world....

  15. New Sustainable Tourism Product Development for Russian Customers

    Racheeva, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is a new concept for tourism sector; it is tourism that reduces negative tourism impacts and brings benefits instead. The current problem of sustainable tourism is lack of attractive tourism products. Their development is crucial since customers seek for experiences at a destination. Russians are an important segment for Finnish tourism, therefore their consumer behaviours has to be studied. The aim of this research is to find how to develop a tourism product for susta...

  16. Reinventing the Wheel to Guide Ecovillages towards Sustainability

    Arend, Clarissa de Oliveira; Gallagher, Johanne; Orell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ecovillages acting as experimental community models have the potential to help move society towards sustainability by developing alternative solutions for sustainable living. Their contribution is through the power of example, demonstrating successful alternative systems that can be replicated at higher scales through the broader community. However, ecovillages often struggle with long-term planning and lack a systematic approach to integrating structure, processes and actions into strategic ...

  17. Rethinking Sustainability on Planet Earth: A Time for New Framings

    Dylan, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development and sustainability have been key terms in environmental thought and practice since the time of the Brundtland Report. Because of being firmly situated in the humanist tradition, these terms and their associated approaches have been appealing to social workers tackling environmental concerns. Given the significant and inexorable changes being wrought by global warming and the lack of similitude between Earth prior to anthropogenic warming and the incipient Eaarth introd...

  18. Sustainable Coastal Destination Development: Fostering Green Practices of Restaurateurs

    Timo Derriks; Tara Hoetjes

    2015-01-01

    Coastal tourism destinations are reinventing themselves, concentrating on product improvement and image enhancement. Reinventing sustainably is key and restaurants are an important factor. Research upon the processes of change in the industry seems to be fragmented and undefined in its conclusions. Knowledge is lacking on what specifically drives innovation in the hospitality industry. Since restaurants seem to be focusing more than ever on implementing green strategies, incorporating sustain...

  19. Sustainability as Moral Action

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  20. Scarcity, innovation, sustainability

    This essay proposes a reflection of some interventions aimed of supporting sustainable growth by stressing the environmental scarcity. Only if this scarcity is correctly perceived, it can promote sustainable production and consumption choices and enhance innovation in order to reduce the shortages activating process of permanent progress. The proposed regulating action is based on the joint implementation of environmental taxes and refundable deposits

  1. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    SZÁSZ Tibor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an extensive discussion on sustainable development, which is likely to go on in the future. For this reason our only aim is to offer a summary of sustainable development for those who wish to gain an overview of the topic.

  2. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    design for TBL sustainability. These are located in catastrophe-ridden Haiti and supported by the Germany-based investor company Yunus Social Business. Three supply chain archetypes combining physical and support chains are presented that focus on TBL sustainable outputs and outcomes. For SSCM research...

  3. Sustainable development and law

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Schomerus, Th.; Heinrichs, H.; Martens, P.; Michelsen, G.; WIek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the emergence of the concept of sustainable development, lawyers across the globe are trying to come to grips with its legal status and the potential legal consequences. Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development is represented in legally binding texts at international, European, and nat

  4. Conceptual frameworks of sustainability

    Lobina, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    This presentation aims to offer insights on the conceptualisation of sustainability. It does so by: a) drawing on Lobina, E. (forthcoming, 2012) Water Service Governance, Technological Change and Paradigm Shifts: A conceptual framework, in International Journal of Water. Accepted for publication: 26 August 2011; expected publication date: early 2012; and, b) illustrating work in progress on "The Sustainability of Urban Water Service Reform".

  5. Resilience and Sustainable Development

    Brand, Fridolin

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the concept of ecological resilience and its relation to sustainable development. The objectives are the following: (i) to describe the resilience approach, including its background theory and resilience mechanisms, (ii) to critizice the resilience approach as regards to conceptual structure, empirical validity and cultural assumptions, and (iii) to specify the practical relevance of the resilience approach for achieving sustainability objectives.

  6. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  7. Sustainable and smart cities

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities that government officials face in designing coherent 'rules of the game' for achieving urban sustainability during times of growth. Sustainability is judged by three criteria. The first involves elements of day-to-day quality of life, such as having clean air and water and green space. The provision of these public goods has direct effec...

  8. Developing Sustainable Leadership

    Davies, Brent, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Developing and sustaining leaders is a major challenge for all those involved in education today. This book contains a collection of essays from recognized authors to provide insights, frameworks and ideas on how to sustain school leaders and develop values-based leadership. It also offers guidance on countering short-term management solutions,…

  9. iSustainable

    Domènech Aguilera, Roger; Franco Puntes, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    El projecte iSustainable conjuga el desenvolupament i investigació en la tecnologia iPhone d'Apple amb un projecte ja existent dins de l'empresa Solvay anomenat Solvay Sustainable. Està enfocat a càrrecs directius de la companyia, els quals necessiten consultar les dades proporcionades per l'aplicació en tot moment.

  10. Cuba [Energy indicators for sustainable development

    ' possibilities for hydroelectric generation is currently under way. The use of windmills for water pumping is also growing. The wind potential for electricity generation, which is estimated at about 400 MW, is being further evaluated. Important efficiency steps have been taken (e.g., modernizing and adapting thermal power plants to burn domestic crude oil, using associated gas in combined-cycle power plants, etc.) to improve transformation processes and utilize co-generation (even though its share of electricity generation on the island has actually been reduced). Similarly, the country has invested in electricity transmission lines to decrease electricity losses, and has sought to improve fuel transportation infrastructure (i.e., gas and oil pipelines, tanker stations for oil imports, etc.). The Cuban Electricity Conservation Programme has had a significant impact by reducing electricity use in households during peak hours, and also by managing and shifting the electricity demand of main consumers to non-peak hours. A comparable fuels and lubricants conservation programme began in 2001. The energy sector is the main contributor to adverse emissions to the environment, especially of SO2 emissions from the use of domestic crude oil in electricity generation. This fuel contains very high levels of sulfur, affecting the environment by contributing to acid rain and harming human health. Future options to achieve sustainable energy development include an increase in efficiency in the sugar sector, the exploitation of hydro and wind potential, an expansion in the use of solar applications, an evaluation of potential nuclear power penetration, and the development of biodiesel and alcohol programs. The use of the ISED framework methodology is recommended for evaluating sustainable energy development scenarios that could be undertaken in Cuba, and for evaluating possible options to reduce the environmental impact of Cuba's energy development

  11. The challenge of sustainability

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  12. Sustainability through Informality

    Cristina Dreifuss-Serrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In precarious environments, such as squatter settlements, sustainability can be achieved as an economic resource. It is important, however, to start with assuring a sense of belonging in the members of the communities. Through observation in squatter settlements and conversations with their inhabitants, this paper presents a view on informal sustainability through participativeprocesses. We argue that if we begin by looking at cultural  sustainability, people’s sense of belonging becomes a key factor in taking care of the environment. We aim to demonstrate that even if squatter settlements are regarded as areas of conflict in terms of pollution, occupation of the land, and waste disposal, through informal processes people can achieve a degree of awareness that will not only result in sustainable practices, but that can also propose new creative ways to achieve them, witheconomical considerations in mind.Keywords: Cultural sustainability, informality, human development, squatter settlements, identity

  13. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  14. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  15. Sustainability and uncertainty

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    The widely used concept of sustainability is seldom precisely defined, and its clarification involves making up one's mind about a range of difficult questions. One line of research (bottom-up) takes sustaining a system over time as its starting point and then infers prescriptions from this...... requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society and...... clarified ethical goal, disagreements can arise. At present we do not know what substitutions will be possible in the future. This uncertainty clearly affects the prescriptions that follow from the measure of sustainability. Consequently, decisions about how to make future agriculture sustainable are...

  16. Sustainable built environments

    Haase, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  17. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  18. Novel Pentablock Copolymer-Based Nanoparticulate Systems for Sustained Protein Delivery

    Patel, Sulabh P.; Vaishya, Ravi; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and application of novel biodegradable and biocompatible pentablock (PB) copolymers, i.e., polyglycolic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polyglycolic acid (PGA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PGA) and polylactic acid-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone-polylactic acid (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) for sustained protein delivery, are reported. The PB copolymers can be engineered to generate sustained delivery of protein therapeutics to the posterior segme...

  19. Making technological innovation work for sustainable development.

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset. PMID:27519800

  20. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  1. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  2. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  3. Sustainable Information System Design and the Role of Sustainable HCI

    Nyström, Tobias; Mustaquim, Moyen

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is a heterogene­ous developing field of research, typically focusing on persuasive system design to influence users to behave and live more sustain­ably. So far this change of behavior towards sustainability has been limited more or less within the scope of environmental topics. This paper extends the notion of sustainable HCI beyond the ecological sphere of sustainability. This paper has followed a previous research work in which sustainable syste...

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: WHAT NEXT? A RESEARCH AGENDA

    Cunningham Gary M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This working paper responds to increasing calls for more and different forms of accounting research involvement in accounting for sustainability. It seeks to provide background, clarify the accounting research issues, and suggest research methods. The background analysis indicates that accounting for sustainability must go beyond supplemental reporting of ecological and social information to include such emerging issues as integrated reporting of sustainability information along with financial reporting. Additional emerging issues are needs of users of sustainability reports, auditing and other assurance of sustainability information, and sustainability implications of financial failure, accounting and auditing failures, and lack of enforcement. Analysis of integrated reporting against traditional financial accounting theory concepts of the purpose of financial reporting and the postulates of going concern, reporting entity, monetary unit, and time period, indicates a need for substantial changes in the traditional financial accounting model if sustainability issues are to be integrated. The agenda concludes with five research issues and methods: - An accounting research framework for sustainability using general systems theory approaches that have been useful for similar emerging issues. - Reporting of sustainability information which has been the focus of most research to date, and the emerging important topic of integrated reporting. - Users of sustainable information, their uses and perceived needs, an area that has been largely neglected in research to date. - Auditing and assurance issues that are taking on greater importance as more users demand assurance for sustainability information. Issues include standards to be used and users expectations and reactions. - Financial distress and sustainability consequences of accounting and enforcement failures that are just now being recognized as sustainability issues.

  5. Supply Chain Management and Sustainability: Procrastinating Integration in Mainstream Research

    Marisa P. de Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has pointed out opportunities and research agendas to integrate sustainability issues with supply chain and operations management. However, we find that it is still not mainstream practice to systematically take a sustainability approach in tackling supply chain and operations management issues. In this paper, we make use of behavioral theory to explain the current lack of integration. We conclude through abductive reasoning that the reasons for procrastinating integration of sustainability in supply chain and operations management research are the conflicting nature of the task and the inherent context, which is the focus on operations rather than environmental or social issues.

  6. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  7. Interpreting sustainable development

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  8. Lack of genetic polymorphism among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus of Fiji

    Talbot, S.L.; Palmer, A.G.; Sage, G.K.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Swem, T.; Brimm, D.J.; White, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We compared levels of genetic diversity and isolation among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus from two South Pacific island complexes (Fiji and Vanuatu: F. p. nesiotes), relative to other island and mainland populations. Fragment data from 12 microsatellite loci and sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial DNA indicated levels of genetic variation in the South Pacific populations were lower than other island and mainland populations. Indeed, diversity varied from extremely low (Vanuatu) to completely absent (Fiji). We find little support for a hypothesis that populations on Fiji or Vanuatu were colonized via Australia. The complete lack of polymorphism in peregrine falcons of Fiji is remarkable, and to our knowledge has not been observed in a natural avian population. This lack of polymorphism, and the inability to test for decrease in polymorphism using museum samples, precludes testing whether the lack of genetic diversity in the population on Fiji is due to a recent bottleneck, or sustained isolation over evolutionary time. Increased fertility in eggs of Fiji peregrines upon outbreeding with males from other areas is consistent with inbreeding depression within a population typified by heterozygote deficiency. ?? 2011 The Authors.

  9. 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159695.html 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water Clean water ... HealthDay News) -- Clean running water is essential for hospital sanitation, but a new report finds a third ...

  10. Sustainability Infused Curriculum

    Ibarra, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong established a sustainability policy in 2015, which explicitly states, "an experimentally integrated, environmentally and ethically sustainable system of science education and conservation practices based on the 2012 Jeju Declaration of the World Conservation Congress will be implemented through the school". ISF Academy is a private Chinese bilingual school in Hong Kong serving over 1500 students K-12, following the framework and curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). The strategy behind the implementation of this policy includes: development of a scientific sustainable curriculum that is age appropriate; establish a culture of sustainability within the ISF community and beyond to the wider HK community; install sustainable infrastructure that allows students to learn; and learn first hand sustainable living practices. It is well understood that solutions to the environmental challenges facing Hong Kong and our planet will require multiple disciplines. The current sustainability programs at ISF include: a) a whole school aerobic food waste composting system and organic farming, b) energy consumption monitoring of existing buildings, c) upcoming installation of an air pollution monitoring equipment that will correlate with the AQHI data collected by the Hong Kong government, d) a Renewable Energy Education Center (REEC) that will teach students about RE and also produce solar energy for classroom consumption, and e) student lead environmental group that manages the paper and used cooking oil recycling on campus. The Shuyuan Science and Sustainability faculty work closely with classroom teachers to ensure that the above mentioned projects are incorporated into the curriculum throughout the school. Interdisciplinary units (IDU) of study are being developed that encourage faculty and students to work across subject areas. Projects include Personal Projects, Extended Essays

  11. Sustainable development assessment through indicators evolving

    L.V. Zharova

    2016-03-01

    , production and consumption patterns, technologies; natural and man-made disasters; global environmental problems (climate change, ozone layer depletion; globalization; institutions. Conclusions and directions of further researches. From assessment of current status of sustainable development indicators authors reveal the main challenges in defining an appropriate set of them. The ways of overcoming the lack of harmonization in variety of conceptual and organizational frameworks used by the different countries are viewed. Authors consider the direction of SDI system modernization. The importance of sustainable development measuring at different scale levels: local, regional, enterprise and household levels – is stressed. Researchers reveal the main task in division of responsibilities of national authorities managing data quality and data accessibility. An additional challenge of providing better analysis of cross linkages between indicators is pointed out.

  12. Sustainable development - an entrepreneur's view

    The following topics are dealt with in this paper: prizing the environment, inducing change, getting the right mix, energy and market place, financing sustainable development, trade and sustainable development, managing corporate change, the Sulzer strategy for sustainable development. (author)

  13. Sustainable Facilities Management

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus is on...... the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new...

  14. Lean maturity, lean sustainability

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke; Nielsen, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    Although lean is rapidly growing in popularity, its implementation is far from problem free and companies may experience difficulties sustaining long term success. In this paper, it is suggested that sustainable lean requires attention to both performance improvement and capability development. A...... framework for describing levels of lean capability is presented, based on a brief review of the literature and experiences from 12 Danish companies currently implementing lean. Although still in its emerging phase, the framework contributes to both theory and practice by describing developmental stages that...... support lean capability development and consequently, lean sustainability....

  15. Towards sustainable food production

    Aramyan, Lusine H; Hoste, Robert; van den Broek, Willie;

    2011-01-01

    continuous innovation of supply chain network structures, reconsideration of business processes, relocation of logistics infrastructures and renewed allocation of chain activities to these infrastructures in order to achieve sustainable performances. This paper presents a scenario analysis of the spatial...... allocation of pork supply chain activities in Europe. Supply chain production and distribution activities are optimized in various scenarios based on economic and sustainability performance indicators. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model, which includes piglet production, fattening, slaughtering......, as minimizing costs will not always lead to an optimal reduction in CO2 equivalent emissions, a differentiated strategy is needed for the European pork sector to move towards more sustainable production...

  16. Sustainable Facilities Management

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    the housing departments and strateies for the management of the use of resources. The research methods used are case studies based on interviews in addition to literature studies. The paper explores lessons to be learned about sustainable facilities management in general, and points to a need for new......The Danish public housing sector has more than 20 years of experience with sustainable facilities management based on user involvement. The paper outlines this development in a historical perspective and gives an analysis of different approaches to sustainable facilities management. The focus is on...

  17. A sustainable economy

    Pawlak, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There exists a direct correlation between improvements in standard of living and the consumption of resources. To be able to maintain the standard of living of a modern developed country, society must adapt to an economy based on sustainable processes, energy, and raw materials. The sustainable economy presents itself as a disruptive technology to the traditional economy, which is based largely on non-renewable resources. The issue seems to be more about when will we switch to a sustainable economy, rather than whether we will switch.

  18. Green and Sustainable Chemistry

    HAN Boxing

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is now a common opinion that sustainable development is a key issue to humanity.How to provide the population with sufficient clean water, food, chemicals, materials and energy without damaging our planet is an extremely important and challenging issue in today's world.Although the chemical industry plays a pivotal role in driving the world economy and sustaining the high quality of life, most currently used chemical processes are not sustainable because they use fossil resources as their feedstock and produce a large amount of waste and hazardous materials.

  19. Strategic corporate sustainability

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  20. Natural gas and sustainability

    The evaluation of energy sources in terms of sustainable development has to include ecological, economic and social aspects. Natural gas as a piped energy source is shown by such an evaluation to be an important option among the sustainable means of satisfying the demand for energy. Apart from the problem of CO2 emissions, where interesting solutions are also being defined, the use of natural gas brings no drawbacks in terms of sustainable development. Anyway, natural gas has the most favorable greenhouse-gas balance among all fossil energy sources

  1. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  2. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.

  3. Sustainable technologies do not exist!

    René Kemp

    2010-01-01

    Innovation and sustainable development are broad, general concepts with positive connotations which are widely used in the social sciences, but usually in an ambiguous, imprecise way. This paper examines various definitions and meanings of sustainability as a preliminary step in analysing sustainable technologies. The term “sustainable technologies” is actually incorrect since sustainable development is not a question of technology or organisation regarding the sustainability of firms but rat...

  4. Involving citizens in sustainable development

    Agger, Annika

    2010-01-01

    Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541......Local Environment The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, Volume 15 Issue 6, 541...

  5. Wrapping Our Brains around Sustainability

    Mary Ann Curran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As many of us begin to embrace the concept of sustainability, we realize that it is not simply something that we ‘do.’ Rather, sustainability is a destination that we aspire to reach with the selection of the sustainable pathways that we choose as we proceed along the journey. We are embarking on a new journey with the creation of Sustainability, an on-line, open access journal. As stated on the journal’s website, Sustainability is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies that are related to sustainability and sustainable development. To genuinely wrap our brains around the impact that our actions have on the sustainability of our planet, we must first understand something of the big picture and have a firm grasp of the terminology. To help further clarify the elusive term ‘sustainability,’ without attempting to provide an exact definition, this paper outlines various, inter-related concepts and basic practices and approaches that are being used in the name of sustainability, including: traditional end-of-pipe control strategies, life cycle, environmental sustainability, urban sustainability, industrial ecology, business sustainability, sustainable supply chain systems, sustainability indicators and metrics, green chemistry and green engineering, design for the environment, sustainable buildings, eco-tourism, and renewable and sustainable energy and fuels.

  6. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    Elle, Morten

    developments are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is...... essential for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark, and...

  7. Design for Sustainable Learning.

    Christopher, Gaylaird

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the greatest benefit to the design of green sustainable schools is the opportunity to provide meaningful, ecological learning experiences for children. Offers examples of learning opportunities within the environment and a list of related resources. (EV)

  8. Transport, environment and sustainability

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini;

    2010-01-01

    support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference for......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...

  9. Packaging for Sustainability

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  10. Logistics, sustainability and education

    Corns, Christine; Mayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There still exist widespread misconceptions about logistics as a profession and its impact on the environment. Collaboration between industry and higher ecucation can support the vision of a modern, sustainable supply chain.

  11. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence

    Edgeman, Rick; Williams, Joseph; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    Sustainable Enterprise Excellence balances complementary and competing interests of key stakeholder segments, including society and the natural environment and increases the likelihood of superior and sustainable competitive positioning and hence long-term enterprise success that is defined by......, supply chain, customer-related, human capital, financial, marketplace, societal, and environmental performance. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence integrates ethical, efficient and effective (E3) enterprise governance with 3E (equity, ecology, economy) Triple Top Line strategy throughout enterprise...... culture and activities to produce Triple Bottom Line 3P (people, planet, profit) performance that are simultaneously pragmatic, innovative and supportive of R3 (Edgeman, 2013). Sustainable Enterprise Excellence (Edgeman & Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE is analogous to Business & Performance Excellence. The role...

  12. The macroecology of sustainability

    Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

  13. Sustainability rooted in science

    Lubchenco, Jane; Barner, Allison K.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Reimer, Jessica N.

    2015-10-01

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals emphasize the importance of evidence-based decision-making. This is a clarion call for Earth scientists to contribute directly to the health, prosperity and well-being of all people.

  14. Energy and Sustainable Development

    None of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2000 directly addressed energy, although for nearly all of them - from eradicating poverty and hunger to improving education and health - progress has depended on greater access to modern energy. Thirteen years later, energy is being given more attention. The target date for the MDGs is 2015, and in 2012 the UN began deliberations to develop sustainable development goals to guide support for sustainable development beyond 2015. The Future We Want, the outcome document of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (also known as Rio+20) gives energy a central role: ''We recognize the critical role that energy plays in the development process, as access to sustainable modern energy services contributes to poverty eradication, saves lives, improves health and helps provide for basic human needs''

  15. Sustainable investment: Literature overview

    J. Weda; M. Kerste; N. Rosenboom

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns su

  16. Leadership for Environmental Sustainability

    Redekop, Benjamin W

    2010-01-01

    Explores the connection between leadership and sustainability from various disciplinary perspectives, including sociology, history, psychology, business, literature, communication, and the arts. This book is suitable for scholars, practitioners, students, and educated readers

  17. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    Elle, Morten

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark, and...... the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these...... developments are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is...

  18. Sovereignty, individuality, and sustainability

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans must acknowledge that the biosphere is the essential support for all living organisms. In order to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must proceed beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism, homocentrism, and biocentrism to ecocentrism. National states, with present policies, are a major obstacle to sustainable use of the planet. However, there is some evidence that the individual has increasing sovereignty at the expense of both nation states and the environment. Still, the primary obstacle to sustainability is inherent in the present system of sovereign nation states. The basic question is how much sovereignty must nation-states and individuals relinquish to preserve the health of Earth's biospheric life support system. A free and open exchange of thoughts on this subject is long overdue. To acheive sustainable use of the planet, humankind must view its identity within the context of the interdependent web of life.

  19. Towards sustainable clinical trials

    Group, Sustainable Trials Study

    2007-01-01

    Currently, few researchers think about the carbon footprint of their trial. The Sustainable Trials Study Group reports that clinical trials are carbon intensive and suggests ways to make them more efficient

  20. Transport, environment and sustainability

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini; Mancebo Quintana, Santiago; Boulter, Paul; Folkesson, Lennart; McCrae, Ian; Boughedaoui, Ménouer; Waeger, Patrick; Calderon, Enrique

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference for...

  1. Sustainable development in Europe

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2001-01-01

    The SDC’s comments on the consultation paper published by the European Commission, following the decision of the European Heads of State and Government to ask the European Commission to prepare a sustainable development strategy for Europe.

  2. Sustainable construction key indicators

    Araújo, Catarina; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable building is a concept that began its development nearly two decades ago. With sustainable buildings, it is intended to establish building practices that allow minimizing the buildings impacts, build and manage buildings with an adequate balance between environment, society and economy. However, besides the importance of this concept, its broader implementation is not yet a reality. Several studies have been developed with the goal of understand the reason of these weak im...

  3. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Vladimir Stuchly; Małgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will...

  4. Sustainability: an interdisciplinary guide

    John Pezzey

    1992-01-01

    A definition of sustainability as maintaining 'utility' (average human wellbeing) over the very long term future is used to build ideas from physics, ecology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, history, philosophy, economics and psychology, into a coherent, interdisciplinary analysis of the potential for sustaining industrial civilisation. This potential is highly uncertain, because it is hard to know how long the 'technology treadmill', of substituting accumulated tools and knowledge for de...

  5. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justifica...

  6. Education for sustainable construction

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Veljkovic, Milan; Borg, Ruben Paul

    2011-01-01

    The COST Action C25 "Sustainability of Constructions - Integrated Approach to Life-time Structural Engineering" is a network of scientists and researchers from 28 European countries and the EU Joint Research Centre in Ispra. It was established to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through research on life-time structural engineering. The COST Action has been active since 2006.

  7. Sustainable yoga apparel

    Jason, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The two major purposes of this study are to establish whether there is an interest in sustainably regarding locally made yoga sports equipment and to create a design concept for a product line of yoga apparel which is genuinely eco-friendly. The product line consists of a yoga mat bag, straps, pillows and a bolster. Research into issues surrounding sustainability and yoga guided the design process. In order to meet user requirements, yoga classes were observed, a survey was conducted and ...

  8. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based on...... utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....

  9. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Mariani A; Vastola A

    2015-01-01

    Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensu...

  10. Towards Sustainable Development

    Sewa, Singh

    1999-01-01

    (Review of the book "Sustainable University Library Development" edited by R. Raman Nair) Role of information is becoming more and more important in every sphere of human activity. So large information systems have come into existence over a long period of time in traditional way. But recently information and communication Technology have made possible alternate methods which were speedy, efficient and cost effective for providing information services. The sustainability of the traditional...

  11. Packaging sustainability assessment

    Rubio Peregrina, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Packaging is an essential part of the majority of products in the actual market. Therefore, packaging design must draw attention to improve its sustainable character in order to satisfy consumers, enhance its environmental performance and keep economic costs to a minimum. Measuring packaging’s sustainability would provide consumers information so as to raise awareness and, moreover, a tool that would help companies to find product weaknesses to be improved. For that purpose, this projec...

  12. Sustainable Urban Development

    Carmen Valentina Radulescu; Madalina Dociu

    2014-01-01

    The urban environment is becoming the host for most of people around the world. Therefore, the concern regarding the environmental challenges is increasing and the range of solutions is widening. Various combinations of these solutions are proposed as models of urban sustainability and some of them are supported by governmental policies. Integrated urban development and urban regeneration models are presented in order depict how could be resolved sustainability issues related to air and water...

  13. Aesthetics of sustainable architecture

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to reveal, explore and further the debate on the aesthetic potentials of sustainable architecture and its practice. This book opens a new area of scholarship and discourse in the design and production of sustainable architecture, one that is based in aesthetics. The chapters in this book have been compiled from architects and scholars working in diverse research and practice areas in North America, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. While they approach the subject m...

  14. Sustainable logistics in practice

    Fitria, Irza

    2011-01-01

    Improved logistical performance is one of the tools to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from freight transport. The production company and transportation company should find the practice to decrease the emissions from their activity in distributions of goods. In this thesis, the sustainable logistics in practice in focal company (Ekornes) is studied. The potential improvement in relation to sustainable transportation principle is explained. Through qualitative method research, the theory r...

  15. Maximin, Viability and Sustainability

    Vincent Martinet; Luc Doyen

    2010-01-01

    The maximin criterion defines the highest utility level which can be sustained in an intergenerational equity perspective. The viability approach characterizes all the economic trajectories sustaining a given, not necessarily maximal, utility level. In this paper, we exhibit the strong links between maximin and viability: We show that the value function of the maximin problem can be obtained in the viability framework via a static optimization problem under constraints. This result allows us ...

  16. Sustainability in aquaculture

    Surtida, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture in Asia is discussed, considering in particular the loss of mangroves associated with the rapid increase in production of cultured shrimp. Southeast Asia's development and population growth brought non-sustainable exploitation of its coastline; the destruction has increased through the years as development proceeded and the international markets entered the scenario. An outline is given of the current status of mangroves in some Asian countries. Some worldwide remedies...

  17. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  18. Innovating for sustainability

    The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry.......The theme of the articles is innovating for sustainability. Empirically the articles shows how enterprises makes environmental innovations related to their processes and products within the organic dairy industry, the fish processing industry and the car industry....

  19. Sustainable Consumption and Happiness

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOne of the reasons for promoting sustainable consumption is that it may give rise to greater happiness for a greater number, at least in the long run. In this paper I explore the strength of that moral account. I take stock of the assumed effects of sustainable consumption on happiness and then review the empirical evidence for such effects on the present generation. I make also educated guesses about the consequences for the happiness of generations to come. The evidence suggests...

  20. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Stelian Brad; Bogdan Mocan; Emilia Brad; Mircea Fulea

    2016-01-01

    Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradict...

  1. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    A sustainable manufacturing strategy requires metrics for decision making at all levels of the enterprise. In this paper, a methodology is developed for designing sustainable manufacturing metrics given the specific concerns to be addressed. A top-down approach is suggested that follows the framework of goal and scope definition: (1) goal- what are the concerns addressed and what is the appropriate metric type to achieve the goal (2) scope what is the appropriate geographic and manufacturing ex...

  2. Business travel and sustainability

    Aguilera, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Although it contributes significantly to the demand for transport, in particular air transport, business travel has been relatively neglected in thinking about the strategies needed to promote more sustainable mobility practices. This paper provides a two-stage approach to this subject. We begin by showing how the sustainability of business travel is relevant not only in environmental terms, but also from an economic and social perspective. In the second stage, we consider the strategies that...

  3. QUEST for sustainable CPD

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to support sustainability of the effects. The Danish QUEST project is a large scale, long-term collaborative CPD project designed according to widely agreed criteria...... phase. The findings are discussed looking forward to the institutionalization phase identifying factors potentially supporting sustainable development pertaining to local science teachers developing a shared focus on student learning in science, and perceived individual and collective efficacy...

  4. Transforming innovation for sustainability

    Adrian Ely; Erik Millstone; John Thompson; Adrian Smith; Andy C. Stirling; Ian Scoones; Paul Raskin; Johan Rockström; Melissa Leach; Elisa Arond; Carl Folke; Per Olsson

    2012-01-01

    The urgency of charting pathways to sustainability that keep human societies within a "safe operating space" has now been clarified. Crises in climate, food, biodiversity, and energy are already playing out across local and global scales and are set to increase as we approach critical thresholds. Drawing together recent work from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the Tellus Institute, and the STEPS Centre, this commentary article argues that ambitious Sustainable Development Goals ar...

  5. Sustainability, accounting and reporting

    Balachandran, Kashi

    2011-01-01

    The topic of business sustainability is multidisciplinary in nature, and its complexity calls for putting in place a wide variety of research approaches, such as action research, case studies, surveys, model development etc. The papers presented in this ebook represent a comprehensive overview of recent advances in this area of accounting and reporting research. It contains six papers, covering how leasing can increase environmental benefits, CSR, developing social, environmental and economic indicators for SMEs, sustainability reporting and reputation risk and others.

  6. Sustainable Energy Development and Environment

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

  7. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  8. Social Sciences and Sustainability

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time when the journal Sustainability [1] was launched, as a chemist and a scientist, I started to believe that social sciences may be more important to make humans sustainable. The broad journal title Social Sciences presents the opportunity for all social science scholars to have integrated consideration regarding the sustainability of humanity, because I am sure that science and technology alone cannot help. Science and technology may have in fact been contributing to accelerate the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources and putting human sustainability at risk since the industrial revolution about 150 years ago. I hope all intellectuals studying anthropology, archaeology, administration, communication, criminology, economics, education, government, linguistics, international relations, politics, sociology and, in some contexts, geography, history, law, and psychology publish with us to seek a solution to sustain humanity. Sustainability itself will also be a main topic of the journal Social Sciences. In addition to this integrated forum for social sciences, more topic specific journals, such as the already publishing Societies [2], will be launched. [...

  9. Sustainable Business Marketing

    Dan-Cristian Dabija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the business world in harmony with the principles of sustainability has been increasingly significant in our century. Displaying a planned, integrated and properly coordinated entrepreneurial orientation toward environment protection, the involvement in the actions initiated by the local community and by society in general or supporting and streamlining one’s own economic activity on a lasting basis represent key elements whereby a business can achieve harmonious increase in time, a synergic evolution and even competitive advantage. There is, however, a major problem, namely, the sustainable development directions and principles are difficult to understand and, in particular, to apply to entrepreneurial decisions and marketing strategies so as to ensure the investment and financial capital to support the organization’s activities and identify the consumers willing to pay the price of sustainability. It is impossible to define objectives capable of meeting such requirements and successfully implement strategies ensuring a healthy growth and constant development without referring to the sustainability of the actions made and their impact on the environment, human society, the company’s employees and the effectiveness of the activity conducted. In this issue, the Amfiteatru Economic journal hosts a number of original studies which contribute to the application of the concept of sustainable marketing and its facets to different economic sectors from a business marketing point of view. The research made by the authors is both transnational and transdisciplinary, capturing in a harmonious way the various facets of sustainable business marketing.

  10. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  11. Sustainable Water Systems

    Miklas Scholz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water systems often comprise complex combinations of traditional and new system components that mimic natural processes. These green systems aim to protect public health and safety, and restore natural and human landscapes. Green infrastructure elements such as most sustainable drainage systems trap storm water but may contaminate groundwater. There is a need to summarize recent trends in sustainable water systems management in a focused document. The aim of this special issue is therefore to disseminate and share scientific findings on novel sustainable water systems addressing recent problems and opportunities. This special issue focuses on the following key topics: climate change adaptation and vulnerability assessment of water resources systems; holistic water management; carbon credits; potable water savings; sustainable water technologies; nutrient management; holistic storm water reuse; water and wastewater infrastructure planning; ecological status of watercourses defined by the Water Framework Directive. The combined knowledge output advances the understanding of sustainable water, wastewater and storm water systems in the developed and developing world. The research highlights the need for integrated decision-support frameworks addressing the impact of climate change on local and national water resources management strategies involving all relevant stakeholders at all levels.

  12. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  13. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Wrede Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are qu...

  14. Sustainable Procurement: Integrating Classroom Learning with University Sustainability Programs

    Goldschmidt, Kyle; Harrison, Terry; Holtry, Matthew; Reeh, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are facing increased pressure from various stakeholders to address issues of sustainability, resulting in a growing demand for sustainability education and training. Procurement groups remain the key drivers of many sustainability-related strategies, placing pressure on universities to integrate sustainability concepts into the…

  15. Sustainable lives : what will sustainable lifestyles look like? : a provocation

    Knight, Alan; Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    In Sustainable Lives, published in 2009, Alan Knight, ex-SDC Commissioner for Business and Sustainable Consumption, outlines ten key principles for determining what a sustainable lifestyle might look like. The paper is intended as a provocation to stimulate discussion and debate around the actions needed to allow people to live sustainable lives.

  16. Neutralization of acidic pit lakes with biological methods complement the flooding with neutral surface water: strategies and sustainability; Neutralisation saurer Tagebauseen durch biologische Methoden als Ergaenzung zur Fremdflutung: Strategien und Nachhaltigkeit

    Nixdorf, B.; Deneke, R. [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus (Germany). Institut fuer Boden, Wasser, Luft; Buettcher, H.; Uhlmann, W. [Institut fuer Wasser und Boden Dr. Uhlmann, Dresden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate the mechanisms of biogenic alkalinity production in highly acidic surface waters in the post-mining landscape and to develop alternative or additional strategies to overcome acidity by the use of basic biological processes. Current approaches such as flooding with neutral surface water, extensive liming and technical treatments are not suitable for many lakes because of limited water supply and special water chemistry in mining lakes. Therefore, basic research is needed in order to develop ecotechnological measures for the multitude of small and medium sized highly acidic mining lakes. Future treatments are designed to combine water supply and biological measures with the management of water quality by use of in-lake microbial processes (bacteria, phytoplankton). Research focuses on alkalinity response of aquatic ecosystems on nutrient enrichment, their catchment areas and the use of 'Constructed Wetlands' and will be generalized by application of hydrogeochemical models for alkalinity production. (orig.)

  17. 马来酸曲美布汀缓释片杂质3,4,5-三甲氧基苯甲酸的检测%Study on Detection Method of Impurity 3,4.5-Trimethoxy Benzoic Acid in Trimebutine Maleate Sustained-Release Tablets

    胡泽开; 付爱萍; 蒋国祥; 李观峰; 胡静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a scientific and rational HPLC method for the quantitative determination of impurity 3, 4, 5 - trimethoxy benzoic acid in trimebutine maleate sustained release tablets. Methods The high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used with octadecyl silane bonded silica as the filler. Perchlorate huffer (taking perchloric acid 0. 85 mL, adding water to 1 000 mL, adjusting to pH 3. 75 ±0. 05 with 0. 1% ammonium acetate solution 1 000 mL, taking the solution 1 000 mL, adding pentanesulfonic acid sodium 1. 54 g and shaking the solution) - acetonitrile ( 65 ∶ 35) was the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 267 nm. The injection volume: 10 μL. Results The content of impurity 3, 4, 5 -trimethoxy benzoic acid in three batches of sample of trimebutine maleate sustained release tablets produced by our corporation, sustained - release tablets sample produced by korea and trimebutine maleate tahlets produced by Japan did not exceed 0. 1%. The good linearity relation with the peak area was in the concentration range of 0. 099 - 19. 8 μg/mL. The average recovery rate was 99. 73%, RSD 0. 23%. Conclusion The HPLC determination of impurity 3, 4, 5 - trimethoxy benzoic acid in trimebutine maleate sustained release tablets has high sensitivity, wide linear range and high recovery rate.%目的 建立测定马来酸曲美布汀缓释片中杂质3,4,5-三甲氧基苯甲酸含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,以高氯酸缓冲液(取高氯酸0.85 mL,加水至1 000mL,用0.1%醋酸胺溶液约1 000mL调pH至3.75±0.05,取此溶液1 000mL,加戊烷磺酸钠1.54 g,振摇使溶解)-乙腈(65:35)为流动相,检测波长为267 nm,进样量10 μL.结果 3批样品中3,4,5-三甲氧基苯甲酸杂质的含量均未超过0.1%,其质量浓度在0.099~19.8 μg/mL范围内与峰面积线性关系良好,平均回收率为99.73%,RSD为0.23%.结论 高效液相色谱法测定马来酸

  18. Sustainable IT and IT for Sustainability

    Liu, Zhenhua

    Energy and sustainability have become one of the most critical issues of our generation. While the abundant potential of renewable energy such as solar and wind provides a real opportunity for sustainability, their intermittency and uncertainty present a daunting operating challenge. This thesis aims to develop analytical models, deployable algorithms, and real systems to enable efficient integration of renewable energy into complex distributed systems with limited information. The first thrust of the thesis is to make IT systems more sustainable by facilitating the integration of renewable energy into these systems. IT represents the fastest growing sectors in energy usage and greenhouse gas pollution. Over the last decade there are dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of IT systems, but the efficiency improvements do not necessarily lead to reduction in energy consumption because more servers are demanded. Further, little effort has been put in making IT more sustainable, and most of the improvements are from improved "engineering" rather than improved "algorithms". In contrast, my work focuses on developing algorithms with rigorous theoretical analysis that improve the sustainability of IT. In particular, this thesis seeks to exploit the flexibilities of cloud workloads both (i) in time by scheduling delay-tolerant workloads and (ii) in space by routing requests to geographically diverse data centers. These opportunities allow data centers to adaptively respond to renewable availability, varying cooling efficiency, and fluctuating energy prices, while still meeting performance requirements. The design of the enabling algorithms is however very challenging because of limited information, non-smooth objective functions and the need for distributed control. Novel distributed algorithms are developed with theoretically provable guarantees to enable the "follow the renewables" routing. Moving from theory to practice, I helped HP design and implement

  19. Coastal Resources Management and Sustainable Development: A Southeast Asian Perspective.

    Tobin, Richard J.; White, Alan T.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the goal of sustainable development among Southeast Asian countries in relation to aspects pertaining to coastal management efforts. Provides examples of the lack of interagency cooperation between relevant agencies, the problems with democratization, and unrealistic government expectation in Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and…

  20. Sustainable Development Education in Scottish Schools: The Sleeping Beauty Syndrome

    McNaughton, Marie Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development of Sustainable Development Education (SDE) policy within the context of the Scottish formal school system. The focus is on the progress, and lack thereof, of implementation of SDE in schools in the light of some of the key curriculum documents and associated political decisions and advisory reports.…

  1. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  2. Community-based enterprise as an instrument for sustainable development?

    Soviana, Soviana

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increasing efforts to create a sustainable world, community-based enterprise (CBE) has been increasingly acknowledged as a potential solution. However, despite the increasing implementation of CBE, knowledge about the organizational architecture and performance is still lacking. The paper presents a brief overview of how CBE can be assessed from the perspective of organizational theory.

  3. Outlook on Research in Education for Sustainable Development

    Grasel, Cornelia; Bormann, Inka; Schutte, Kerstin; Trempler, Kati; Fischbach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It shows a lack of correspondence between ESD research and recent debates in educational research. Research on ESD has established as a field of research with insufficient relations to other fields in educational research. Based on the overview…

  4. Community Gardening Project: Meredith College Students Explore Sustainability, Organics

    Roubanis, Jody L.; Landis, William

    2007-01-01

    Consuming locally grown foods promotes sustainable development and individual wellness (Waters, 2006). In the United States, the average food product travels 2,000 miles before reaching the consumer (Schlosser, 2001). This distance between producer and consumer is one reason that today's youth lack an understanding of the origin of the food they…

  5. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  6. Delineating a sustainable future

    The expression Develop Sustainable of wide use today in day is used among national political leaders and among environmentalists. The sustainable economy from the environmental point of view is that that obeys the basic principles or laws of the sustainability; principles so real as those of the aerodynamic one or those of the thermodynamic. If somebody intends, for example, to design an airplane, it will have to be adjusted to the aerodynamic principles and to print to the apparatus a certain stability degree so that it can fly. In the same way, an economic system environmentally sustainable it must respond to the balance principles if it doesn't want to be condemned to the failure. The fundamental laws or sustainability principles are as rigorous as the aerodynamic laws. The society can violate these laws in the short term; but not long term. As well as an airplane can lose height in a brief lapse without falling; the economy can violate the principles of the sustainability in the short term without collapsing. Among of the sustainability principles figure the following: long term; the extinction of species cannot exceed the evolution of the species; the soil erosion cannot exceed the soils formation; the destruction of forests cannot exceed the regeneration of the forests; the emissions of carbon cannot exceed the fixation of carbon; the fishing cannot exceed the regenerative capacity of the banks of fish and, in the human land, the morbidity cannot exceed the mortality. The author also speaks of the disappearance of species, ozone layer, stability of the climate, earth, water fertilizers and alimentary systems among others

  7. SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION - NEW ECONOMIC CONCEPT REQUIRED BY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    VIOREL CORNESCU; CECILIA-ROXANA ADAM

    2013-01-01

    Following the concept of sustainable development and standard economics, we find innovation presented as one of the most important factors of world economic growth. Although most authors focus their research on sustainable development, this paper will instead focus on sustainable innovation. The paper converges on studying innovation from the perspective of sustainable development and sustains several theoretical results in order to show the importance of adopting innovation process which res...

  8. Effect of lack of later support in the masseter muscle

    One of the main complaints during dental consultation has been pain in the zone of the masseter muscle, especially a lack of rear support. None research has published that reveals what has been the relationship between the rear support and histological alterations in muscle mass. Both topics have treated to relate through a process of tooth wear in laboratory animals and produce a lack of rear support. Cuts of the masseter muscles and specimens were subjected to microscopic study of light and electronic. The conclusion has been that by removing the rear support are produced important changes to histological level. (author)

  9. Analysis of Lack of Fusion in Welds at Water Heaters

    Tušek, J.; Bajcer, B.; Taljat, B.; Hrženjak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper treats a weld discontinuity called lack of fusion, which is frequently a cause of leakage of a water heater. The heater was produced by MAG welding using two wires (twin arc welding). The paper states some reasons for the occurrence of lack of fusion, i.e. the arc blow effect, an inappropriate gun position, uncontrolled movement of the weld pool, too low energy input, an improper joint preparation. The defect is illustrated in a macrograph of a weld produced at the water heater with...

  10. [Healthy design for sustainable communities].

    Capolongo, S; Battistella, A; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A

    2011-01-01

    Health, quality of life and sustainable development are strongly interconnected. The quality of living is a complex concept that includes different meanings. The quality of life issue has been studied for a long time, even if its measurement is a more recent matter. It's possible to distinguish two main approaches: the first one, depending on which the quality of life corresponds to the social wellbeing and it can be measured objectively; the second one, that emphasizes the perceptive dimension of quality of life, such as needs, feelings and aspirations. According to the WHO's wide definition of wellbeing, this paper suggests an approach focused on the effects that urban planning and designing can have on the health of citizens. Actually many of the problems of the cities like pollution, inequity, lack of services and accessibility depends on decisions about the development of land and buildings. To have more attractive cities in the future it is important that professionals involved in planning and local authorities focus on the major determinants of health: the physical and social environment in which people live and the nature of their lifestyles. The experience explained in this paper shows as local authorities can support professionals in designing process, producing quick and effective benchmark in order to improve the quality of urban spaces and architecture. More in deep the tool works by a set of performance indicators developed with the purpose to assess the degree of sustainability of building and urban space proposals at the planning stage (and at later stages), against a range of criteria. This evaluation procedure can be considered as a common platform from which different stakeholders can agree goals and work together contributing to increase the benefits of a well-designed built environment. PMID:21736006

  11. IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY INTO SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    Jørsfeldt, Lilyana Makarowa

    2016-01-01

    becomes even more crucial. Professional literature acknowledges that complex and dispersed supply chain structures present organizational challenges when companies strive to translate their strategic sustainability intentions into ongoing supply chain operations. Despite the recognized challenges, few...... empirical studies have investigated in detail how sustainability agendas are implemented or how they affect supply chain operations. These studies have mostly investigated the impact of implementation, explored the relationship between strategy formulation and performance, or provided descriptions...... by bottom-up, day-to-day experiences of supply chain operations is scarce. The contingency approach, which includes the contextual conditions under which the implementation occurs, is also scarce. Moreover, there is a lack of theoretical frameworks based on empirical studies that can support the application...

  12. Building sustainable ecosystem-oriented architectures

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Currently, organizations are transforming their business processes into e-services and service-oriented architectures to improve coordination across sales, marketing, and partner channels, to build flexible and scalable systems, and to reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. However, this new paradigm is still fragile and lacks many features crucial for building sustainable and progressive computing infrastructures able to rapidly respond and adapt to the always-changing market and environmental business. This paper proposes a novel framework for building sustainable Ecosystem- Oriented Architectures (EOA) using e-service models. The backbone of this framework is an ecosystem layer comprising several computing units whose aim is to deliver universal interoperability, transparent communication, automated management, self-integration, self-adaptation, and security to all the interconnected services, components, and devices in the ecosystem. Overall, the proposed model seeks to deliver a co...

  13. Designing a Discussion Environment to Enhance Connectivity and Sustainability in Asynchronous Online Discussion

    Gao, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Lack of connectivity and sustainability are two common problems in asynchronous online discussions. In this paper, the author proposes that the two problems may have to do with the structure of threaded forums, that is, the design of threaded forums may constrain participants from having well-connected and sustained discussions. A new discussion…

  14. Cycling for Students with ASD: Self-Regulation Promotes Sustained Physical Activity

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg; Butler-Kisber, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included…

  15. Design and development of a measuring method for environmental sustainability in food production systems

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Moll, H.C.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    These days, sustainability is a key issue for many private companies that address their sustainable corporate performance (SCP). The perspective is essential for their license to operate and forms the basis for business principles and practices. The lack of internationally accepted reporting standar

  16. The Urgency of Doing: Assessing the System of Sustainable Implementation Model via the Schools Implementing towards Sustainability (SITS) Scale

    Moceri, Dominic C.; Elias, Maurice J.; Fishman, Daniel B.; Pandina, Robert; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A.

    2012-01-01

    School-based prevention and promotion interventions (SBPPI) improve desirable outcomes (e.g., commitment to school and attendance) and reduce undesirable outcomes (e.g., suspensions and violence). Unfortunately, our understanding of how to effectively implement and sustain SBPPI outside of well-controlled conditions is lacking. To bridge this…

  17. Lack of Buffering by Composites Promotes Shift to More Cariogenic Bacteria.

    Nedeljkovic, I; De Munck, J; Slomka, V; Van Meerbeek, B; Teughels, W; Van Landuyt, K L

    2016-07-01

    Secondary caries (SC) remains a very important problem with composite restorations. The objectives of this study were to test the acid-buffering ability of several restorative materials and to evaluate whether buffering of the restorative material has an impact on the microbial composition of the biofilm. Disk-shaped specimens of conventional composite, composite with surface prereacted glass-ionomer filler particles (so-called giomer), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), amalgam, and hydroxyapatite (HAp) (control) were exposed to aqueous solutions with pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 and to the medium containing bacteria-produced acids, and pH changes were recorded over several days. Next, material specimens were immersed in bacterial growth medium with pH adjusted to 5. After a 24-h incubation, the extracts were collected and inoculated with a cariogenic (Streptococcus mutans) and a noncariogenic (Streptococcus sanguinis) species. The bacterial growth was monitored both in a single-species model by spectrophotometry and in a dual-species model by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Amalgam and HAp showed the strongest acid-buffering ability, followed by the GIC and the giomer, while the conventional composite did not exhibit any buffering capacity. Furthermore, due to the lack of acid-buffering abilities, composite was not able to increase the pH of the medium (pH 5), which, in the absence of antibacterial properties, allowed the growth of S. mutans, while the growth of S. sanguinis, a less aciduric species, was completely inhibited. A similar effect was observed when bacteria were cultured together: there was a higher percentage of S. mutans and lower percentage of S. sanguinis with the conventional composite than with other materials and HAp. In conclusion, conventional composites lack the ability to increase the local pH, which leads to the outgrowth of more acidogenic/aciduric bacteria and higher cariogenicity of the biofilm. Together with lack of antibacterial

  18. Finding a path in the sustainability jungle. A framework for corporate action.

    Christian Seelos

    2005-01-01

    Collective concerns about sustainable development and proposals about how to achieve sustainability have produced a confusing body of terminology that is more like a jungle of issues than a framework to enable focused action. Businesses, in particular, with their global reach, influence, capabilities and supposed deep pockets, are expected to contribute more towards sustainability; and yet the lack of clear definitions has left a vacuum of corporate guidance. Corporate Social Responsibility (...

  19. Towards sustainable development

    Munn, R. E.

    Sustainable development is a difficult phrase to define, particularly in the context of human ecosystems. Questions have to be asked, such as "Sustainable for whom?" "Sustainable for what purposes?" "Sustainable at the subsistence or at the luxury level?" and "Sustainable under what conditions?" In this paper, development is taken to mean improving the quality of life. (If development were to mean growth, then it could not be sustained over the long term.) Studies of development must, of course, consider economic factors, particularly in the case of societies who suffer from the pollution of poverty. However, cultural and environmental factors are equally important. In fact, development is not sustainable over the long term if it is not ecologically sustainable. The terms maximum sustainable yield of a renewable resource, carrying capacity of a region and assimilative capacity of a watershed or airshed are discussed. Approaches using these resource management tools are recommended when external conditions are not changing very much. The problem today is that unprecedented rates of change are expected in the next century, not only of environmental conditions such as climate but also of socioeconomic conditions such as renewable resource consumption and populations (of both people and of automobiles)! In rapidly changing situations, policies must be adopted that strengthen resilence and ecosystem integrity; that is, society must increase its ability to adapt. Maintaining the status quo is a long-term prescription for disaster. The problem is of course that little is known about how to design strategies that will increase resilience and ecosystem integrity, and this area of research needs to be strengthened. Some suggestions on appropriate indicators of ecosystem integrity are given in the paper but these need considerable refinement. One of the main problems with long-term environmental policy formulation is the uncertainty to be expected, including the possibility

  20. What does sustainability mean in the HIV and AIDS response?

    Oberth, Gemma; Whiteside, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Immense progress has been made in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Achieving and exceeding the AIDS targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was accomplished, in large part, due to an unprecedented financial investment from the international community. Following an $800 million dip in donor disbursements in 2010, the discourse has since shifted to the need for greater sustainability of funding. But what does sustainability mean? Current efforts focus heavily on fiscal imperatives such as increasing domestic funding. This is important - needs are increasing at a faster rate than donor funding, especially with increased treatment coverage. The problem is that measures of financial sustainability tell very little about the actual sustainability of specific programmes, disease trajectories or enabling environments. Recognising that current definitions of sustainability lack clarity and depth, we offer a new six-tenet conceptualisation of what sustainability means in the HIV and AIDS response: (1) financial, (2) epidemiological, (3) political, (4) structural, (5) programmatic, and (6) human rights. Based on these, we examine examples of donor transitions for their approach to sustainability, including PEPFAR in South Africa, the Global Fund in Eastern Europe, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in India (Avahan). We conclude that sustainability must be understood within a broader framework beyond funding stability. We also recommend that certain interventions, such as programming for key populations, may have to continue to receive external support even if affected countries can afford to pay. PMID:26785676

  1. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  2. Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures

    Mine Tanac Zeren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both the supply and demand side. A common effort of partners in the European project “C8—Best Practice in Sustainable Urban Infrastructure”, developed under the Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST, in brief COST C8, was focused on defining the methods, indicators and criteria for evaluation of sustainability, and resulted in a guidebook for decision-makers in local authorities. Here, the COST C8 matrix for simple sustainability assessment of urban infrastructure is applied to The Path (POT case—a circular memorial and recreational park around the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The applicability and acceptance of the matrix in 43 other cases of sustainable urban infrastructure, collected in the COST C8 project, is presented and discussed.

  3. Impaired platelet aggregation and sustained bleeding in mice lacking the fibrinogen motif bound by integrin alpha IIb beta 3.

    Holmbäck, K; Danton, M J; Suh, T T; Daugherty, C. C.; Degen, J L

    1996-01-01

    Blood loss at sites of vascular rupture is controlled by the adhesion and aggregation of platelets and the formation of an insoluble fibrin matrix. Fibrinogen is considered to be critical in these processes by both providing an abundant dimeric ligand for alpha IIb beta 3-mediated platelet aggregation, and serving as the fundamental building block of the fibrin polymer. To establish an in vivo model system to examine in detail the importance of alpha IIb beta 3-fibrinogen interactions in plat...

  4. Lack of evolvability in self-sustaining autocatalytic networks constraints metabolism-first scenarios for the origin of life

    Vasas V.; Szathmary E.; Santos M

    2010-01-01

    A basic property of life is its capacity to experience Darwinian evolution. The replicator concept is at the core of genetics-first theories of the origin of life, which suggest that self-replicating oligonucleotides or their similar ancestors may have been the first “living” systems and may have led to the evolution of an RNA world. But problems with the nonenzymatic synthesis of biopolymers and the origin of template replication have spurred the alternative metabolism-first scenario, where ...

  5. Cork for sustainable product design

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization and by proposing completely new innovative sustainable solutions, services and products which encourage and communicate new “Sustainable Life Styles and Scenarios” and that can both stimulate the e...

  6. Garlic exhibits lack of control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...

  7. Special Relativity in Week One: 4) Lack of Simultaneity

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is our final article on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. One of the profound changes in our view of the world was Einstein's discovery of the lack of simultaneity. He illustrated this result with a thought experiment in which we observe a railroad car passing by us. We see the two ends of the…

  8. Siim Nestor soovitab : lack of Eoins / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Väikefirma Seksound annab sel nädalavahetusel välja Viljandi indiebändi Lack of Eoins esikplaadi "Echo Group" (plaadiesitlused 11. dets. Tallinnas Von Krahlis ja 12. dets. Tartus Genialistide klubis, esinevad ka Ans. Andur ja Popidiot, plaate keerutavad Hannes Praks ja Taavi Laatsit)

  9. Implementation of Sustainability in Ongoing Supply Chain Operations

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The need to take the sustainable agenda beyond its technological outset and include operational and supply chain practices is well-established, but still very little has happened and the supply chain and operational logics have remained largely unaffected. This paper asks why this may be the case...... aims to develop a deeper un-derstanding of the, inter-functional coordination and operational practices related to introducing the sustainable agenda in the supply chain. The study points to a lack of tangible environmental performance measurements related to day-to-day practice in the ongoing supply...... chain, and secondly it points to incoherent functional logics as the main factors preventing effective implementation. As an effect of a lack of strong incentives and loose couplings at the cross-functional and inter-organizational level we find support for a lack of formalized integration...

  10. Prospects for Sustainable Energy

    Cassedy, Edward S., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Fossil fuels are a finite resource, and their continued use as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment. Future use of alternative methods of energy supply is inescapable. This book offers a critical assessment of all possible sustainable energy technologies and energy storage. Coverage explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. This accessible volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be an ideal supplementary next for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering.

  11. Sustainability and sacred values

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of the quest for sustainable use of the planet requires that human society both reexamine and expand present views of what is sacred and what is not. The most important aspect will be going beyond a homocentric focus to a biocentric emphasis. A unifying theme would be the desire to leave a habitable planet for human descendants and those of other species. It is unlikely that society can be confident of achieving sustainability until persuasive evidence supporting this belief has existed for several generations. In order for sustainable use of the planet to persist indefinitely, the conditions essential to this state must be morally preserved on sacred grounds. Viewing natural systems as sacred requires not only preventing damage to them but, wherever possible, repairing damage to them caused by humankind.

  12. QUEST for sustainable CPD

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Professional Development (CPD) can be crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to support sustainability of the effects. The Danish QUEST project is a large scale, long-term collaborative CPD project designed according to widely agreed criteria for...... phase. The findings are discussed looking forward to the institutionalization phase identifying factors potentially supporting sustainable development pertaining to local science teachers developing a shared focus on student learning in science, and perceived individual and collective efficacy. The...... the local learning communities we have seen a positive trend from the first to the last course-module, but with great variation between schools. Factors potentially supporting sustainable development seem to be about (1) continuingly scaffolding teachers’ collaborative inquiries by organizing...

  13. TOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and sustainable development are the subject of many initiatives and public or private debates in Romania. The main problem to which these initiatives try to find an answer is mostly related to the income generation for the local communities by using rationally and efficiently the local potential, in agreement with the economic, social, natural, and cultural factors. Consequently, some measures should be taken, and the tourist sector as a whole needs all the methods of sustainable development: new technologies, change of social behaviour, change of environmental legislation, methods of environmental management, better planning and development of control procedures. In this article, we presented a model of tourism development which should be applied in all the regions of great tourist attraction, and we realised a synthesis of the socio-economic advantages of sustainable tourism.

  14. Nuclear and sustainable development

    On September 15. and 16., 2004, at Rene Delcourt invitation, President of the C.L.I. of Paluel and Penly, took place the 4. colloquium of the A.N.C.L.I.. Jean Dasnias, new President of the C.L.I., welcomed the colloquium. Hundred of persons participated. The place of the nuclear power in the energy perspectives of tomorrow, its assets and its weaknesses in front of the other energies and within the framework of a sustainable development, are so many subjects which were discussed. The different tackled subjects are: the stakes in the sustainable development; energy perspectives; the reactors of the fourth generation; nuclear power and transparency; sustainable development and I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  15. Social Health and Sustainability

    Andersen, Heidi Lene

    2015-01-01

    development within the fields of sustainability and health promotion. With this objective in mind, this article seeks to find solutions to a question raised by the WHO health and sustainability researcher, Illona Kickbusch: ‘What conceptual framing and common language can help move a shared agenda forward......?’ (Kickbusch, 2011: p. 7). The empirical case study presented here describes the local planning process of a health project in a deprived community in Copenhagen, Denmark. This setting opened an opportunity for intersectional cooperation and interaction between the municipality’s Environmental and Healthcare...... departments. The article demonstrates that an action research approach including an Aristotelean phronetic perspective can be successful in integrating health and sustainability in research, as well as in practice. There are two main conclusions from the empirical case study. The first is that the common...

  16. There Is No Such Thing as Sustainable Tourism: Re-Conceptualizing Tourism as a Tool for Sustainability

    Gianna Moscardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased global concern about sustainability has placed pressure on businesses to justify the value of their products and services beyond personal profit and to take responsibility for the negative impacts of their activities. Tourism is particularly susceptible to this pressure, given its generally poor track record in terms of negative social, cultural and environmental impacts, and the lack of compelling evidence of benefits for either the individual tourist or destination communities. While the management of tourism impacts and the relationship between tourism and sustainability have been paid considerable attention by tourism academics, there is little evidence of any significant change in tourism practice. This paper will argue that this lack of change reflects problems in the way tourism academics have conceptualized sustainable tourism. After reviewing these problems with sustainable tourism, this paper will offer an alternative framework for sustainable tourism that focuses on the concept of quality-of-life, recognizes the complexity of tourism within local and global systems, adheres to the principles of responsible tourism, and explicitly assesses the value of tourism as one tool, amongst many, for sustainability. One potential application of the framework will be demonstrated with a case study of tourism development on Magnetic Island in Australia.

  17. Environment and sustainability

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss of...

  18. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  19. Growth, Development and Sustainability

    Irina-Virginia Dragulanescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Describing the relationship of interdependence through the materials balance, will be argued how the economy is a subset of the environment and the environment the natural limit to any economic initiative, or the limits imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. The theoretical debate moves, then, from the concept of growth to that of development, understood this in its three dimensions: economic, social, environmental. Bring the different environmental positions in four versions of sustainability, with the gained awareness that it’s “a spectrum of overlapping sustainability positions from very weak to very strong”.

  20. Sustainable Housing Design

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and subsequently satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. At the same time it might be argued that energy used for running modern buildings only plays...... live in detached houses typically situated in less dense suburbia neighborhood to achieve safety and green space for kids to play and socialize. Thus, if one wants to realistically solve the issue of sustainable housing design one must address the intertwined aspects of building construction, urban...

  1. Sustainable Urban Development

    Carmen Valentina Radulescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is becoming the host for most of people around the world. Therefore, the concern regarding the environmental challenges is increasing and the range of solutions is widening. Various combinations of these solutions are proposed as models of urban sustainability and some of them are supported by governmental policies. Integrated urban development and urban regeneration models are presented in order depict how could be resolved sustainability issues related to air and water pollution and waste management. Strategic approach, coordination and public-private partnership result as the key prerequisites for implementing these models.

  2. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued that...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend their...

  3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  4. Focus: Rio 2016 sustainability

    2016-01-01

    With one year to go before the start of the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to be held in South America, the Organising Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio in 2016 has been presented with a series of challenges and opportunities. On its journey towards 2016, it has taken up the commitment to use the force of sports and sustainability in order to leverage transformations in people as well as the city. Since 2009, it has strengthened its relationship with sustainability so ...

  5. Hydroelectricity and sustainable development

    From 1975 to 1992, hydroelectricity helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Quebec by 20%. For Hydro-Quebec, energy conservation and hydroelectric development are basic complementary tools for sustainable development. Recent studies show that developing only 50% of economically exploitable hydroelectric potential (30% of the gross theoretical potential) of different regions worldwide would considerably reduce greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions. However, hydroelectric systems produce environmental and social impacts locally that require mitigative measures. To fulfill its mandate in a sustainable development context, Hydro-Quebec has adopted methods such as integrated resource planning, the assessment of externalities, multi criteria decision tools and public participations

  6. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  7. Energy access and sustainable development

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry

    2015-03-01

    With 1.4 billion people lacking electricity to light their homes and provide other basic services, or to conduct business, and all of humanity (and particularly the poor) are in need of a decarbonized energy system can close the energy access gap and protect the global climate system. With particular focus on addressing the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytical framework informed by historical trends and contemporary technological, social, and institutional conditions that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. We find that the current day is a unique moment of innovation in decentralized energy networks based on super-efficient end-use technology and low-cost photovoltaics, supported by rapidly spreading information technology, particularly mobile phones. Collectively these disruptive technology systems could rapidly increase energy access, contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, energy systems.

  8. Sustainability of the public debt and the financial crisis

    Aura Gabriela SOCOL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Union sovereign-debt crisis brings up again the problem of current account sustainability, the fiscal policy sustainability and the public debt sustainability, as well as the interconditionality between them. On the background of the severe structural problems, the lack of competitiveness has constituted the main factor resulting in the severe deterioration of the European public finances. The external deficits have put additional pressure upon the fiscal deficits. Practically, they entered a vicious circle, to a great extent due to the extremely different economic evolutions of the weak economies opposite to the strongly structurally advanced and solid economies. This study makes a risk analysis of the public debt sustainability in Romania for the period 2010-2015, under the circumstances in which it will enter the Euro zone in the near future.

  9. Regional Development Sustainability Analysis Consept

    Janno Reiljan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with the qualitative analysis and quantitative measurement of sustainability, and opportunities for connecting the concept with the methodological basis of development assessment and the essence of the subject that values sustainability are dealed. The goal of article is to work out the basics for analysis of the regional development in a country in terms and framework of sustainability concept. The article starts by outlining the definition of sustainability, which is followed by an analysis of the nature of sustainability. The third subsection highlights the demands of the decision-making process in guaranteeing sustainability and then considers sustainability in a competitive environment. In the second part of article the sustainable development conception is implemented in regional development sustainability analysis.

  10. The sustainable company: new challenges and strategies for more sustainability

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability becomes a model of development only if countries, industries, businesses and citizens become sustainable. The contribution of the business to a promising future should come from a fully integrated sustainability in its DNA and strategies.This paper focuses on the needed sustainable strategies for scaling up the contribution of the companies to sustainable development in the future. At the beginning, we analyze the main theoretical points of view on sustainability. Then, we explain how companies could achieve the sustainability by following the steps of a difficult process and the present performances in sustainability of large companies around the world. Finally, we suggest four strategies that businesses could design and implement in order to scaling up their sustainability in the future.The research has two important conclusions on sustainability in business. One is that the sustainability pays off if it is integrated in the DNA of the companies. The other conclusion says that the companies will succeed to make the needed transformation for achieving a better sustainability in the future only if they design and perform strategies focused on improving sustainability.

  11. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  12. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  13. Sustainability and international solidarity

    Suša, Oleg

    Amsterdam: ALLEA, 2006 - (Drenth, P.; Honnefelder, L.; Schroots, J.), s. 189-198. (ALLEA report series. 4). ISBN 90-6984-504-0 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : sustainability * solidarity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Sustainable Energy (SUSEN) project

    Research Centre Rez and University of West Bohemia started preparatory work on the 'Sustainable Energy' project, financed from EU structural funds. The goals and expected results of the project, its organization, estimated costs, time schedule and current status are described. (orig.)

  15. Environmental Education and Sustainability

    Chapman, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the fall of 2013, Inverness Associates conducted a comprehensive national survey of environmental education and sustainability among private independent schools. The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) and 14 regional and state associations supported the research. The survey sought to understand how schools' environmental…

  16. Governing of agrarian sustainability

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    The new developing interdisciplinary methodology of the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences) is incorporated into agrarian sphere, and a framework for governing of agrarian sustainability suggested. It takes into account the role of the specific institutional environment (formal and informal property rights, and systems of their enforcement); and the behavioral characteristics of individuals (b...

  17. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems. PMID:27209800

  18. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  19. Transport and Sustainability

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  20. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    An overview is presented of the need for keeping electricity consumption low, including a suggested definition of sustainable development. Specific attention is devoted to present and future electricity production´s contribution to the environmental problems. Prognoses are shown from before any...

  1. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  2. Sustainable nano-catalysis

    A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

  3. Aviation and sustainable development

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute some views on the big policy questions in the government's consultation exercise on the future of air transport, of which the biggest seems to us to be whether the general presumption in favour of liberalisation and competition is compatible with a sustainable development framework.

  4. Governance for sustainability

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSustainable development is rapidly moving from the periphery to the mainstream of politics, business, and science. Over the past several years, a strong consensus has started to emerge that some of the major global problems can only be overcome through large-scale concerted action. Recen

  5. Citizens in sustainable transitions

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing associ...

  6. The Neoliberalisation of Sustainability

    Tulloch, Lynley; Neilson, David

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability--embedded in intergovernmental global agreements and filtering, reassuringly, into "common sense"--is now the globally dominant environmental discourse. However, this dominance does not equate with the mainstreaming of its original meaning that is tied up with a radical critique of capitalism that crystallised in movements…

  7. Sustainable Assessment Revisited

    Boud, David; Soler, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable assessment has been proposed as an idea that focused on the contribution of assessment to learning beyond the timescale of a given course. It was identified as an assessment that meets the needs of the present in terms of the demands of formative and summative assessment, but which also prepares students to meet their own future…

  8. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif;

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a...

  9. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...

  10. References on Sustainable Buildings

    Hui, Sam CM

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  11. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  12. Female migraineurs show lack of insular thinning with age.

    Maleki, Nasim; Barmettler, Gabi; Moulton, Eric A; Scrivani, Steven; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Spierings, Egilius L H; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2015-07-01

    Gray matter loss in cortical regions is a normal ageing process for the healthy brain. There have been few studies on the process of ageing of the brain in chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we evaluated changes in the cortical thickness by age in 92 female subjects (46 patients with migraine and 46 healthy controls) using high-field magnetic resonance imaging. The results indicate that in contrast to healthy subjects, migraineurs show a lack of thinning in the insula by age. The functional significance of the lack of thinning is unknown, but it may contribute to the overall cortical hyperexcitability of the migraine brain because the region is tightly involved in a number of major brain networks involved in interoception, salience, nociception, and autonomic function, including the default mode network. PMID:25775358

  13. Analysis of Lack of Fusion in Welds at Water Heaters

    Tušek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats a weld discontinuity called lack of fusion, which is frequently a cause of leakage of a water heater. The heater was produced by MAG welding using two wires (twin arc welding. The paper states some reasons for the occurrence of lack of fusion, i.e. the arc blow effect, an inappropriate gun position, uncontrolled movement of the weld pool, too low energy input, an improper joint preparation. The defect is illustrated in a macrograph of a weld produced at the water heater with twin wires in a shielding gas. Welding with twin wires is schematically represented with a circumferential welded joint between the end and shell of the water heater.

  14. Impaired intestinal proglucagon processing in mice lacking prohormone convertase 1

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Zhu, Xiaorong; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2003-01-01

    The neuroendocrine prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) are expressed in endocrine intestinal L cells and pancreatic A cells, respectively, and colocalize with proglucagon in secretory granules. Mice lacking PC2 have multiple endocrinopathies and cannot process proglucagon to mature...... of the L cell. These findings strongly suggest that PC1 is essential for intestinal proglucagon processing in vivo and, thereby, plays an important role in production of the incretin hormone GLP-1 and the intestinotrophic hormone GLP-2....... glucagon in the pancreas. Disruption of PC1 results in dwarfism and also multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing defects. This study compares the pancreatic and intestinal processing of proglucagon in mice lacking PC1 expression with that in age-matched wild-type controls. Because proglucagon was found...

  15. Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

    Lackner, K. S.

    2002-05-01

    For a sustainable world economy, energy is a bottleneck. Energy is at the basis of a modern, technological society, but unlike materials it cannot be recycled. Energy or more precisely "negentropy" (the opposite of entropy) is always consumed. Thus, one either accepts the use of large but finite resources or must stay within the limits imposed by dilute but self-renewing resources like sunlight. The challenge of sustainable energy is exacerbated by likely growth in world energy demand due to increased population and increased wealth. Most of the world still has to undergo the transition to a wealthy, stable society with the near zero population growth that characterizes a modern industrial society. This represents a huge unmet demand. If ten billion people were to consume energy like North Americans do today, world energy demand would be ten times higher. In addition, technological advances while often improving energy efficiency tend to raise energy demand by offering more opportunity for consumption. Energy consumption still increases at close to the 2.3% per year that would lead to a tenfold increase over the course of the next century. Meeting future energy demands while phasing out fossil fuels appears extremely difficult. Instead, the world needs sustainable or nearly sustainable fossil fuels. I propose the following definition of sustainable under which fossil fuels would well qualify: The use of a technology or resource is sustainable if the intended and unintended consequences will not force its abandonment within a reasonable planning horizon. Of course sustainable technologies must not be limited by resource depletion but this is only one of many concerns. Environmental impacts, excessive land use, and other constraints can equally limit the use of a technology and thus render it unsustainable. In the foreseeable future, fossil fuels are not limited by resource depletion. However, environmental concerns based on climate change and other environmental

  16. Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions

    Ćirović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The lack of fiscal discipline is one of the most pressing issues in the framework of various economic systems today. The consequences of the global economic crisis have shown all the weaknesses of measures and mechanisms in terms of decision-making in fiscal policy. This problem can be seen now in almost every country. The problem of inadequate implementation of fiscal policy and the maintenance of fiscal discipline is reflected in the fact that their conse...

  17. Failures of metacognition and lack of insight in neuropsychiatric disorders

    David, Anthony S.; Bedford, Nicholas; Wiffen, Ben; Gilleen, James

    2012-01-01

    Lack of insight or unawareness of illness are the hallmarks of many psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia (SCZ) and other psychoses and could be conceived of as a failure in metacognition. Research in this area in the mental health field h as burgeoned with the development and widespread use of standard assessment instruments and the mapping out of the clinical and neuropsychological correlates of insight and its loss. There has been a growing appreciation of the multi-faceted natur...

  18. Lack of time management as a psychosocial work risk

    Ramon Cladellas

    2008-01-01

    This paper is aimed to explore the possible relationship between workers' lack of time management and several psychosocial risks. The psychosocial risks were assessed by means of the ISTAS21 Questionnaire, the Spanish version of the CoPsoQ (Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire). More specifically, nine dimensions, which are directly related with time management, satisfaction, health and stress, were selected for evaluation. Time management was measured through the following variables: quant...

  19. Increased sensitivity to gamma irradiation in bacteria lacking protein HU.

    Boubrik, F; Rouviere-Yaniv, J.

    1995-01-01

    The heterodimeric HU protein, isolated from Escherichia coli, is associated with the bacterial nucleoid and shares some properties with both histones and HMG proteins. It is the prototype of small bacterial DNA binding proteins with a pleiotropic role in the cell. HU participates in several biological processes like cell division, initiation of DNA replication, transposition, and other biochemical functions. We show here that bacteria lacking HU are extremely sensitive to gamma irradiation. E...

  20. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.