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Sample records for acid extraction methods

  1. A new uranium geochemical exploration method. Humic acid extraction method

    The humic acid extraction method is a new one to carry out ore prospecting by using the element content in existing form or the so-called phase content. This paper expounds the association between metallic elements such as uranium that is combined with humic acid and uranium mineralization at depth. The adsorption mechanism of heavy metallic elements by humic acid is further analysed. The technical method of testing is presented and detailed introduction to the case histories on concealed uranium deposit exploration is given

  2. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  3. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  4. Estimation of solubility of organo-phosphorus extractants by P determination using molybdovanadophosphoric acid method

    Solvent extraction processes have been found to be suitable for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid. Various extractants like di-2-ethyl hexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA), di-nonylphenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) and synergistic agents like tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) have been used in liquid-liquid extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid. Contents of these organo-phosphorus compounds in aqueous raffinates need estimation for process requirements. Solubility of Tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) extractants have been determined in different media of water, oxalic acid (0.6M) and sulphuric acid (3.75M) solutions. These compounds were estimated by determining their phosphorus (P) contents employing molybdovanadophosphoric acid method, after digesting and solubalizing them in nitric and perchloric acid. (author)

  5. Nucleic acid extraction, oligonucleotide probes and PCR methods

    analysis, and hybridization-based methods, such as RNA-targeted hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray, have been employed. The application of these molecular techniques has been changing our perspectives about ruminal and GI microbiota. Except for FISH, all these methods analyse DNA or RNA extracted from samples collected from rumen or GI tracts. Therefore, reliable and efficient DNA/RNA extraction is the pre-requisite of molecular ecological studies of ruminal microbiota

  6. Evaluation of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for virus detection in a multicenter comparative trial

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Hakhverdyan, M.; Belak, S.; Wakeley, P. R.; Reid, S. M.; Ebert, K.; King, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    Five European veterinary laboratories participated in an exercise to compare the performance of nucleic acid extraction robots. Identical sets of coded samples were prepared using serial dilutions of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) from serum and cell culture propagated material. Each...... laboratory extracted nucleic acid from this panel using available robotic equipment (12 separate instruments, comprising 8 different models), after which the processed samples were frozen and sent to a single laboratory for subsequent testing by real-time RT-PCR. In general, there was good concordance...... between the results obtained for the different automated extraction platforms. In particular, the limit of detection was identical for 9/12 and 8/12 best performing robots (using dilutions of BVDV infected-serum and cell culture material, respectively), which was similar to a manual extraction method used...

  7. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  8. Fatty Acid Characteristics of Isochrysis galbana Lipids Extracted Using a Microwave-Assisted Method

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids were extracted from Isochrysis galbana using a microwave-assisted method accompanied by various types of organic solvents. The effects of organic solvent type and microwave input energy on the fatty acid characteristics of the extracted lipids and their biodiesel product were investigated. Variations in the characteristics of the lipids extracted using a combination of n-hexane and iso-propanol solvents in both emulsion and direct mixtures were also compared. The experimental results showed that greater quantities of Isochrysis galbana lipids, and fatty acid methyl esters transesterified from those lipids, were extracted when using microwave irradiation with an organic solvent mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol in a 2:1 volumetric ratio than when using either n-hexane or isopropanol as the sole solvent. A greater quantity of Isochrysis galbana lipids was extracted when an emulsion of isopropanol solvent evenly dispersed in the continuous phase of n-hexane solvent was used than when a direct mixture of the two solvents was used. In addition, the quantity of lipids extracted from the dried Isochrysis galbana powder with the assistance of microwave irradiation was 9.08 wt% greater than when using traditional Soxhlet extraction without microwave irradiation.

  9. A laboratory method to estimate the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity

    Marcelo E. Cassiolato

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble plant organic compounds have been proposed to be efficient in alleviating soil acidity. Laboratory methods were evaluated to estimate the efficiency of plant extracts to neutralize soil acidity. Plant samples were dried at 65ºC for 48 h and ground to pass 1 mm sieve. Plant extraction procedure was: transfer 3.0 g of plant sample to a becker, add 150 ml of deionized water, shake for 8 h at 175 rpm and filter. Three laboratory methods were evaluated: sigma (Ca+Mg+K of the plant extracts; electrical conductivity of the plant extracts and titration of plant extracts with NaOH solution between pH 3 to 7. These methods were compared with the effect of the plant extracts on acid soil chemistry. All laboratory methods were related with soil reaction. Increasing sigma (Ca+Mg+K, electrical conductivity and the volume of NaOH solution spent to neutralize H+ ion of the plant extracts were correlated with the effect of plant extract on increasing soil pH and exchangeable Ca and decreasing exchangeable Al. It is proposed the electrical conductivity method for estimating the efficiency of plant extract to neutralize soil acidity because it is easily adapted for routine analysis and uses simple instrumentations and materials.Tem sido proposto que os compostos orgânicos de plantas solúveis em água são eficientes na amenização da acidez do solo. Foram avaliados métodos de laboratório para estimar a eficiência dos extratos de plantas na neutralização da acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram secos a 65º C por 48 horas, moídos e passados em peneira de 1mm. Utilizou-se o seguinte procedimento para obtenção do extrato de plantas: transferir 3.0 g da amostra de planta para um becker, adicionar 150 ml de água deionizada, agitar por 8h a 175 rpm e filtrar. Avaliaram-se três métodos de laboratório: sigma (Ca + Mg + K do extrato de planta, condutividade elétrica (CE do extrato de planta e titulação do extrato de planta com solu

  10. Extraction of uranium from simulated ore by the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction method with nitric acid-TBP complex

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method using CO2 as a medium with an extractant of HNO3-tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) complex was applied to extract uranium from several uranyl phosphate compounds and simulated uranium ores. An extraction method consisting of a static extraction process and a dynamic one was established, and the effects of the experimental conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and extraction time, on the extraction of uranium were ascertained. It was found that uranium could be efficiently extracted from both the uranyl phosphates and simulated ores by the SFE method using CO2. It was thus demonstrated that the SFE method using CO2 is useful as a pretreatment method for the analysis of uranium in ores. (author)

  11. Fatty acid composition and physicochemical characteristics of Tartar (Sterculia Stigera) oil as Affected by the extraction method

    Fatty acid content and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from Tartar seeds, using two extraction methods, were studied. The results revealed that saturated fatty acid content varied from 0.2% to 33.4%, while unsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.1% to 24.2%, with no significant difference between the extraction methods. Sterols content varied from 0.3% to 66.0%. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids ranged from 3.4% to 5.3% but were significantly reduced after refining. Glycerides content varied with maximum values of 78.03%, 4.58% and 2.82% for tri-, di-, and mono-glycerides, respectively. Physicochemical investigation of the oil showed that the colour, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value, relative viscosity, iodine value, and unsaponifiable matter were similar for both methods of extraction with minor exceptions.(Author)

  12. Phosphate Rock Fertilizer in Acid Soil:Comparing Phosphate Extraction Methods for Measuring Dissolution

    T.S.ANSUMANA-KAWA; WANGGUANGHUO

    1998-01-01

    Three phosphate extraction methods were used to investigate the dissolution,availability and transfo-mation of Kunyang phosphate rock(KPR) in two surface acid soils.Dissolution was determined by measuring the increase in the amounts of soluble and adsorbed inorganic phosphate fractions,and did not differ signifi-cantly among the three methods.Significant correlations were obtained among P fractions got by the three extraction methods.Dissolution continued until the end of the 90-day incubation period.At the end of the period,much of the applied phosphate recovered in both soils were in the Al- and Fe-P or in the hydroxide-and bicarbonate-extractable inorganic P fractions.The dissolution of KPR in the two soils was also similar: increased addition of phosphate rock resulted in decreased dissolution.The similarity in the order and extent of dissolution in the two soils was probably due to the similarity in each soil of several factors that are known to influence phosphate rock dissolution,namely low CEC,pH,P level,and base status;and high clay and free iron and aluminum oxide contents.The results suggested that KPR could be an aternative P source in the soils are not limiting.

  13. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  14. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    Yongjun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors was investigated by a single-factor test and a response surface methodology. The results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of saponin were extraction temperature 68°C, alkali solution pH 9.1, acid isolation pH 4.1, and liquid-solid ratio 15.9 : 1. The extraction rate of saponin was 76.12% at the optimal extraction conditions.

  15. New method for the rapid extraction of natural products: efficient isolation of shikimic acid from star anise.

    Just, Jeremy; Deans, Bianca J; Olivier, Wesley J; Paull, Brett; Bissember, Alex C; Smith, Jason A

    2015-05-15

    A new, practical, rapid, and high-yielding process for the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) of multigram quantities of shikimic acid from star anise (Illicium verum) using an unmodified household espresso machine has been developed. This operationally simple and inexpensive method enables the efficient and straightforward isolation of shikimic acid and the facile preparation of a range of its synthetic derivatives. PMID:25938329

  16. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  17. Extraction of Saponin from Camellia oleifera Abel Cake by a Combination Method of Alkali Solution and Acid Isolation

    Yongjun Liu; Zhifeng Li; Hongbo Xu; Yuanyuan Han

    2016-01-01

    Saponin 15%~20% content in the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel, from which Camellia oil is squeezed, is a natural nonionic surface active agent and is extensively applied to emulsification, humectation, foaming, medicine, pesticide, and so on. In this paper, the extraction process of saponin was researched through a combining method of alkali solution and acid isolation. A quantitative method for saponin was established by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influence of extraction factors...

  18. Sequential Extraction of Aluminum and Iron from Acidic Soils by Chemical Selective Dissolution Methods

    HEJIZHENG; A.VIOLANTE; 等

    1998-01-01

    Potassium chloride, Na-pyrophosphate,CuCl2,NH4-oxalate,dithionit-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and Na-citrate solutions were employed to etract aluminum(Al) and iron(Fe) sequentially and separately from 15 acidic soils located at the Mangshan Mountains,Hunan Province,China,Many evidences showed that separate pyrophosphate extracted mainly KCl-extractable Al,organo-Al complexes and some inorganic Al compounds,whereas separate CuCl2 extracted KCl-extractable Al and some organo-Al complexes,CuCl2 extracted much less amounts of Al than pyrophosphate did from the soils .Separate oxalate did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate seuentially extractable Al and Fe ,Also,separate DCB did not extract all KCl-pyrophosphate-CuCl2-oxalate-DCB sequentially extractable Al. The forms of Al extacted by oxalate and DCB from the soils were majorly noncrystalline.The interlayered materials of 1.4-nm intergrade minerals of the soils were attributed mainly to hydroxy Al polymers.

  19. Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Gupta, Suphla; Sharma, Rajni; Pandotra, Pankaj; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Ajai Prakash

    2012-08-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction and chromolithic LC method was developed for simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GL) from the root extract of Glycyrrhizza glabra using RPLC-PDA. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation. The method exhibited good linearity (r2 > 0.9989) with high precision and achieved good accuracies between 97.5 to 101.3% of quantitative results. The method is more sensitive and faster (resolved within ten minutes) than the earlier developed methods using normal LC columns. PMID:22978213

  20. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present. PMID:22494376

  1. Method for the extraction of the volatile compound salicylic acid from tobacco leaf material.

    Verberne, Marianne C; Brouwer, Nynke; Delbianco, Federica; Linthorst, Huub J M; Bol, John F; Verpoorte, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signalling compound in plants which is able to induce systemic acquired resistance. In the analysis of SA in plant tissues, the extraction recovery is often very low and variable. This is mainly caused by sublimation of SA, especially during evaporation of organic solvents. Techniques have been designed in order to overcome this problem. In the first part of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA was prevented by addition of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide. At a later stage of the extraction procedure, sublimation of SA during solvent evaporation was controlled by the addition of a small amount of HPLC eluent. In this way, recoveries in the range of 71-91% for free SA and 65-79% for acid-hydrolysed SA were obtained. Recoveries could be further optimised by the use of an internal standard to correct for volume changes after the addition of the HPLC eluent. PMID:11899606

  2. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  3. Estimates of Soil Bacterial Ribosome Content and Diversity Are Significantly Affected by the Nucleic Acid Extraction Method Employed.

    Wüst, Pia K; Nacke, Heiko; Kaiser, Kristin; Marhan, Sven; Sikorski, Johannes; Kandeler, Ellen; Daniel, Rolf; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Modern sequencing technologies allow high-resolution analyses of total and potentially active soil microbial communities based on their DNA and RNA, respectively. In the present study, quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to evaluate the effects of different extraction methods on the abundance and diversity of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts recovered from three different types of soils (leptosol, stagnosol, and gleysol). The quality and yield of nucleic acids varied considerably with respect to both the applied extraction method and the analyzed type of soil. The bacterial ribosome content (calculated as the ratio of 16S rRNA transcripts to 16S rRNA genes) can serve as an indicator of the potential activity of bacterial cells and differed by 2 orders of magnitude between nucleic acid extracts obtained by the various extraction methods. Depending on the extraction method, the relative abundances of dominant soil taxa, in particularActinobacteriaandProteobacteria, varied by a factor of up to 10. Through this systematic approach, the present study allows guidelines to be deduced for the selection of the appropriate extraction protocol according to the specific soil properties, the nucleic acid of interest, and the target organisms. PMID:26896137

  4. Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with humic acids determined by solvent extraction method

    Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Takagi, I. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kulyako, Y.; Samsonov, M.; Miyasoedov, B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). V. I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (GEOKHI); Moriyama, H. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with two kinds of humic acids were determined in 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} at 25 C using a solvent extraction method with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in xylene. The acid dissociation constants of humic acids were also measured by potentiometric titration and used as the degree of dissociation for calculating the formation constants. The effect of solution conditions, such as the pH, the initial metal and humic acid concentrations, and the ionic strength, on the formation constants was examined. The obtained data were compared with the ones in the literature. (orig.)

  5. Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with humic acids determined by solvent extraction method

    Apparent formation constants of Pu(IV) and Th(IV) with two kinds of humic acids were determined in 0.1 M NaClO4 at 25 C using a solvent extraction method with thenoyltrifluoroacetone in xylene. The acid dissociation constants of humic acids were also measured by potentiometric titration and used as the degree of dissociation for calculating the formation constants. The effect of solution conditions, such as the pH, the initial metal and humic acid concentrations, and the ionic strength, on the formation constants was examined. The obtained data were compared with the ones in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  7. A Single-Tube Nucleic Acid Extraction, Amplification, and Detection Method Using Aluminum Oxide

    Dames, Shale; Bromley, L. Kathryn; Herrmann, Mark; Elgort, Marc; Erali, Maria; Smith, Roger; Voelkerding, Karl V.

    2006-01-01

    A disposable 0.2-ml polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube modified with an aluminum oxide membrane (AOM) has been developed for the extraction, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids. To assess the dynamic range of AOM tubes for real-time PCR, quantified herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was used to compare AOM tubes to standard PCR tubes. AOM PCR tubes used for amplification and detection of quantified HSV-1 displayed a crossing threshold (CT) shift 0.1 cycles greater than PCR tube contro...

  8. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  9. Study on The Potency of Methanol Extracts From Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld As Natural Anti Oxidant by Thiobarbituric Acid Method

    Devi Ratnawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research Xanthosoma nigrum Stellfeld (the Purple yam was selected as experimental material. This plant was collected from Rejang Lebong region, Bengkulu Province. Methanol extract 96% from stem of purple yam was studied its anti-oxidant activity in various concentrations with α-tocopherol (200 ppm as standard of antioxidant. Antioxidant activity was determined using Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA method. Linoleic acid was oxidized at 40 ºC for seven days with or without extract and the final product malondialdehyde (MDA was reacted with thiostembituric acid to be of red colored complex (MDA-TBA and was then measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at λ 532 nm. Stem extract of purple yam with concentration of 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 300 ppm respectively had the inhibition of 19.32%, 21.85%, 29.47%, and 31.05%. α-Tocopherol as positive control which showed inhibition ability of 85.14% at 200 ppm. Based on the result obtained in this study, the stem’s extract of Purpel yam plant showed that antioxidant activity was lower than α-tocopherol.

  10. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  11. USEPA METHOD STUDY 38 - SW-846 METHOD 3010, ACID DIGESTION OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES AND EXTRACTS FOR TRACE METALS BY FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    An interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted on SW-846 Method 3010, "Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts for Total Metals for Analysis by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy", to determine the mean recovery and precision for analyses of 21 trace metals in surf...

  12. Development and validation of a modified ultrasound-assisted extraction method and a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of two triterpenic acids in Hedyotis diffusa.

    Yang, Yu-Chiao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Huang, Ting-Chia

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) contents ofHedyotis diffusa and H. corymbosa were determined by a rapid, selective and accurate method combining modified ultrasound-assisted extraction (MUAE) and HPLC. Compared with traditional extraction methods, MUAE reduced the extraction time, the extraction temperature and the solvent consumption and maximized the extraction yields of OA and UA. Furthermore, the combined MUAE-HPLC method was applied to quantitate OA and UA in plant samples and exhibited good repeatability, reproducibility and stability. The mean recovery studies (one extraction cycle) for OA and UA were between 91.3 and 91.7% with RSD values less than 4.5%. The pioneer method was further applied to quantitate OA and UA in six samples of H. diffusa and five samples of H. corymbosa. The results showed that the OA and UA content in the samples from different sources were significantly different. This report is valuable for the application of H. diffusa and H. corymbosa obtained from different regions in clinical research and pharmacology. PMID:24555272

  13. Method to extract uranium compounds

    The uranium compounds present in gangue of phosphate ores are also to be determined and extracted with the proposed method. The gangue-water mixture in phosphate extraction is to be displaced, according to the invention, by a component which selectively dissolves the uranium compounds out of the gangue. The enriched solution is separated off and processed. Weak acids (e.g. phosphoric acid, acetre acid, citric acid), lyes (e.g. ammonium carbonate, soda) or salts (e.g. sodium hydrogen phosphate, NaHCO3 tartrates) are named as solution components. (UWI)

  14. Sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium using novel solid phase extraction method from high acidic nuclear wastes.

    Kesava Raju, Ch Siva; Subramanian, M S

    2007-06-25

    A novel grafted polymer for selective extraction and sequential separation of lanthanides, thorium and uranium from high acidic wastes has been developed by grafting Merrifield chloromethylated (MCM) resin with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) (MCM-CMPO). The grafting process is well characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, (31)P and (13)C CPMAS (cross-polarized magic angle spin) NMR spectroscopy and CHNPS elemental analysis. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters during metal ion extraction by the resin phase are studied and optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The resin shows very high sorption capacity values of 0.960mmolg(-1) for U(VI), 0.984mmolg(-1) for Th(IV), 0.488mmolg(-1) for La(III) and 0.502mmolg(-1) for Nd(III) under optimum HNO(3) medium, respectively. The grafted polymer shows faster rate exchange kinetics (extraction) and greater preconcentration ability, with reusability exceeding 20 cycles. During desorption process, sequential separation of the analytes is possible with varying eluting agents. The developed grafted resin has been successfully applied in extracting Th(IV) from high matrix monazite sand, U(VI) and Th(IV) from simulated nuclear spent fuel mixtures. All the analytical data is based on triplicate analysis and measurements are within 3.5% rsd reflecting the reproducibility and reliability of the developed method. PMID:17178189

  15. High-resolution gas chromatography/mas spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements

    A high resolution GC/MS with Selected Ion Monitor (SIM) method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) meth...

  16. Gadolinium separation from HNO3 acidic streams of the nuclear fuel reprocessing by a new continuous flow extraction method

    A method for the continuous transfer of gadolinium from one aqueous phase into another was developed, based on the extraction from a light 0.5 M HNO3 phase into a heavier organic phase consisting of 63 Vol% HDEHP (Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-hydrogen-phosphate) in CHCl3 and the subsequent stripping of the ion into a heavy 4 M H2SO4 solution. During operation the two aqueous phases are mobile, while the organic phase is the stationary one. It was shown that an equilibrium between extraction and stripping builds up that can be maintained for hours. The gadolinium separation achieved by this method allows not only the transfer of this ion into a pure aqueous medium with only a short delay between extraction and stripping, but also its continuous enrichment in the stripping phase. Thus, the apparatus is an ideal tool for combination with analytical flow methods that need purification steps prior to analysis, like continuous fluorimetric Gd determination in nitric acid streams. The best working conditions for the system were determined by examining the influences of the mobile phases flow rates, the ratios of flow rates between the two aqueous streams, and the stirring efficiency. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fluids and tissues

    Jesse J. Waggoner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction using the Cell-free 1000 and Pathogen Complex 400 protocols on the QIAsymphony Sample Processing (SP system were compared using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, tissue samples, and urine. The QIAsymphonyAssay Set-up (AS system was used to assemble reactions using artus CMV PCR reagents and amplification was carried out on the Rotor-Gene Q. Samples from 93 patients previously tested for CMV DNA and negative samples spiked with CMV AD-169 were used to evaluate assay performance. The Pathogen Complex 400 protocol yielded the following results: BAL, sensitivity 100% (33/33, specificity 87% (20/23; tissue, sensitivity 100% (25/25, specificity 100% (20/20; urine, sensitivity 100% (21/21, specificity 100% (20/20. Cell-free 1000 extraction gave comparable results for BAL and tissue, however, for urine, the sensitivity was 86% (18/21 and specimen quantitation was inaccurate. Comparative studies of different extraction protocols and DNA detection methods in body fluids and tissues are needed, as assays optimized for blood or plasma will not necessarily perform well on other specimen types.

  18. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  19. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author)

  20. Development and validation of an HPLC-method for determination of free and bound phenolic acids in cereals after solid-phase extraction.

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    Whole cereal grains are a good source of phenolic acids associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. This paper reports the development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of phenolic acids in cereals in either free or bound form. Extraction of free phenolic acids and clean-up was performed by an optimised solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol on Oasis HLB cartridges using aqueous methanol as eluant. The mean recovery of analytes ranged between 84% and 106%. Bound phenolic acids were extracted using alkaline hydrolysis with mean recoveries of 80-95%, except for gallic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid. Both free and bound phenolic extracts were separated on a Nucleosil 100 C18 column, 5 μm (250 mm × 4.6 mm) thermostated at 30 °C, using a linear gradient elution system consisting of 1% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision and sensitivity. Detection limits ranged between 0.13 and 0.18 μg/g. The method was applied to the analysis of free and bound phenolic acids contents in durum wheat, bread wheat, barley, oat, rice, rye, corn and triticale. PMID:25005991

  1. 碱提酸沉法提取茶叶蛋白质的研究%Extraction of Tea Protein using Alkali Extraction-acid Precipitation Method

    陆晨; 张士康; 朱科学; 王彬; 周惠明

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of tea-protein from green tea by using alkali extraction and acid precipitation was investigated. Amino acid compositions of the tea protein ware also analyzed. The results showed that the optimum extraction parameters were NaOH 0.3 mol/L, green tes/water solution (m/V) 1:25, temperature50 ℃, stirring time 1 h and extraction times twice, under which the protein extraction efficiency was 85.50%. The best pI of the tea protein was 3.0, the protein concentration precipitation rate was 67.85% and the protein content was 47.76%. The tea protein contained 18 kinds of amino acid, in which essential amino acids were 40.68%. Amino acid score of tea protein was higher than soybean protein and close to those of breast milk und milk, which indicated that tea protein was one of high quality leaf proteins. This method is easy to operate, low-cost and highly efficient, thereby being suitable for the massive industrial production of tea protein.%以绿茶为原料,采用碱提酸沉的方法提取茶叶蛋白质,以料液比、碱液浓度、温度、时间为考查因素,研究茶叶蛋白质的最佳提取工艺条件,并对提得的茶叶蛋白质进行了氨基酸分析.结果表明:碱提酸沉法提取茶叶蛋白质的最佳工艺条件为料液比1∶25(m/V),碱液浓度03 mol/L,提取温度50℃,提取时间1 h,连续提取两次,茶叶蛋白质的提取率达到85.50%.茶叶蛋白质的最佳等电点为3.0,蛋白质沉淀率为67.85%,粗提取物中蛋白质质量分数为47.76%.氨基酸分析表明:茶叶蛋白质含有18种氨基酸,其中必需氨基酸含量占40.68%;氨基酸评分高于大豆,接近母乳和牛奶,是一种优质的叶蛋白质资源.综合考虑,此方法操作简单,生产成本低,提取效果好,适用于茶叶蛋白质的工业化生产.

  2. Effect of Microalgae Cell-Disruption Method on Extraction Yield of Fatty Acids

    Rousková, Milena; Sobek, Jiří; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

    Prague: Czech Society of Industrial Chemistry, 2014 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 430-434 ISBN 978-80-86238-64-7. [mezinárodní chemicko-technologická konference /2./. Mikulov (CZ), 07.04.2014-09.04.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : chlorella vulgaris * fatty acids * cell-disruption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.icct.cz

  3. Extraction of metal nitrates and nitric acid

    The effects of the extraction of nitric acid with nondiluted dialkylphosphoric acids have been studied. The investigation used the physical-chemical method allowing to determine the compositions of compounds in organic phase and to describe the equilibrium in a wide concentration range of distributed chemical. The solvate compositions determined from the dependence of the effective nitric acid distribution constant in extraction with nondiluted dibutyl (DBPA) and di-2-ethyl-hexylphosphoric (D2EHPA) acids on the function of equilibrium water activity agree with different reported physical-chemical methods of research. Thermodynamic distribution and extraction constants have been calculated and tabulated for the formation and organic phase of dissociated and nondissociated disolvates, as well as monosolvates of nitric acid

  4. HPLC Determination of the Major Non-protein Amino Acids and Common Biogenic Amines in Lathyrus sativus Using a Novel Extraction Method

    Ze Yi YAN; Cheng Jin JIAO; Feng Min LI; Yong Min LIANG; Zhi Xiao LI

    2005-01-01

    An assay is presented for simultaneously determining 5 biogenic amines and the major non-protein amino acids: the toxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropanoic acid (β-ODAP), its isomer α-ODAP and homoarginine in Lathyrus sativus extracts using the HPLC system after derivatization with para-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl chloride (PNZ-C1). However, it is more worthy of noting that this paper also describes a new extraction method using 0.2 mol/L HC1O4. The new method has some advantages: shorter extraction-time, simultaneous extraction of free amino acids and polyamines, better inhibiting the isomerization of β-ODAP to α-ODAP, and so on.

  5. Comparison of automated nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in fluids and tissues

    Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction using the Cell-free 1000 and Pathogen Complex 400 protocols on the QIAsymphony Sample Processing (SP) system were compared using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), tissue samples, and urine. The QIAsymphonyAssay Set-up (AS) sys...

  6. Development of partitioning method: Behavior of zirconium and molybdenum in back-extraction with oxalic acid solution from DIDPA solvent

    The present study deals with back-extraction behavior of Zr and Mo with oxalic acid solution from 0.5M diisodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) solvent. Distribution ratio of Zr was 0.697 with 0.8M oxalic acid, which is low enough for back-extraction. Distribution ratio of Zr was inversely proportional to the third power of the concentration of oxalic acid ion (C2O42-) and to the forth power of the concentration of hydrogen ion in the range of 0.1M to 0.8M in the concentration of oxalic acid. This indicates that Zr is in the chemical form of Zrm(OH)4m-4(C2O4)32- in the oxalic acid solution. Distribution ratio of Mo was 0.05 with 0.5M oxalic acid. It was inversely proportional to the first to second power of the concentration of C2O42- and to the first or second power of the concentration of hydrogen ion. It is supposed that Mo is in the chemical form of H2m+2(MoO4)m2+ or H2m+1(MoO4)m+ (M=1or2) with coordination of one or two C2O42- ions in the oxalic acid solution. (author)

  7. Performance review of a fast HPLC-UV method for the quantification of chlorogenic acids in green coffee bean extracts.

    Craig, Ana Paula; Fields, Christine; Liang, Ningjian; Kitts, David; Erickson, Aron

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the performance of a HPLC method, designated for rapid quantification of chlorogenic acids (CGA) in green coffee extract (GCE). The precision statistics associated with the method were assessed using three independent laboratories with five samples analyzed in triplicate. Seven main CGA isomers (3-CQA, 5-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-FQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA and 4,5-diCQA) were quantified. The concentration of total CGA in the samples varied from 32.24% to 52.65% w/w. The repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations for the determination of individual isomers varied, respectively, from 0.01 to 0.28 and 0.05-1.59. The repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations of the calculated total CGA, corresponding to the sum of the seven main CGA isomers, varied respectively, from 0.17 to 0.58 and 0.55-2.01. The fast HPLC method evaluated in this study was considered precise and appropriate for the determination of CGA in GCE. PMID:27154703

  8. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  9. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  10. Microwave-Assisted Method for Simultaneous Hydrolysis and Extraction for Preparation of Geniposidic Acid from Eucommia ulmoides Bark Using Basic Imidazolide Ionic Liquid

    Lili Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to hydrolyze geniposide and extract geniposidic acid, a novel microwave irradiation heating method for simultaneous hydrolysis and extraction for preparation of geniposidic acid from Eucommia ulmoides bark using basic imidazolide ionic liquid was developed in this work. Basic ionic liquid paired by imidazolide anion and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C6mim]Im was used as a dual hydrolysis catalyst and extraction solvent in the proposed approach. The optimal concentration of [C6mim]Im was 0.4 mol/L. And the independent parameters optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD based on single-factor tests were as follows: microwave irradiation time of 20 min at power of 415 W and liquid-solid ratio of 15 mL/g. Yield of geniposidic acid was increased to 3.41±0.17 μmol/g. DM130 macroporous resin, after reaction, was selected to separate geniposidic acid from hydrolysate. The plant materials with different treatment were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The analysis of SEM and TG further indicated that IMSHE is an efficient preparation method for geniposidic acid. It is reasonable to assume that the method and the dual hydrolysis catalyst and extraction solvent would offer an alternative for the preparation of some other kinds of bioactive substances from plant materials.

  11. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  12. Acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for extraction of three classes of pesticides from fruit juice samples.

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-29

    A sample preparation method involving acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection has been developed for the analysis of three classes of pesticides in juice samples. In this method, a basic organic solvent (p-chloroaniline) is used as an extraction solvent. It is dissolved in acidified deionized water and then injected into an alkaline aqueous sample solution. After injection, an acid-base reaction occurs and deprotonation of the organic solvent leads to formation of tiny droplets of the extractant and subsequent extraction of the analytes from sample solution. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.05-0.43ngmL(-1) and 0.17-1.43ngmL(-1), respectively. Extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were between 39.2 and 84.1% and between 548 and 1178, respectively. Relative standard deviations of less than 8.6% for the extraction of 2.0ngmL(-1) of each pesticide were obtained for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=4) precisions. Finally, different juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and penconazole, diniconazole, triadimenol, and acetamiprid were determined in some samples at ngmL(-1) levels. PMID:26755415

  13. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  14. Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acid-ammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction method-I. Synthetic samples

    Oorschot, I.H.M. van; Dekkers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In soil magnetism, the magnetic parameters alone are not always sufficient to distinguish the lithogenic from the pedogenic magnetic fractions. Sequential extraction techniques have therefore been incorporated into magnetic studies to constrain the environmental interpretation. Here we report on the dissolution behaviour of magnetite and maghemite in the acid-ammonium oxalate method to see whether the method is suitable for specific dissolution of magnetic minerals from soils and sediments. T...

  15. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. PMID:26965231

  16. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  17. Comparison of two acid extraction methods for determination of minerals in soils beneath to Larch Bolete (Suillus grevillei) and aimed to estimate minerals sequestration potential in fruiting bodies.

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Chudzyński, Krzysztof; Kojta, Anna K; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Drewnowska, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    In this study a two simple and one-step extraction methods were compared for the evaluation of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr and Zn accessibility in the soils to Larch Boletes (Suillus grevillei) mushrooms. Determination of chemical elements examined was by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The extractable amounts of minerals from soil when analyzed by both extraction methods (25 % nitric acid "v/v" and 0.43 mol/L acetic acid solutions) correlated significantly with minerals content of Larch Bolete's fruiting bodies. Nitric acid solution used has shown its better capacity as stronger extractor elements than acetic acid. Nevertheless, the Larch Bolete more efficiently take-ups many metallic elements from soil (and sequester them in fruiting bodies), when compared to a leaching potential of both reagents examined, while for some elements availability seem to be limited or take-up and translocation is actively regulated by the mycelium. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Part A to view the free supplemental file. PMID:22702820

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    Boonyadist Vongsak; Pongtip Sithisarn; Wandee Gritsanapan

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. ...

  19. Extraction properties of zirconium salt of dibutylphosphoric acid in the case of TPE and REE extraction from nitric acid solutions

    On the basis of extraction data and IR spectra the structure id proposed of zirconium salt of dibutylphosphoric acid (ZS DBPA) and so structure of complexes forming in organic phase during extraction of REE by ZS DBPA in dependence on acidity, ZS DBPA concentration and extractant saturation by metal. By the method of mathematical modeling the contribution of different mechanisms of extraction for all rare earths and so Am and Cm is exposed. TBP presence in ZS DBPA independently on diluent during Ce, Eu and Am extraction decreases distribution coefficients of elements, but increases extractant capacity by REE to the extent sufficiently being more than element extraction by TBP

  20. Novel method for determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media

    Novel and robust method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental materials is presented. The method is based on total decomposition of the solid materials by the use of closed vessels microwave acid digestion systems and pre concentration of uranium from the liquid samples. The separation of uranium from interfering radionuclides and stable matrix elements is attained by liquid-liquid extraction with triisooctylamine/xylene in sulfuric and consecutively in hydrochloric acid media. Purified uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disks and then measured by alpha spectrometry. The critical steps in the method were examined. The analytical method has been successfully applied to the determination of uranium isotopes in mineral and tap waters, as well as in soils from Northwestern Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials with different matrices. (author)

  1. Solvent extraction of metals with hydroxamic acids.

    Vernon, F; Khorassani, J H

    1978-07-01

    Solvent extraction with hydroxamic acids has been investigated. with comparison of aliphatic and aromatic reagents for the extraction of iron, copper, cobalt and nickel. Caprylohydroxamic acid has been evaluated for use in extraction systems for titanium, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and uranium, both in terms of acidity of aqueous phase and oxidation state of the metal. It has been established that caprylohydroxamic acid in 1-hexanol is a suitable extractant for the removal of titanium(IV), vanadium(V), chromium(VI), molybdenum(VI) and uranium(VI) from 6M hydrochloric acid. PMID:18962288

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method.

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts. PMID:23533530

  3. EXTRACTIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MEROPENEM PURE AND IN MARKETED FORMULATIONS USING ACIDIC DYES (BTB &BCP

    Venkateswararao L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive and extractive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of meropenem in pure and in marketed formulations. The proposed methods were basedon the formation of ion-pair complex between meropenem and Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple at pH 3.0 ± 0.01 which was extracted into chloroform and the absorbance of yellow ion-pair complex was measured at 420nm and 418nm repectively. Under optimized conditions, the Beer’s law was obeyed over 10- 50μg/mL for BTB and BCP and 12.5-62.5μg/mL respectively, and the corresponding molar absorptivity values were 1.018x103L/mol/cm and 1.43x103L /mol/cm. The Sandell sensitivity values of 0.6548 and 0.7854μg/cm2 for BTB and BCP respectively. Application of the proposed methods to commercial formulations of meropenem was validated according to ICH guidelines.

  4. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT, oolong tea (OT, green tea (GT, spent black tea (SBT, spent oolong tea (SOT and spent green tea (SGT. Theextraction experiment were carried out by the conventional solid-liquid method, using boiling water (100ºC and 50% ethanol concentration, with extraction period of 5 minutes. The influence of these extraction methods on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated. Flavanoid, gallic acid, caffeine and four catechins (catechin (C, gallocatechin (GCG, epicatechin (EC and epigallocatechin (EGC were found in all of the extracts and were quantified by utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis tool. GT extraction using 50% ethanol concentration was found to be the most suitable method to produce an extract with high content of phenolic compounds ( 186.83 mg GAE/100 g tea and high antioxidant activities (FRAP of 3814.29 μmol Fe(II/g, simultaneously. The results shown that GT had higher total flavanoids value at 347.67 mg CEQ/g followed by OT (295.00 mg CEQ/g and than the BT (187.33 mg CEQ/g. The analytical HPLC results obtained also indicated that GT contained higher amount of catechins than OT, BT, SGT, SOT and SBT due to fermentation process during the tea manufacturing, which reduces the levels of catechin significantly. All four catechins were detected in GT. However, epicatechin, and gallocatecin gallate are the major catechin present in SGT.

  5. Method for rare earth extraction from phosphogypsum

    A method for rare earth extraction from phosphogypsum, permitting to increase the degree of extraction and to simplify the process, has been suggested. Phosphogypsum is treated by a solution of ammonium carbonate, the precipitate of calcium carbonate formed is dissolved in 55-70% of stoichiometry of nitric acid and insoluble residue is dissolved in HNO3. The degree of rare earth extraction into solution reaches 94-98%

  6. Solvent extraction of scandium from technical hydrochloric-acid solutions

    The process of scandium extraction from technical hydrochloric-acid solutions is studied using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment. The methematical models of linear regression equations for parameters of scandium extraction and coefficients of scandium-iron and scandium- aluminium separations, which describe adequately the process of scandium extraction with tributyl phosphate, are obtained. It is established that the acid concentration in the initial solution is of primary importance for the effects of scandium extraction and its separation from iron and aluminium during the extraction. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction are determined

  7. Optimization of Process Parameters for Reactive Lactic Acid Extraction

    Kahya, E.; E. Bayraktar; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.

    2001-01-01

    The reactive extraction method was used to separate lactic acid from its aqueous solutions. In this method, the amine in the solvent phase reacts with the lactic acid in the aqueous phase, resulting in the extraction of acid into the organic phase. In this study, Alamine 336 diluted with oleyl alcohol was used as the solvent. The effects of initial lactic acid concentration, pH, temperature, extraction time, stirring rate, the amount of Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol and the ratio of o...

  8. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  9. Determination of vanadium in stainless steel and Ni-base alloys by NBPHA spectrophotometric method combined with chloroform extraction separation in media of sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid

    A new method of rapid vanadium analysis was proposed. In this method, vanadium is directly extracted and determined from sample solutions in sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid. The interference of the coexisting elements can be ignored in this method. Take one gram of sample into a 200 ml beaker, and add 30 ml of aqua regia. Then heat and dissolve it, and add 14 ml of sulfuric acid (1+1) and 5 ml of phosphoric acid. After cooling, dissolve the salts with a small amount of water. Thereafter, transfer it with use of water into a polyethylene separatory funnel, add 10 ml of 46% hydrofluoric acid, and dilute to 50 ml. Then, add 4 ml iron (II) ammonium sulfate solution (10%) and mix it thoroughly. Allow to stand for two or three minutes, add 10 ml of 45% ammonium persulfate solution and mix it thoroughly again. Allow to stand for about five minutes. Then, add exactly 20 ml of BPHA-chloroform solution (0.1%) and shake and mix it vigorously for two minutes. After a while, transfer the chloroform complex into a 10 mm cell through a piece of absorbent cotton. Then, determine vanadium by measuring the absorbance at the wave length of 530 nm against a chloroform reference. This method can be applicable to the analysis of vanadium in other metals and alloys than stainless steel and Ni-base alloys. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years. PMID:17406285

  11. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  12. Optimization of acidic extraction of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma

    Hui NI; Qi-he CHEN; Guo-qing HE; Guang-bin WU; Yuan-fan YANG

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of a process for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acidic method was investigated,regarding several extraction factors such as acids, organic solvents, temperature and time. Fractional factorial design, central composite design and response surface methodology were used to derive a statistically optimal model, which corresponded to the following optimal condition: concentration of lactic acid at 5.55 mol/L, ratio of ethanol to yeast dry weight at 20.25 ml/g, temperature for cell-disruption at 30 ℃, and extraction time for 3 min. Under this condition, astaxanthin and the total carotenoids could be extracted in amounts of 1294.7 μg/g and 1516.0 μg/g, respectively. This acidic method has advantages such as high extraction efficiency, low chemical toxicity and no special requirement of instruments. Therefore, it might be a more feasible and practical method for industrial practice.

  13. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  14. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  15. Gadolinium separation from HNO[sub 3] acidic streams of the nuclear fuel reprocessing by a new continuous flow extraction method

    Bertram-Berg, A.; Sameh, A.A.; Ache, H.J. (Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the continuous transfer of gadolinium from one aqueous phase into another was developed, based on the extraction from a light 0.5 M HNO[sub 3] phase into a heavier organic phase consisting of 63 Vol% HDEHP (Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-hydrogen-phosphate) in CHCl[sub 3] and the subsequent stripping of the ion into a heavy 4 M H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] solution. During operation the two aqueous phases are mobile, while the organic phase is the stationary one. It was shown that an equilibrium between extraction and stripping builds up that can be maintained for hours. The gadolinium separation achieved by this method allows not only the transfer of this ion into a pure aqueous medium with only a short delay between extraction and stripping, but also its continuous enrichment in the stripping phase. Thus, the apparatus is an ideal tool for combination with analytical flow methods that need purification steps prior to analysis, like continuous fluorimetric Gd determination in nitric acid streams. The best working conditions for the system were determined by examining the influences of the mobile phases flow rates, the ratios of flow rates between the two aqueous streams, and the stirring efficiency. (orig.).

  16. A comparison of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres extracted from bagasse using acid and ball milling methods

    Rahimi Kord Sofla, M.; Brown, R. J.; Tsuzuki, T.; Rainey, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the fundamental properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) extracted from sugarcane bagasse. Conventional hydrolysis was used to extract CNC while ball milling was used to extract CNF. Images generated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope showed CNC was needle-like with relatively lower aspect ratio and CNF was rope-like in structure with higher aspect ratio. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra showed that the chemical composition of nanocellulose and extracted cellulose were identical and quite different from bagasse. Dynamic light scattering studies showed that CNC had uniform particle size distribution with a median size of 148 nm while CNF had a bimodal size distribution with median size 240 ± 12 nm and 10 μm. X-ray diffraction showed that the amorphous portion was removed during hydrolysis; this resulted in an increase in the crystalline portion of CNC compared to CNF. Thermal degradation of cellulose initiated at a much lower temperature, in the case of the nanocrystals while the CNF prepared by ball milling were not affected, indicating higher thermal stability.

  17. [A new method for the disruption of cell walls of gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria on the point of nucleic acid extraction: sand method].

    Şahin, Fikret; Kıyan, Mehmet; Karasartova, Djursun; Çalgın, M Kerem; Akhter, Shameem; Türegün Atasoy, Buse

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays molecular methods are widely used in the rapid diagnosis of infectious agents. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most preferred method for this purpose. Obtaining sufficient and pure DNA or RNA is important for the PCR. Different DNA extraction protocols such as phenol-chloroform, proteinase K, glass beads and boiling have been used successfully for DNA isolation from gram-negative bacteria. However since gram-positive bacteria have a thicker layer of peptidoglycan and mycobacteria have complex glycolipids in their cell walls, for the isolation of DNA or RNA from these microorganisms, the complex cell wall structure must be eliminated. For this purpose, the bacterial cell wall must be completely or partially removed forming sferoblast using lysostaphin in the Staphylococcus genus as gram-positive bacteria and using a chemical like cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide for the Mycobacterium genus. In this study, we planned to use sand particles for the mechanical elimination of the cell wall without any need for chemicals and we called this procedure as "sand method". For the purpose of DNA extraction, the fine-grained sand was washed with ddH(2)O without losing small particles and then sterilized by autoclaving. For the purpose of RNA extraction; the sand was washed with ddH(2)O, incubated for 30 minutes with 10% HCl, and then autoclaved. A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain previously isolated and identified from a clinical specimen was mixed in 100 µl Tris-EDTA buffer with 100 mg sand. The mixture of bacteria and sand was vortexed at the maximum speed for 5 minutes. The MRSA-sand mix was treated with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform, and ethanol precipitation protocol was then followed for obtaining DNA. For comparison of the sand method with the other methods, the same amount of bacteria used in the sand method was incubated for one hour with lysostaphin, and then the proteinase K DNA extraction method were completed in the same

  18. A Comparative Study of Recycling of Used Engine Oil Using Extraction by Composite Solvent, Single Solvent, and Acid Treatment Methods

    Abro, Rashid; Chen, Xiaochun; Harijan, Khanji; Dhakan, Zulifqar A.; Ammar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Engine oils are made from crude oil and its derivatives by mixing of certain other chemicals (additives) for improving their certain properties. Lubricating oil is used to lubricate moving parts of engine, reducing friction, protecting against wear, and removing contaminants from the engine, act as a cleaning agent, and act as an anticorrosion and cooling agent. This research effort focuses on comparative study of re-refined engine oils by extraction of composite solvent, single solvent, and ...

  19. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown

  20. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF MALONDIALDEHYDE IN PLASMA-LIPID EXTRACTS USING 1,3-DIETHYL-2-THIOBARBITURIC ACID - INFLUENCE OF DETECTION METHOD AND RELATIONS WITH LIPIDS AND FATTY-ACIDS IN PLASMA FROM HEALTHY-ADULTS

    HOVING, EB; LAING, C; RUTGERS, HM; TEGGELER, M; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the influence of different concentrations of Fe3+, phosphoric acid, butylated hydroxytoluene and glutathione on the production of the malondialdehyde-1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid adduct in plasma lipid extracts. Following organic solvent extraction the stable product was analyze

  1. Uranium extraction with phosphoric acid amides

    Extraction of uranium by phosphorus acid monobuthylamide (MBA), dibuthylamid (DBA) and hexabuthyltriamide (HBTA) has meen investigated. The concentration constants of the process are reported. The extraction behaviour of the amides was found to be analogous to that of neutral organophosphorus extragents and to depend on the donor properties of the phosphoryl oxygen, i.e. on the number and nature of substituents by the phosphorus atom. The extraction capacity of the amides is higher than that of the phosphorus acid esters. In nitric acid solutions the highest resistance to hydrolysis was shown by HBTA. The extraction capacity of HBTA is almost insensitive to the nature of the diluting agent, be it a fatty or an aromatic hydrocarbon. With hexane used for dilution, a crystalline complex UO2(NO3)2x2HBTA was isolated

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    2010-01-01

    ... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall be extracted from representative... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section...

  3. Comparative Research on EPS Extraction from Mechanical Dewatered Sludge with Different Methods

    Weiyun Wang; Wanyu Liu; Lingyun Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to find a suitable extracellular polymer substance (EPS) extraction method for mechanical dewatered sludge, four different methods including EDTA extraction, alkali extraction, acid extraction, ultrasonic extraction method have been used in extracting EPS from belt filter dewatered sludge. The contents of polysaccharide and proteins extracted from the dewatered sludge by different extraction methods are also analyzed. The results indicated that EDTA method and alkali extraction metho...

  4. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an autocla

  5. Improved method to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids

    Shih, T. S.; Chou, J. S.; Chen, C Y; Smith, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To simplify the current preparation of samples, and to improve the specificity and reliability of the conventional analytical methods to measure urinary alkoxyacetic acids. METHODS: Samples containing alkoxyacetic acids including methoxy, ethoxy, and butoxyacetic acids (MAA, EAA, and BAA) were acidified with HCl and extracted with a mixed solvent of methylene chloride and isopropyl alcohol, then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). RESULTS: Optimal resul...

  6. Total Nucleic Acid Extraction from Soil

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Roey Angel ### Abstract The following protocol is intended for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from various soil samples along with suggestions on how to tweak the protocol for soil with higher humic content. The protocol has been used by many and results in very high yields of nucleic acids, typically much more than commercial kits. For buffers and solutions used in this protocol, please see accompanying document Buffers and Solutions for TNA Extractions.pdf. ...

  7. Extraction techniques of uranium from phosphoric acid

    The rapid increase in the price of uranium oxide (U3O8) in recent years and the global development in the balance of supply and demand for this material led to the foundation and development of uranium extraction techniques as a by-product of phosphoric acid processes in the phosphate industry. This article briefly describes the processes and techniques to extract uranium, concentrating on two techniques and the differences between them. (author)

  8. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  10. Application of ultrasonic technique for extracting chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmodies Oliv. (E. ulmodies).

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2005-03-01

    An ultrasonic method for the extraction of chlorogenic acid from fresh leaves of Eucommia ulmodies Oliv. was investigated and optimized. The influence of four extraction variables on extraction efficiency of chlorogenic acid was investigated. The optimum extraction conditions found were: 70% aqueous methanol; solvent: sample ratio=20:1 (v/w); extraction time 3 x 30 min. The recovery of chlorogenic acid was studied (HPLC) and the reproducibility of the extraction method was determined. The optimized ultrasonic extraction conditions were applied to extract chlorogenic acid from fresh leaves, fresh bark and dried bark of E. ulmodies and four traditional Chinese medicines. The application of sonication method was shown to be highly efficient in the extraction of chlorogenic acid from E. ulmodies and other Chinese medicines compared with classical methods. PMID:15501713

  11. Investigation on the Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Fatty Acids Content of Grape Skin%不同提取方法对葡萄皮油中脂肪酸的影响

    李浡; 李双石; 吴志明; 章宇宁; 苏宁

    2012-01-01

    Oil was extracted from wine grape skin by soxhlet extraction, petroleum ether soaking method and ultrasonic extraction. The fatty acids in oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the extraction rates and the relative content of fatty acid compositions in oil extracted by different methods were quite different. Soxhlet extraction was preferred among the three methods. Be- sides, the chemical compositions of fatty acids in oil extracted by different extraction methods were similar. Moreover, the fatty acid compositions in grape skin oil were similar with that in grape seed oil.%采用索氏提取法、石油醚浸泡法和超声波提取法从酿酒葡萄皮中提取油脂,并利用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对葡萄皮油中脂肪酸的组成进行分析和比较。结果表明,不同方法提取的葡萄皮油,其出油率和皮油中脂肪酸含量差异较大,索氏提取法效果最优。本研究还发现,不同方法提取的葡萄皮油中脂肪酸的组成相似,且皮油中脂肪酸的化学组成与葡萄籽油相似。

  12. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based......-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in some of the PUFA compared with the official EU method. Thus, besides being much more efficient for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is much faster, and allows inclusion of an internal standard from the beginning of the sample...

  13. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  14. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  15. Influence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction

    The harmful influence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction is investigated in this paper. The influence appears to be the poor phase separation and forming stable emulsion when uranium is extracted or stripped, and decreasing the loaded uranium in organic phase. The extractions of organic matter and solvent extraction of uranium were carried out for three sedimentary uranium ores. The results show that the stable emulsions of w/o or o/w type are formed separately with organic solvent containing tertiary amine or D2EHPA when uranium from liquors containing humic acid is extracted. Several humic acids of different molecular weight were fractionated by means of fractional solution containing varicus volume ratio of ethanol-ethylacetate. The physical characters and chemical composition of the humic acids were determined. It is found that there is distinct difference in emulsion-causing character among the humic acids with different molecular weight. The removal methods of humic acid from aqueous and organic solutions are discussed briefly

  16. EXTRACTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND MOLAR MASS DETERMINATION OF HYALURONIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM CHICKEN CREST

    C. S. ROSA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Hyaluronic acid (HA is part of the connective tissue. The polymer is composed of alternating units of ß-d-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosamine linked, respectively, via 1-3 and 1-4 bonds. The chicken crest is one of the richest tissues in this polysaccharide. Since Brazil is one of the main chicken exporters in the world, the utilization of the crests of abated animals for the HA obtaining is particularly attractive. The present work sought to extract HA from chicken crest and to determine the molar mass of the extracted acid. Extraction was accomplished by proteolytic digestion with papain during 24 h at 60oC, followed by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC. Hexuronic acid content was determined via the carbazole method, the intrinsic viscosity was measured using the ball viscosimeter, and the molar mass was calculated by extrapolating the calibration line to zero. In addition, qualitative infrared spectroscopy was carried out on the sample using the Bomem MB spectrophotometer. The results show that the extraction method was effective: the extracted acid possesses a large molecular mass, and the extract contains a signifi cant amount of HA.

  17. Extraction, purification and characterization of fulvic acid

    The aim of this project was to extract and purify gram quantities of fulvic acid for distribution to the group members. Ideally the material should have come from groundwater in the Sellafield repository area but the total organic carbon content of water samples taken from boreholes in the area was found to be between 0.03 and 0.05 ppm. In order to extract sufficient fulvic for distribution to group members it would, therefore, be necessary to process more than 100 000 litres of groundwater. This was considered impractical and instead fulvic acid was extracted from four thousand litres of water taken from the Derwent Reservoir (Derbyshire, UK) using DEAE-cellulose. Several stages of purification included anion exchange on Amberlite XAD-8 resin and cation exchange on Amberlite AG50W-X8. The final purified fulvic acid concentrate, volume 1300 ml, contained 4.1 g/l TOC (total fulvic acid ∼11 g). It was characterised in terms of elemental analysis, molecular weight, proton-binding properties, UV absorbance. Uranium binding measurements were also made for comparison with previous work. (orig.)

  18. Effects of different extraction methods and conditions on the phenolic composition of mate tea extracts.

    Grujic, Nevena; Lepojevic, Zika; Srdjenovic, Branislava; Vladic, Jelena; Sudji, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v) and liquid CO₂ extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar) and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C). Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO₂ with aqueous ethanol (40%) as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar. PMID:22388965

  19. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Jelena Vladic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the determination of chlorogenic acid in mate tea extracts obtained by ethanol extraction and liquid carbon dioxide extraction with ethanol as co-solvent. Different ethanol concentrations were used (40, 50 and 60%, v/v and liquid CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (50 and 100 bar and constant temperature (27 ± 1 °C. Significant influence of extraction methods, conditions and solvent polarity on chlorogenic acid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of mate tea extracts was established. The most efficient extraction solvent was liquid CO2 with aqueous ethanol (40% as co-solvent using an extraction pressure of 100 bar.

  20. Mechanism of extraction of scandium by alkyl phosphoric acids from concentrated hydrochloric acid solutions

    The methods of saturation and molar ratios, radiometry and infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the mechanism of extraction of scandium with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid from concentrated chloride solutions (8 M/l HCl). It is shown that the extraction is based on cation-exchange and solvation mechanisms. The results of quantitative estimate of the extraction are given. At HCl concentration below 2 M/l, Sc is extracted by the cation-mechanism. As the concentration of the acid increases, extraction through solvation increases too, while that through cation exchange decreases. At HCl concentration of 5 M/l, both mechanisms play an equal role in the extraction of Sc

  1. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  2. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  3. Extraction of scandium from hydrochloric solutions by phosphinic acids

    Distribution of scandium between aqueous solutions of HCl and solutions of dioctyl- and diarylphosphinic acids in organic solvents and so acids containing two phosphoryl groups bonded by methylene fragment is investigated. Extraction ability with respect to scandium in hydrochloric acid media increases in dialkylphosphoric acid < dialkylphosphinic acid < diarylphosphinic acid row and with aryl substituent electronegativity increase. Increase of a number of phosphoryl groups in extractant molecule leads to increase of scandium extraction

  4. Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Rousková, Milena; Kohoutková, J.; Veselý, Václav; Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga

    Praha: Orgit, 2013 - (Kalenda, P.; Lubojacký, J.), s. 123-128 ISBN 978-80-86238-55-5. [International Conference on Chemical Technology (ICCT 2013) /1./. Mikulov (CZ), 08.04.2013-10.04.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : extraction * chlorella vulgaris * fatty acids Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. Superheated water extraction of glycyrrhizic acid from licorice root.

    Shabkhiz, Mohammad A; Eikani, Mohammad H; Bashiri Sadr, Zeinolabedin; Golmohammad, Fereshteh

    2016-11-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) has become an interesting green extraction method for different classes of compounds. In this study, SWE was used to extract glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice root. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate and optimize the extraction conditions. The influence of operating conditions such as water temperature (100, 120 and 140°C) and solvent flow rates (1, 3 and 5mL/min) were investigated at 0.5mm mean particle size and 20bar pressure. Separation and identification of the glycyrrhizic acid, as the main component, was carried out by the RP-HPLC method. The best operating conditions for the SWE of licorice were determined to be 100°C temperature,15mL/min flow rate and 120min extraction time. The results showed that the amount of the obtained GA was relatively higher using SWE (54.760mg/g) than the Soxhlet method (28.760mg/g) and ultrasonic extraction (18.240mg/g). PMID:27211663

  6. Extraction mechanism of scandium(III) from sulphuric acid solution by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    The extraction equilibria of scandium(III) and sulphuric acid extracted by H(DEHP) in n-heptane from sulphuric acid aqueous medium is studied. Extraction mechanisms of scandium(III) and sulphuric acid under different concentrations of sulphuric acid in the aqueous phase are suggested through infrared and NMR measurements and saturation extraction study. The effect of temperature on extraction equilibria is discussed and the thermodynamic functions of the extraction reactions are calculated

  7. Liquid extraction of scandium by poly-2-ethylhexylphosphonitride acid

    Liquid extraction of scandium from several technological acid solutions forming during leaching of red mud, dissolution of phosphatic raw materials and in production of pigment titanium dioxide is studied. Prospectivity of application of poly-2-ethylhexylphosphonitrile acid as alternative extractant for those purposes is confirmed. Through scandium extraction from starting acid solution onto rough concentrate equals 78-94%

  8. Investigation into nitric acid extraction by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and its acid zirconium (4) and hafnium (4) salts

    Using IR spectroscopy methods mechanism of nitric acid extraction by solutions of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid HX and its zirconium (4) and hafnium (4) polymeric salts in decane is investigated. Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid extracts HNO3 by usual coordination mechanism adding HNO3 molecules to P=O group of (XH)2 dimer by means of its proton. Zr4 and Hf4 acid salts add HNO3 molecules bidentately due to availability in polymeric molecules of extractant metal atoms - electron acceptors. Structure of separate fragments, being part of polymeric products of adding HNO3 to acid salts and containing nonequivalent POO-groups, is determined. IR spectra absorption band interpretation is carried out

  9. Rapid and novel discrimination and quantification of oleanolic and ursolic acids in complex plant extracts using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-Comparison with HPLC methods

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G. [Section of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45110 (Greece); Exarchou, Vassiliki [NMR Center, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45110 (Greece); Troganis, Anastassios [Department of Biological Applications and Technology, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45110 (Greece); Gerothanassis, Ioannis P. [Section of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina GR-45110 (Greece)], E-mail: igeroth@cc.uoi.gr

    2009-03-09

    A novel strategy for NMR analysis of mixtures of oleanolic and ursolic acids that occur in natural products is described. These important phytochemicals have similar structure and their discrimination and quantification is rather difficult. We report herein the combined use of proton-carbon heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ({sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC) and proton-carbon heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation ({sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in the identification and quantitation of oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)in plant extracts of the Lamiaceae and Oleaceae family. The combination of {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HMBC techniques allows the connection of the proton and carbon-13 spins across the molecular backbone resulting in the identification and, thus, discrimination of oleanolic and ursolic acid without resorting to physicochemical separation of the components. The quantitative results provided by 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC NMR data were obtained within a short period of time ({approx}14 min) and are in excellent agreement with those obtained by HPLC, which support the efficiency of the suggested methodology.

  10. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  11. Comparative Research on EPS Extraction from Mechanical Dewatered Sludge with Different Methods

    Weiyun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a suitable extracellular polymer substance (EPS extraction method for mechanical dewatered sludge, four different methods including EDTA extraction, alkali extraction, acid extraction, ultrasonic extraction method have been used in extracting EPS from belt filter dewatered sludge. The contents of polysaccharide and proteins extracted from the dewatered sludge by different extraction methods are also analyzed. The results indicated that EDTA method and alkali extraction method are more suitable for dewatered sludge with more EPS content and less cell damage, while sulfuric acid extraction and ultrasonic extraction were poorer with obvious cell lysis shown by higher DNA content in extracted EPS. Contents of proteins and polysaccharide in EPS extracted from mechanical dewatered sludge, is at the contents between that in EPS extracted from activated sludge and anaerobic digestion sludge.

  12. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Ellagic Acid from Pomegranate Peels with Orthogonal Experiment

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the optimal condition for extrac- tion of ellagic acid from pomegranate peels. [Method] With ellagic acid yield as an indicator, ultrasound extraction method was adopted to extract the ellagic acid from pomegranate peels, and the concentration of ellagic acid was measured by using ul- traviolet spectrophotometry; L9(34) orthogonal experiment was designed with four fac- tors at three levels, to investigate the effect of extraction temperature, extraction du- ration, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasound power on extraction rate of ellagic acid. [Re- sult] The optimal extraction condition for ellagic acid is extraction temperature of 30 ~C, solid-liquid ratio of 1:200, extraction duration of 20 min, and ultrasound power of 50 W. The relationship between primary and secondary factors affecting experimental indicators was solid-liquid ratio 〉 extraction duration 〉 ultrasound power 〉 extraction temperature. [Conclusion] Solid-liquid ratio has the maximum effect on extraction rate of ellagic acid. The ellagic acid extraction technology identified in this study is rea- sonable and feasible.

  13. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Kmieciak, S.; Mecziane, S.; Kadi, H.; Moussaoui, R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be a...

  14. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  16. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  17. A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.

    Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-10-01

    Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) or the symmetric stretching peak at 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01) of ingredients, diet, and digesta spectra was related strongly to the concentration of total FA. The AID of total FA of diets measured using GLC was predicted by the spectroscopic method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.01) with a bias of 0.54 (SD = 3.78%) and -1.35 (SD = 3.74%), respectively. The accumulated peak intensity in the region between 1,766 and 1,695 cm(-1) of spectra was related to EE concentration in ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.01) and feces (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.01). The relation was improved by using second-derivative spectra of the sum of peak intensities at 1,743 and 1,710 cm(-1) for ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.90, P = 0.01) and at 1,735 and 1,710 cm(-1) for feces (R(2) = 0

  18. Flotation extraction of actinoids and lanthanoids from nitric acid solutions

    A study was made on possibility of using method of ion flotation for extraction of actinoids and lanthanoids from liquid radioactive wastes of spent fuel reprocessing. For this purpose ion flotation of thorium, plutonium (4), uranium (6) and gadolinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions (HNO3 concentration - from 0.01 up to 5.0 mol/l) was investigated, using lauryl phosphoric acid (LPA) as surfactant-collector. Growth of the degree of separation of metal ions with increase of LPA, introduced into the system, independently of acidity of solutions was established. Decrease of separation degree of uranium (6) and gadolinium with acidity growth and constancy of this parameter for plutonium (4) and thorium are observed at fixed mole LPA/metal ratio. Principle possibility of 100% flotation extraction of plutonium (4) and thorium independently of acidity of aqueous solutions is shown. Addition of 0.5 mol/l Ca(NO3)2 into the system doesn't produce sufficient effect on flotation extraction of thorium

  19. Scandium extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions with poly-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphonitryl acid

    Solvent extraction of scandium from hydrochloric media by poly-2-ethylhexylphosphonitryl acid (P2EHPNA) has been studied by the methods of equilibrium shift isomolar series, IR- and NMR spectroscopies. It is shown that scandium extraction by P2EHPNA as compared with D2EHPA features an essential contribution of the extraction solvation variant in a wide range of pH. At acidity > 1.5M HCl Sc extraction by P2EHPNA decreases and is comparable with the one by D2EHPA. Temperature increase up to 40 deg C intensifies Sc extraction by P2EHPNA in the low-acid region. The calculated values of Sc extraction enthalpy in case of D2EHPA (10.98 kcal/mol) and in case of P2EHPNA (1.83 kcal/mol) confirm simultaneous extraction of Sc by reactions of cation exchange and solvation at pH 0.25-1.5 in case of P2EHPNA

  20. Four different methods comparison for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Dong, Shengzhao; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Shihui; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE), hexane/isopropanol (6:4, v/v) mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA), methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction), and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1%) and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%). Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13-35%), linoleic acid (37-43%), linolenic acid (20-31%), and total saturated acid (17-28%). DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties. PMID:24574909

  1. Four Different Methods Comparison for Extraction of Astaxanthin from Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    Shengzhao Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE, hexane/isopropanol (6 : 4, v/v mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA, methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction, and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1% and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%. Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13–35%, linoleic acid (37–43%, linolenic acid (20–31%, and total saturated acid (17–28%. DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties.

  2. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  3. Four Different Methods Comparison for Extraction of Astaxanthin from Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    Shengzhao Dong; Yi Huang; Rui Zhang; Shihui Wang; Yun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE), hexane/isopropanol (6 : 4, v/v) mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA), methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction), and soy-oil extraction, we...

  4. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration. PMID:25829628

  5. A METHOD FOR AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF 10 ML WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING ACIDIC, BASIC, AND NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILE COMPOUNDS LISTED IN USEPA METHOD 8270 BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Data is presented showing the progress made towards the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the single run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of acid, base and neutral compounds...

  6. Chlorogenic acid stability in pressurized liquid extraction conditions.

    Wianowska, Dorota; Typek, Rafał; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2015-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CQAs) are phenolic compounds naturally occurring in all higher plants. They are potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, food additives, and cosmetics due to their recently suggested biomedical activity. Hence, research interest in CQA properties, their isomers, and natural occurrence has been growing. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is regarded as an effective and quick sample preparation method in plant analysis. The short time of PLE decreases the risk of chemical degradation of extracted compounds, thus increasing the attractiveness of its application. However, PLE applied for plant sample preparation is not free from limitations. We found that trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA), the main CQA isomer, isomerizes to 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acids and undergoes transesterification, hydrolysis, and reaction with water even in rapid PLE. Moreover, the number and concentration of trans-5-CQA derivatives formed in PLE strongly depends on extractant composition, its pH, and extraction time and temperature. It was not possible to find the PLE conditions in which the transformation process of trans-5-CQA would be eliminated. PMID:25905748

  7. Analytical method of elements in humic acid phase

    A method of rapid extraction of humic acid, determination of carbon in the humic acid and a phase analytical method of major relevant elements such as uranium, gold etc, in the humic acid phase are described. Good results are achieved in exploration of hidden uranium ores by using this phase analytical technique

  8. 二次酸浸法提取煤灰中的氧化铝%Aluminum extraction from coal ash by a two-step acid leaching method

    Pei-wang ZHU; Hua DAI; Lei HAN; Xiu-lin XU; Le-ming CHENG; Qin-hui WANG; Zheng-lun SHI‡

    2015-01-01

    目的:煤灰渣酸浸提铝通常效率不高,主要因为灰渣中存在含铝晶体矿物(如莫来石、尖晶石和长石等)。为解决含铝晶体不易与硫酸反应的问题,本文提出二次酸浸提铝法。创新点:基本实现铝硅分离,第一步酸浸实现非晶态铝的浸出,残渣经焙烧和水浸后,第二步酸浸实现剩余铝的浸出。方法:1.一次酸浸时,硫酸直接与煤灰渣反应浸出部分氧化铝,提铝残渣加碳酸钠焙烧后,含铝晶体遭到破坏;2.焙烧产物经水浸溶解出硅酸钠,水浸残渣做X射线衍射分析表明其主要为铝硅非晶体活性物质,此时可用硫酸在温和条件下浸出剩余的铝。结论:1.一次酸浸提铝在10 mol/L硫酸、120°C、2 h和1:2固液比的条件下,铝浸出率为81.72%;2.用5 mol/L硫酸二次酸浸时,20°C下铝浸出率已经达到87.31%,100°C下更是达到99.06%;3.综合两次酸浸结果,铝的浸出总效率在97%以上。%To improve aluminum extraction efficiency, a two-step acid leaching process was proposed to dissolve aluminum and aluminum-bearing crystals with sulfuric acid. The first leaching residue (FLR) was obtained through direct leaching of coal ash with sulfuric acid. After roasting a mixture of the FLR and sodium carbonate, the aluminum-bearing crystals in FLR were com-pletely destroyed while sodium silicate was generated. Then the roasted products were leached with water to dissolve the sodium carbonate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the water leaching residues (WLR) mainly contained the amorphous phase, which allowed easy aluminum extraction in the second leaching step. In the first leaching test with 10 mol/L sulfuric acid at 120 °C in 2 h and a solid to liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:2, aluminum dissolution from raw coal ash reached 81.72%. In the second leaching step with 5 mol/L sulfuric acid, the aluminum dissolutions from WLR were 87.31% at 20 °C and 99.06% at 100

  9. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  10. An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic studies of bergenin, chlorogenic acid and four flavonoids in rat plasma after oral administration of a QingGanSanJie decotion extract.

    Zhao, Liang; Qian, Xian; Li, Wuhong; Lv, Lei; Zhang, Hai; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-12-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of bergenin, chlorogenic acid and four flavonoids in a QingGanSanJie preparation in rat plasma. Puerarin was selected as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated with a reverse phase Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column using a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v). A triple quadruple mass spectrometer was used for quantification (limit of detection 0.36-5.55 ng/mL). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 15% and the average extraction recoveries ranged from 85 to 115% for each analyte. The method allowed simultaneous quantification for the first time of the pharmacokinetics of bergenin, chlorogenic acid and four flavonoids after intragastric administration of a QingGanSanJie extract in Sprague-Dawley rats. It was found that bergenin and chlorogenic acid had typical extravascular administration concentration-time curves; flavonoids had a bimodal distribution improving bioavailability and extending the pharmacodynamics period. PMID:24828095

  11. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  12. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Automated Nucleic Acid Sample Extraction Equipment for Biothreat Agents

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik; Minogue, Timothy Devin

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility.

  14. Application of anion-exchange imidazolium silica for the multiphase dispersive extraction of phenolic acids.

    Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the application of a multiphase dispersive extraction method to the extraction, separation, and determination of the phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. using silica-confined ionic liquids as sorbents. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid extraction and separation was first identified based on the adsorption behavior of the phenolic acids on different silica-confined ionic liquids. The sample was then mixed with the optimized sorbent and solvent to achieve multiphase dispersive extraction. The sample/sorbent ratio was optimized using theoretical calculations from the adsorption isotherm and experiments. After transferring the supernatant to an empty cartridge, an SPE process was used to separate the three phenolic acids from the other interference. Through systematic optimization, the optimal conditions produced high recovery rates of protocatechuic acid (91.20%), caffeic acid (94.03%), and ferulic acid (91.33%). Overall, the proposed method is expected to have wide applicability. PMID:23861179

  15. Recovery of boric acid from wastewater by solvent extraction

    Matsumoto, Michiaki; Kondo, Kazuo [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Hirata, Makoto; Kokubu, Shuzo; Hano, Tadashi [Oita Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    An extraction system for the recovery of boric acid using 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) as an extractant was studied. Loss of the extractant to the aqueous solution was lowered by using 2-ethylhexanol as a diluent. The extraction equilibrium of boric acid with BEPD was clarified, and the equilibrium constants for various diluents were determined. Furthermore, continuous operation for the recovery of boric acid using mixer-settlers for extraction and stripping was successfully conducted during 100 hours. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Extraction of scandium from acid mixtures by tributyl phosphate

    Extraction of scandium from solutions of HNO3-H2SO4 and HCl-H2SO4 mixtures by 100% tributyl phosphate is studied. It is ascertained, that from acid mixtures, containing H2SO4, scandium is extracted in the form of a mixture of complexes, characteristic of the extraction from solutions of individual acids, and no mixed complexes are formed. The extraction takes place with a decrease in the values of scandium distribution coefficients, as compared with the extraction from individual acid slutions

  17. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of humic acids using CUPRAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, noble metal nanoparticle- and solid-liquid extraction-based methods.

    Karadirek, Şeyda; Kanmaz, Nergis; Balta, Zeynep; Demirçivi, Pelin; Üzer, Ayşem; Hızal, Jülide; Apak, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of humic acid (HA) samples was determined using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), FC (Folin-Ciocalteu), QUENCHER-CUPRAC, QUENCHER-FC, Ag-NP (Silver nanoparticle)‒ and Au-NP (Gold nanoparticle)‒based methods. Conventional FC and modified FC (MFC) methods were applied to solid samples. Because of decreased solubility of Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent in organic solvents, solvent effect on TAC measurement was investigated using QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay by using ethanol:distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide:distilled water with varying ratios. To see the combined effect of solubilization (leaching) and TAC measurement of humic acids simultaneously, QUENCHER experiments were performed at 25°C and 50°C; QUENCHER-CUPRAC and QUENCHER-FC methods agreed well and had similar precision in F-statistics. Although the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) of the oxidation of HA dihydroxy phenols with the test reagents were negative, the ΔG° was positive only for the reaction of CUPRAC reagent with isolated monohydric phenols, showing CUPRAC selectivity toward polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first work on the antioxidant capacity measurement of HA having a sparingly soluble matrix where enhanced solubilization of bound phenolics is achieved with coupled oxidation by TAC reagents. PMID:27130098

  18. HPTLC evaluation of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from the methanol extract ofWattakaka volubilis

    Velmani Gopal; Vivekananda Mandal; Subhash C Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To find out the secondary metabolites present in the methanol extract ofWattakaka volubilis(W. volubilis).Methods:High performance thin layer chromatography method for the quantification of triterpenoids in soxhlet methanol extract ofW. volubilis is described by densitometric scanning.The linear regression data from the calibration curve was plotted over the range of10-25 μg/mL, r2 =0.99246,0.95042 respectively.A mixture of toluene: methanol (9:1) was used as mobile phase for oleanolic acid were petroleum ether: chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol(4:1:0.1:0.1) were used for ursolic acid.Results:The results showed that the presence of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in methanol extract.The content found to be218.30 ng and509.99 ng/10 mg of extract.Conclusion:For conclusion, above study scientifically validated as a useful traditional medicine with the identification of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  19. Influence of organic matter and humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction process

    The harmful in fluence of humic acids in solution on uranium solvent extraction is investigated. The influence is poor phase separation and forming stable emulsion when uranium is extracted or stripped and decreasing uranium loading of organic phase. Extractions of organic matter and solvent extraction of uranium were carried out from three sedimentary uranium deposits. The results show that stable emulsions of W/O or O/W type were formed separately with organic solvent containing tertiary amine or D2EHPA to extract uranium from uranium liquors containing humic acid. Several humic acids of different molecular weight were fractionated by means of fractional solution containing various volume ratios of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The physical properties and chemical composition of the humic acid were determined. It was found that there was distinct difference in emulsion-causing between the humic acids having different molecular weight. The removal methods of humic acid from aqueous and organic solution were discussed briefly

  20. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  1. Effects of Different Extraction Methods and Conditions on the Phenolic Composition of Mate Tea Extracts

    Jelena Vladic; Branislava Srdjenovic; Zika Lepojevic; Nevena Grujic; Jan Sudji

    2012-01-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method for determination of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) in mate tea extracts was developed and validated. The chromatography used isocratic elution with a mobile phase of aqueous 1.5% acetic acid-methanol (85:15, v/v). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and detection by UV at 325 nm. The method showed good selectivity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness, with detection limit of 0.26 mg/L and recovery of 97.76%. The developed method was applied for the dete...

  2. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (...

  3. Comparison of RNA extraction methods in Thai aromatic coconut water

    Nopporn Jaroonchon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researches have reported that nucleic acid in coconut water is in free form and at very low yields which makes it difficult to process in molecular studies. Our research attempted to compare two extraction methods to obtain a higher yield of total RNA in aromatic coconut water and monitor its change at various fruit stages. The first method used ethanol and sodium acetate as reagents; the second method used lithium chloride. We found that extraction using only lithium chloride gave a higher total RNA yield than the method using ethanol to precipitate nucleic acid. In addition, the total RNA from both methods could be used in amplification of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (Badh2 genes, which is involved in coconut aroma biosynthesis, and could be used to perform further study as we expected. From the molecular study, the nucleic acid found in coconut water increased with fruit age.

  4. Naphthenic acid extraction and characterization from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits revisited

    Ahmed, M.M.; Sorbie, K.S. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Crude oil with high total acid number (TAN) often results in the formation of either sodium emulsion or calcium naphthenate deposits. The formation of calcium naphthenate during production operations is creating flow assurance problems for the oil industry. Therefore, it is important to extract and characterize the different types of acids from crude oils and naphthenate field deposits. There has been much discussion in the literature about the discovery and quantification of higher molecular weight acids in naphthenate field deposits, referred to as ARN acids. Field naphthenate deposits from 2 different fields in Norway (X and HD) were used in this study for the naphthenic acid extraction using 3 different methods. The extracted naphthenic acids were characterized using electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). The ESMS spectra obtained from field X extract revealed the presence of lower molecular weight acids species only, without any presence of ARN acids. However, the extract from field HD had a broad range of lower molecular weight acids and ARN acid species. APCI-MS results revealed an enhanced ARN acids species from all the spectra with some indication of multimers. This paper also discussed the acid-IER extraction technique used on the crude oils from these fields.

  5. Green Extraction: Enhanced Extraction Yield of Asiatic Acid from Centella asiatica (L.) Nanopowders

    M. Z. Borhan; Ahmad, R; M. Rusop; Abdullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanopowders of Centella asiatica (L.) were produced using planetary ball mill in order to investigate the differences of water extraction yield of asiatic acid as compared to micropowders of Centella asiatica. Effect of extraction time (20–60 min) on extraction yield of asiatic acid from Centella asiatica was examined. Results showed that water extraction of asiatic acid using Centella asiatica nanopowders exhibits was almost 50% higher extraction yield with 7.09 mg/g as compared to the micro...

  6. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  7. Method for improved extraction of DNA from Nocardia asteroides.

    Loeffelholz, M. J.; Scholl, D R

    1989-01-01

    In a variation of standard DNA extraction methods, Nocardia asteroides was repeatedly exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate at 60 degrees C for 30 min; each extraction was followed by centrifugation, removal of the nucleic acid-rich supernatant, and suspension of the cell pellet in fresh sodium dodecyl sulfate. The pooled supernatants contained a substantially higher amount of DNA than the first supernatant alone. The possible implications of this procedure on the development of DNA probes are di...

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:21809445

  9. Extraction of indium from sulfuric acid solutions by mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric and caprylic acids

    Data on indium extraction from sulfuric acid solutions by mixtures of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HR) and caprylic acid (HA) are presented. By the methods of IR spectroscopy state of HR in HA is investigated. It is shown that imperfection in this system is described by the processes of partial HR dimerization in organic phase. During indium extraction there is strong antagonistic effect caused by interaction HR and HA because of formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. In the case of low indium concentration and big excess of extractant formation of In(HR2)3 takes place in organic phase as is in the case of application of inert diluents

  10. Оptimization of humic acids extraction from coal of Oy-karagay field

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimum conditions of extraction of humic acids from brown coal of a domestic Oy-Karagay field using the  method of experiment planning were defined: extraction temperature – 80 оC; duration of experiment – 45 minutes; concentration of alkali – 1,0 %; ratio of coal and alkali solution equal 1:25. The experiment realized in these conditions is coordinated with sampled data. The  composition of the humic acids extracted after alkaline processing of brown coal have been  investigated by  IR-spectroscopy. IR spectrum of humic acids contains a band due to the active acidic groups.

  11. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  12. Pectin extraction from pomegranate peels with citric acid.

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique F; Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Cavalcante, Fabio Lima; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-07-01

    Pectins were extracted from pomegranate peels with citric acid, according to a central composite design with three variables: pH (2-4), temperature (70-90°C), and extraction time (40-150min). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to follow changes in material composition during the main steps of pectin extraction, and also to determine the degree of methyl esterification and galacturonic acid content of pectins produced under different conditions. Harsh conditions enhanced the extraction yield and the galacturonic acid contents, but decreased the degree of methoxylation. The optimum extraction conditions, defined as those predicted to result in a yield of galacturonic acid higher than 8g/100g while keeping a minimum degree of methoxylation of 54% were: 88°C, 120min, pH 2.5. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values at the extraction conditions defined as optimum. PMID:27044343

  13. Evaluation of hydroxamic acid in uranium extraction process : literature review

    The Uranium Extraction (UREX) process is being developed for the spent oxide fuel from light water reactors as part of the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Project. The UREX process is similar to the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process in that it involves solvent extraction based on a tributyl phosphate extractant. To assure that actinide reduction and complexation are effective, the reductant/complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid is being considered for use in the UREX process. The following literature review describes the solvent extraction, kinetics, oxidation-reduction, and complexation properties of aceto-hydroxamic acid and its derivatives

  14. 油脂的提取方法对酸价和过氧化值测定的影响%Effect on the Determination of Acid Value and Peroxide Value through Oil Extraction Method

    卿云光; 罗在粉

    2015-01-01

    Both acid value and peroxide value are the important indexes to judge the quality of oils and fats, it is harmful for human health to eat food with excessive acid value and peroxide value, so acid value and peroxide value are the major hygiene indexes under test and control in many sorts of foods. When testing other types of food except edible oils, the extraction of oils and fats is needed first, for the process of the extraction has an influence on the quality of the oils and fats. With the procedure of simulating the extraction of the oil within food products with known edible oil, he best extraction methods can be concluded by setting the duration and temperature in the extraction process of exsolution as well as the effect that the content of sample water has on the testing result of acid value and peroxide value.%酸价和过氧化值是判定油脂品质好坏的重要指标,食用酸价或过氧化值超标的食品对人体会造成伤害,因此多类食品都将酸价和过氧化值作为重要的卫生指标来进行检测控制。除食用油以外其他食品的检测,需要先进行油脂提取,提取过程会对油脂质量造成影响。用已知食用油模拟食品产品中油脂的提取过程,通过对提取过程中脱溶时间的长短,温度高低的设定,样品水分含量的多少对酸价、过氧化值检测结果的影响,从而总结出最佳的提取方法。

  15. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  16. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  17. Solvent extraction of scandium by TBP from inorganic acid solutions

    Studied has been the distribution of scandium between the 100% TBP and the aqueous solutions of the nitric and hydrochloric acids with the various concentrations of scandium and acids. A relationship has been determined between the concentration constants of the scandium extraction from the solutions of the nitric, hydrochloric, sulfuric and chlorous acid solutions, the hydration energies of the extracting ions and the stability constants of the complexes, comprising scandium and anions

  18. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction.

    Budnyak, Tetyana M; Strizhak, Alexander V; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz; Komarov, Igor V; Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek; Tertykh, Valentin А

    2016-08-15

    A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO2NH2) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166mg/g, and the silica - 144mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27mg/g, the aminosilica - 16mg/g, and the silica - 14mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate solution. PMID:27177215

  19. Extraction of Palladium from Nitric Acid by Diamides of Di-picolinic Acid

    The most complicated and urgent problem of atomic industry consists in the safe isolation and storage of radioactive wastes. The long-lived radionuclides presented in high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) pose a potential threat to environment for hundreds and thousands of years. One of the possible ways to reduce the danger of HLLW storages is concerned with treatment of HLLW intended to recovery of long-lived radionuclides and their partitioning into separate fractions. The separation of the most hazardous radionuclides (like transplutonium elements (TPE)) to the individual fraction of low volume leads to decrease of the total volume of HLLW and therefore to decrease of solidified waste storage costs. It should be noted that only in the case of reprocessing it can be possible to recover individual radionuclides (or their fractions) into separate flows with further special approach to each of them. Partitioning of different HLLW is under investigation in many countries now. Numerous processes for recovery of Cs, Sr, TPE and REE have been already developed and tested. At the same time partitioning is only the first step on the road to the following synthesis of materials providing the safe storage of long-lived radionuclides over many thousands of years. The metallic palladium contained in HLLW seems to be a promising material for producing of matrices for incorporation of radioactive wastes. Different methods for palladium recovery have been investigated: reductive precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sorption and extraction. Of prime importance are extraction methods. Phosphine oxides, carbamoyl-phosphine oxides, crown-ethers, oximes, sulfides and some other compounds were proposed as extractants towards palladium from nitric acid media. It is reasonable to recover palladium into individual fraction during waste partitioning. Diamides of malonic, di-glycolic and pyridine-dicarboxylic (di-picolinic) acids are intensively investigated as extractants for HLLW

  20. Extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from acidic media

    WU Songping; MENG Shuyuan; GU Guobang; ZHUANG Zhiqiang

    2004-01-01

    The extraction of palladium(Ⅱ) from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative-α-octyl-tetrahydrothiophene-l-oxide (OTMSO) was investigated. The extraction efficiency of palladination number was studied with slope method. The result indicates that coordination number is 2. FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of complex and coordinated atom in complex. Pd is coordinated with both oxygen and sulfur atom in S=O group in OTMSO .The situation and intensity of peaks contributed by complex prepared from various acidity were different. The recovery of palladium(Ⅱ) with OTMSO from scrap containing palladium was discussed. After silver and bismuth were removed, the feed solution was extracted three times by 40% (volume fraction) OTMSO-kerosene. The loaded organic phase was scrubbed three times,and stripped three times by 2 mol@L-1 NH3·H2O solution.The total recovery of palladium was 99.8%,and the purity of palladium was 99.8%.

  1. Solvent extraction for cleaning phosphoric acid in fertilizer production

    Phosphorites of sedimentary origin utilized in manufacturing of fertilizer contain uranium, thorium, products of their radioactive decay, as well as heals-endangering compounds of cadmium, arsenic, fluoride. Some part of them may transit into phosphoric acid, when breaking down the phosphorites with sulphuric acid, and then into fertilizer. The chief purpose of the phosphoric acid cleaning is its decontamination from uranium and thorium as well as the removal of toxic cadmium. The above task can be achieved by a world-recognized technology - solvent extraction. The report presents the investigation results on extraction of uranium and cadmium from phosphoric acid using polyalkyl phosphasene and trioctyl amine, respectively. The studies concerned the extraction kinetics, equilibrium distribution of uranium and cadmium within the phases, the effect extractants concentration and temperature of the process. The technological schemes for cleaning phosphoric acid from uranium and cadmium are given in the paper. (authors)

  2. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first α-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 250C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA3(HA)5 and (NdA3)2(HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA3)2 and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid

  3. Relevant Words Extraction Method for Recommendation System

    Naw Naw

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, E-commerce is very popular because of information explosion. Text mining is also important for information extraction.  Users are more preferable to use the convenience system from many sources such as through web pages, email, social network and so on. This system proposed the relevant words extraction method for car recommendation system from user email. In relevant words extraction, this system proposed the Rule-based approach in Compiling Technique. Context- free grammar is the most suitable for relevant words extraction. Recommendation System (RS is a most popular tool that helps users to recommend according to their interests. This system implements efficient recommendation system by using proposed key extraction algorithm, Content-based Filtering (CBF method and Jaccard Coefficient that will help the users who want to buy the car by providing relevant car information.

  4. Extraction of actinide elements by trilaurylammonium nitrate carboxylic acid mixtures and applications

    The addition of pelargonic, capric, α-bromocapric, α-fluorocapric, and 3-fluorobenzoic acids to organic trilaurylammonium nitrate solutions significantly modifies the extraction of U(VI), Np(IV), and Pu(IV). Antagonism appears at strong nitric acidities, while enhancement of the extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) is observed at weak acidities. The antagonism observed is due to the formation of addition compounds between trilaurylammonium nitrate (R3NHNO3) and carboxylic acids (HA) = R3NHNO3(HA)2 for pelargonic and capric acids, and R3NHNO3HA for α-bromocapric, α-fluorobenzoic acids. Extraction of UO22+, Am3+, Th4+, Np4+, and Pu4+ by capric, α-bromocapric, and 3-fluorobenzoic acids showed that the extractive power of these carboxylic acids is inadequate for the observation of extraction enhancement. The study of the organic phase by the measurement of nitric acid displacement and by dielectric method shows that trilaurylamine and carboxylic acids react to give the compounds R3N(HA)4 (pelargonic and capric acids) and R3N(HA)2

  5. Extraction of metal nitrates and nitric acid

    Considered are the effects of uranyl nitrate extraction with diethyl ether (DE) from binary and ternary solutions. Data are presented describing the extraction of uranyl nitrate at 25 deg C and a characteristic is given for the effect of salinators (NaNO3, Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2 and Cd(NO3)2) on the extraction. A possibility is shown of describing the equilibrium in extraction of micro- and macro-quantities of uranyl nitrate from its binary and ternary solutions. Thermodynamic extraction and distribution constants have been calculated and tabulated basing on the assumption of the nonstochiometric hydration of solvates in organic phase

  6. Flotation extraction of rhodanide indium complexes from acidic solutions

    Principle possibility of flotation extraction of indium rhodanide complexes from acid solutions (H2SO4, HCl, HBr, HF, HNO3, HI, H3PO4, CH3COOH, HClO4) is shown. Optimum conditions for their extraction are created in the range of moderate (0.01-0.1 g-eq./l acid in solution) acidity when using quaternary compounds, containing from 13 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl part as collectors. It is established experimentally that indium is extracted from weakly acidic solutions in the form of mixed complex anions according to ion exchange mechanism, from strong acidic ones - mainly in the form of acid complexes similar to addition reactions

  7. Solvent extraction of Sc(III from sulfuric acid solution by bis (2-ethylhexyl phosphinic acid in toluene

    PURSHOTTAM M. DHADKE

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction of scandium(III from sulfuric acid solution using bis(2-ethylhexyl phosphinic acid (PIA-8 in toluene has been studied. The extraction of scandium(III was found to be quantitative with 0.03 M PIA-8 in toluene in the acidic range of 0.1–0.5 M and 6.0–8.0 M H2SO4. The effect of the reagent concentration and other parameters on the extraction of scandium(III was also studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of scandium(III was determined on the basis of the slope analysis method. The extraction reaction proceeds via the cation exchange mechanism in the H2SO4 concentration range of 0.1–0.5 M and the extracted species is ScR3.3HR. However, at higher acidity (6.0 M –8.0 M H2SO4 it proceeds by solvation. The extracted species is HSc(SO42.4HR. The temperature dependencies of the extraction equilibrium constants were examined to estimate the apparent thermodynamic functions (DH, DS and DG for the extraction reaction.

  8. Effects of ultrahigh pressure extraction on yield and antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside extracted from flower buds of Lonicera japonica.

    Hu, Wen; Guo, Ting; Jiang, Wen-Jun; Dong, Guang-Li; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to establish and optimize a new method for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from Lonicera japonica Thunb. through orthogonal experimental designl. A new ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract chlorogenic acid and cynaroside from L. japonica. The influential factors, including solvent type, ethanol concentration, extraction pressure, time, and temperature, and the solid/liquid ratio, have been studied to optimize the extraction process. The optimal conditions for the UPE were developed by quantitative analysis of the extraction products by HPLC-DAD in comparison with standard samples. In addition, the microstructures of the medicinal materials before and after extraction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of different extraction methods and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were as follows: ethanol concentration, 60%; extraction pressure, 400 MPa; extraction time, 2 min; extraction temperature, 30 °C; and the solid/liquid ratio, 1 : 50. Under these conditions, the yields of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside were raised to 4.863% and 0.080%, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, such as heat reflux extraction (HRE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and Sohxlet extraction (SE), the UPE method showed several advantages, including higher extraction yield, shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption, and higher purity of the extracts. This study could help better utilize L. japonica flower buds as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26073341

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  10. Use of a pulsed column with discs and crowns for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    The physico-chemistry of the system phosphoric acid-uranium-dioctylpyrophosphoric acid is studied for the determination of analytical methods and extraction parameters (oxidation state of uranium and iron, phosphorus concentration, extractant concentration). Extraction is then realized on a pilot scale with a liquid-liquid extraction column 4m high and of 50 mm in diameter with a column packing made of discs and crowns. Column efficiency is evaluated by studying uranium transfer as a function of operating conditions. The results obtained are extrapolated to an industrial scale and a comparative economic evaluation is made between a pulsed column and a mixer-settler

  11. Actinide and lanthanide extraction from nitric acid solutions by flotation

    Flotation of thorium, plutonium(IV), uranium(VI) and gadolinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions (HNO3) was investigated using lauryl phosphoric acid (LPA) as a SAS-collector. It is established that the extent of removal of the metal ions increases with the amount of LPA introduced, regardless of the solution acidity. It is shown that in principle ∼ 100% extraction of plutonium(IV) and thorium by flotation is possible regardless of the acidity of aqueous solutions. Ca(NO3)2 added to the system does not significantly affect the flotation extraction of thorium. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs

  12. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  13. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Rob S.T.; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modifi...

  14. Sensitive GC/MS determination of 15 isomers of chlorobenzoic acids in accelerated solvent extracts of soils historically contaminated with PCBs and validation of the entire method

    Křesinová, Zdena; Hostačná, Lucie; Medková, Jaroslava; Čvančarová, Monika; Stella, Tatiana; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 8 (2014), s. 822-836. ISSN 0306-7319 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) 13-28283S; GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : chlorobenzoic acid * GC/MS * separation * PCB * contamination Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.295, year: 2014

  15. Analytical methods and problems for the diamides type of extractants

    Diamides of carboxylic acids and especially malonamides are able to extract alpha emitters (including trivalent ions such as Am and Cm) contained in the wastes solutions of the nuclear industry. As they are completely incinerable and easy to purify, they could be an alternative to the mixture CMPO-TBP which is used in the TRUEX process. A large oxyalkyl radical enhances the distribution coefficients of americium in nitric acid sufficiently to permit the decontamination of wastes solutions in a classical mixers-settlers battery. Now researches are pursued with the aim of optimizing the formula of extractant, the influence of the structure of the extractant on its basicity and stability under radiolysis and hydrolysis is investigated. Analytical methods (potentiometry and NMR of C13) have been developed for solvent titration and to evaluate the percentage of degradation and to identify some of the degradation products

  16. Comparison of some spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments

    Polak, J.; Bartoszek, M.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    Comparison of the physico-chemical properties was carried out for humic acids extracted from sewage sludge and bottom sediments. The isolated humic acids were investigated by means of EPR, IR, UV/vis spectroscopic methods and elementary analysis AE. On the basis of earlier studies it was stated that humic acids extracted from sewage sludge can be divided into humic acids extracted from raw sewage sludge and from sewage sludge after the digestion process. The digestion process was found to have the most significant effect on the physico-chemical properties of humic acids extracted from sludge during sewage treatment. Humic acids extracted from sewage sludge had higher free radical concentration than humic acid extracted from bottom sediments. Values of the g-factor were similar for all studied samples. However, it is noteworthy that g-factor values for humic acid extracted from raw sewage sludge and from bottom sediments were lower in comparison to the humic acid extracted from sewage sludge after the fermentation processes. The IR spectra of all studied humic acids confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic for humic substances. It was also observed that humic acids extracted from bottom sediments had a more aromatic character and contained less carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen than those extracted from the sewage sludge.

  17. Application of dissolvable layered double hydroxides as sorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction and extraction by co-precipitation for the determination of aromatic acid anions.

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2013-08-01

    Three types of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides were synthesized and employed as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents to extract several aromatic acids (protocatechuic acid, mandelic acid, phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid) from aqueous samples. An interesting feature of these sorbents is that they dissolve when the pH of the solution is lower than 4. Thus, the analyte elution step, as needed in conventional sorbent-based extraction, was obviated by dissolving the sorbent in acid after extraction and separation from the sample solution. The extract was then directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection system for analysis. In the key adsorption process, both dispersive SPE and co-precipitation extraction with the sorbents were conducted and experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, and extraction time were optimized. The results showed that both extraction methods provided low limits of detection (0.03-1.47 μg/L) and good linearity (r(2) > 0.9903). The optimized extraction conditions were applied to human urine and sports drink samples. This new and interesting extraction approach was demonstrated to be a fast and efficient procedure for the extraction of organic anions from aqueous samples. PMID:23855757

  18. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  19. POLY(AMINOMETHYLENEPHOSPHONIC ACID FOR SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METAL IONS

    M’hamed Kaid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaminododecyltetramethylenetetraphosphonic acid (DADTMTPA has been investigated in liquid - liquid extraction of Zn (II and Cu (II in acetate media. The extraction of both cations was carried out in different media with the addition of CH3COONa, CH3COOH, HCl and H2SO4 at different pH values. The maximum extraction yield for copper is 70% after addition of 10 mg of sodium acetate and for zinc is 30% after addition of acetic acid at pHi = 5.5, in one step.

  20. SLUG FLOW CAPILLARY MICROREACTORS FOR LACTIC ACID EXTRACTION: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MASS TRANSFER MODELLING

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and has been widely used for manufacturing biodegradable polymer. Current method of lactic acid isolation from fermentation broths is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. Reactive liquid-liquid extraction has been repor

  1. Solvent extraction photometric determination of vanadium in different oxidation states by means of hydrozamic acids

    Extracton of vanadium(3, 4, 5) complexes with benzohydroxamic and salicylhydroxamic acids by using mixture (3:2) of heptyl alcohol with carbon tetrachloride has been studied. Physicochemical characteristics of the complexes have been found. A method has been developed for the extraction-photometric determination of vanadium (4, 5) with the use of salicylhydroxamic acid

  2. Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

  3. Chloroform extraction of ethyl xanthate complexes from sulphuric acid media

    The chloroform extraction of 30 elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Ge, Sn, V, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Mn, Re, Ga, In, Tl, Se, Te, Cr, Mo, U, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru and Ce) from 0.1 to 8 M sulphuric acid in the presence of potassium ethyl xanthate has been studied. Pd(II), Bi, As(III), Sb(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) are completely extracted and Au(III) is largely extracted over the range of acid concentration investigated. Fe(II), Tl(I), Rh(III) and Cr(VI) are only slightly extracted and Se(VI), Te(VI), Ru(III), Cr(III), Mn(II), Zn, Ce(IV), Ir(IV) and Ge(IV) are not extracted at all. Depending on the acid concentration, the remaining elements are all partly extracted. Results are compared with those obtained in an earlier study of the extraction of xanthate complexes from hydrochloric acid media. The processes involved in the formation of some xanthate complexes and potential analytical separations are discussed. (author)

  4. Extraction chromatographic studies of zirconium(IV) with n-capric acid

    A selective method has been developed for reversed phase extraction chromatographic studies of zirconium(IV) with high molecular weight carboxylic acid, n-capric acid as a stationary phase on a column of silica gel. Quantitative extraction of zirconium(IV) has been achieved from 0.01 M acetic acid solution in the pH range 2.5-5.0. The extracted zirconium(IV) has been stripped with nitric acid (4 M) and estimated spectrophotometrically. THe effect of variables as pH, stripping agents, flow rate on extraction and elution have been studied. Exchange capacity of the exchanger and breakthrough capacity have been determined. Zirconium(IV) has been separated from various elements. Zirconium(IV) has also been separated from several synthetic multicomponent mixtures. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Separate extraction of manganese and vanadium compounds from acid technological solutions

    The technological scheme of separate extraction of manganese (2) and vanadium compounds (vanadates) from acid technological solution forming at the production of technical vanadium dioxide (5) from the slag of metallurgical production by hydro-metallurgical method by their treatment by the solution of potassium permanganate with the selection of total manganese mass into manganese dioxide deposit extracted from acid solutions by the filtration or flotation has been described. After the extraction of manganese from acid solutions they are feeding to hydrolythical extraction of technical vanadium dioxide (5). The tests have shown that previous purification of technological acid solutions from manganese was of 89-96%, which leads to the decrease of its content in the melted ferrovanadium with the increase of the quality and cost of the latter

  6. Extraction of gold, palladium, and platinum from acidic media with cyclic sulfoxide derivative

    Songping Wu; Guobang Gu

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) from the acidic media with the cyclic sulfoxide derivative of a-dodecyl-tetrahydrothiophene 1-oxide (dtmso) was investigated. Gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ), and platinum (Ⅳ) could be separated from the acidic media with suitable sulfoxide concentration and acidity. The extraction reaction of gold (Ⅲ), palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is exothermic when dtmso is used as an extracting reagent. The coordination number was studied by the slope method. The results indicate that, in high acidity, the dtmso coordination number for extracting gold (Ⅲ) or palladium (Ⅱ) is 3, and that for platinum (Ⅳ) is 2. UV and FT-IR spectra were used to analyze the structure of the complex. Gold (Ⅲ) is coordinated with the oxygen atom in S=O group in dtmso, and palladium (Ⅱ) or platinum (Ⅳ) is coordinated with the sulfur atom in S=O group in dtmso.

  7. Extraction of Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Rousková, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Algae are the most often processed as a fast growing biomass with a high proportion of lipids. Their composition is suitable as nutraceuticals owing to the high content of proteins, vitamins, enzymes, fatty acids, pigments with antioxidant effect (especially carotenoids) and other valuable substances.

  8. A rapid method for preparation of nucleic acid extracts from potato psyllids for detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solancearum' and molecular analysis

    A rapid method has been developed and validated for PCR analysis of potato psyllids for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso), the causal agent of zebra chip disease of potatoes. The method is also suitable for PCR amplification and high resolution melting analysis of the cytochrome oxidase I ...

  9. Black extraction method using gamut boundary descriptors

    Cho, Min-Ki; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2006-01-01

    Color data conversion between CMYK and CIEL*a*b* color space is not directly corresponded, that is many CMYK combinations could reproduce the same CIEL*a*b* value. When building a LUT converting from CIEL*a*b* to CMYK for a CMYK color printer, one to one correspondence between CMYK and CIEL*a*b* must be aimed. The proposed method in this paper follows steps: (1) print and measure CIEL*a*b* values of CMYK reference chart, (2) set-up parameters to assign the amount of black extraction, (3) generate gamut boundary descriptors for gamut mapping and for black extraction using CMYK-CIEL*a*b* data under predetermined black extraction parameters, (4) perform gamut mapping for given CIEL*a*b* using the gamut boundary descriptor for gamut mapping, (5) determine K value of the gamut-mapped CIEL*a*b* using the gamut boundary descriptors for black extraction. The suggested method determines K value for given CIEL*a*b* using gamut boundary descriptors in CIEL*a*b color space. As a result, a color printer using this method can make out accurate black amount and reproduces more consistent CMYK images under different black extraction options.

  10. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.

    R. H. R. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaustion of the oil contained in the seeds. The sequential extraction used ethyl ether, ethanol and water as solvents. The Soxhlet extraction was the most effective (58.93%, while the SFE technique obtained 26.47% as the best result. The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with good oxidation inhibition percentages (29.32-83.49% for all the extracts. The main fatty acids (FA in sesame oil were oleic and linoleic acids.

  11. Comparison of methods for DNA extraction from Candida albicans

    Dadgar, Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Invasive Candida infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised patient. Molecular diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods, such as real time PCR, has been reported as an alternative to conventional culture for early detection of invasive candidiasis. The template DNA extraction step has been the major limitation in most reported nucleic acid based assays, due to problems in breaking fungal cell walls and incomplete purification in PCR inhibitor ...

  12. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Thomas James Schwartz; Martin Lawoko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficie...

  13. Extraction of scandium by sorption from sulfuric acid solutions

    Ion-exchange resin to scandium extract from technical solution with a high salt background is selected. It is shown that scandium sorption ability on phosphoric acid resins from synthetic and technological sulphate solutions with the acidity of 1.8-3.8 n is the function of solution motion rate through the layer of resin and of the sorbent linkage degree. Sulfuric acid concentration in the range of 1.8-3.8 n does not affect the sorption ability of scandium. 2n solution of Na2CO3 is one of the most efficient eluents for scandium from phosphoric acid resin

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufonsinate in water using online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromat

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of glyphosate, its principal degradation compound, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water with varying matrices has been developed. Four different sample matrices fortified at 0.2 and 2.0 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) were analyzed using precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). After derivatization, cleanup and concentration were accomplished using automated online solid-phase extraction followed by elution with the mobile phase allowing for direct injection into a liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer (LC/MS). Analytical conditions for MS detection were optimized, and quantitation was carried out using the following representative ions: 390 and 168 for glyphosate; 332, 110, and 136 for AMPA; and 402, 180, and 206 for glufosinate. Matrix effects were minimized by utilizing standard addition for quantification and an isotope-labeled glyphosate (2-13C,15N) as the internal standard. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.084 ?g/L for glyphosate, 0.078 ?g/L for AMPA, and 0.057 ?g/L for glufosinate. The method reporting limits (MRLs) were set at 0.1 ?g/L for all three compounds. The mean recovery values ranged from 88.0 to 128.7 percent, and relative standard deviation values ranged from 5.6 to 32.6 percent.

  15. A new method for extracting domain terminology

    PEI Bing-zhen; CHEN Xiao-rong; HU Yi; LU Ru-zhan

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a new general, highly efficient algorithm for extracting domain terminologies.This domain-independent algorithm with multi-layers of filters is a hybrid of statistic-oriented and rule-oriented methods. Utilizing the features of domain terminologies and the characteristics that are unique to Chinese, this algorithm extracts domain terminologies by generating multi-word unit (MWU) candidates at first and then filtering the candidates through multi-strategies. Our test results show that this algorithm is feasible and effective.

  16. The influence of temperature on scandium extraction from sulfuric acid solutions with organophosphorus extractants

    In the temperature range 10-65 deg C effect of temperature on scandium extraction from sulfuric acid solutions (0.1-8 mol'l) by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, poly-2-ethylhexylphosphonitrilic acid and tributylphosphate has been studied. It is established that scandium extraction in this system in wide pH range with temperature growth usually decreases or isooccompanied by minimal thermal effects (-Δ = 0-4.8 kcal/mol). Only in low acidic region (∼ 0.1 mol/l H2SO4) certain increase of scandium distribution coefficients with temperature growth takes place; it relates with dominant effect of cation exchange extraction of scandium in the given conditions. 8 refs.; 5 tabs

  17. Solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid with high-molecular alkylamines

    Extraction of dodecamolibdophosphoric acid H3PMo12O40 by nitrates of some high molecular amines (di-(2-ethylene-hexyl)-amine, diponylamine, diisoamyloctylamine) dichlorthane solution has been studied. The composition of associates in the organic phase may be presented as (BH3)PMo12O40, where BH+ is the protonized form of the amine. The overall conventional equilibrium constant of complex formation and extraction equals (1.51+-0.35)x1011

  18. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  19. Determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    FENG Huiqin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim To develop a method for determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum. Method The samples of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with ethanol and successively extracted with CHCl3 and 5% NaHCO3,the NaHCO3 layer was acidified to pH 3 with 2 mol/L HCl,the resulting precipitates were dissolved in CHCl3 and evaporated in vacuo then weighed. The total triterpenoid acids were obtained. Result The total triterpenoid acids of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody,spore and mycelium were (8.58±0.25 mg/g,(3.48±0.03 mg/g and (1.75 ±0.09 mg/g respectively. The total triterpenoid acids of pileus and stipe were (12.62±0.22 mg/g and (7.66±0.08 mg/g. The range of total triterpenoid acid content among 10 batches of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody purchased from the market was between 4.34 to 16.39 mg/g. The highest content fro/8/8/88/ m Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body with alcohol - water extracting was (208.70±5.54 mg/g and the lowest content with alkaline solution extracting was (123.07±4.99 mg/g. The composition of total triterpenoid acid from fruitbody,spores and extract of fruitbody analyzed by HPLC were almost the same. This method is reliable for determination of total triterpenoid acid in the fruiting body and its extracts,spore and mycelium from Ganoderma lucidum,which provides an indicator for the quality of Ganoderma lucidum product.

  20. Extraction of perrhenic acid by TBP and methyl ethyl ketone

    Extraction of perrhenic acid in the absence and presence of sodium salts (NaCl, NaNO3) is studied using rhenium-186, 188. Distribution coefficients of perrhenic acid grow with the increase of rhenium (7) concentration in the aqueous phase, this being connected with acid polymerization in the organic phase as a result of hydrogen bond formation. Perrhenic acid and its salt are extracted in the presence of NaCl or NaNO3. That is why, rhenium (7) distribution coefficient dependence curves have minimums. Existence of minimums is conditioned by the superposition of two processes- NaReO4 dissociation and HReO4 association in the organic phase

  1. Experimental design as a tool to evaluate chlorogenic and caffeic acids extracted from Cecropia glaziovii Sneth.

    Arend, Daniela P; dos Santos, Talitha Caldas; Sonaglio, Diva; Dos Santos, Ana Lúcia Gomes; Reginatto, Flávio H; de Campos, Angela M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different parameters, including ethanol concentration, time of drug:solvent contact, temperature and the presence of a preservative, on chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CFA) yields in Cecropia glaziovii Sneth extracts were investigated using an experimental design. In order to quantify the phenolic acids in these extracts a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated. Extracts with 80% ethanol presented a higher CGA content, but low amounts of CFA. Extracts with 20% ethanol showed a higher CFA concentration, but a sharp reduction in CGA extraction yield. The presence of a preservative, under the same extraction conditions, resulted in a slight difference or no difference in the CGA and CFA extraction yields. When the temperature was controlled at refrigerator or room temperature, a slight alteration in the concentrations of the phenolics studied was observed. The present approach can be applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of C. glaziovii Sneth extracts based on CGA or CFA extraction yield as a chemical marker. PMID:20837386

  2. Comparison of extraction methods for the hypotensive drugs from Eucommia ulmoides

    Cao Hui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction methods using Soxhlet extraction (SE, enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EE, semi-bionic extraction (SBE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were evaluated for the yields of geniposidic acid (GPA and geniposide (GPS from the bark of Eucommia ulmoides. The results showed that the yields of GPA and GPS attained by EE and SBE were highest, respectively. Compared with various extraction methods for the extraction of GPA and GPS, the SBE was more efficient than other methods. There was no organic solvent used in SBE. The pH values of semi-bionic extraction were the same as in the human body. The results indicate that SBE can be used for large-scale and efficient extraction of GPA and GPS from plant materials. The time taken by SFE was longer than other methods, but the yields of GPA and GPS were the lowest. .

  3. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid from soils using supercritical and pressurized fluids.

    Chaudot, X; Tambuté, A; Caude, M

    2000-08-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized fluids are compared for the extraction with in situ derivatization of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA) from a series of seven spiked soils. Samples are allowed to age (up to 42 days) and periodically extracted. Sample ageing leads to a recovery decrease due to the development of strong interactions between CVAA and matrix active sites, as time elapses. A similar behavior is observed when usual ultrasonic extraction is performed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with in situ derivatization leads to the highest recovery. Moreover, SFE allows a solvent consumption reduction. A limit of detection of 0.2 microg/g is reached with the SFE method. PMID:10949499

  4. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  5. The influence of cations in phosphoric acid on the extraction of uranium

    Commercial phosphoric acid produced by the wet method is not a pure compound. It contains many contaminants. Effect of certain cations in the commercial phosphoric acid produced by SIAPE wet method in Homs General Fertilizer Company on the distribution coefficient (Kd) of uranium is studied. The effect of Fe3+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ and V5+ on uranium extraction by D2EHPA/TOPO was investigated according to the factorial design method. The results obtained showed that Al3+ and Ca2+ had a marked beneficial effect on uranium extraction while Mg2+, Fe3+ and V5+ had a negligible effect. An increase in Fe2+ led to a decrease in the extraction of UO22+ from phosphoric acid. (author)

  6. Rapid Extraction of Human DNA Containing Humic Acid

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis Gojanović, Marija; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    The identification process of dead bodies or human remains is nowadays conducted in numerous fields of forensic science, archeology and other judicial cases. A particular problem is the isolation and DNA typing of human remains found in mass graves, due to the degradation process, as well as post mortal DNA contamination with bacteria, fungi, humic acids, metals, etc. In this study, the influence of humic acid (HA) on the DNA extraction and typing is investigated. If present in...

  7. Extraction of nitric acid, technetium and palladium by bidentate carbamoylphosphonates

    Gorski, B.; Kuca, L.; Petrzilova, H.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction of HNOsub(3), TcOsub(4)sup(-), and Pd by solutions of dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbomylmethylenephosphonate (DBDECMP) and dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate (DBDECP) in CClsub(4) was studied. At low aqueous acidities, HNOsub(3) is extracted by both extractants (S) as HNOsub(3) x S and HNOsub(3)xSsub(2), at > IM HNOsub(3) only HNOsub(3)xS is formed. The distribution of TcOsub(4)sup(-) and Pd(II) is nearly independent of HNOsub(3) concentration. A second power dependence on extractant concentration was found for the extraction of Pd(II) by DBDECMP and TcOsub(4)sup(-) by DBDECP, and a 4th power dependence for TcOsub(4)sup(-) - DBDECMP. (author). 9 refs.; 7 figs.

  8. [Study on technique of extraction and purifying chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves].

    Liu, Junhai; Qiu, Aiyong

    2004-12-01

    Ethanol was used as solvent to extract chlorogenic acid from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum conditions are obtained by response surface analytical method. Optimized conditions for the extraction of chlorogenic acid were obtained: ethanol 51.7%, extraction temperature 55.8 degrees C, ratio of material to liquor 1:12.8, extraction time 2 h. The static adsorption tests are conducted among six kinds of macroporous resins to select NKA-II resin as a optimum resin to adsorb the chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum adsortion-elution conditions are as follow: adsorption flow rate is 2 ml/min, crude liquid flew twice through the adsorption column,the optimum adsorbent is 40% ethanol. PMID:15807249

  9. Real-Time PCR for detection of herpes simplex virus without nucleic acid extraction

    Klausner Jeffrey

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The speed and sensitivity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR have made it a popular method for the detection of microbiological agents in both research and clinical specimens. For the detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus (HSV in clinical specimens, real-time PCR has proven to be faster, more sensitive and safer than earlier methods which included isolation of the virus in cell culture followed by immunofluorescence microscopy. While PCR-based assays for HSV detection posses clear advantages over these earlier techniques, certain aspects of the PCR method remain onerous. The process of extraction and purification of nucleic acid from clinical specimens prior to PCR is particularly cumbersome. Nucleic acid extraction is expensive, time-consuming and provides a step whereby specimens can become contaminated prior to their analysis. Herein, we investigate the necessity of nucleic acid extraction from swab-based clinical specimens for HSV detection by real-time PCR. We find that nucleic acid extraction is unnecessary for specific and sensitive detection of HSV in clinical specimens using real-time PCR. Methods Prospective (n = 36 and retrospective (n = 21 clinical specimens from various anatomical sites were analyzed for the presence of herpes simplex virus 1 or 2 by real-time PCR using the RealArt HSV 1/2 LC PCR Kit. Specimens were analyzed by PCR both before and following automated nucleic acid extraction. PCR using extracted and unextracted specimens was also compared to cell culture as a means of detecting HSV. Results Detection of HSV 1/2 DNA in clinical specimens by real-time PCR did not require that the specimen be subjected to nucleic acid extraction/purification prior to analysis. Each specimen that was detectable by real-time PCR when analyzed in the extracted form was also detectable when analyzed in the unextracted form using the methods herein. The limit of detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2 particles

  10. Extraction of Phthalic Acid from Aqueous Solution by Using Ionic Liquids: A Quantum Chemical Approach

    Pilli, S; Mohanty, Kaustubha; Banerjee, Tamal

    2014-01-01

    Phthalic acid is an industrial chemical and it comes under the domain of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Green solvents such as ionic liquids (ILs) posses good extractable capabilities for EDCs. COSMO–RS methodology is a widely accepted method for the design or selection of ionic liquids. COSMO–RS is a quantum chemical based method based on COSMO polarization charge densities. In this work the model has been used to screen the potential ionic liquids for the removal of phthalic acid fr...

  11. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative. PMID:9063095

  12. Amine effect on lanthanum and scandium extraction with caproic and α-bromocaproic acids

    Lanthanum and scandium extraction with 1 mol. chloroform solutions of n-caproic and α-bromocaproic acids in the presence of benzyl amine and n-butyl-amine, pyridine and 2-aminopyridine is investigated. Composition of carboxylates in organic phase is determined. It is established that introduction of strong organic nitrogen-containing bases-n-butylamine, benzyl amine-extends considerably pH range at which the mentioned metals are extracted into chloroform quantitatively. The effect of citrate- and tartrate- ions upon the extraction of capronates and aminocapronates of scandium and lanthanum is investigated. To separate lanthanum and scandium from interfering elements investigated is extraction of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium by the mixtures of the above carboxylic acids and amines. Developed are methods of extraction separation of scandium and lanthanum from alkaline-earth elements taking solutions of artificial mixtures as examples

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate content change of the fresh tea leaf homogenates ex-tracted by different methods in extraction and preservation

    YANG Lei; GAO Yan-hua; ZU Yuan-gang; LIU Xiao-na; WANG Lei; ZU Shu-chong

    2006-01-01

    The fresh leaves of China green tea, Camellia sinensis, were collected from Fuyang, Zhejiang Province, China, in April. The tea polyphenols was extracted by four different methods (homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 0.3% citric acid (w/v) at room temperature, 5- min boiling and homogenized with distilled water at room temperature, homogenized with 85℃ distilled water), and after preserving at room temperature, the change of the Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) contents of the extracts was investigated. Results indicated that the EGCG content of homogenate extracted with 85℃ distilled water was the highest before the extract was preserved, followed by that of the extract homogenized with 0.3% citric acid at room temperature. During preservation, EGCG content changed obviously. The EGCG contents of homogenates extracted with distilled water at room temperature and 85℃ distilled water declined quickly and separately reduced to 21.52% and 54.6% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. The EGCG contents extracted by 0.3% citric acid (w/v) solvent at room temperature and 5- min boiling/homogenized with distilled water at room temperature declined relatively slowly ,and separately reduced to 76.9% and 85.16% of their initial contents after preservation for 12 h. It was also found that the citric acid can prevent the degradation of EGCG and the extract solution color is light green

  14. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    Pornanong Aramwit; Sorada Kanokpanont; Titpawan Nakpheng; Teerapol Srichana

    2010-01-01

    Silk sericin (SS) can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, b...

  15. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne;

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions on......Background and Aims Pectin is a complex macromolecule, the fine structure of which is influenced by many factors. It is used as a gelling, thickening and emulsifying agent in a wide range of applications, from food to pharmaceutical products. Current industrial pectin extraction processes are based...... the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid...

  16. Group concentration of metals by extraction by mixture of heptanoic acid with benzoylhydrazine

    Effect of benzoylhydrazine on the absolute concentrating of copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc by chloroform solution of heptanoic acid is investigated. It is established that at the phases ratio Vsub(w):Vsub(o)=10 copper is concentrated by 1-mol. chloroform solution of heptanoic acid well enough, zinc and cadmium are extracted insignificantly, and nickel and cobalt are not practically extracted; single extraction by the mixture of heptanoic acid (1-mol.) and benzoylhydrazine (0.5-mol.) in chloroform promotes to quantitative transfer of metals in the organic phase, at that, at pH 6-8 group extraction is observed (under condition, that Vsub(w):Vsub(o) <= 20). Shown is possibility of the concentrating of impurities in natural waters in the process of extraction by chloroform solution of heptanoic acid, containing benzoylhydrazine with subsequent atomic-absorption element determination directly in the extract. Cd determination limit constitutes 0.5 mkg/l. Destruction method of large amounts of humic acids, affecting metal concentrating, is suggested

  17. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. PMID:26709302

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction of scandium with nalidixic acid in dichloromethane

    The extraction behavior of nalidixic acid (HNA) in CH2Cl2 has been studied for various di- and trivalent metal ions such as Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Sb(II), Co(II), Sc(III), Y(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous buffer solutions of pH 1-7 with 0.1 mol dm-3 nalidixic acid in dichloromethane. Separation factors of Sc(III) from these metals has shown that its clean separation is possible at pH 3.4-4. The parameters affecting the extraction of Sc(III) were optimized. The composition of the extracted adduct was determined by slope analysis method that came out to be Sc(NA)3. Extraction of Sc(III) was studied in the presence of various cations and anions. Among the anions studied only fluoride, citrate and oxalate have significant interference whereas, Fe(III) has reduced the extraction to 53% that can be removed by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The proposed extraction system proved good stability up to six extraction-stripping stages for the extraction of Sc(III). (author)

  19. Dialkyldithiophosphoric acids - chemical properties and 5f and 4f elements ions extraction

    This work is a contribution to the study of the properties of the dialkyldithiophosphoric acids and of the extraction of the 4f and 5f ions from weakly acidic nitrate and phosphate media. Following a complete bibliographic study, synthesis and purification of the di-2-ethylhexyl-dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP) is studied. It is identified with chemical methods and spectroscopic methods (I.R., N.M.R., V.P.C.); its by products, the di-2-ethylhexyl (monothio) phosphoric acids (HDEHTP, HDEHP) are also identified and characterized. Stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis is determined. The extractive properties are studied for the 4f and 5f ions. The presence of a sulfur donor atom in HDEHDTP makes it inefficient for the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides but brings out a certain selectivity for americium. For HDEHTP, the presence of an oxygen donor atom rubs out any selectivity and the extraction constants are greater. Selectivity of HDEHDTP is increased by TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) in synergistic mixtures. The mechanism of extraction of hexavalent uranium from phosphoric medium is elucidated. A model is developed by NMR for the micellisation of the sodium salts of HDEHDTP, HDEHTP and HDEHP, and extrapolated it to the trivalent rare earth salts of the acids. The structures are verified by light scattering and low angle X-ray diffraction

  20. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  1. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    MichaelLappé

    2011-11-01

    Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  2. Method of drill-worm coal extraction

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bratishcheva, L.L.; Savich, N.S.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase extraction productivity. This goal is achieved because according to the method of drill-worm coal extraction which includes drilling from one preparatory shaft to the second of wells by paired worm shaft on a guide which is pulled into the drilled well during reverse course of the shaft, and reinforcement of the drilled well, the drilled well is reinforced by a wedge timbering which bulges out during drilling of the next well. According to the proposed method, coal is extracted by drilling wells from the preparatory shaft 1 (a haulage gallery is shown in the example). Drilling of the wells is done with the help of a sectional worm shaft equipped with a drilling crown and guide device, equipped with a cantilever used to attach the guide device to the main section of the worm shaft. The guide device also includes two horizontally installed, freely rotating cylinders located in front of the drilling crowns in the previously drilled well and the guide ski. During drilling of the well in the second preparatory shaft (a ventilation gallery is indicated in the example) on the guide platform sets of wedge timbering are installed connected with the help of flexible ties, for example chain segments. The wedge timbering (including the main set) consists of wedge elements made of inexpensive material, for example slag-concrete.

  3. Controllable Phase Separation by Boc-Modified Lipophilic Acid as a Multifunctional Extractant

    Kai Tao; Lihi Adler-Abramovich; Ehud Gazit

    2015-01-01

    While phase separation of immiscible liquid-liquid systems has become increasingly significant in diverse areas, the irreversible nature limits their further application in controllable extraction-concentration or capture-release fields. There is a need for the development of simple, efficient and reversible methods for numerous research and industrial extraction and separation applications. We envisioned Boc-modified lipophilic acids as a simple model for such use based on the studies of the...

  4. REMOVAL OF ACID-SOLUBLE LIGNIN FROM BIOMASS EXTRACTS USING AMBERLITE XAD-4 RESIN

    Thomas James Schwartz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the removal of acid-soluble lignin from acid hydrolyzed hemicelluloses extracted from a mixture of northern hardwood chips, by using Amberlite XAD-4 resin, which was shown to remove 100% of furan derivatives and 90% of acid-soluble lignin. Subsequent fermentation of the resin treated hydrolyzates gave ethanol yields as high as 97% of theoretical and showed a marked increase in fermentation rate. Regeneration of resin performed with 75% acetone was 85% efficient with respect to acid soluble lignin.

  5. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  6. Cyclopamine bioactivity by extraction method from Veratrum californicum.

    Turner, Matthew W; Cruz, Roberto; Mattos, Jared; Baughman, Nic; Elwell, Jordan; Fothergill, Jenny; Nielsen, Anna; Brookhouse, Jessica; Bartlett, Ashton; Malek, Petr; Pu, Xinzhu; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-08-15

    Veratrum californicum, commonly referred to as corn lily or Californian false hellebore, grows in high mountain meadows and produces the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine, a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. The Hh pathway is a crucial regulator of many fundamental processes during vertebrate embryonic development. However, constitutive activation of the Hh pathway contributes to the progression of various cancers. In the present study, a direct correlation was made between the extraction efficiency for cyclopamine from root and rhizome by eight methods, and the associated biological activity in Shh-Light II cells using the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System. Alkaloid recovery ranged from 0.39 to 8.03mg/g, with ethanol soak being determined to be the superior method for obtaining biologically active cyclopamine. Acidic ethanol and supercritical extractions yielded degraded or contaminated cyclopamine with lower antagonistic activity towards Hh signaling. PMID:27338657

  7. Method for the extraction chromatographic separation of barium from other elements with dibenzo-18-crown-6

    A method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic separation of barium from 0.01 M picric acid solution with dibenzo-18-crown-6 coated on hydrophobic silica gel as the stationary phase. Various mineral acids can be used as stripping agents. Barium was separated from other elements by selective extraction and the separation of barium from alkali and alkaline earth metals, uranium, thorium and lead was achieved. The method was applied to the determination of barium in real samples. (author)

  8. Di-4-octylphenylphosphoric acid as extractant : extraction of vanadium (IV) and beryllium

    The extraction of vanadium and beryllium has been studied using di-4-octylphenyl phosphoric acid (DOPPA) as metal extractant. The factors which affect the extraction have been studied in detail. An attempt has been made to clarify the mechanism of extraction and compare the results with those reported for di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA). In the case of vanadium it was found that vanadium (IV) is more suitable for extraction. Synergistic extractionwas observed in the presence of neutral organophosphorous compounds like tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dibutyl butyl phosphate (DBBP) and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The possibility of separating vanadium and uranium when they are present together in leach solutions has also been studied. The extraction of beryllium was found to be a slow process. The factors controlling the rate as well as the extent of extraction have been investigated. However, the results showed that in both respects DOPPA is better than DEHPA which was earlier studied by other authors. The separation of aluminium from beryllium has also been studied. (author)

  9. Radiochemical extraction of mercury(II) from acidic chloride solutions using dialkylsulphides

    The liquid-liquid extraction behavior of Hg(II) from aqueous acidic chloride solutions has been investigated by tracer techniques using dialkylsulphides (R2S) namely, dibutylsulphide (DBS) and dioctylsulphide (DOS) as extractants. These extraction data have been analyzed by both graphical and theoretical methods by taking into account complexation of the metal ion in the aqueous phase with inorganic ligands and all plausible complexes extracted into the organic phase. The results clearly indicate that Hg(II) is extracted into xylene as HgCl2 x nDBS/nDOS (where n = 2 and 3). The equilibrium constants of the extracted complexes have been deduced by non-linear regression analysis. The separation possibilities of Hg(II) from other metal ions viz. Ca(II), Mg(II), Ba(II) and Fe(III), which are present in the industrial wastes of the chlor-alkali industry has also been discussed. (author)

  10. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods

    AD Schlindwein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV, hepatitis A virus (HAV, poliovirus (PV and rotavirus (RV and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge.

  11. Distribution Behavior of Aminobenzoic Acid by Extraction with Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    2000-01-01

    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) dissolved in n-octane or 1-octanol was carried out. The effects of aminobenzoic acid concentration, D2EHPA concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. The infrared spectra of the organic phase loaded with solute illustrated that pH had little effect on the structure of the complex formed. There proceed ion association and cation-exchange reaction in the extraction. An expression of the equilibrium distribution was proposed.

  12. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  13. Multicenter Comparative Evaluation of Five Commercial Methods for Toxoplasma DNA Extraction from Amniotic Fluid▿

    Yera, H; Filisetti, D.; Bastien, P.; Ancelle, T; Thulliez, P; Delhaes, L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, a number of new nucleic acid extraction methods and extraction platforms using chemistry combined with magnetic or silica particles have been developed, in combination with instruments to facilitate the extraction procedure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the suitability of these automated methods for the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii DNA from amniotic fluid (AF). Therefore, three automated procedures were compared to two commercialized manual ...

  14. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  15. Extraction behavior of molybdenum and zirconium with diisodecylphosphoric acid from nitric acid solution

    This study was performed mainly from the viewpoint of consumption of diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) by the extracted Mo and Zr to estimate extraction capacities. The number of DIDPA molecules consumed per one extracted Mo atom was four when the concentration of Mo in the aqueous phase was less than 10-3M and it decreased with increasing Mo concentration. Two molecules of DIDPA were consumed per one extracted Zr atom when the Zr concentration was high. Dependencies of the distribution ratio of Mo on the concentrations of Mo, DIDPA and HNO3 are also described. (author) 15 refs.; 7 figs

  16. Study of palladium extraction from nitric acid solutions by nitrogen-containing compounds as applied to fission-produced palladium extraction from NPP spent nuclear fuel. Communication 2. Radiation effect on palladium extraction and the state of extraction systems

    Extraction of palladium nitratocomplexes from 1-3 mol/l HNO3 in diethylbenzene solutions of tri-n.-octylamine and tricaprylmethylammoniumnitrate (Aliquat 336 nitrate) under gamma irradiation (60Co) at a dose up to 100 W h/l was studied using the methods of IR spectroscopy and elementary analysis. Reduction in acidity of aqueous ad organic phase and appearance of HNO2 in irradiated extraction systems was ascertained. It is shown that increase in the dose involves decrease in Pd extraction degree at the expense of partial destruction of organic phase. Effect of radiation on the extraction systems state was discussed

  17. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Solution by Aqueous Extract of Ajowan Plant as Green Inhibitor

    Aisha M. Al-Turkustani; Mona M. Al-Solmi

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition of aluminum corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid by Ajowan plant was studied using chemical (weight loss) and ectrochemical (impedance and polarization) methods. The Ajowan plant extract was found to be good inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid in the studied concentration range of inhibitor. Corrosion inhibition could be explained by considering an interaction between metal surface and the inhibitor molecules. Electrochemical measurements showed that Ajo...

  18. Detection of Chlorogenic Acid in Honeysuckle Using Infrared-Assisted Extraction Followed by Capillary Electrophoresis with UV Detector

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in wa...

  19. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  20. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  1. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l-1 of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y (μg l-1) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods

  2. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. PMID:25399968

  3. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660±0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46±0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 x 106±3.56 x 104 at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610±0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412±0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72±1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured

  4. Extraction of lanthanides with lipophilic crown ether carboxylic acids for neutron activation analysis

    Sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid (I) and its modified analogues (II) and (III) were applied to the extraction of the lanthanides in solutions with high ionic strength and complex matrices. Increasing the length of the side arm alkyl group increases the lipophilicity of the crown ether carboxylic acids and enhances the distribution ratio of the lanthanide-macrocycle complexes in the organic phase. Three lanthanides, La, Eu, and Lu, in natural waters were analyzed by extraction with 2-(sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxy)-steraric acid followed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The extraction method combined with NAA is capable of detecting the lanthanides at 10-4 μg/L level in complex aqueous systems

  5. Selective extraction of metals from products of mine acidic water treatment

    A study was made on possibility of processing of foam products prepared during flotation purification of mine acidic waters for the purpose of selective extraction of non-ferrous (Co, Ni) and rare earth elements (REE) and their separation from the basic macrocomponent of waters-iron. Optimal conditions of selective metal extraction from foam flotation products are the following: T=333 K, pH=3.0-3.5, ratio of solid and liquid phase - 1:4-1:7, duration of sulfuric acid leaching - 30 min. Rare earth extraction under such conditions equals 87.6-93.0%. The degree of valuable component concentration equals ∼ 10. Rare earths are separated from iron by extraction methods

  6. Hydrothermal acid treatment for sugar extraction from Golenkinia sp.

    Choi, Sun-A; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Jin-Suk; Kim, Seung Wook; Lee, Gye-An; Yun, Jihyun; Park, Ji-Yeon

    2015-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal acid treatment for efficient recovery of sugar from Golenkinia sp. was investigated. The initial glucose and XMG (xylose, mannose, and galactose) contents of a prepared Golenkinia sp. solution (40g/L) were 15.05 and 5.24g/L, respectively. The microalgal cell walls were hydrolyzed, for sugar recovery, by enzymatic saccharification and/or hydrothermal acid treatment. Among the various hydrothermal acid treatment conditions, the most optimal were the 2.0% H2SO4 concentration at 150°C for 15min, under which the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were 71.7% and 64.9%, respectively. By pH 4.8, 50°C enzymatic hydrolysis after optimal hydrothermal acid treatment, the glucose- and XMG-extraction yields were additionally increased by 8.3% and 0.8%, respectively. After hydrothermal acid treatment, the combination with the enzymatic hydrolysis process improved the total sugar yield of Golenkinia sp. to 75.4%. PMID:25976916

  7. Separation of middle rare earths by solvent extraction using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant

    Danilo; Fontana; Loris; Pietrelli

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of the trivalent middle rare earths from chloride media by kerosene solutions of 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as an extractant was studied. The separation factors between the elements using solution simulating wastes from NiMH spent batteries have been evaluated: the order of the extractive ability of extractant can be confirmed in ThGdEuSm.

  8. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  9. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  10. Extraction behavior of cerium by tetraoctyldiglycolamide from nitric acid solutions

    The diamide N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) was synthesized and characterized. The prepared TODGA was applied for extraction of Ce(III) from nitric acid solutions. The equilibrium studies included the dependencies of cerium distribution ratio on nitric acid, TODGA, nitrate ion, hydrogen ion and cerous ion concentrations. Analysis of the results indicates that the main extracted species is Ce(TODGA)2(NO3)3HNO3. The capacity of Ce loading is approximately 45 mmol/L for 0.1 M solution of TODGA in n-hexane. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters were calculated: K (25 deg C) = 3.8 x 103, ΔH = -36.7 ± 1.0 kJ/mol, ΔS = -54.6 ± 3.0 J/K mol, and ΔG = -20.4 ± 0.1 kJ/mol. (author)

  11. Method to extract oil from oil shale

    Oil is extracted from grinded hot oil shale by the treatment with an organic liquid, e.g. gas oil, at 350 to 4100C and elevated pressure in the presence of hydrogen. The admixed organic liquid is separated from the oil contained in the oil shake in an extraction vessel with benzine as the extracting agent. The mixture from the extracted components of the oil-shake and the extracting agent is dried in a drying vessel with low pressure steam. (HGOE)

  12. Combining C-value and Keyword Extraction Methods for Biomedical Terms Extraction

    Lossio-Ventura, Juan Antonio; Jonquet, Clement; Roche, Mathieu; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to extract and to rank biomedical terms from free text. We present new extraction methods that use linguistic patterns specialized for the biomedical field, and use term extraction measures, such as C-value, and keyword extraction measures, such as Okapi BM25, and TFIDF. We propose several combinations of these measures to improve the extraction and ranking process. Our experiments show that an appropriate harmonic mean of C-value used with keyword extraction mea...

  13. Diluent Effects in Amine Extraction of Sulfuric Acid

    Procházka, Jaroslav; Heyberger, Aleš; Volaufová, Eva

    Praha : Process Engineering Publisher, 2004, s. 561. ISBN 80-86059-40-5. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004 /16./. Praha (CZ), 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : diluent effects * amine extraction * sulfurid acid Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  14. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    Chunjian Zhao; Wenjie Wang; Yuangang Zu; Chunhui Ma; Lei Yang; Rongrui Zhang; Ge Zu

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extract...

  16. Unusual stable isotope ratios in amino acid and carboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite

    Epstein, S.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.; Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Yuen, G. U.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon in amino acid and monocarboxylic acid extracts from the Murchison meteorite has been determined. The unusually high D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios in the amino acid fraction are uniquely characteristic of known interstellar organic materials. The delta D value of the monocarboxylic acid fraction is lower but still consistent with an interstellar origin. These results confirm the extraterrestrial origin of both classes of compound and provide the first evidence suggesting a direct relationship between the massive organosynthesis occurring in interstellar clouds and the presence of prebiotic compounds in primitive planetary bodies.

  17. Solvent extraction studies on uranium (VI) with high molecular weight carboxylic acids from acetate medium

    Carboxylic acids are cation exchanger type of extractant which extract metal ions from weak acidic solutions by ion exchange mechanism. They are present as dimer (H2A2) in the non polar organic diluents. High molecular weight carboxylic acids such as versatic 10 acid and naphthenic acid are used for the separation of high purity of yttrium from heavy fraction of rare earths. Extraction behavior of rare earths with different types of carboxylic acids is also reported. Literature survey revealed that the extraction behavior of uranium from aqueous solutions with carboxylic acids is scanty. An attempt has been made in the present work to examine the extraction behavior of U(VI) with three different types of high molecular weight carboxylic acids namely cekanoic acid, neoheptanoic acid and versatic 10 acid dissolved in xylene. Extraction of metal ions is very much dependent on pH of the solution

  18. Solvent Extraction of Alkaline Earth Metals with Alkylphosphorus Acids

    XUXin; ZHUTun

    2002-01-01

    Solvent extraction equiliria of four main alkaline earth metals (magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium) with di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester, di(2,4,4-tri-methylpentyl) phosphinic acid and IR spectra of the extracts have been studied. The selectivity order is dependent of the e/r value and hydration energy of the metal ions. The minor shift of the P→O in IR absorption of the alkaline earth metal extracts indicates that the interaction between the metal ions and P→O is much weaker for alkaline earth metals than for transitional metals. The distribution of the four alkaline earth elements between aqueous solutions and solutions of DEHPA and neutral organophosphorus compunds, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) or tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) in kerosene have been determined at varying ratio of TBP or TOPO to DEHPA and the positive synergism is observed. The synergic effects is explained by using IR spectra of the loaded organic phase.

  19. Lactic acid bacterial extract as a biogenic mineral growth modifier

    Borah, Ballav M.; Singh, Atul K.; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2009-04-01

    The formation of minerals and mechanisms by which bacteria could control their formation in natural habitats is now of current interest for material scientists to have an insight of the mechanism of in vivo mineralization, as well as to seek industrial and technological applications. Crystalline uniform structures of calcium and barium minerals formed micron-sized building blocks when synthesized in the presence of an organic matrix consisting of secreted protein extracts from three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) viz.: Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1325, Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B4495 and Pediococcus acidilactici CFR K7. LABs are not known to form organic matrix in biological materialization processes. The influence of these bacterial extracts on the crystallization behavior was investigated in details to test the basic coordination behavior of the acidic protein. In this report, varied architecture of the mineral crystals obtained in presence of high molecular weight protein extracts of three different LAB strains has been discussed. The role of native form of high molecular weight bacterial protein extracts in the generation of nucleation centers for crystal growth was clearly established. A model for the formation of organic matrix-cation complex and the subsequent events leading to crystal growth is proposed.

  20. Extraction of rare earths and hydrochloric acid by trialkylphosphine oxide

    Extraction of rare earth chlorides and hydrochloric acid by trialkylphosphine oxide with different radicals (POR) (RR'2PO-POR, where RR'=alkyl of a normal structure, containing 7 to 9 carbon atoms, R=isoamyl) has been studied. Distribution of lanthanum-, neodymium-, lutetium- and yttrium chlorides during extraction with 1.28 mol/l POR solution in white spirit is investigated in the salt concentration range in the equilibrium aqueous phase from 0 to 2.8 mol/l. Lanthanide distribution coefficients increase with an increase in the order number of elements, with the separation coefficients of two extreme members of the series (Lu and La) for chlorides and nitrates constituting 100 and 80, respectively microquantities of Ln against the background of macroquantities of La is 2.6 mol/l. According to the results of measurements of viscosity, electric conductivity and water content in the extracts a conclusion is made on the state of salt in the organic phase. In the systems POR-LnCl3-HCl-H2O the hydrochloric acid extraction increases with an increase in the rare earth chloride concentration and order number of the element

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of boron by solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid and malachite green

    A very simple and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of boron was developed. Boron was found to react with 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid in weak acidic aqueous solution at room temperature to form a complex anion which can be extracted into chlorobenzene with malachite green in a single extraction; boron is determined indirectly by measuring the absorbance of malachite green in the extract at 629 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the range (7.50 x 10-7 - 2.00 x 10-5) mol dm-3 boron; the apparent molar absorptivity is 6.50 x 104 dm3 mol-1 cm-1. The method is applied to the determination of micro amounts of boron in natural waters with satisfactory results. (author)

  2. Complexation of americium(III) with humic acid by cation exchange and solvent extraction

    Complexation of Am(III) with humic acid was studied at various pHs in 0.1M NaClO4. The stability constants of the Am(III)-humate complexes were determined by a cation-exchange method. The values of logβ1 and logβ2 increased slightly with increases of pH from 4 to 6 and were found to be 6.9 and 11.6, respectively, at a pH of 5. Markedly larger values than these were obtained by a solvent extraction method. This discrepancy was also revealed by summarizing data from several literature sources. It is very likely that this can be ascribed to decreases in either humic acid and/or the extractant from the extraction system due to humate interactions at the aqueous-organic interface. (author)

  3. Extraction Equilibrium of Acrylic Acid by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids

    As an effective method for extraction of acrylic acid, aqueous two-phase systems based on morpholinium ionic liquids were used in this study. Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation in morpholinium ionic liquids on phase diagram and extraction efficiencies were investigated. Experimental results show that aqueous two phase systems can be formed by adding appropriate amount of morpholinium ionic liquids to aqueous K2HPO4 solutions. It can be found that the ability of morpholinium ionic liquids for phase separation followed the order [HMMor][Br]>[OMMor][Br]>[BMMor][Br]>[EMMor][Br]. There was little difference between binodal curves of imidazolium ionic liquids and those of morpholinium ionic liquids. 50-90% of the extraction efficiency was observed for acrylic acid by aqueous two phase extraction of acrylic acid with morpholinium ionic liquids. It can be concluded that morpholinium ionic liquids/K2HPO4 were effective for aqueous two phases extraction of acrylic acid comparing to imidazolium ionic liquids/K2HPO4 systems because of their lower cost

  4. Amino-containing magnetic nanoemulsions: elaboration and nucleic acid extraction

    Amino-containing magnetic colloids were prepared from highly magnetic oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The functionalization was performed by controlling the adsorption of polyethyleneimine onto negatively charged magnetic emulsions. The cationic magnetic nanodroplets were characterized in terms of chemical composition, particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and colloidal stability as a function of storage time. These amino-containing magnetic emulsions were assessed as a new tool for nucleic acid extraction and amplification. The adsorption of nucleic acids was mostly controlled by attractive electrostatic interactions. The adsorption efficiency of a model RNA was found to be encouraging and the captured nucleic acid molecules were directly enzymatically amplified in the presence of the magnetic particles without any elution step

  5. Investigation into extraction of scandium from hydrochloric-acid solutions with extractants of various classes and their mixtures

    A comparative study of scandium extraction with neutral, acid and basic extracting agents has been conducted. Scandium extraction with neutral extragents (tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), diazodmylmethylphosphonate (DAMP) and a fraction of petroleum sulphoxides (PSO)) follows the solvate mechanism with a variable solvate number. With respect to extracting ability, these extragents form the series of TBP< PSO< DAMP. A sinergetic effect has been observed during scandium extraction with mixtures of TBP with PSO and trialkylbenzylammonium chloride (a basic extragent); an antagonistic effect has been revealed during extraction with mixtures of TBP with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

  6. Development of uranium extraction technology from phosphoric acid solutions with extractant P N-1200

    Phosphorites are the major mineral source for phosphate fertilizers production. However, the phosphorites of sedimentary origin are radioactive due to small concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium. Large world reserves of phosphorites and the quantities involved in fertilizers production make them a potential source of uranium. Recovery of uranium as by-product also produces environmentally safe fertilizers. The results obtained in extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid with a novel efficient extractant of poly alkyl phosphazine (P N-1200) is described

  7. Development of uranium extraction technology from phosphoric acid solutions with extractant PN-1200

    Phosphorites present the major mineral source for the mineral fertilizers production. But the phosphorites of sedimentary origin are radioactive due to certain concentration of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, polonium. Large reserves of phosphorites and their large quantities involved into fertilizers processing make them consider a potential source of uranium, even at the initial concentration 0.00500.01%. Recovery of uranium as by-product while processing phosphorites also facilitates manufacture of environment safe fertilizers. The present report describes the results attained in extraction of decontaminated phosphoric acid with a novel efficient extractant of polyalkyl phosphazenes-PN-1200

  8. Two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction: A new approach to simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs.

    Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, acidic and basic drugs were simultaneously extracted by a novel method of high efficiency herein referred to as two-step voltage dual electromembrane extraction (TSV-DEME). Optimizing effective parameters such as composition of organic liquid membrane, pH values of donor and acceptor solutions, voltage and duration of each step, the method had its figures of merit investigated in pure water, human plasma, wastewater, and breast milk samples. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs was done by applying potentials of 150 V and 400 V for 6 min and 19 min as the first and second steps, respectively. The model compounds were extracted from 4 mL of sample solution (pH = 6) into 20 μL of each acceptor solution (32 mM NaOH for acidic drugs and 32 mM HCL for basic drugs). 1-Octanol was immobilized within the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene, as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for acidic drugs, and 2-ethyle hexanol, as the SLM for basic drugs. The proposed TSV-DEME technique provided good linearity with the resulting correlation coefficients ranging from 0.993 to 0.998 over a concentration range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detections of the drugs were found to range within 0.3-1.5 ng mL(-1), while the corresponding repeatability ranged from 7.7 to 15.5% (n = 4). The proposed method was further compared to simple dual electromembrane extraction (DEME), indicating significantly higher recoveries for TSV-DEME procedure (38.1-68%), as compared to those of simple DEME procedure (17.7-46%). Finally, the optimized TSV-DEME was applied to extract and quantify model compounds in breast milk, wastewater, and plasma samples. PMID:27155299

  9. Intensification of conversion of glucose to lactic acid : equilibria and kinetics for back extraction of lactic acid using trimethylamine

    Wasewar, Kailas L.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2004-01-01

    Alamine 336 is an effective extractant for the recovery of lactic acid from aqueous solutions. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back extract lactic acid with a water soluble, volatile tertiary amine such as trimethyl amine. Equilibrium data are presented tha

  10. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of fatty acids from quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) seed using response surface methodology and central composite design.

    Daneshvand, Behnaz; Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Raofie, Farhad

    2012-08-24

    Fatty acids of Cydonia oblonga Miller cultivated in Iran were obtained by supercritical (carbon dioxide) extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. The oils were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using mass spectrometric detections. The compounds were identified according to their retention indices and mass spectra (EI, 70eV). The experimental parameters of SFE such as pressure, temperature, modifier volume, static and dynamic extraction time were optimized using a Central Composite Design (CCD) after a 2(5) factorial design. Pressure and dynamic extraction time had significant effect on the extraction yield, while the other factors (temperature, static extraction time and modifier volume) were not identified as significant factors under the selected conditions. The results of chemometrics analysis showed the highest yield for SFE (24.32%), which was obtained at a pressure of 353bar, temperature of 35°C, modifier (methanol) volume of 150μL, and static and dynamic extraction times of 10 and 60min, respectively. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of Fatty acids from C. oblonga Miller was optimized, using a rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions were as follows: solvent (n-hexane) volume, 22mL; extraction time, 30min; and extraction temperature, 55°C. This resulted in a maximum oil recovery of 19.5%. The extracts with higher yield from both methods were subjected to transesterification and GC-MS analysis. The results show that the oil obtained by SFE with the optimal operating conditions allowed a fatty acid composition similar to the oil obtained by UAE in optimum condition and no significant differences were found. The major components of oil extract were Linoleic, Palmitic, Oleic, Stearic and Eicosanoic acids. PMID:22824221

  11. Behaviour of Tributylamine as Entrainer for the Separation of Water and Acetic Acid with Reactive Extractive Distillation

    雷志刚; 李成岳; 陈标华

    2003-01-01

    A new separation method, reactive extractive distillation, was put forward for separating water and acetic acid. The separation mechanism was analyzed through infrared spectra technique. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at 101.33 kPa for the binary or ternary systems consisting of water, acetic acid and tributylamine were measured. The activity coefficients were correlated by using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC Equations.The VLE experiment showed that tributylamine could enhance the relative volatility of water to acetic acid. An extractive distillation experiment was carried out and proved that tributylamine was a good extractive solvent.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  13. On the Methodology of Nematode Extraction from Field Samples: Comparison of Methods for Soil Extraction

    Viglierchio, David R.; Schmitt, Richard V.

    1983-01-01

    The commonly used nematode extraction methods were compared using three soil types and four nematode species. The comparison was repeated in three trials by the same operator to estimate operator reproducibility. Extraction efficiency was dependent upon method, soil type, and nematode species, and reproducibility was not particularly satisfactory for routine analyses. Extraction by any method tested was less than 50% efficient. Quantitative nematode extraction methodology needs serious attent...

  14. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel. PMID:25034797

  15. Simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs via on-chip electromembrane extraction.

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2016-09-21

    In the present work, a on-chip electromembrane extraction (CEME) was designed and employed for simultaneous extraction of mefenamic acid (MEF) and diclofenac (DIC), as acidic model analytes, and betaxolol (BET), as a basic model analyte, followed by HPLC-UV. The CEME consists of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) parts which each part consists of two separated microfluidic channels. A polypropylene sheet membrane impregnated with an organic solvent was sandwiched between the parts. One of the parts was used as the flow path for the sample solution and the other one as holder for the acceptor phases. The separated microfluidic channels of the sample solution part were connected to each other using a small piece of a capillary tube and the sample solution was pumped through them by means of a micro-syringe pump. However, the acceptor phases of the acidic and basic analytes were separately kept stagnant in the two microfluidic channels during the extraction process. A d.c. potential was applied for migration of the analytes from sample solution through the organic membrane into the acceptor phases. All effective variables on the extraction efficiency of the analytes were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, preconcentration factors higher than 15 were achieved and the calibration curves were linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1) (r(2) > 0.9982). RSD% values (n = 4) and LODs were less than 7.1% and 5.0 μg L(-1). The results demonstrated that CEME could efficiently be used for the simultaneous analysis of acidic and basic analytes in biological samples. PMID:27590546

  16. Elemental and spectroscopic characterization of fractions of an acidic extract of oil sands process water.

    Jones, D; Scarlett, A G; West, C E; Frank, R A; Gieleciak, R; Hager, D; Pureveen, J; Tegelaar, E; Rowland, S J

    2013-11-01

    'Naphthenic acids' (NAs) in petroleum produced water and oil sands process water (OSPW), have been implicated in toxicological effects. However, many are not well characterized. A method for fractionation of NAs of an OSPW was used herein and a multi-method characterization of the fractions conducted. The unfractionated OSPW acidic extract was characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and an esterified extract by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV) absorption spectroscopy and by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography-MS (GCxGC-MS). Methyl esters were fractionated by argentation solid phase extraction (Ag(+) SPE) and fractions eluting with: hexane; diethyl ether: hexane and diethyl ether, examined. Each was weighed, examined by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV, GC-MS and GCxGC-MS (both nominal and high resolution MS). The ether fraction, containing sulfur, was also examined by GCxGC-sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). The major ions detected by ESI-MS in the OSPW extract were assigned to alicyclic and aromatic 'O2' acids; sulfur was also present. Components recovered by Ag(+) SPE were also methyl esters of alicyclic and aromatic acids; these contained little sulfur or nitrogen. FTIR spectra showed that hydroxy acids and sulfoxides were absent or minor. UV spectra, along with the C/H ratio, further confirmed the aromaticity of the hexane:ether eluate. The more minor ether eluate contained further aromatics and 1.5% sulfur. FTIR spectra indicated free carboxylic acids, in addition to esters. Four major sulfur compounds were detected by GCxGC-SCD. GCxGC-high resolution MS indicated these were methyl esters of C18 S-containing, diaromatics with ≥C3 carboxylic acid side chains. PMID:23856466

  17. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  18. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    Nursyamirah A. Razak; Siti M. Tumin; Ruziyati Tajuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) as a new technique to extract colorants...

  19. Development and validation of an automated liquid-liquid extraction GC/MS method for the determination of THC, 11-OH-THC, and free THC-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) from blood serum.

    Purschke, Kirsten; Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon; Veit, Florian

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) from blood serum is a routine task in forensic toxicology laboratories. For examination of consumption habits, the concentration of the phase I metabolite THC-COOH is used. Recommendations for interpretation of analysis values in medical-psychological assessments (regranting of driver's licenses, Germany) include threshold values for the free, unconjugated THC-COOH. Using a fully automated two-step liquid-liquid extraction, THC, 11-OH-THC, and free, unconjugated THC-COOH were extracted from blood serum, silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), and analyzed by GC/MS. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules for shaking, centrifugation, and solvent evaporation. This method was based on a previously developed manual sample preparation method. Validation guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) were fulfilled for both methods, at which the focus of this article is the automated one. Limits of detection and quantification for THC were 0.3 and 0.6 μg/L, for 11-OH-THC were 0.1 and 0.8 μg/L, and for THC-COOH were 0.3 and 1.1 μg/L, when extracting only 0.5 mL of blood serum. Therefore, the required limit of quantification for THC of 1 μg/L in driving under the influence of cannabis cases in Germany (and other countries) can be reached and the method can be employed in that context. Real and external control samples were analyzed, and a round robin test was passed successfully. To date, the method is employed in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany, in daily routine. Automation helps in avoiding errors during sample preparation and reduces the workload of the laboratory personnel. Due to its flexibility, the analysis system can be employed for other liquid-liquid extractions as

  20. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  1. Efficiency of hexane extraction of napropamide from Aldrich humic acid and soil solutions

    Williams, C.F.; Letey, J.; Farmer, W.J.; Nelson, S.D.; Anderson, M.; Ben-Hur, M.

    1999-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been shown to form a stable complex with napropamide [2({alpha}-naphthoxy)-N,N-diethyl propionamide] and to facilitate its transport through soil columns. Liquid-liquid extraction of organics is a common method to transfer napropamide from water into an organic phase for gas chromatography analysis. A study was conducted to determine the effect of Aldrich humic acid, soil-derived dissolved organic matter, electrical conductivity, and hydrogen ion activity on the ability of hexane to extract napropamide from solutions and from soil extracts. The electrical conductivity from solutions and from soil extracts. The electrical conductivity of Aldrich humic acid solutions were adjusted to 0.01, 0.97, and 1.69 dS m{sup {minus}1} by adding NaCl and CaCl{sub 2}, and pH was adjusted using HCl and NaOH. Electrical conductivity had no effect on extraction efficiency. In the absence of DOM pH had no effect on extraction efficiency. In the absence of DOM pH had no effect on extraction efficiency. Extraction efficiency decreased with increasing DOM concentration. Maximum reduction in extraction efficiency occurred in the presence of DOM when solution pH was near neutrality. A maximum extraction efficiency of 100% was observed in the absence of DOM and a minimum of 68% when napropamide was added to DOM solutions at pH 8.2 and then lowered to pH 5.6. Management practices such as liming and allowing napropamide to dry on the soil may increase environmental transport. Also quantification of napropamide in environmental samples can be affected by DOM.

  2. PC-88A - impregnated polymeric beads. Preparation, characterization and application for extraction of Pu(IV) from nitric acid medium

    The extractant-impregnated polymeric beads (EIPBs), containing polyethersulfone as base polymer and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) as an extractant, were prepared by phase inversion method. These EIPBs were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques. The beads were found to have excellent acid stability, since these did not exhibit any structural deformation or loss of the extractant into aqueous nitric acid solution (6 M), for a period of 15 d. The feasibility of Pu(IV) extraction, using these beads, from nitric acid solution was tested by batch equilibration method. Parametric dependence of Pu(IV) extraction on experimental variables, like strength of nitric acid, equilibration time, Pu(IV) concentration, etc., was investigated. The present study also addressed the important practical issues, like maximum loading capacity and the reusability of these beads. Under optimized conditions, equilibrium capacity and maximum loading capacity for Pu(IV) were found to be 2.03 and 7.50 mg per gram of the swollen beads, respectively. The reusability of the beads was also ascertained by repetitive extraction-stripping of Pu(IV) up to 7 cycles of operation, without significant change in their extraction performance. The extraction of Pu(IV) by the blank polymeric beads was observed to be almost negligible, under the similar experimental conditions. (orig.)

  3. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  4. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  5. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food. PMID:26760914

  6. Comparison of the Amino-Acid Content in Pharmacopuncture Extracts Taken from a Scorpion's Body and from Its Tail

    Lee Jin-Ho; Shin Joon-Shik; Chi Eun-Hya; Lee In-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the amino-acid compositions of pharmacopuncture extracts taken from the body and from the tail of Buthus martensii Karsch, which are frequently prescribed in Oriental medicine. Methods: Amino acids in hot water and 70% ethanol extracts taken from the scorpion’s whole body and from its tail were screened by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experiments were performed with linearity, precision and accuracy. Results:...

  7. Speciation in organic phases of mixed solvent extraction systems including a malonamide and a dialkyl-phosphoric acid

    The aim of the thesis is to improve the understanding of chemical equilibria involved in the actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) extraction in the DIAMEX-SANEX hydrometallurgical process used for spent nuclear fuel treatment. The chemical extraction equilibria have to be better described in order to improve the modeling of extractant properties of this process. The organic phase is composed of a mixture of extractants: a malonamide, the DMDOHEMA, and a dialkyl-phosphoric acid, the HDEHP, both diluted in an alkane. The extractant mixture DMDOHEMA-HDEHP has a singular behavior compared to the behavior of the individual extractants. There is a synergistic effect during the extraction of Eu(III) and Am(III) in acid medium (about 1 mol/L aqueous nitric acid concentration) and an antagonist effect at low acidity (pH ≤ 1). In order to understand the behavior of this chemical system, molecular speciation was performed using various spectrometry methods (electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy) but also quantum chemistry calculation to optimize geometry of the complexes. These studies have shown the existence of mixed complexes, thermodynamically more stable than the unit complexes, explaining the synergistic extraction of metal cations. The existence of an adduct between the two extractants, consuming the free extractants, may explain the antagonistic effect. (author)

  8. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  9. Progressive extraction method applied to isotopic exchange of carbon-14

    Isotopic exchange in natural settings is essentially an irreversible process, so that it progresses continuously until there is complete isotopic equilibrium. In soils, this process involves interaction between isotopes in the liquid and solid phases, and complete isotopic equilibrium may take a very long time. Measurements after partial isotopic exchange have been used to characterize the labile fraction of elements in soils. We describe a method to characterize the extent of isotopic exchange, with application here to incorporation of inorganic carbon-14 (14C) into mineral carbonates and organic matter in soils. The procedure uses a continuous addition of extractant, acid, or H2O2in the examples presented here, coupled with sequential sampling. The method has been applied to demonstrate the degree of isotopic exchange in soil. The same strategy could be applied to many other elements, including plant nutrients. (author)

  10. Extraction of Pd(II), Pt(IV), Fe(III), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) From Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with Selected Cyanamides as a Novel Extractants

    Three of structurally related novel extractants namely; N, Ndihexylcyanamide( DHCY), N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)cyanamide (DEHCY) and N, N-d-octyl cyanamid (DOCY) were synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by different techniques. The general method for synthesizing the above extractants was to react relevant secondary amines with cyanogen bromide in presence of sodium acetate anhydride. Their extracting ability for Pd(II), Pt(IV), Fe(III), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) from hydrochloric acid media in toluene as diluent has been studied. The extraction of hydrochloric acid was studied also. Pd(II) was strongly extracted by the extractants used at low hydrochloric acid concentration and the extraction decreased with increasing hydrochloric concentration while the reverse in extraction behavior was found in is the case of Pt(IV), Fe(III) and Zn(II) extraction. Both Cu(II) and Ag(I) were found to be poor extracted with this synthesized extractants. Hydrochloric acid was extracted only in its high concentration region. A systematic investigation has been carried out on the extraction of Pd(II) by using two synthesized extractants. Pd(II) was extracted as a solvated complex with the composition, metal:chloride ion:extractant = l:2:2 the extracted species was also studied using IR spectra

  11. Separation of strontium nitrate from nitric-acid extract during production of compound fertilizers

    The process is studied of isolation of a strontium-containing concentrate formed on decomposition of apatite by nitric acid with previous concentration of the nitric-acid extract by centrifuging or precipitation. The effect of the HNO3 concentration on the degree of isolation of strontium nitrate has been studied. It is shown that the strontium nitrate fraction in the nitric-acid extract in the solid phase is proportional to the HNO3 concentration. When using precipitation, the highest yield of Sr(NO3)2 to the concentrated product was obtained with the use of 54%HNO3. With the centrifuging method, the yield of the strontium nitrate to the concentrated product increases from 54 to 78% with respect to the apatite as the HNO3 concentration increases from 50 to 58%

  12. Extraction of Chitin from Trash Crabs (Podophthalmus vigil) by an Eccentric Method

    Sunita Das

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to extract chitin from trash crab (Podophthalmus vigil) inCuddalore landing center. Demineralization is an important step in chitin purification process from crabs. Thechemical method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (HCl) that harms the physiochemicalproperties of chitin. In the present study, Lactobacillus plantarum produced organic acid w as used to substitutethe Hydrochloric acid and deproteinization was done by fungus Aspergillus niger....

  13. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions.

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand

    2016-03-01

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913μg/g) was significantly higher than the whole (664-715μg/g) and refined wheat (109-112μg/g) flour samples by both extraction methods as analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The recovery of phenolic acids from the spiked wheat bran sample was higher than from either the whole or refined wheat flour samples by both extraction procedures. The recovery of TPA (74-89%) from whole and refined wheat flours by MAE was significantly lower than that of UAE (90-98%). This difference was attributed to the gelatinization of starch present in the wheat flours caused by MAE. Gelatinization reduces the extractability of phenolic acids from wheat flour samples. Furthermore, both spectrometric assays (total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacities) showed similar trend as compared to LC-MS analyses. PMID:26471664

  14. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    Norsyamimi Hassim; Masturah Markom; Nurina Anuar; Kurnia Harlina Dewi; Syarul Nataqain Baharum; Normah Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  15. Review of Road Extraction Methods from SAR Image

    Road extraction methods from SAR Image are important in the field of SAR image recognition and detection. In the past few decades, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of experiments and researches. Through the analysis of the current situation, it firstly introduces the road characteristics of SAR image and basic strategies of road extraction. Then, the existing road extraction methods from SAR image are summarized. Finally, the prospective road extraction researches from SAR image are put forward

  16. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs

  17. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  18. Micellar LC Separation of Sesquiterpenic Acids and Their Determination in Valeriana officinalis L. Root and Extracts

    Artem U. Kulikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micellar liquid chromatography (MLC method was developed and validated according to ICH Guidelines for the determination of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic, hydroxyvalerenic, and acetoxyvalerenic acids in root and rhizome extract from Valeriana officinalis L. and valerian dry hydroalcoholic extract. Samples were analyzed on Nucleosil C18 column (150mm×4.6mm, 5 μm using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of Brij 35 (5% (w/v aqueous solution; pH 2.3±0.1 by phosphoric acid and 1-butanol (6% (v/v; UV detection was at 220 nm. Micellar mobile phase using allows to fully separate valerenic acids within 25 minutes. Linearity for hydroxyvalerenic, acetoxyvalerenic, and valerenic acids was 1.9–27.9, 4.2–63.0, and 6.1–91·3 μg.mL−1, and limit of detection was 0.14, 0.037, and 0.09 μg·mL−1, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were not less than 2% for all investigated compounds. The proposed method was found to be reproducible and convenient for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpenic acids in valerian root and related preparations.

  19. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    Abstract In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane. Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  20. Sterols and fatty acids extraction process from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica [(L.) Miller] by means of supercritical CO2

    Bermejo Acosta, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    After 120 years of Supercritical Fluids (SCF) discovering, practical applications began to be developed. The SCF extraction (SCFE) of sterol fraction and fatty acids from the prickly pear seeds' oil, considered sub-product from sweets processing, is compared to traditional extraction methods varying extraction time, modifier influence, temperature and pressure of supercritical CO2 as main solvent. The main substances found were β-sitosterol (BS), Linoleic Acid (LA) and Palmitic Acid (PA). Low...

  1. Detection of chlorogenic acid in honeysuckle using infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis with UV detector.

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in water solution; and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7) was used as the running buffer at a separation voltage of 16 kV. The samples were injected electrokinetically at 16 kV for 8 s. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.9996) was observed over the concentration ranges investigated, and the stability of the solutions was high. Recoveries of the chlorogenic acid were from 95.53% to 106.62%, and the relative standard deviation was below 4.1%. By using this novel IR-assisted extraction method, a higher extraction efficiency than those extracted with conventional heat-reflux extraction was found. The developed IR-assisted extraction method is simple, low-cost, and efficient, offering a great promise for the quick determination of active compounds in TCM. The results indicated that IR-assisted extraction followed by CE is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of active ingredient in TCM. PMID:22291060

  2. Study on Am/Eu extraction and separation with acid extractant and TPTZ

    JNC and CEA have put in the technical cooperation with regard to the MA(III)/Ln separation study using soft donor ligands such as CYANEX 301 and TPTZ. TPTZ itself shows little extractability of trivalent actinides and lanthanides. Because of low solubility of TPTZ-MA(III) complex into low polarity diluents, it is necessary to add lipophilic acidic extractants in order to increase the solubility and form lipophilic neutral complexes. By using alpha-CN3MeC8, addition of modifier, such as TBP or DOTA for example, prevent the formation of stable emulsions which hardly disappeared even after a few hours of centrifugation. The basic performance of TPTZ and experiment were carried out. It was found that phase separation problem in alpha-CN3MeC8 and TPTZ system could be improved by addition of modifier, such as TBP, DOTA, CMPO (which is known to be used in the TRUEX) and DMDBTDMA. Besides good Am extractability and selectivity in that system was obtained at higher acidity than that in alpha-bromodecanoicacid-TPTZ system, which was used so far with TPTZ. (J.P.N.)

  3. IR spectroscopic study of scandium extraction from sulfuric acid by solid-phase extractants based on tributyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid, dibenzo-18-crown-6 and their mixtures

    Solid-phase extractants (TVEKS) containing tributyl-phosphate (I), di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (II), dibenzo-18-crown-6 (III) and their mixtures were prepared, their use for scandium extraction from sulfuric acid solutions with 6 mol/l concentration was studied. By the method of IR spectroscopy it was ascertained that during scandium extraction by TVEKS-III Sc3+ ions are integrated into microcycle cavity, forming a host-guest type complex. Mechanism of scandium extraction by TVEKS-I can be described as hydrate-solvate one: [I · H3O]x+[Sc(SO4)y]·zHSO4-. IR spectroscopy data suggest cation exchange mechanism of scandium extraction by TVEKS-II. In TVEKS-(III+II) and TVEKS-(III+I) interaction between crown other and organophosphoric compound takes place giving rise to antisynergetic effect during metal ion extraction

  4. Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip

    Matos, T.; Senkbeil, Silja; Mendonça, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Due to the extensive use of nucleic acid and protein analysis of bacterial samples, there is a need for simple and rapid extraction protocols for both plasmid DNA and RNA molecules as well as reporter proteins like the green fluorescent protein (GFP). In this report, an electropermeability...... can be avoided and the transiently formed pores can be closed again and the cells survive. This method has been used to extract RNA and GFP molecules under conditions of electropermeability. Plasmid DNA could be recovered when the applied voltage was increased to 2 V, thus causing complete cell lysis....

  5. STUDIES ON THE INHIBITIVE EFFECT OF DATURA STRAMONIUM EXTRACT ON THE ACID CORROSION OF MILD STEEL

    PANDIAN BOTHI RAJA; MATHUR GOPALAKRISHNAN SETHURAMAN

    2007-01-01

    The extract of Datura stramonium has been studied as a possible source of green inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel (MS) in HCl and H2SO4 media at different temperatures. The anticorrosion effect was evaluated by conventional weight loss studies, electrochemical studies viz., Tafel polarization, ac impedance, and SEM studies. The studies reveal that the plant extract acts as a good inhibitor in both the acid media and better in H2SO4 medium. Tafel polarization method indicate that the plant...

  6. Extraction chromatographic behaviour of scandium in tributyl phosphate-perchloric acid system

    Using the method of static extraction according to the elutriation cirves the distribution coefficients of scandium in the extraction-chromatographic system TBP-HClO4 are calculated at different acid concentrations. The effect of the carrier nature and particle size, nature of a mobile and a stationary phases, layer thickness of TBP covering the carrier on the height, equivalent to the theoretical plate is studied. The optimal conditions for chromatographic separation of scandium from a large number of impurity elements are determined. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  7. Development of partitioning method. Back-extraction of uranium from DIDPA solvent

    A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separation of elements in high level liquid waste generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing according to their half lives and radiological toxicity and of disposal of them by suitable methods. In the partitioning process developed in JAERI solvent, extraction with DIDPA (di-isodecyl phosphoric acid) was adopted for actinide separation. The present paper describes the results of study on back-extraction of hexavalent uranium from DIDPA. Most experiments were carried out to select a suitable reagent for back-extraction of U (VI) extracted from 0.5M nitric acid with DIDPA. The experimental results show that distribution ratios of U (VI) is less than 0.1 in the back-extractions with 1.5M sodium carbonate-15 vol% alcohol or 20wt% hydrazine carbonate-10 vol% alcohol. Uranium in the sodium carbonate solution were recovered by anion-exchange with strong-base resins and eluted by NH4NO3 and other reagents. The results of the present study confirm the validity of the DIDPA extraction process; U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm in HLW are extracted simultaneously with DIDPA, and they are recovered from DIDPA with various reagent: nitric acid for Am and Cm, oxalic acid for Np and Pu, and sodium carbonate or hydrazine carbonate for U. (author)

  8. Development of partitioning method. Back-extraction of uranium from DIDPA solvent

    Tatsugae, Ryozo; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shirahashi, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separation of elements in high level liquid waste generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing according to their half lives and radiological toxicity and of disposal of them by suitable methods. In the partitioning process developed in JAERI solvent, extraction with DIDPA (di-isodecyl phosphoric acid) was adopted for actinide separation. The present paper describes the results of study on back-extraction of hexavalent uranium from DIDPA. Most experiments were carried out to select a suitable reagent for back-extraction of U (VI) extracted from 0.5M nitric acid with DIDPA. The experimental results show that distribution ratios of U (VI) is less than 0.1 in the back-extractions with 1.5M sodium carbonate-15 vol% alcohol or 20wt% hydrazine carbonate-10 vol% alcohol. Uranium in the sodium carbonate solution were recovered by anion-exchange with strong-base resins and eluted by NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and other reagents. The results of the present study confirm the validity of the DIDPA extraction process; U, Pu, Np, Am and Cm in HLW are extracted simultaneously with DIDPA, and they are recovered from DIDPA with various reagent: nitric acid for Am and Cm, oxalic acid for Np and Pu, and sodium carbonate or hydrazine carbonate for U. (author).

  9. Investigation of the influence of cations in phosphoric acid on the extraction of uranium by factorial design

    Uranium is extracted from commercial phosphoric acid by phosphoorganic solvents in inert diluents. several studies were carried out to investigate the influence of temperature, P2O5 concentration, solvent concentration, mixing time and other variables on the distribution coefficient of uranium between organic and aqueous phases. Commercial phosphoric acid produced by the wet method is not a pure compound. It contains many contaminants. A previous study was undertaken to study the influence of certain anions present in commercial phosphoric acid such as SO42-, F-, Cl- on the extraction of UO22+ in commercial Syrian phosphoric acid by D2EHPA/TOPO method. The effect of certain cations in the commercial phosphoric acid produced by SIAPE wet method in Homs General Fertilizer Company on the distribution coefficient was studied. The effect of Fe3+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+, V5+ on uranium extraction by D2EHPA/TOPO was investigated according to factorial design method. The results obtained showed that Al3+, Ca2+ have marked beneficial effect on extraction while Mg2+, Fe3+, V5+ have a negligible effect. An Fe2+ increase leads to a decrease of the extraction of UO22+ from phosphoric acid. (Author)

  10. Antimicrobial Property of 2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-Tricarboxylic Acid Isolated from Citrus microcarpa Extract

    Seong Wei Lee; Musa Najiah

    2009-01-01

    This article described antimicrobial property and structure analysis of 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid isolated from the crude extract of Citrus microcarpa. Presently, there was no report on compound from C. microcarpa that possessed antimicrobial property against fish pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, in this study, the bioactive principle in C. microcarpa extract was isolated using thin layer chromatography. It's structure was elucidated based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data, such as proton NMR (1HNMR), correlation spectroscopy, carbon 13 NMR, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation data. This study showed that the bioactive compound isolated from C. microcarpa was 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid monohydrate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of crude C. microcarpa extract and its bioactive component, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid as well as commercially available synthetic 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, were determined against 18 isolates of Edwardsiella tarda and 7 bacterial reference strains, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacterfreundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalatiae (ATCC 13813), E. tarda (ATCC 15947), and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715), using two-fold microdilution method. The MIC values for both the natural 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid and the synthetic one were ranging from 15.6 to 62.5 mg mL-1, whereas that of the crude extract was ranging from 7.8 to 31.3 mg mL-1. These findings showed that both the crude extract and its bioactive component might have potential as antimicrobial agent for aquaculture use.

  11. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  12. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    Antonio C. Siani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA and oleanolic acids (OA, as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v, the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days. The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995. The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95% and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

  13. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  14. Improved Proteomic Analysis Following Trichloroacetic Acid Extraction of Bacillus anthracis Spore Proteins

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Wunschel, David S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Wahl, Karen L.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2015-08-07

    Proteomic analysis of bacterial samples provides valuable information about cellular responses and functions under different environmental pressures. Proteomic analysis is dependent upon efficient extraction of proteins from bacterial samples without introducing bias toward extraction of particular protein classes. While no single method can recover 100% of the bacterial proteins, selected protocols can improve overall protein isolation, peptide recovery, or enrich for certain classes of proteins. The method presented here is technically simple and does not require specialized equipment such as a mechanical disrupter. Our data reveal that for particularly challenging samples, such as B. anthracis Sterne spores, trichloroacetic acid extraction improved the number of proteins identified within a sample compared to bead beating (714 vs 660, respectively). Further, TCA extraction enriched for 103 known spore specific proteins whereas bead beating resulted in 49 unique proteins. Analysis of C. botulinum samples grown to 5 days, composed of vegetative biomass and spores, showed a similar trend with improved protein yields and identification using our method compared to bead beating. Interestingly, easily lysed samples, such as B. anthracis vegetative cells, were equally as effectively processed via TCA and bead beating, but TCA extraction remains the easiest and most cost effective option. As with all assays, supplemental methods such as implementation of an alternative preparation method may provide additional insight to the protein biology of the bacteria being studied.

  15. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil. PMID:25388560

  16. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

    The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

  17. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    Xiong, D

    2001-09-18

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction.

  18. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  19. COMPARISON OF DNA EXTRACTION METHODS ON DAIRY CONSTRUCTED WETLAND WASTEWATER

    Direct DNA extraction from environmental samples is a useful and culture-independent method for the examination of microbial diversity. To date, there is little information on the effectiveness of commercial DNA extraction kits on wastewater. We compared two commercial DNA extraction kits for amount...

  20. The Comparative Effect of Herbal Extract of Vitagnus and Mefenamic Acid on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Fatemeh Shobeiri; Fatemeh Zeraati; Zahra Mansouri; Maliheh Araghchian; Mansour Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is among the factors disrupting women's social activities. Selecting medicines with lower side effects are preferred. The objective of this study is to compare between the effect of herbal extracts of Vitagnus and Mefenamic Acid on the primary dysmenorrhea and menstrual bleeding in female students of the University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan in 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: This Study was carried out on 80 students with primary dysmenorrhea as two-way blind c...

  1. The comparison of techniques and methods for L-ascorbic acid determination in the fruits

    Cvetković Biljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential vitamin for human nutrition; with the L-ascorbic acid (AA being the active form of vitamin C. Hence, determination of the L-ascorbic acid in the natural and processed foods is very important. In the past, plenty of methods based on the reversible redox reaction of AA oxidation/DHA reduction were developed. Because of L-ascorbic acid instability in aqueous solutions, it is useful to analyze various types of extraction. The aim of this study is to compare three different methods and three different extractants for the L-ascorbic acid determination. Fruits (kiwi, lemon, orange, and grapefruit were purchased from a local market. The L-ascorbic acid in these four samples was determined by the three different methods: the AOAC, the HPLC method with three different types of extractions, and the colorimetric method using ascorbate-oxidase. For the HPLC measurements, one part of the fruits was extracted with distilled water, the second with potassium hydrogen phosphate, and the third with 3% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA in 8% acetic acid. The HPLC measurements of each sample were repeated three times, the AOAC titration was repeated five times, and in the calorimetric method three measurements were performed. The results were statistically evaluated related to sample basis. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the results for all three methods of extraction for all samples, except for the grapefruit sample where no significant difference was observed between the results obtained after the buffer extraction (E2 and the metaphosphoric acid in acetic acid extraction (E3. Discriminative analysis for the HPLC determinations proves that there is a clear difference and defined border between the samples in relation to the methods of extraction during the HPLC determination.

  2. Simultaneous microwave extraction and synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    Microbial lipids have the potential to substantially reduce the use of liquid fossil fuels, though one obstacle is the energy costs associated with the extraction and subsequent conversion into a biofuel. Here we report a one-step method to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) from Rhodotorula glutinis by combining lipid extraction in a microwave reactor with acid-catalysed transesterification. The microwave did not alter the FAME profile and over 99% of the lipid was esterified when using 25 wt% H2SO4 over 20 min at 120 °C. On using higher loadings of catalyst, similar yields were achieved over 30 s. Equivalent amounts of FAME were recovered in 30 s using this method as with a 4 h Soxhlet extraction, run with the same solvent system. When water was present at less than a 1:1 ratio with methanol, the main product was FAME, above this the major products were FFA (free fatty acids). Under the best conditions, the energy required for the microwave was less than 20% of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. Increasing the temperature did not change the EROI (energy return on investment) substantially; however, longer reaction times used an equivalent amount of energy to the total energy content of the biodiesel. - Highlights: • The extraction and transesterification of yeast lipid were achieved using a microwave reactor. • The lipid was extracted from Rhodotorula glutinis within 30 s under all conditions. • Addition of 25 wt% H2SO4 catalyst converted 95% glycerides to FAME over 5 min. • Water could be tolerated up to 25 wt% without high FFA production. • The temperature of the microwave had less impact on EROI than the length of extraction

  3. Behaviour of zirconium, titanium and tin in scandium extraction with HDEHP from technological hydrochloric acid solutions

    The behaviour is studied of the principal admixtures (zirconium, titanium and tin) on extraction of scandium with di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from technological muriatic solutions. The above said elements are shown to be extracted together with scandium into an extragent; at higher contents of the above mentioned elements, their alkyl phosphates are isolated into an independent phase, which has a harmful effect on the dynamics of the process. Zr-, Ti-, Sn-and Sc dialkyl phosphates are synthesized, their compositions determined, and their solubilities in D2EHPA investigated. Solubilizator-alcohols are shown to positively affect salt solubility. A phosphate method of selective precipitation of zirconium from technological solutions has been developed; the method permitting to exclude the formation of a third phase in the extraction procedure

  4. Selective Extraction Methods for Aluminium, Iron and Organic Carbon from Montane Volcanic Ash Soils

    B. JANSEN; F. H. TONNEIJCK; J. M. VERSTRATEN

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle.Given the central role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils,we assessed various extraction methods of A1,Fe,and C fractions from montane volcanic ash soils in northern Ecuador,aiming at elucidating the role of A1 and Fe in stabilizing soil organic matter (SOM).We found extractions with cold sodium hydroxide,ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid,sodium pyrophosphate,and sodium tetraborate to be particularly useful.Combination of these methods yielded information about the role of the mineral phase in stabilizing organic matter and the differences in type and degree of complexation of organic matter with Al and Fe in the various horizons and soil profiles.Sodium tetraborate extraction proved the only soft extraction method that yielded simultaneous information about the Al,Fe,and C fractions extracted.It also appeared to differentiate between SOM fractions of different stability.The fractions of copper chloride- and potassium chloride-extractable A1 were useful in assessing the total reactive and toxic Al fractions,respectively.The classical subdivision of organic matter into humic acids,fulvic acids,and humin added little useful information.The use of fulvic acids as a proxy for mobile organic matter as done in several model-based approaches seems invalid in the soils studied.

  5. Adleman-Manders-Miller Root Extraction Method Revisited

    Cao, Zhengjun; Sha, Qian; Fan, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In 1977, Adleman, Manders and Miller had briefly described how to extend their square root extraction method to the general $r$th root extraction over finite fields, but not shown enough details. Actually, there is a dramatic difference between the square root extraction and the general $r$th root extraction because one has to solve discrete logarithms for $r$th root extraction. In this paper, we clarify their method and analyze its complexity. Our heuristic presentation is helpful to grasp t...

  6. Liquid-solid extraction of uranium (VI) in phosphoric acid with tapo-wax and its spectrophotometric determination

    Here is reported the separation of uranium (VI) in phosphoric acid by liquid-solid extraction with TAPO(Tri-Alkyl-Phosphine Oxide) and wax. The organic phase is stripped with 0.12 mol/l NaF solution. The uranium is determined spectrophotometrically with Arsenazo III and the fluoride ion is masked with 4% boric acid. Results of analysis of phosphoric acid samples by this method are given

  7. The Extraction of Gelatine from Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) Heads with the use of Different Organic Acids

    Khiari, Zied; Rico, Daniel; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Fish processing by-products are considered a potential resource for bioactive and functional compounds. In this study, gelatines from mackerel (Scomber scombrus) heads were extracted using five different organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, malic and tartaric acids). The organic acid slightly affected the extraction yield but there was no significant (p>0.05) differences were observed. The amino acid profiling found that 3 glycine, proline and hydroxyproline were the major amino acids prese...

  8. Synthesis of new polyphosphonic acids, uranium extracting agents in a phosphoric medium

    Synthesis of organic phosphorus compounds for liquid-liquid extraction of traces of uranium in concentrated phosphoric acid is studied in view of industrial applications. Diphosphonic acids and monoesters and also triphosphonic acids and related compounds are synthetized. Extraction tests show a better efficiency than OPPA

  9. Production and optimisation of hyaluronic acid extracted from Streptococcus pyogenes

    Kawkab Abdulla Al-Saadiaa; Hassan Fadhil Naji; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Because of the less studies in this field in Iraq, this study aimed to use local Streptococcus pyogenes isolates to produce hyluronic acid. Methods The quantitative estimation of hyaluronic acid (HA) produced from eight local S. pyogenes isolates at different pH (6.3, 6.6, 6.9, 7.2, and 7.5) and glucose concentration (4%, 6%, 8%, and 1%) were done using the HA ELISA kit. Results This study showed that the maximum yield of HA was obtained at pH 7.5, and it was found that th...

  10. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  11. Study on the technique of spent fuel reprocessing with supercritical fluid direct extraction method (Super-DIREX method)

    The spent fuel reprocessing method with supercritical fluid has been developed. Uranium and plutonium elements can be extracted directly from spent fuel oxides by supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) containing nitric acid and tributylphosphate (HNO3-TBP) complex at 313-333K and 10-20 MPa. It is called Super-DIREX method which stands for Supercritical fluid Direct Extraction method. In Super-DIREX method, the process from dissolution to extraction(co-decontamination) in PUREX is consolidated to one component of direct extraction column', so that the cost of the spent fuel reprocessing plant is expected to be reduced from purex process. In order to evaluate the ability of extraction, basic tests have been carried out using unirradiated uranium oxide with artificial fission products (FPs) oxide. The concentration of uranium extracted in supercritical fluid and the decontamination factor (DF) of the FPs were evaluated. The test results revealed that it would be possible to extract U selectively from the U-oxide. The DFs of almost all FPs were more than 102. The concentration of uranium extracted is approx. 4.5 g/L-scCO2 under 313K of temperature and 12 MPa of pressure. An increase of pressure may improve the concentration of uranium extracted. (author)

  12. Solvent extraction of Sc(III) from sulfuric acid solution by bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid in toluene

    PURSHOTTAM M. DHADKE; DEVENDRA V. KOLADKAR

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of scandium(III) from sulfuric acid solution using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid (PIA-8) in toluene has been studied. The extraction of scandium(III) was found to be quantitative with 0.03 M PIA-8 in toluene in the acidic range of 0.10.5 M and 6.08.0 M H2SO4. The effect of the reagent concentration and other parameters on the extraction of scandium(III) was also studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of scandium(III) was determined on the basis of the...

  13. Behavior of ionic and colloid forms of microelements in colloidal chemical extraction from humic acid solutions

    Speciation and extractability of humic acids (HAs) and humate complexes of microelements are studied using the colloidal chemical extraction method in combination with ICP MS, taking natural mineral water with high HA concentration (800-1200 mg l-1) collected from the Salekhard region as an example. Joint extraction behavior of ionic and colloid forms of anionic and cationic species of a large number of microelements, including Li, Sr, B, Sc, U(VI) and Th(IV), and HAs is examined at their natural abundance in mineral water, as influenced by pH and HA concentration. Humic acids proved to behave in natural water as a pool of ion-colloidal species, whose protonation results in precipitation at pH 2.0-3.5. In this case, some chemical elements are sorbed on the resulting solid and may be separated along with HAs by colloidal chemical extraction into isobutanol. In natural humate solutions, a considerable fraction (10-99 mol %) of chemical elements is associated with HAs in the form of colloid species extractable with isobutanol

  14. Spectroscopic studies of the progress of humification processes in humic acid extracted from sewage sludge

    Polak, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.; Bartoszek, M.; Papież, W.

    2005-06-01

    The humic acids extracted from sludge collected from the digestion chamber and the sludge drying beds were studied. The sludge samples were collected, dried and humic acids were extracted. The progress of the humification processes was studied with EPR, IR and NMR spectroscopic methods. For extracted humic acids, concentration of free radicals and g factor was determined with EPR. The presence of characteristic functional groups was confirmed with IR and NMR spectroscopy. To study the changes in content of the elements, the elemental analysis was performed to determine the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Taking all the obtained results into account it was found that on the sewage drying beds, humification processes take place in the sludge. In the first two weeks when the sludge on the drying beds an intensive enrichment of humic acids in free radicals takes place. This is the result of the intensive humification process course after the stage in the fermentation chamber where the mesophilic fermentation takes place. Moreover, the humidity of sludge influences the intensive development of free radical concentration at the beginning of the storing period, whereas the humification processes still continue.

  15. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  16. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  17. Comparisons of direct extraction methods of microbial DNA from different paddy soils.

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Melvin Joe, M; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

    2012-07-01

    Molecular analyses for the study of soil microbial communities often depend on the direct extraction of DNA from soils. The present work compares the effectiveness of three different methods of extracting microbial DNA from seven different paddy soils. Comparison among different DNA extraction methods against different paddy soil samples revealed a marked variation in DNA yields from 3.18-20.17 μg DNA/g of dry soil. However, irrespective of the soil samples and extraction methods the DNA fragment size was >10 kb. Among the methods evaluated, method-C (chemical-enzymatic-mechanical) had better cell lysis efficiency and DNA yield. After purification of crude DNA by Purification Kit, A260/A230 and A260/A280 ratios of the DNA obtained by method-C reached up to 2.27 and 1.89, respectively, sustaining the efficacy of this technique in removing humic acid, protein and other contaminants. Results of the comprehensive evaluation of DNA extraction methods suggest that method-C is superior to other two methods (chemical-enzymatic and chemical-mechanical), and was the best choice for extraction of total DNA from soil samples. Since soil type and microbial community characteristics influence DNA recovery, this study provides guidance for choosing appropriate extraction and purification methods according to experimental goals. PMID:23961194

  18. Extraction of Ashwagandha by conventional extraction methods and evaluation of its anti-stress activity

    Jain H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the yield and the antistress activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera extracts, using two extraction methods: hot continuous percolation and maceration. Various parameters like temperature, extraction time (10 hours solvents (water, alcohol, hydroalcohol and drug-solvent ratios (1:6, 1:8, 1:10 were fixed. The highest yield was found to be 16.96% w/w by maceration process using water (1:8. The activity of different extracts was done by Plus-Maze model using alprazolam as the standard drug. Significant result was found in water extract and hydroalcoholic (1:8 extract prepared by maceration method and also in hydro-alcoholic extract (1:8 prepared by soxhlet process.

  19. The effect of extraction method on antioxidant activity of Atractylis babelii Hochr. leaves and flowers extracts

    Khadidja Boudebaz; Samira Nia, Malika; Trabelsi Ayadi; Jamila Kalthoum Cherif

    2015-01-01

    In this study, leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities. Thus, a comparison between the antioxidant properties of ethanolic crude extracts obtained by two extraction methods, maceration and soxhlet extraction, was performed using two different tests; DPPH and ABTS radical assays. Besides, total polyphenol, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents were determined in leaves and flowers of Atractylis babelii by colorimetric methods. The resu...

  20. n-octylphenylphosphonic acid as an extraction agent for scandium and hafnium

    The extraction of Sc complexes with n-octylphenylphosphonic acid (HA) from HCl, HClO4, HNO3 and H2SO4 into benzene was studied and the effect of some tri-n-alkylphosphine oxides added was investigated. Scandium was extracted into the organic phase as a ScA3(HA) complex from 2M mineral acids; when concentrated mineral acids, except for HNO3, were employed, the extraction mechanism changes and ScX3(HA)sub(n) or Sc2(SO4)3(HA)sub(n) complexes, where X was a mineral acid residue, were extracted into the organic phase. The corresponding extraction constants were determined. The substances added did not cause synergic extraction. The extraction of Hf from nitrate and sulphate media was studied analogically; with the former medium, only the solvation-mechanism extraction was observed. The IR and NMR spectra of the reagent were studied. (author)

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    Nursyamirah A. Razak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE as a new technique to extract colorants from a selected plant, i.e., Xylocarpus moluccensis species which can be found abundantly in Peninsular Malaysia. Colorant from the heartwood of Xylocarpus moluccensis was extracted at different elevated temperatures, from 50°C up to 150°C using PHWE technique and the extracts obtained were compared to those obtained via boiling method at 100°C. The color strength of dye extracts was then analyzed using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Video Spectral Comparator (VSC 5000. The effect of the extraction temperatures on the color of extracts obtained by PHWE was also investigated. Results: Results show that the colorimetric data obtained from VSC reading exhibited the exact tone of colors found in anthraquinone. UV-Visible spectrum also shows that higher absorbance of natural dyes extracted via PHWE compared to those obtained by boiling method. Conclusion: By using PHWE employed at different elevated temperatures, different tones of colorants can be produced from one single source in a shorter time with less consumption of water.

  2. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification.

    Yeates, C; Gillings, M R; Davison, A D; Altavilla, N; Veal, D A

    1998-05-14

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size. PMID:12734590

  3. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

    Biradar sanjivkumar; Dhumansure Rajkumar; Patil Mallikarjun; Biradar Karankumar; K Sreenivasa Rao

    2012-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for ...

  5. A Robust Visual-Feature-Extraction Method in Public Environment

    カ, ゴセー; Hua, Gangchen

    2015-01-01

    In this study we describe a new feature extracting method that can extract robust features from a sequence of images and also performs satisfactorily in a highly dynamic environment. This method is based on the geometric structure of matched local feature points. When compared with other previous methods, the proposed method is more accurate in appearance-only simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). When compared to position-invariant robust features, the proposed method is more suitabl...

  6. Removal of plutonium and americium from hydrochloric acid waste stream using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in hydrochloric acid solutions over the range of 0.1 - 10.0 N HCl, whole varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation. The usefulness of these resins for actinide removal from HCl effluent streams is discussed

  7. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in CMPO-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Saipriya, K.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities (India). Kalpakkam Reproscessing Plants; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic resin containing extractants such as octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of extractants (CMPO + HDEHP) in an acrylic polymer matrix was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) over a range of nitric acid concentration. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and the concentration of CMPO and HDEHP in the resin phase was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the impregnated resin increased with increased in the concentration of nitric acid for CMPO-impregnated resin, whereas a reverse trend was observed in HDEHP impregnated resin. In case of resin containing both the extractants, synergism was observed at low nitric acid concentration and antagonism at high nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of extraction was probed by slope analysis method at 0.01 and 2 M nitric acid concentrations. Citrate-buffered DTPA was used for the selective separation of Am(III), and a separation factor of 3-4 was obtained at pH 3.

  8. Study of the properties of dialkyl thiophosphoric acids. Application to the extraction of U, in phosphoric and nitric solutions

    A study is made of complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) by dialkyl-thiophosphoric acids of formula (RO)2POSH and by the synergic mixtures: dialkylthiophosphoric acids-phosphine oxides. The aqueous phases studied consist of concentrated phosphoric acid solutions and nitric acid solutions. Several methods, including distribution coefficient measurements, U.V., visible and infrared absorption spectrophotometries and magnetic resonance, were used to study the extraction mechanisms and the structures of species formed in the organic phase. The influence of different parameters (partition of extraction agent, dimerisation, acid ligand-phosphine oxide association, extraction of inorganic acids...) on the uranium (VI) distribution coefficients enabled the constants of complex formation in the aqueous phase and extraction in the organic phase to be determined. These various properties were compared with those of dialkyl phosphoric and dithiophosphoric acids. The mechanisms established prove that sulfur donors ligands form stable complexes with UO22+ ions although U(VI) is considered as a ''hard class a'' acceptor according to Ahrland's classification

  9. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  10. Growth inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by cellular extracts of human intestinal lactic acid bacteria.

    Ishihara, K; Miyakawa, H; Hasegawa, A.; Takazoe, I; Kawai, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans was completely inhibited by water-soluble extracts from cells of various intestinal lactic acid bacteria identified as Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus equinus, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The growth inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of the extracts. In contrast, the extracts did not inhibit the growth of the major indigenous intestinal lactic acid bacteria isolated from humans. These lactic acid bacteria ...

  11. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Xin-Hong Wang; Chen Cai; Xue-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1) at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p

  12. THE STUDY OF HENNA LEAVES EXTRACT AS GREEN CORROSION INHIBITOR FOR MILD STEEL IN ACETIC ACID.

    H. G. Chaudhari; R. T. Vashi

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitive action of henna leaves extract on mild steel in acetic acid solution have been investigated by weight-loss, A C impedence and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The study indicates that as acid concentration increases corrosion rate increases. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increase in concentration of extract. The result obtained revealed that henna leaves extract act as efficient inhibitor. The adsorption of the henna leaves extract obeyed Langmuir...

  13. Fatty acid extracts from Lucilia sericata larvae promote murine cutaneous wound healing by angiogenic activity

    Zhang Jianing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fatty acids are considered to be effective components to promote wound healing and Lucilia sericata larvae are applied clinically to treat intractable wounds. We aimed to investigat the effect of fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae on murine cutaneuous wound healing as well as angiogenesis. Results On day 7 and 10 after murine acute excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of fatty acid extracts group was higher than that of vaseline group. On day 3, 7 and 10 after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of fatty acid extracts group was better than that of vaseline group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On day 3 after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of fatty acid extracts group were higher than that of vaseline group. Component analysis of the fatty acid extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed there were 10 kinds of fatty acids in total and the ratio of saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was: 20.57%:60.32%:19.11%. Conclusions Fatty acid extracts from dried Lucilia sericata larvae, four fifths of which are unsaturated fatty acids, can promote murine cutaneous wound healing probably resulting from the powerful angiogenic activity of the extracts.

  14. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  15. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  16. Vernix caseosa lipid extraction: Comparison of methods

    Míková, Radka; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Horká, Petra; Zábranská, Marie; Doležal, A.; Plavka, R.; Cvačka, Josef

    Cracow : -, 2012. s. 352-352. [Euro Fed Lipid Congress. Fats , Oils and Lipids: from Science and Technology to Health /10./. 23.09.2012-26.09.2012, Cracow] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0750 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) SVV 2012-265201 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : vernix caseosa * lipids * extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. A Cell Extraction Method for Oily Sediments

    MichaelLappé

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource and through natural seepage or accidental release they can be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence, thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In...

  18. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration

  19. Reliability of non-invasive tissue sampling methods for DNA extraction in rabbits (Oryctolagus Cuniculus)

    Manel Ben Larbi; Tircazes, A.; K. Feve; TUDELA, F.; Bolet, G

    2012-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can be extracted from different tissue sources. The most common is blood, but in some situations it can be easier to take a biopsy. In some cases when it is difficult to capture animals, especially in wild populations, faeces and hairs can be considered as a source of DNA. This paper presents a pilot study conducted to compare the applicability of invasive and non-invasive sampling methods for extracting DNA for use in genetic studies of rabbits (Oryctolagus cunicu...

  20. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France...

  1. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of different polarities stem crude extracts by different extraction methods of Adenium obesum

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Tahiya Hilal Ali Alabri; Amira Hamood Salim Al Musalami; Md. Sohail Akhtar; Sadri Said

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To select best extraction method for the isolated antioxidant compounds from the stems of Adenium obesum. Methods: Two methods used for the extraction are Soxhlet and maceration methods. Methanol solvent was used for both extraction method. The methanol crude extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol solvents. The antioxidant potential for all crude extracts were determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl...

  2. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P = 95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 deg. C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ria de Arousa estuary

  3. Dependence of metal partition coefficients in D2EHPA capacity on extraction from acid solutions

    In devising solvent-extraction schemes for extracting the transplutonium elements (TPE), one usually employs the partition coefficients K/sub p/ for trace amounts; when the results are transferred to weighable amounts of the elements, there are difficulties because one lacks capacity characteristics for the extractants under the conditions used. They have determined the capacity of D2EHPA over a wide range in acidity (0.001-2 mole/liter) in relation to dysprosium (the analog of californium) in the system formed by D2EHPA with nitric acid by saturating a set volume of the extractant with dysprosium in nitric acid containing the necessary amount of free acid

  4. Study on extraction mechanism of scandium (III) with alkylphosphonic acid monoalkyl ester

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III)from hydrochloric acid solutions with s-octylphosphonic acid mono-iso-octyl ester (PT-19), iso-propylphosphonic acid mono-(1-hexyl-4-ethyl) octyl ester(PT-2) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(P507)in heptane is investigated. The extraction reaction of Sc(III) expressed by the equations of chemical reactions are given. The equilibrium constants and thermodynamic functions of extraction reactions are calculated. The IR and NMR spectra of the extraction complexes of Sc(III) are discussed as well

  5. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis for Corrosion of Aluminium in Acidic Media

    Sudesh Kumar; Suraj Prakash Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminium in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of different plant parts, namely, leaves, latex, and fruit was studied using weight loss method and thermometric method. The ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea act as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. The plant parts inhibit aluminium, and inhibition is attributed, due to the adsorption of the plant part...

  6. Comparison of methods for extracting thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis plants.

    Chen, Yang-Er; Yuan, Shu; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible methods for extracting thylakoid membranes are required for the analysis of photosynthetic processes in higher plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we compare three methods for thylakoid extraction using two different buffers. Method I involves homogenizing the plant material with a metal/glass blender; method II involves manually grinding the plant material in ice-cold grinding buffer with a mortar and method III entails snap-freezing followed by manual grinding with a mortar, after which the frozen powder is thawed in isolation buffer. Thylakoid membrane samples extracted using each method were analyzed with respect to protein and chlorophyll content, yields relative to starting material, oxygen-evolving activity, protein complex content and phosphorylation. We also examined how the use of fresh and frozen thylakoid material affected the extracts' contents of protein complexes. The use of different extraction buffers did not significantly alter the protein content of the extracts in any case. Method I yielded thylakoid membranes with the highest purity and oxygen-evolving activity. Method III used low amounts of starting material and was capable of capturing rapid phosphorylation changes in the sample at the cost of higher levels of contamination. Method II yielded thylakoid membrane extracts with properties intermediate between those obtained with the other two methods. Finally, frozen and freshly isolated thylakoid membranes performed identically in blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments conducted in order to separate multimeric protein supracomplexes. PMID:26337850

  7. Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.

    de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

    2012-04-01

    Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

  8. Arsenic fractionation in sediments of different origins using BCR sequential and single extraction methods

    The arsenic (As) contaminated sediment serves as a long-term source of arsenic because its mobility and transport in the environment are strongly influenced to associated solid phase. A single extraction method based on the reagents employed in the BCR three steps sequential extraction scheme (BCR-SES) for partitioning of arsenic (As) in sediment samples has been developed. The single-step extraction enabled a reduction of extraction times, yielding extractable contents in accordance with those obtained by application of the BCR-SES, which can be regarded as a standard method and validated by using certified reference material BCR 701. The extractable As content associated with different phases in sediment samples were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The extraction efficiency of As by single-step extraction was slightly higher than BCR-SES, ranged (100-104%), while difference was not significant at 95% confidence limit with <10% precision. The sediment samples from different origins varied in their physico-chemical properties and total As content. The relative mobility of As obtained from different origins was found in increasing order as: acid soluble fraction < oxidizable fraction < reducible fraction. The acid soluble fraction of As was higher in lake sediment samples as compared to those of canal and river sediments, indicating the contamination of lake ecosystem.

  9. An automated and simple method for brain MR image extraction

    Zhu Zixin; Liu Jiafeng; Zhang Haiyan; Li Haiyun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The extraction of brain tissue from magnetic resonance head images, is an important image processing step for the analyses of neuroimage data. The authors have developed an automated and simple brain extraction method using an improved geometric active contour model. Methods The method uses an improved geometric active contour model which can not only solve the boundary leakage problem but also is less sensitive to intensity inhomogeneity. The method defines the initial fu...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND METHOD VALIDATION OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM EXTRACT

    Biradar sanjivkumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum is highly regarded for their medicinal properties in the indigenous system of medicine. The objectives of the present study include the validation of Aesculus hippocastanum extract. Authenticated extract of seeds of the plant was collected and the method was developed for the validation. In this the extract was subjected to check the Accuracy, Precision, Linearity and Specificity. For the validation UV spectrophotometer was used. The proposed UV validation method for the extract is accurate, linear, precise, linear, specific and within the range. Further isolation and in-vitro studies are needed.

  11. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author)

  12. Review on aggregation of acid extractants in solvent extraction of metal ions: remark on the general model

    2003-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of various acid extractants in the solvent extraction systems of metal ions is re-examined and explained according to knowledge obtained in recent work. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Complexes formed by the extractants and metal ions can form reversed micelles in organic diluents, depending on the microstructures of the complexes. The dimers of the acid extractant cannot percolate to the metal-extractant aggregates, and the acid-salt complexes are always formed in the aggregates. The reversed micelles or the W/O microemulsions formed by different species cannot be associated with each other to form a unified aggregate. (2) In solvent extraction systems, hydration of the extractants and metal ions can be considered as the driving force of forming reversed micelles. (3) Information of the first approach to the insight of the bicontinuous microemulsion of NaDEHP shows that various components in the aqueous phase behave confined and very similar to the typical AOT/n-heptane W/O microemulsions. (4) In the extraction of lanthanide ions by the W/O microemulsion of sodium naphthenate, the saponification is a process of forming reversed micelle or W/O microemulsion, while the extraction step is a process of destroying reversed micelles or W/O microemulsion droplets.

  13. Extraction of uranium from aqueous solution by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam

    Phenylphosphonic acid was imbedded into the matrix of the polyurethane foam during the fabrication process of the polymer. The extraction of uranium by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam and blank polyurethane (i.e., foam without phosphonic acid functional groups) was investigated. Phosphonic acid-imbedded foam showed superior extractability of uranium from solutions with pH = 7.0 ± 1.5 over a wide range of temperatures. (author)

  14. SEPARATION OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION. 1. MECHANISM AND INFLUENCING FACTORS

    DAN CASCAVAL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  15. Extraction equilibria of rare earths by a new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid.

    Sreelatha, S; Rao, T P; Narayanan, C S; Damodaran, A D

    1994-03-01

    A new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid (EPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol (I, 37300-39-5) and was used to investigate the extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR(2))(3) (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behaviour of the above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase in atomic number of rare earths. In addition, the extraction efficiency of EPPA has also been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). PMID:18965945

  16. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  17. Method for Real Time Text Extraction of Digital Manga Comic

    Kohei Arai, Herman Tolle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Manga is one of popular item in Japan and also in the rest of the world.Hundreds of manga printed everyday in Japan and some of printed manga bookwas digitized into web manga. People then make translation of Japaneselanguage on manga into other language -in conventional way- to share thepleasure of reading manga through the internet. In this paper, we propose anautomatic method for detect and extract Japanese character within a mangacomic page for online language translation process. Japanese character textextraction method is based on our comic frame content extraction method usingblob extraction function. Experimental results from 15 comic pages show that ourproposed method has 100% accuracy of flat comic frame extraction and comicballoon detection, and 93.75% accuracy of Japanese character text extraction.

  18. Technetium(VII) extraction with calix[4]arene tetraketones and tetraesters from acid and alkaline media

    Extraction of technetium(VII) and americium(III) by tetrasubstituted by lower edge calix[4]arenes containing carbonyl and ester groups in the cone conformation was studied for choosing extractants for fractionation of liquid radioactive waste produced as a results of nuclear fuel reprocessing. It was established that both types of extractants are selective and highly effective agents for technetium(VII) extraction both from acid and alkaline solutions. Under the conditions studied no extraction of americium(III) takes place

  19. Extraction and separation of U(VI) and Th(IV) from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Ghag Snehal M.; Pawar Suresh D.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, div...

  20. Determination of trace elements in acid rain by reversed phase extraction chromatography and neutron activation

    A preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of selected trace elements in acid rain and other water samples. The method consists of preconcentration of the elements by reversed phase extraction chromatography using oxine-loaded Amberlite XAD-2 resin. Nearly 100% recoveries were obtained for Co, Cu, Hg, V and Zn at pH 6.0 and for Cd at pH 7.0. Manganese gave incomplete recoveries at the pH range of 4.0-8.0 studies. Various factors that can influence preconcentration of the elements have been investigated in detail. The precision and accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The detection limits have been found to be of the order of ppb. The PNAA method has been applied to a number of acid rain and other water samples

  1. Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulfuric acidic solution by the Chenopodium Ambrosioides Extracts

    L. Bammou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural occurring extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides (CAE on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution is studied by the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The experimental results reveal that extract has a good inhibiting effect on the metal tested in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The protection efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration to attain 94% at 4 g/l. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that it acts essentially as a cathodic inhibitor. EIS results show that the change in the impedance parameters (Rt and Cdl with concentration of extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides is indicative of the adsorption of molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of carbon steel. The efficiency decreases with temperature. The adsorption of Chenopodium Ambrosioides extract is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energies and enthalpies of the corrosion process of carbon steel in acidic medium were determined.

  2. Extraction and stripping of rare earths using mixtures of acidic phosphorusbased reagents

    WANG Xianglan; LI Wei; LI Deqian

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the extraction characters of trivalent rare earths from chloride solutions using organophosphorus acids 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-(2-ethylhexyl) ester (HEHEHP) combined with [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP), isopropylphosphonic acid l-hexyl-4-ethyloctyl ester (HHEOIPP), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), bis(2,4,4-trimethypen-tyl)-monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) or bis(2,4,4-trimethypentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 301)] as extractants. The effect of the equilibrium aqueous acidity on the extraction was studied. According to the corresponding separation factors for adjacent pairs of rare earths,it could be concluded that HEHEHP and Cyanex 272 could be employed for the separation of Tm(Ⅲ), Yb(Ⅲ), Lu(Ⅲ) from the other rare earths. Taking Yb(Ⅲ) as an example, based on the different stripping acid, the potential of the stripping was estimated.

  3. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    Hartenstein, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  4. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Yeates C; Gillings, MR; Davison AD; Altavilla N; Veal DA

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol pr...

  5. Comparison of accelerated methods for the extraction of phenolic compounds from different vine-shoot cultivars.

    Delgado-Torre, M Pilar; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Pérez-Juan, Pedro M; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-03-28

    Most research on the extraction of high-priced compounds from vineyard/wine byproducts has traditionally been focused on grape seeds and skins as raw materials. Vine-shoots can represent an additional source to those materials, the characteristics of which could depend on the cultivar. A comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts from 18 different vineyard cultivars obtained by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is here presented. The optimal working conditions for each type of extraction have been investigated by using multivariate experimental designs to maximize the yield of total phenolic compounds, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and control hydroxymethylfurfural because of the organoleptic properties of furanic derivatives and toxicity at given levels. The best values found for the influential variables on each extraction method were 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at pH 3, 180 °C, and 60 min for SHLE; 140 W and 5 min microwave irradiation for MAE; and 280 W, 50% duty cycle, and 7.5 min extraction for USAE. SHLE reported better extraction efficiencies as compared to the other two approaches, supporting the utility of SHLE for scaling-up the process. The extracts were dried in a rotary evaporator, reconstituted in 5 mL of methanol, and finally subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane to remove nonpolar compounds that could complicate chromatographic separation. The methanolic fractions were analyzed by both LC-DAD and LC-TOF/MS, and the differences in composition according to the extraction conditions were studied. Compounds usually present in commercial wood extracts (mainly benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and aldehydes) were detected in vine-shoot extracts. PMID:22372567

  6. Solvent extraction of tricomponent complexes of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid and collidine

    Extraction of tricomponent compounds of zirconium and scandium with salicylic acid (Sal) and collidine (Col) has been studied. Addition of Col widens considerably the pH range of maximum extraction of zirconium salicylate and makes it possible to extract quantitatively both zirconium and scandium in the following pH range: scandium at pH 3.8-5.2; zirconium at pH 2-4. Optimum concentrations of salicylic acid and collidine are 0.05 mol/l and 0.375 mol/l, respectively. The composition of the complexes being extracted has been studied by the shift equilibrium method. Chloroform extracts complexes having the ratio Zr:Sal:Col=1:2:1(pH=3); Sc:Sal:Col=1:3:1(pH=4), and 1:2:1(pH=5). The composition of the complexes being formed is assumed to be [Zr(OH)3(HSal)2]-[ColH+] (pH=3); Sc(HSal)3xCol (pH=4.0); Sc(OH)(HSal)2xCol (pH=5.0). Extraction of collidine-salicylate complexes of Hf, Th, La, and Y under the conditions of optimum extraction of zirconium and scandium has been investigated when concentration of Zr and Sc in the solution is 3.0.10μ-5-1.37.10-4 mol/l, respectively. It has been shown that hafnium is extracted quantitatively (95-100%) at pH 2.3-4.6; thorium at pH 3.0-6.4; 60% of yttrium is extracted at pH 4.0-4.8; 25% of lanthanum is extracted at pH 3.3-4.9. At pH 2.0 it is possible to separate Zr from Sc,Y, and La; at pH 1.4-1.5 from small amounts of Hf and Tn. Separation of zirconium, from small amounts of hafnium, 10-fold amounts of thorium, 100-fold amounts of scandium and lanthanum is also possible

  7. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state and Study 2 (fed state]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals.

  8. Microscale extraction method for HPLC carotenoid analysis in vegetable matrices

    Sidney Pacheco; Fernanda Marques Peixoto; Renata Galhardo Borguini; Luzimar da Silva de Mattos do Nascimento; Claudio Roberto Ribeiro Bobeda; Manuela Cristina Pessanha de Araújo Santiago; Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira Godoy

    2014-01-01

    In order to generate simple, efficient analytical methods that are also fast, clean, and economical, and are capable of producing reliable results for a large number of samples, a micro scale extraction method for analysis of carotenoids in vegetable matrices was developed. The efficiency of this adapted method was checked by comparing the results obtained from vegetable matrices, based on extraction equivalence, time required and reagents. Six matrices were used: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum...

  9. Determination of fatty acids percentages and profile extracted from cuttlefish of Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Yosief Ali Asadpour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fatty acid profile extracted from cuttlefish of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, including Ancistrocheirus, Enoploteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae and Loliginidae. Methods:Oil was extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by gas chromatography. Results:The results showed that (13±5)% of wet weight of cuttlefish is oil. The results also showed that cuttlefish oil has 29.40% saturated fatty acids and 23.70% single-band unsaturated fatty acids, and the total value of the unsaturated multiple-band is 40.20%, the contents of arachidonic acid 2.78%, linolenic acid 3.10%, linoleic acid 5.20%, docosahexaenoic acid 15.40%, and eicosapentaenoic acid 9.60% out of the total fatty acids of the same may be mentioned. Conclusions:The results of the current study described that cuttlefish is considered for the first time as the new and rich source of omega-3 and omega-6.

  10. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  11. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production. PMID:27474618

  12. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble an

  13. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ortíz, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. Methods All drug treatments we...

  14. Sargassum Wightii Extract as a Green Inhibitor for Corrosion of Brass in 0.1 N Phosphoric Acid Solution

    R. Selva Kumar; Chandrasekaran, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of marine algae Sargassum wightii extract on corrosion inhibition of brass in phosphoric acid was investigated by weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase with increasing concentration of extract and decreases with rise in temperature. The inhibitive effect could be attributed to the phytochemical constituents present in the inhibitor containing N, S, O atoms. The activation e...

  15. Extracting natural dyes from wool—an evaluation of extraction methods

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Barrocas Dias, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye’s main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na2EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, ...

  16. Adsorption of U(VI) by humic acid extracted from soil

    Humic acid (HA) was extracted from the soil by using the procedure recommeded by International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) with minor modifications. It was characterized by the element analysis and the IR spectra. Then the adsorption behaviors of U(VI) on the extracted HA were investigated by the static experimental method. The results show that more than 80% of the total U(VI) can be adsorbed by 5 mg humic acid at pH=3 from 20 mL aqueous solution of 0.84 x 10-4 mol/L U(VI) and the adsorption is increased with increasing pH in the range of 1-3 and decreased with increasing pH in the range of 3-10. The relationship between the concentration of U(VI) in aqueous solution and the adsorbed U(VI) is in accord with the Langmuir equation in the U(VI) concentration range from 10-6 to 10-4 mol/L. In the presence of Al3+, Ca2+, Nd3+, Eu3+, CO32- , SO42-, citric acid and EDTA, the adsorption of U(VI) on the humic acid is decreased relative to that in the absence of these ligands and bivalent and trivalent cations, while the effects of K+ and NO3- are insignificant. The effect of temperature in the range of 0-40 degree C on the adsorption of U(VI) was investigated. (authors)

  17. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  18. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  19. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea. PMID:25808312

  20. A RAPID PCR-QUALITY DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IN FISH

    LI Zhong; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZOU Gui-Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish, and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories[1-4]. The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time. The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay, especially in large-scale PCR amplification, such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6], identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10], etc. In this study, a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored, using a modified alkaline lysis protocol. Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes. This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.%PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish,and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories [1-4].The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time.The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay,especially in large-scale PCR amplification,such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6],identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10],etc.In this study,a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored,using a modified alkaline lysis protocol.Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes.This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.

  1. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal...

  2. Bidentate organophosphorus compounds as extractants from acidic waste solutions: a comparative and systematic study

    Shoun, R.R.; McDowell, W.J.; Weaver, B.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of several bidentate organophosphorus compounds. Tetraalkyl carbamoylmethylphosphonates and tetraalkylalkyl diphosphonates were tested for their ability to extract americium from nitric acid. Aromatic, aliphatic, and mixed diluents were compared as to the effect on extraction behavior, aqueous-phase solubility, and organic-phase solubility. Reagent and acid dependences are presented for selected compounds.

  3. Determination of phosphate in soil extracts in the field: A green chemistry enzymatic method

    Ellen R. Campbell; Kayla Warsko; Anna-Marie Davidson; Wilbur H. (Bill) Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of ortho-phosphate in soil extracts usually involves sending dried samples of soil to a laboratory for analysis and waiting several weeks for the results. Phosphate determination methods often involve use of strong acids, heavy metals, and organic dyes. To overcome limitations of this approach, we have developed a phosphate determination method which can be carried out in the field to obtain results on the spot. This new method uses: • Small volumes. • An enzymatic reacti...

  4. Study for the extraction of uranium from commerical phosphoric acid

    The extraction of uranium is discribed and for which several parameters such as choice of the extracting agent, uranium oxidation, temperature, phase volume ratio, equilibrium time and number of stages are studied. A synergic mixture constituted by 0,5M DZEHPA/0,125M TOPO in kerosene is used as extracting agent. The uranium extraction is performed by using both batch process and continuous as well as discontinuous counter-current and processes in bench scale. An overall yield of 96% is obtained when the extraction experiment is performed at 450C in a 5-stage continuous extraction process. (Author)

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction of thorium(IV) by fatty acids. A comparative study

    In this paper, extractants that have the potential to be sustainably regenerated, are proposed for thorium(IV) removal from nitrate aqueous phases. These extractants are oleic (OA), palmitic (PA) and lauric (LA) acids. The advantages of using these acids are their sustainability, their biocompatibility and their non-toxicity, this makes these simpler and greener compared to other extractants (organophosphorus, azote derivatives, macrocyclic crown, etc.) used for metal extraction. These acids were applied as chelating agent for Th(IV) liquid-liquid extraction. The extractions were carried out in chloroform as an organic phase through the formation of thorium-OA, thorium-PA and thorium-LA complexes. The synergistic extraction of Th(IV) with these extractants in the presence of tributhylphosphine (TBP) has been investigated. The effect of different variables, such as time contact, pH of the aqueous phase, concentration of fatty acid, TBP addition on fatty acids, ionic strength and temperature, is reported. The results showed that the extraction kinetics using LA and OA were fast than with PA. The KNO3 addition does not seem to highly influence the extraction yield, and no important synergy effect was noticed in the presence of TBP. Thermodynamic data for Th(IV) solvent extraction are also reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Proposal for a new method to extract quartz from materials used for retrospective dosimetry and dating

    Methods of luminescence induced by radiation, including thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, have been widely used for the determination of accumulated dose in crystals for retrospective dosimetry and archaeological dating. The determination of the radiation dose begins with the extraction of quartz from the sample studied. The methodology commonly applies acids, such as HCl and HF, to remove other compounds present in the natural samples. In this work, the effectiveness of this method is questioned, and an alternative method for the extraction of quartz is proposed.

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activities between salvianolic acid B and Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761 )

    Chang-suo LIU; Yong CHENG; Jin-feng HU; Wei ZHANG; Nai-hong CHEN; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate and compare the antioxidant activities of salvianolic acid B (SalB) and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in aqueous solution, rat microsomes and the cellular system. Methods: Superoxide anion (O-·2) was generated using xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and phenazine methosulate/NADH system, and the effects of SalB and EGb 761 on the generation of (O-·2) were achieved by spectrophotometric measurement of the product formed on reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. Two different methods were used to assess the scavenging effects of the extracts on hydroxyl radical (·OH): HPLC method was used for quantitation of ·OH by oxy-radical trapping of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) to form DMPO-OH adducts in Fe2+-EDTA-H2O2 system. To confirm the HPLC data,·OH was also measured by spectrophotometry using a commercial detection kit. The anti-lipid peroxidation effects of the extracts in microsomes of rat brain, liver and kidney induced by ascorbate-NADPH were determined by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The protective effects of the extracts on peroxide hydrogen (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated by assessing cell viability assay, the level of lipid peroxidation, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Results: Both SalB and EGb 761 were able to scavenge O-·2 and ·OH, inhibit lipid peroxidation of microsomes, and protect SH-SY5Y cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. However, the concentration of SalB was far lower than that of EGb 761 when a similar effect was obtained. Conclusion: The antioxidant efficiency of SalB was greater than that of EGb 761. These results suggest that SalB, like EGb 761, has promising potential in treating oxidative damagederived neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries. PMID:26258699

  9. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  10. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  11. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  12. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na2O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  13. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields. PMID:23997658

  14. A contribution to the study of mass transfer: uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium (VI) contained in phosphoric acid is examined. Synergism and thermodynamical equilibria are studied. Influence of drop size, extractant concentration and temperature on reaction kinetics are determined. The experimental study concerns extraction by HDEHP, TOPO and the mixture of both. Reaction mechanisms are interpreted

  15. Rhenium extraction from sulfuric acid slimes of Dzhezkazgan coppor-smelting plant

    The results of laboratory and industrial tests for extraction of rhenium from sulphate slimes of DMZ are given. Rhenium is shown to be extracted by 70% into solution during the acid leaching of slimes in the presence of manganese concentrate. The solutions after leaching can be directed to extraction

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid employing crown ether

    Selective extraction and separation of uranium from various matrices is imperative due to its importance as nuclear fuel material. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium employing CO2 as supercritical fluid and di-tert-butyldibenzo-18-crown-6 as co-solvent has been investigated. PFOA was employed as counter ion. Effects of various parameters e.g. pressure, temperature, time of extraction, acidity of medium, metal-to-crown and crown- to-counter ion ratio, on extraction efficiency were examined. Under optimized condition, an extraction efficiency of (58±5)% was obtained. (author)

  17. Thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH(EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium

    DONG Jinshi; XU Yang; WANG Liangshi; HUANG Xiaowei; LONG Zhiqi; WU Shengxi

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction has been the most widely used technique for rare earths separation. In this study, thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH (EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium were investigated. The extraction mechanism and the relevant parameters were determined by experiment research which can guide the practical extraction process. The data indicated that chloride ion had no effect on lutetium extraction, the rate constant increased when stirring speed was enhanced. Effects of temperature, HEH (EHP) concentration, acidity, and chloride concentration were also studied. Thickness of the diffusion film was also calculated to be 4.66×10–3 cm at 150 r/min.

  18. Phase separation kinetic studies for uranium recovery from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction

    Wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) contains uranium in the range 80-120 mg/LU3O8 while in the Merchant Grade Acid (MGA) it is in the range 220-240 mg/L .Based on the experimental work, a two cycle solvent extraction process for uranium separation from phosphoric acid has been developed at REDS and patented. While the equilibrium extraction behaviour and reaction mechanisms have been studied, the kinetic aspect of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid with particular reference to rate of mass transfer and phase disengagement time has not been studied

  19. The Effect of Sericin from Various Extraction Methods on Cell Viability and Collagen Production

    Pornanong Aramwit

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin (SS can accelerate cell proliferation and attachment; however, SS can be extracted by various methods, which result in SS exhibiting different physical and biological properties. We found that SS produced from various extraction methods has different molecular weights, zeta potential, particle size and amino acid content. The MTT assay indicated that SS from all extraction methods had no toxicity to mouse fibroblast cells at concentrations up to 40 μg/mL after 24 h incubation, but SS obtained from some extraction methods can be toxic at higher concentrations. Heat-degraded SS was the least toxic to cells and activated the highest collagen production, while urea-extracted SS showed the lowest cell viability and collagen production. SS from urea extraction was severely harmful to cells at concentrations higher than 100 μg/mL. SS from all extraction methods could still promote collagen production in a concentration-dependent manner, even at high concentrations that are toxic to cells.

  20. [Comparative study of different extraction methods and assays of tannins in some pteridophytes].

    Laurent, S

    1975-10-01

    Various processes of extraction and quantitative analysis of a condensed tannin in a plant extract, which also includes some chlorogenic acids, have been examined. 60% methanol, at 50 degrees C, proved the most efficient extraction solvent. Several methods of analysis have been tried. The measure of the colour intensity obtained by the action of sulphuric vanilline on flavanols cannot be used because it depends on the tannin condensation stage. It is impossible to separate tannin from chlorogenic acids using the methods of adsorption by skin or nylon powders, or precipitation by polyvinylpyrrolidone. Only paper chromatography, followed by the distinct elution of the various phenolic compounds, allows the tannin evaluation by subtraction; but owing to the variability of the results, many more experiments are necessary. Some other processes are being studied. PMID:57755

  1. Complexation and extraction of series 4f, 5f and 4d ions by dialkyldithiophosphoric acids

    A study was carried out on the complexing and extracting properties of various dialkyldithiophosphoric acids towards ions of the 4f, 5f and 4d series. Sulphurated donors complex and extract ions of the 4f and 5f series less strongly than their oxygenated homologues. However the affinity of trivalent actinide ions for dialkythiophosphate ions is shown to be greater than that of lanthanides. The conditions of ruthenium extraction from nitric acid are defined

  2. Cytotoxicity of Coprinopsis atramentaria extract, organic acids and their synthesized methylated and glucuronate derivatives

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Esteves, Ana P.; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Coprinopsis atramentaria is a wild edible mushroom whose methanolic extract revealed a marked antioxidant activity; p-hydroxybenzoic (HA), p-coumaric (CoA) and cinnamic (CA) acids were identified in the extract. In the present work, the cytotoxicity of C. atramentaria extract, previously identified organic acids and their synthesized derivatives (methylated compounds and protected glucuronides) was evaluated. Among all the tested cell lines (MCF-7—breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H460—non-small cel...

  3. Extraction fatty acid as a source to produce biofuel in microalgae Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Tai, Do Chiem; Hai, Dam Thi Thanh; Vinh, Nguyen Hanh; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2016-06-01

    In this research, the fatty acids of isolated microalgae were extracted by some technologies such as maceration, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction; and analyzed for biodiesel production using GC-MS. This work deals with the extraction of microalgae oil from dry biomass by using supercritical fluid extraction method. A complete study at laboratory of the influence of some parameters on the extraction kinetics and yields and on the composition of the oil in terms of lipid classes and profiles is proposed. Two types of microalgae were studied: Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. For the extraction of oil from microalgae, supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) is regarded with interest, being safer than n-hexane and offering a negligible environmental impact, a short extraction time and a high-quality final product. Whilst some experimental papers are available on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of oil from microalgae, only limited information exists on the kinetics of the process. These results demonstrate that supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient method for the complete recovery of the neutral lipid phase.

  4. Morphological method for automatic extraction of the coronary arteries

    Coronary arteriography is a clinically important diagnostic tool for the evaluation of coronary artery disease, and can provide detailed information. For the quantitative assessment of the coronary arteriograms. Several studies concerning the extraction of vessel edges have been published, and automatic extraction of vessel edges has been used in clinical diagnostic systems. However, these methods are not satisfactory, because manual modification by the operator is unavoidable in some cases. To reduce manual operation, accurate and automatic extraction of the coronary arteries is necessary. In this paper, we propose a new technique for automatic extraction of the coronary arteries using morphological operators. This method includes the following steps: contrast enhancement using a morphological Top-Hat operator, enhancement of thin vessels and reduction of pulse noise using a morphological erosion operator, elimination of obvious background pixels by semi-binary thresholding, and extraction of the coronary arteries by labeling and counting the area. (author)

  5. Reactive extraction of lactic acid using alamine 336 in MIBK: equilibria and kinetics.

    Wasewar, Kailas L; Heesink, A Bert M; Versteeg, Geert F; Pangarkar, Vishwas G

    2002-07-17

    Lactic acid is an important commercial product and extracting it out of aqueous solution is a growing requirement in fermentation based industries and recovery from waste streams. The design of an amine extraction process requires (i) equilibrium and (ii) kinetic data for the acid-amine (solvent) system used. Equilibria for lactic acid extraction by alamine 336 in methyl-iso-butyl-ketone (MIBK) as a diluent have been determined. The extent to which the organic phase (amine +MIBK) may be loaded with lactic acid is expressed as a loading ratio, z=[HL](o)/[B](i,o). Calculations based on the stoichiometry of the reactive extraction and the equilibria involved indicated that more lactic acid is transferred to the organic phase than would be expected from the (1:1) stoichiometry of the reaction. The extraction equilibrium was interpreted as a result of consecutive formation of two acid-amine species with stoichiometries of 1:1 and 2:1. Equilibrium complexation constant for (1:1) and (2:1) has been estimated. Kinetics of extraction of lactic acid by alamine 336 in MIBK has also been determined. In a first study of its kind, the theory of extraction accompanied by a chemical reaction has been used to obtain the kinetics of extraction of lactic acid by alamine 336 in MIBK. The reaction between lactic acid and alamine 336 in MIBK in a stirred cell falls in Regime 3, extraction accompanied by a fast chemical reaction occurring in the diffusion film. The reaction has been found to be zero order in alamine 336 and first order in lactic acid with a rate constant of 1.38 s(-1). These data will be useful in the design of extraction processes. PMID:12052683

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting on lipid extraction for recovery of fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata micro-algae to biodiesel production

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the appropriate method for dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for lipid extraction. Methods: NannochloropsisOculata was cultured in Gillard F/2 medium and after reaching the end of the stationary growth phase, algal biomass was separated from aqueous by centrifuge and dried through three methods: Oven, Air-dried and Lyophilized. Soxhlet apparatus achieved lipid extraction of all samples: diethyl ether, n-hexane and n-pentane using three solvents. At each stage, the quantity and quality of the extracted lipids were determined by Gas Chromatography. Results: In all three drying methods, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid, and most significantly fatty acid composition of microalgae were extracted. The fatty acid composition of palmitic acid extracted by Diethyl ether was significantly more than the other two solvents. Maximum production of triglyceride was observed in Lyophilized and air-dried microalgae where lipid extraction was performed with diethyl ether solvents and are 75.03% and 76.72% of fatty acid. Conclusion: The use of Lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and Diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass, studied in this paper, as compared to other methods, had higher yields and researches proved that the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid was more efficient.

  7. Comparison of four methods of DNA extraction from rice

    2002-01-01

    @@ Polyphenols, teroens, and resins make it difficult to obtain high quality genomic DNA from rice. Four extraction methods were compared in our study, and CTAB precipitation was the most practical one.

  8. Chlorogenic Acid from Helianthus Annuus L Petals via Extraction Method and Its Scavenging Action of Ultra-Oxygen Anion%醇提法提取向日葵花瓣中绿原酸及其超氧阴离子清除作用

    钟姣姣; 李万林; 刘军海

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid was obtained from helianthus annuus L petals via extraction method using al-cohol as the solvent. The extraction parameters were optimized through orthogonal experimental method af-ter a single-factor test. The results showed that a maximum chlorogenic acid yield of 1.801%was obtained under the optimum conditions, i.e. temperature of 50 ℃, ethanol volume fraction of 70%, pH value of 6, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL) and extraction time for 30 min. Antioxidant activity test showed that chlorogenic acid from helianthus annuus L petals possessed better scavenging capability of ultra-oxygen anion O2-·than Vc.%以向日葵花瓣为原料,选用醇提法提取向日葵花瓣中绿原酸,在单因素实验的基础上,通过正交试验对工艺条件进行优化,结果表明,向日葵花瓣中绿原酸最佳提取条件:温度50℃,乙醇体积分数70%,pH值6,料液比1:20,回流时间30 min,此时,提取率可达1.801%。抗氧化性研究表明:向日葵花瓣中绿原酸提取液对超氧阴离子具有一定的清除作用,且效果比Vc好。

  9. Extraction behavior of Am(III) and Ln(III) with diaryldithiophosphinic acids

    Diphenyldithiophosphinic acid (DPDTPI), dichlorophenyldithiophosphinic acid (DCPDTPI), dimethylphenyldithiophosphinic acids (DMPDTPI), di(2,5-dimethylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (DDMPDTPI), and di(3,5-dichloro-4-methylphenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (DDCMPDTPI) were synthesized. The extraction of Am(III) and Ln(III) from 0.1 mol/L NaClO4 medium with these diaryldithiophosphinic acids in xylene were investigated. The experimental results show that the order of extraction ability is DDCMPDTPI>DMPDTPI>DPDTPI>DCPDTPI>DDMPDTPI, and extraction selectivity for Am(III) is DCPDTPI>DPDTPI>DDMPDTPI>DMPDTPI>DDCMPDTPI. The obtained maximum separation factors (Am/Eu) are 21, 4.4, 1.8, 1.3 and 1.0 for DCPDTPI, DPDTPI, DDMPDTPI, DMPDTPI and DDCMPDTPI, respectively. The lg D increases with atomic number of lanthanide for 5 extractants. (authors)

  10. Determination of dissociation constants of chloride complex acids of bivalent cobalt, zinc, copper and cadmium in TBP from extraction data

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A. (Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR); Petrozavodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1980-12-01

    The calculated method of determining constants of dissociation complex acids of a number of metals (cobalt, copper, zinc and cadmium) in TBP on the basis of known values of element distribution coefficients and degrees of formation of extractive complexes in aqeuous solutions of hydrochloric acid at 25 deg C is suggested. The results of calculations are presented in a table. For H/sub 2/CdCl/sub 4/ the dissociation constant is (10sup(3)Ksub(D)=1.3).

  11. Use of Experimental Design in the Optimization of Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid in Fructus crataegi

    Kariuki Nancy N; LUO Guoan

    2001-01-01

    Extraction of active constituents is the key to economic exploitation of herbal drugs in which appropriate use of experimental design can be employed.This paper used even-plan design to assess parameters for optimum extraction of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in Fructus crataegi.In this approach,three factors,namely solvent concentration,extraction time and solvent volume,were evaluated according to even-plan design,in which several factors are usually simultaneously varied.As a result the number of experiments as well as time,was reduced as compared with the univariate approach and other designs.It was demonstrated that with even-plan design,useful information on extraction parameters can be obtained for the extraction of herbal drugs and could therefore be successfully applied to screen extraction conditions for herbal drugs.

  12. Scandium separation by the method of solvent extraction and extraction chromatography

    The conditions of scandium extraction from ferruginous technological solutions by tributyl phosphate have been studied. The purification degree of scandium from iron during the extraction from 8MHCl by 50% TBP solution in kerosene with the consequent 4mHCl reextraction equals approximately 80%. To attain deeper scandium purification from iron the method of extraction chromatography has been used which enables to separate scandium and iron, their quantity ratios being equal to 1:1000. This separation method has been employed for the analysis of technological solutions. The relative standard deviation of the analysis results did not exceed 0.08

  13. Comparison of Three Methods of Protein Extraction from Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Jin-lu Sun; Hong-yu Zhang; Zhi-yi Guo; Wan-tao Ying; Xiao-hong Qian; Jing-lan Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore an effective method of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus protein extraction suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Methods The extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were prepared with Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, respectively. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was used to determine the total protein concentration of the samples. The efficiency of different protein extraction methods were evaluated with 2-DE analysis. Results The concentrations of extracted protein by methods of Coca's solution, lysis buffer, and Trizol reagent were 0.63 g/L, 0.90 g/L, and 0.80 g/L, respectively. The 2-DE analysis results showed that some protein spots in low molecular weight (LMW) range could be detected with the Coca's solution method. With the lysis buffer of 2-DE method, more protein spots in LMW range could be detected, while the medium molecular weight (MMW) protein spots were absent. Several MMW protein spots (174-178 kD and 133 kD) and more LMW protein spots were detected with Trizol reagent method. Conclusions Among Coca's solution, lysis buffer of 2-DE, and Trizol reagent, the concentration of extracted protein of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by lysis buffer of 2-DE is the highest. However, most protein components of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus purified mite bodies can be extracted by Trizol reagent, which may generally reflect the whole profile of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens.

  14. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extrac...

  15. A single scale retinex based method for palm vein extraction

    Wang, Chongyang; Peng, Ming; Xu, Lingfeng; Chen, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Palm vein recognition is a novel biometric identification technology. But how to gain a better vein extraction result from the raw palm image is still a challenging problem, especially when the raw data collection has the problem of asymmetric illumination. This paper proposes a method based on single scale Retinex algorithm to extract palm vein image when strong shadow presents due to asymmetric illumination and uneven geometry of the palm. We test our method on a multispectral palm image. T...

  16. Determination of vanadium in ferronickel by extraction-polarography method

    Polarographic behaviour of dibromoxyquinoline and its complex with V(5) on a graphite anode in toluene extracts has been studied. Against the background of 0.05 M of the LiCl solution in the toluene-ethyl alcohol (1:1) mixture the complex of V(5) with dibromoxyquinoline results in an anodic oxidation wave with phisub(1/2)=0.6V. The ultimate current is in direct proportion with the vanadium concentration in the extract. Technique of vanadium determination in ferronickel using the extraction-polarography method has been developed. The determination limit of vanadium by the given method is 0.06 mg in 25 ml

  17. Forward gated-diode method for parameter extraction of MOSFETs*

    Zhang Chenfei; Ma Chenyue; Guo Xinjie; Zhang Xiufang; He Jin; Wang Guozeng; Yang Zhang; Liu Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    The forward gated-diode method is used to extract the dielectric oxide thickness and body doping concentration of MOSFETs, especially when both of the variables are unknown previously. First, the dielectric oxide thickness and the body doping concentration as a function of forward gated-diode peak recombination-generation (R-G) current are derived from the device physics. Then the peak R-G current characteristics of the MOSFETs with different dielectric oxide thicknesses and body doping concentrations are simulated with ISE-Dessis for parameter extraction. The results from the simulation data demonstrate excellent agreement with those extracted from the forward gated-diode method.

  18. A rapid and simple method for the separation of TBP-dodecane by perchloric acid

    Organic solvents, including TBP etc., are widely used as an extractant, and treated and disposed by storage, incineration, and absorption into absorbent after they were used. Any of those methods does not aim at recycling of solvents, treating concurrently the extractant and the diluent without separating them. In this paper, a test is reported on the TBP-dodecane separation by perchloric acid for a separation test of the diluent from the extractant as a first step toward recycling. Basically this separation method is already reported by P. Mark et al. as a method for the analysis of TBP, but it requires a large amount of perchloric acid. With a further detailed study of the perchloric acid effects on the TBP-dodecane separation, it was made clear that the separation is possible by adding a fixed amount of TBP contacted with perchloric acid to the TBP-dodecane solvent. In this paper, its outline is presented. (author)

  19. 从石蜡包埋的皮肤组织中提取核酸的两种脱蜡方法比较%Comparison of Two Methods for Dewaxing with Extracted Nucleic Acids From Paraffin-Embedded Skin Tissues

    刘新梅; 张晓玲; 赵宗峰; 靳颖; 吴卫东

    2013-01-01

    探讨从石蜡组织中提取核酸的简便、实用方法,比较两种脱蜡方法对DNA质量的影响.取收集的20例包埋好的银屑病皮损组织,分别用二甲苯和TES溶液脱蜡、酚-氯仿提取,然后检测DNA的浓度及纯度,并用PCR扩增方法检测哪种脱蜡方法对提取DNA更有优势.结果表明,用TES溶液脱蜡提取DNA的D260/D280=1.6~1.8的比例为60%,而二甲苯脱蜡的比例为35%.从实用、快速和经济的角度综合考虑,TES溶液脱蜡、酚-氯仿提取是值得推荐的石蜡组织DNA提取方法.%To investigate a simple and practical method for extraction of nucleic acids from paraffin-embedded skin tissues, and evaluate the influences of dewaxing methods for DNA quality, twenty cases of pathology embedding psoriatic lesions tissues were selected and divided into xylene dewaxing group and improved TES dewaxing group. The results demonstrated that the ratio of OD260/ OD280 between 1. 6 and 1. 8 took 60% in DNA samples extracted by improved TES dewaxing method with water-bath, whereas it took 35% in DNA samples extracted by using xylene dewaxing method. , Considering the speed, practical and economic point of view, the improved TES dewaxing with water-bath followd by DNA extraction using phenol-chloroform is a method worthy of recommending for paraffin embedded skin tissues.

  20. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai)

    LUTHRIA, DEVANAND L.; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Ayaz Ali Memon; Najma Memon

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE) using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids) w...

  1. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  2. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  3. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development.

    Zhao, Di; Li, Hong-Bo; Xu, Jia-Yi; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Qiying

    2015-08-01

    We compared four methods to extract arsenic (As) from three different plants containing different As levels for As speciation with the goal of developing a more efficient method, i.e., As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata at 459-7714mgkg(-1), rice seedling at 53.4-574mgkg(-1), and tobacco leaf at 0.32-0.35mgkg(-1). The four methods included heating with dilute HNO3, and sonication with phosphate buffered solution, methanol/water, and ethanol/water, with As being analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Among the four methods, the ethanol/water method produced the most satisfactory extraction efficiency (~80% for the roots and >85% for the fronds) without changing As species based on P. vittata. The lower extraction efficiency from P. vittata roots was attributed to its dominance by arsenate (82%) while arsenite dominated in the fronds (89%). The ethanol/water method used sample:solution ratio of 1:200 (0.05g:10mL) with 50% ethanol and 2h sonication. Based on different extraction times (0.5-2h), ethanol concentrations (25-100%) and sample:solution ratios (1:50-1:300), the optimized ethanol/water method used less ethanol (25%) and time (0.5h for the fronds and 2h for the roots). Satisfactory extraction was also obtained for tobacco leaf (78-92%) and rice seedlings (~70%) using the optimized method, which was better than the other three methods. Based on satisfactory extraction efficiency with little change in As species during extraction from three plants containing different As levels, the optimized method has the potential to be used for As speciation in other plants. PMID:25863504

  4. Micro-solid phase extraction of perfluorinated carboxylic acids from human plasma.

    Lashgari, Maryam; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-02-01

    Micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of trace levels of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in human plasma. The μ-SPE sorbent was surfactant-templated mesoporous silica. Extraction time, desorption time and salt concentration were chosen as the most effective parameters and were optimized simultaneously by use of central composite design. Under the optimized extraction conditions, good linearity in the range of 100 and 5000ngL(-1) was obtained with coefficients of determination of between 0.986 and 0.995. The limits of detection (at a signal to noise ratio of 3) were measured to be in the range of between 21.23 and 65.07ngL(-1), and limits of quantification (at a signal to noise ratio of 10) were in the range of between 70.77 and 216.92ngL(-1). The relative recoveries of spiked PFCAs in different samples were in the range of between 87.58 and 102.45%. As expected from the global distribution of PFCs, contaminations at low levels (less than 200ngL(-1)) were detected (with the highest concentration recorded for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)). Considering the complex nature of biological samples and the issue of matrix effects in the analysis of PFCAs, μ-SPE as an extraction method was shown to be advantageous; it combined extraction and concentration in one single step with no additional sample clean-up, and was able to remove significant matrix interferences. PMID:26795278

  5. A kinetic approach to evaluate the association of acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in aquatic sediments

    Poot, A.; Meerman, E.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (¿SEM) method is widely used for evaluating potential bioavailability of heavy metals in soil and sediment. It is also criticized, because the requirement that AVS and SEM metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are associated in the

  6. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass.

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Mutlu, A Gizem; Smets, Barth F

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have a presumed determinant role in the structure, architecture, strength, filterability, and settling behaviour of microbial solids in biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, numerous EPS extraction protocols have recently been published that aim to optimize the trade off between high EPS recovery and low cell lysis. Despite extensive efforts, the obtained results are often contradictory, even when analysing similar biomass samples and using similar experimental conditions, which greatly complicates the selection of an extraction protocol. This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different biomass samples. Protein was consistently the main EPS component in all analysed samples. However, EPS from nitrifying enrichments was richer in DNA, the activated sludge EPS had a higher content in humic acids and carbohydrates, and the nitritation-anammox EPS, while similar in composition to the nitrifier EPS, had a lower fraction of hydrophobic biopolymers. In general, the easily-extractable EPS fraction was more abundant in carbohydrates and humic substances, while

  7. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元

    2004-01-01

    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  8. The Effect of Homogenization Pressures on Extraction of Avocado Oil by Wet Method

    Basuni Hamzah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado tree usually planted by people of Indonesia in rural are small in scale. Mostly, in the modern and high scale industry especially company has a large avocado farm the extraction of avocado oil is extracted through vacuum drying in low temperature. However, in rural area avocado tree spread out in small number of tree, so it needs alternative method of avocado oil extraction. In this experiment, wet method of avocado extraction was applied similar to traditional extraction of coconut oil in rural area. Avocado meat was added some water and 0.05% of phosphate acid then homogenization pressure of 7 kg/cm2, 71 kg/cm 2 and 176 kg/cm2, then heated at 100oC until the emulsion of water-oil broken down and avocado oil, then, can be separated. Yield and characteristics of avocado oil were determined. The results showed when homogenization pressures increased from 7 kg/cm2 to 71 kg/cm2, the yield, Iodine value and Free fatty Acid of avocado oil were also increased, however, when homogenization pressures increased from 71 kg/cm2 to 176 kg/cm2 (p>0.05 there were no significant increased of Yield, Iodine value and Free Fatty Acid of avocado oil.

  9. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic nanoparticles for the selective extraction of protocatechuic acid from plant extracts.

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Wei, Fen; Chen, Liang; Wang, Sicen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, highly selective core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using protocatechuic acid as the template molecule. The resulting magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The binding performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by static and selective adsorption. The binding isotherms were obtained for protocatechuic acid and fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model and Freundlich isotherm model. Furthermore, the resulting materials were used as the solid-phase extraction materials coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective extraction and detection of protocatechuic acid from the extracts of Homalomena occulta and Cynomorium songaricum with the recoveries in the range 86.3-102.2%. PMID:25641806

  10. Effect of extraction method and orientin content on radio-protective effect of tulsi extracts

    Extract of tulsi leaves (Ocimum sanctum) has been reported for its radioprotective efficacy. In our initial studies we observed significant variation in the survival of irradiated mice with different batches of tulsi extracts and therefore we employed different extraction methods on leaves collected during various seasons from different localities to study any variation in the radioprotective efficacy. Orientin, a component of tulsi extract, was considered a marker. Mice whole body survival (at 10 Gy lethal whole body irradiation) study and day 11 endo-CFU-s assay (at 5 Gy WBI) were performed employing 3 treatment schedules, 50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg b.w (single injection, 30 min irradiation), and 10 mg/kgb.w (one injection per day for 5 day, last injection being 30 min before irradiation). Single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w (both aqueous and alcoholic) did not provide any significant survival benefit. The orientin concentrations in the extracts tested varied from 3.3 to 9.91 mg/g extract as studied by HPLC method. With a single administration (i.p) of 50 mg/kg, the aqueous extract from leaves of monsoon season had an orientin content of 9.91 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 60% with a CFU-s count of 37, while extract of leaf summer leaves had an orientin content of 4.15 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 11.6. At the same dose (50 mg/kg), the aqueous extract from the winter season had an orientin content of 3.30 mg/g extract and gave 25% survival with a CFU-s count of 19, while the ethanolic extract had an orientin content of 7.70 mg/g extract and gave a survival of 50% with a CFU-s count of 13. These observations suggest that different climatic factors, orientin content and the doses of administration are important factors regulating radioprotection afforded by different extracts of tulsi. (author)

  11. A Circular Statistical Method for Extracting Rotation Measures

    S. Sarala; Pankaj Jain

    2002-03-01

    We propose a new method for the extraction of Rotation Measures from spectral polarization data. The method is based on maximum likelihood analysis and takes into account the circular nature of the polarization data. The method is unbiased and statistically more efficient than the standard 2 procedure.

  12. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  13. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods.

    Zeb, Alam; Ullah, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries. PMID:27123360

  14. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods

    Alam Zeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported methods. The method was used to determine the TBARS contents in the fried fast foods such as Shami kebab, samosa, fried bread, and potato chips. Shami kebab, samosa, and potato chips have higher amount of TBARS in glacial acetic acid-water extraction system than their corresponding pure glacial acetic acid and vice versa in fried bread samples. The method can successfully be used for the determination of TBARS in other food matrices, especially in quality control of food industries.

  15. Lipid extraction methods from microalgal biomass harvested by two different paths: screening studies toward biodiesel production.

    Ríos, Sergio D; Castañeda, Joandiet; Torras, Carles; Farriol, Xavier; Salvadó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae can grow rapidly and capture CO2 from the atmosphere to convert it into complex organic molecules such as lipids (biodiesel feedstock). High scale economically feasible microalgae based oil depends on optimizing the entire process production. This process can be divided in three very different but directly related steps (production, concentration, lipid extraction and transesterification). The aim of this study is to identify the best method of lipid extraction to undergo the potentiality of some microalgal biomass obtained from two different harvesting paths. The first path used all physicals concentration steps, and the second path was a combination of chemical and physical concentration steps. Three microalgae species were tested: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Chaetoceros calcitrans One step lipid extraction-transesterification reached the same fatty acid methyl ester yield as the Bligh and Dyer and soxhlet extraction with n-hexane methods with the corresponding time, cost and solvent saving. PMID:23434816

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    Pitchaiah, K.C.; Sujatha, K.; Rao, C.V.S. Brahmmananda; Subramaniam, S.; Sivaraman, N.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO{sub 3}. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO{sub 3} medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO{sub 2} containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and thorium from nitric acid medium using organophosphorous compounds

    In recent years, Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) technique has been widely used for the extraction of metal ions. In the present study, extraction of uranium from nitric acid medium was investigated using supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) containing various organophosphorous compounds such as trialkyl phosphates e.g. tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), dialkylalkyl phosphonates, e.g. diamylamyl phosphonate (DAAP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP), dialkyl hydrogen phosphonates, e.g. dioctyl hydrogen phosphonate (DOHP), dioctylphosphineoxide (DOPO), trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), n-octylphenyl N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP). Some of these ligands have been investigated for the first time in the supercritical phase for the extraction of uranium. The extraction efficiency of uranium was studied with TiAP, DAAP and DBBP as a function of nitric acid concentration; the kinetics of the equilibration period (static extraction) and transportation of the metal complex (dynamic extraction) was investigated. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction behaviour of uranium with DAAP was studied from 4 N HNO3. The extraction efficiency of uranium from 4 N nitric acid medium was found to increase in the order of phosphates < phosphonates < HDEHP < TOPO < CMPO. In the case of phosphates and phosphonates, the maximum extraction of uranium was found to be from 4 N HNO3 medium. The acidic extractants, HDEHP and DOHP showed relatively higher extraction at lower acidities. The relative extraction of uranium and thorium from their mixture was also examined using Sc-CO2 containing phosphates, phosphonates and TOPO. The ligand, TsBP provided better fractionation between uranium and thorium compared to trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl alkyl phosphonates and TOPO.

  18. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material. PMID:26985935

  19. Extraction concentration and atomic emission determination of controlled elements in acid mine waters

    Petrov, B.I.; Oshchepkova, A.P. (Permskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-09-01

    Exchange reactions between metal (Cd, Zn, Co, Hg, etc.) dithizonates and diantipyrylmethane (DAM) salts in non-aqueous solutions have been examined. Metal ions forming stable thiocyanate or iodide complexes (Cd(SCN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/, CdI/sub 4//sup 2 -/) pass from the dithizonates to form anionic complexes and then ion pairs with protonated DAM. Addition of DAM salts to organic extracts is an effective method of decomposition of dithizonates and preconcentration of elements in a microphase formed due to extract separation into two phases. A combination of preconcentration of microelements in a three-phase system with atomic emission analysis makes it possible to determine a group of controlled micro elements in complex acid mine waters.

  20. Extraction concentration and atomic emission determination of controlled elements in acid mine waters

    Exchange reactions between metal (Cd, Zn, Co, Hg, etc.) dithizonates and diantipyrylmethane (DAM) salts in non-aqueoUs solutions have been examined. Metal ions forming stable thiocyanate or iodide complexes (Cd(SCN)42-, CdI42-) pass from the dithizonates to form anionic complexes and then ion pairs with protonated DAM. Addition of DAM salts to organic extracts is an effective method of decomposition of dithizonates and preconcentration of elements in a microphase formed due to extract separation into two phases. A combination of preconcentration of microelements in a three-phase system with atomic emission analysis makes it possible to determine a group of controlled micro elements in complex acid mine waters

  1. Cleanup of hydrochloric acid waste streams from actinide processes using extraction chromatography

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent steams. Successful application of this technique would allow recycle of the largest portion of HCl, while lowering the quantity and improving the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and similar laboratory-produced resins coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and contact time intervals. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients, and in the kinetics of actinide removal were observed as a function of resin formulation

  2. Ultrasound versus microwave as green processes for extraction of rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids from rosemary.

    Jacotet-Navarro, M; Rombaut, N; Fabiano-Tixier, A-S; Danguien, M; Bily, A; Chemat, F

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound and microwave as green processes are investigated in this study, focusing on the extraction selectivity towards antioxidant extraction from rosemary leaves. Due to its richness in valuable compounds such as rosmarinic, carnosic and ursolic acids, rosemary is a reference matrix for extraction study. In this work, six alternative processes are compared: ultrasound (bath, reactor and probe), microwave (reflux under microwave, microwave under nitrogen pressure and microwave under vapor pressure). The main result of this study is that selective extraction can be achieved according to extraction techniques and therefore to the extraction process. PMID:26186826

  3. Extraction of uranium(VI) in nitric acid solution with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid containing tributylphosphate

    Extraction behaviors of U(VI) and selected fission product elements from HNO3 solution into a supercritical CO2 fluid containing tributylphosphate (TBP) were studied under equilibrium and dynamic extraction conditions. Uranium(VI) was found to be extracted in the supercritical CO2 phase as a form of UO2 (NO3)2(TBP)2 with a distribution ratio of, e.g., 2.2±0.3 for the extraction of 2 x 10-4 to 2 x 10-2 M U(VI) from 3 M HNO3 into supercritical CO2-0.3 M TBP mixture at 60 C and 15 MPa. The distribution ratio of U(VI) increased with an increase of HNO3 concentration (0.1-6 M) or TBP (0.1-0.3 M), along with a decrease of pressure (10-40 MPa) at 60 C, and with an increase of the temperature (40-80 C) at 15 MPa. A salting-out effect enhancing the distribution of U(VI) was observed by addition of a fairly high concentration of LiNO3 to the aqueous phase. Results of dynamic extraction using a continuous flow of supercritical CO2-TBP through the aqueous nitric acid solution showed that >98% of U(VI) could be exctracted from 3 M HNO3 + 3 M LiNO3 solution into supercritical CO2-0.08 M TBP (60 C, 15 MPa). Main fission product elements such as lanthanides, Cs, Sr, Ba, Zr, Mo, and Pd were hardly extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase under this condition, which suggests that the supercritical CO2 extraction is a feasible method for the separation and recovery of uranium from these elements. Since rapid and complete removal of the CO2 medium from the extracts is attained by gasification of CO2, the amount of the organic solvent waste generated in the extraction process can be largely minimized. Advantages of the supercritical CO2 extraction in its application to the separation process in the field of nuclear technology are discussed. (orig.)

  4. A simple silica-based method for metagenomic DNA extraction from soil and sediments.

    Rojas-Herrera, R; Narváez-Zapata, J; Zamudio-Maya, M; Mena-Martínez, M E

    2008-09-01

    A new method is described for extraction of metagenomic DNA from soil and sediments which is based on DNA adsorption to silica without the use of phenol, ethanol precipitation or a cesium chloride gradient. High-quality DNA was obtained, and PCR inhibition was overcome by adding bovine serum albumin and adjusting magnesium concentration. By using PCR-DGGE with Firmicutes and lactic acid bacteria-specific primers the extracted metagenomic DNA was shown to contain a mixture of bacterial genomes. This method can be used for screening bacterial diversity in soil and sediment samples. PMID:18373226

  5. Automated method for determination of uranium in kerosene-amine sulphate extracts

    An automated method is described for the determination of uranium(VI) that has been extracted into a trialkylamine in kerosene or similar diluent from sulphuric acid leach liquor. The method uses the continuous segmented-flow technique and can be set up with the use of commercial components. Discrimination against interference from other ions, especially sulphate, should be adequate for most purposes. 0.5 to 5 g uranium per litre of extract can be determined at a rate of 60 samples per hour. Minor modifications permit extension of this range to lower concentrations. (author)

  6. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T. [Trent University, Chemistry Department, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +}. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} at 55 C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96{+-}7% recovery of CH{sub 3}{sup 201}Hg{sup +} from oyster tissue and 93{+-}7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. (orig.)

  7. Extraction of methylmercury from tissue and plant samples by acid leaching.

    Hintelmann, Holger; Nguyen, Hong T

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient extraction method based on acidic leaching has been developed for measurement of methylmercury (MeHg) in benthic organisms and plant material. Methylmercury was measured by speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), using gas chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Reagent concentration and digestion temperature were optimized for several alkaline and acidic extractants. Recovery was evaluated by addition of MeHg enriched with CH3 201Hg+. Certified reference materials (CRM) were used to evaluate the efficiency of the procedure. The final digestion method used 5 mL of 4 mol L(-1) HNO3 at 55 degrees C to leach MeHg from tissue and plant material. The digest was further processed by aqueous phase ethylation, without interference with the ethylation step, resulting in 96 +/- 7% recovery of CH3 201Hg+ from oyster tissue and 93+/-7% from pine needles. Methylmercury was stable in this solution for at least 1 week and measured concentrations of MeHg in CRM were statistically not different from certified values. The method was applied to real samples of benthic invertebrates and inter-laboratory comparisons were conducted using lyophilized zooplankton, chironomidae, and notonectidae samples. PMID:15662514

  8. Deproteinization of water-soluble ß-glucan during acid extraction from fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    Szwengiel, Artur; Stachowiak, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Some ß-glucans can be easily extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms but commonly used extraction procedures are not satisfactory. A simultaneous method for acid extraction and deproteinization in the case of Pleurotus ostreatus was developed using response surface methodology. The optimized extraction conditions proposed here (30°C, 3.8% HCl, 300min, stirring) allow for the simultaneous extraction and deproteinization of polysaccharides. Additionally, the acid extraction yield was 7 times greater than that of hot water extraction. The combined enzymatic digestion with lyticase, ß-glucanase, exo-1,3-ß-d-glucanase, and ß-glucosidase results elucidated that an extract containing ß-1,3-ß-1,6-ß-1,4-glucan. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the two glucan fractions obtained do not contain linked proteins. The weight average molecular weight of the first fraction (Mw=1137kDa) was 60 times higher than that of the second fraction (Mw=19kDa). PMID:27112879

  9. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    Ahmed, O. H.; Susilawati, K.; Nik Muhamad, A. B.; Khanif, M. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  10. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances in Fried Fast Foods

    Alam Zeb; Fareed Ullah

    2016-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker for lipid peroxidation in fried fast foods. The method uses the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly reproducible for quantitative determination of TBARS. The precision of extractions and analytical procedure was very high as compared to the reported metho...

  11. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.)

    R. H. R. Carvalho; E. L. Galvão; J. Â. C. Barros; M. M. Conceição; E. M. B. D. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaust...

  12. Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation

    Xingbin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 5% (v/v tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale.

  13. Optimized genomic DNA extraction by a modified organic phenol- chloroform method without using PCR for best results

    Hamid Ali; Sadaf Jafar; Qurat-ul-Ain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to design a cost effective, efficient and better protocol for genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Methods: This was an experimental study, which is carried out ARID Research laboratory. The duration of study was four months from March 2015 to June 2015. White blood cells were used for extraction of DNA. Two procedures RBC lysis and extraction of DNA from the pellet was done. The goal was to obtain high quality and quantity DNA yield....

  14. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives Obtained from a Commercial Crataegus Extract and from Authentic Crataegus spp. §

    Kuczkowiak, Ulrich; Petereit, Frank; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Eleven hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from a 70% methanolic Crataegus extract (Crataegi folium cum flore) and partly verified and quantified for individual Crataegus species (C. laevigata, C. monogyna, C. nigra, C. pentagyna) by HPLC: 3-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (1), 5-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-quinic acid (2), 4-O-(E)-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3), 3-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 4-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic a...

  15. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •12C/13C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 12C/13C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The 12C-/13C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the possibility of generating a very

  16. Liquid–liquid extraction combined with differential isotope dimethylaminophenacyl labeling for improved metabolomic profiling of organic acids

    Peng, Jun; Li, Liang, E-mail: Liang.Li@ualberta.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An improved method for profiling the carboxylic acid sub-metabolome is reported. •Liquid–liquid extraction was used for separating the organic acids from the amines. •{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the organic acids was carried out on the extract. •Detection interference by amines and labeling efficiency reduction by water were reduced. •About 2500 {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C-peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected from 20 μL of human urine. -- Abstract: A large fraction of the known human metabolome belong to organic acids. However, comprehensive profiling of the organic acid sub-metabolome is a major analytical challenge. In this work, we report an improved method for detecting organic acid metabolites. This method is based on the use of liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) to selectively extract the organic acids, followed by using differential isotope p-dimethylaminophenacyl (DmPA) labeling of the acid metabolites. The {sup 12}C-/{sup 13}C-labeled samples are analyzed by liquid chromatography Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC–FTICR–MS). It is shown that this LLE DmPA labeling method offers superior performance over the method of direct DmPA labeling of biofluids such as human urine. LLE of organic acids reduces the interference of amine-containing metabolites that may also react with DmPA. It can also remove water in a biofluid that can reduce the labeling efficiency. Using human urine as an example, it is demonstrated that about 2500 peak pairs or putative metabolites could be detected in a 30-min gradient LC–MS run, which is about 3 times more than that detected in a sample prepared using direct DmPA labeling. About 95% of the 1000 or so matched metabolites to the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) are organic acids. It is further shown that this method can be used to handle as small as 10 μL of urine. We believe that this method opens the

  17. Effects of anionic surfactant on extraction of free fatty acid from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Nam, Bora; Choi, Sun-A; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2014-08-01

    Microalgal lipid with a high free fatty acid (FFA) content was directly extracted from Chlorella vulgaris, using SDBS, in an acid-catalyzed hot-water extraction process. The total fatty acid content of C. vulgaris was 296.0 mg/g cell. Under the 1.0% sulfuric acid, 0.4% SDBS conditions, the FFA content of the lipid increased to 96.7%, and the lipid-extraction yield was 248.4 mg/g cell. Under the 2.0% sulfuric acid, 0.2% SDBS conditions, the FFA content of the lipid was 96.1%, and the lipid-extraction yield was 266.0mg/g cell. Whereas the FAME content of the microalgal lipid extracted by hexane-methanol was 76.4% at the 10.0% sulfuric acid concentration, the FAME content of the high-FFA microalgal lipid was increased to 70.1% at a sulfuric acid concentration of only 0.1%. By combined sulfuric acid/SDBS treatment, high-FFA microalgal lipid was extracted in large yields; moreover, the amount of catalyst was remarkably reduced in the esterification of FFA. PMID:24929300

  18. Optimising extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from benthic diatoms: comparison of the efficiency of six EPS extraction methods

    Takahashi, Eri; Ledauphin, Jerome; Goux, Didier; Orvain, Francis

    2009-01-01

    There is no universal method that can be applied to extract bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from benthic diatoms of intertidal sediments without causing cell lysis. Six extraction methods were tested on a diatom culture of Navicula jeffreyi to establish the best compromise between high yields of carbohydrate extraction and minimum cell lysis. Extraction with distilled water provoked cell lysis (as already known). The five other extraction methods (dowex resin, artificial seawat...

  19. An optimized DNA extraction and purification method from dairy manure compost for genetic diversity analysis.

    Tian, Wei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongyang; Zhou, Tiantian; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2013-05-01

    An unbiased DNA extraction protocol is necessary for analysis of genetic diversity, particularly, of genes in complex environmental samples by nucleic acid techniques. In the present study, three manual extraction methods and two commonly used commercial kits, which were accompanied by two DNA purification strategies, were compared based on cell lysis efficiency, DNA and humic acid yields, PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The results show that in spite of higher cell lysis efficiencies of the two commercial kits, the purified DNA yields were only one-third of that obtained by the two manual methods of FTSP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K) and FTSPP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K-Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). The purified DNA from all five methods was pure enough for successful PCR and real-time PCR amplifications in the presence of 1 μg μL(-1) BSA. However, the FTSPP extraction method with DNA purification by a Wizard(®) kit yielded the largest number of 16S rRNA gene copies and ribotypes or bands in DGGE profiles, which indicated a superiority over the other four methods. The development of this optimized DNA extraction and purification method may provide a valuable tool for further molecular analysis of compost. PMID:23239373

  20. Extracted species of rare earth elements using bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phosphinic acid as an extractant and their effective mutual separation by high-performance extraction chromatography

    The possible extracted species of rare earth elements (REE) in bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phosphinic acid (Hmbp)/cyclohexane-HNO3 system was proposed by a log-log plot analysis and a saturated extraction method as being [M(mbp)3(Hmbp)3] (M = REE). It was also verified by IR, 1HNMR spectra and element analysis of lutetium-Hmbp extracted species. The effective mutual separation of REEs was achieved on the Hmbp modified C-18 column by a pH gradient elution. Moreover, the degree of the mutual separation of europium(III) from gadolinium(III) was remarkably improved by adding glycolic acid in the mobile phase. A fine concentrate of Sm2O3, EU2O3, and Gd2O3 from a rare earths smeltery was analyzed by the present method with the spectrophotometric detection after postcolumn derivatization with Arsenazo III. (author)

  1. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai

    Devanand L. Luthria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids were extracted, separated, and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Identification of phenolic acids was achieved by comparison of retention times, ultraviolet, and mass spectral data with authentic commercial standards. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (3719 ± 22 µg/g was the predominant phenolic acid extracted from ber samples. In addition, four phenolic acids, namely p-hydroxybenzoic (2187 ± 71 µg/g, vanillin (2128 ± 20 µg/g, ferulic (2629 ± 96 µg/g, and o-coumaric acids (2569 ± 41 µg/g were obtained in intermediate amounts from dried Ziziphus mauritiana L. fruit. The total phenolic acids content was determined as 18231 ± 306 µg/g dry matter basis (DMB. This study indicates that ber fruit is a good natural source of phenolic acids and that PLBHE can be used for the assay of phenolic acids.

  2. Sequential microwave-assisted extraction of oil from layer poultry feeds and GC-MS quantification of the fatty acids

    The present study reports the effect of sequential microwave-assisted extraction (SeMAE) on fatty acids composition (FAC) of layer poultry feed oil as compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) method. The FAC of extracted oil was determined by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There was no significant difference found in the amount of total extracted oil and FAC by SeMAE and SE. However, slightly greater content of trans fat in the samples revealed that SE lead to the formation of a little higher level of trans fat as compare to SeMAE. Therefore, the SeMAE could be used as a remarkable substitute to conventional SE for extraction of oil from the poultry feeds due to its faster speed, lesser solvent consumption, more environmental friendly. (author)

  3. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae 1

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Kathleen Church

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and compl...

  4. Ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and aqueous two-phase system for analysis of caffeoylquinic acids from Flos Lonicerae Japonicae.

    Tan, Ting; Lai, Chang-Jiang-Sheng; OuYang, Hui; He, Ming-Zhen; Feng, Yulin

    2016-02-20

    In this work, an ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was developed to extract caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) from Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ). ILUAE parameters were optimized by response surface methodology, including IL concentration, ultrasonic time, and liquid-solid ratio. Optimized ILUAE approach gained the highest extraction yields of 28.53, 18.21, 3.84mg/g for 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (C1), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (C2), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (C3), respectively. C1-C3 are the three most abundant CQAs compounds in FLJ. The method showed comparable extraction yield and shorter extraction time compared with conventional extraction techniques. Subsequently, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was applied in extraction solutions. Two trace CQAs, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (C4) and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (C5), were significantly enriched with signal to noise values increasing from less than 10 to higher than 1475. The results indicated that ILUAE and ATPS are efficient and environmentally-friendly sample extraction and enrichment techniques for CQAs from herbal medicines. PMID:26730510

  5. Fast and Sensitive Method for Determination of Domoic Acid in Mussel Tissue

    Elena Barbaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid (DA, a neurotoxic amino acid produced by diatoms, is the main cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP. In this work, we propose a very simple and fast analytical method to determine DA in mussel tissue. The method consists of two consecutive extractions and requires no purification steps, due to a reduction of the extraction of the interfering species and the application of very sensitive and selective HILIC-MS/MS method. The procedural method was validated through the estimation of trueness, extract yield, precision, detection, and quantification limits of analytical method. The sample preparation was also evaluated through qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the matrix effect. These evaluations were conducted both on the DA-free matrix spiked with known DA concentration and on the reference certified material (RCM. We developed a very selective LC-MS/MS method with a very low value of method detection limit (9 ng g−1 without cleanup steps.

  6. Fast and Sensitive Method for Determination of Domoic Acid in Mussel Tissue.

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxic amino acid produced by diatoms, is the main cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). In this work, we propose a very simple and fast analytical method to determine DA in mussel tissue. The method consists of two consecutive extractions and requires no purification steps, due to a reduction of the extraction of the interfering species and the application of very sensitive and selective HILIC-MS/MS method. The procedural method was validated through the estimation of trueness, extract yield, precision, detection, and quantification limits of analytical method. The sample preparation was also evaluated through qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the matrix effect. These evaluations were conducted both on the DA-free matrix spiked with known DA concentration and on the reference certified material (RCM). We developed a very selective LC-MS/MS method with a very low value of method detection limit (9 ng g(-1)) without cleanup steps. PMID:26904720

  7. A New Method to Extract Text from Natural Scenes

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for text detection, location and binarization fron natural scenes. Several morphological steps are used to detect the general positian of the text, including English, Chinese and Japanese characters. Next bounding boxes are processed by a new "Expand, Break and Merge" (EBM) method to get the precise text areas. Finally, text is binarized by a hybrid method based on Otsu and Niblack. This new approach can extract different kinds of text from complicated natural scenes. It is insensitive to noise, distortedness, and text orientation. It also has good performance on extracting texts in various sizes.

  8. Study of kinetics of scandium extraction by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    Kinetics of extracting scandium with (2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from 0.5 and 8 mol/l solutions of hydrochloric acid has been studied. At [Sc]:[D2EHPA] ratio equal to 1:2.6 and 1:3.2 equilibrium is attained in strongly acid solutions after 40 and 10 minutes periods of contacting and in weakly acid solutions after 60 and 20 minutes. At [Sc]:[D2EHPA] ratio more than 1:4.6 the equilibrium is attained for less than two minutes. The rate constant of scandium extraction by cation-exchange mechanism is 0.0293 cm/min and by solvate mechanism 0.0415 cm/min. The activation energy upon extracting from weakly acid solutions is 5.4 kcal/mol, from strongly acid solutions - 1.8 kcal/mol

  9. Comparison of extraction methods for analysis of flavonoids in onions

    Soeltoft, Malene; Knuthsen, Pia; Nielsen, John

    2008-01-01

    Onions are known to contain high levels of flavonoids and a comparison of the efficiency, reproducibility and detection limits of various extraction methods has been made in order to develop fast and reliable analytical methods for analysis of flavonoids in onions. Conventional and classical methods are time- and solvent-consuming and the presence of light and oxygen during sample preparation facilitate degradation reactions. Thus, classical methods were compared with microwave (irradiatio...

  10. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi; Anbumani, D.; Kumar, Naveen; Dayal, Mayanka; Pant, Archana; Kumar, Pawan; Saxena, Shruti; Allin, Kristine H.; Hansen, Torben; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Pereira, Verima; Abraham, Philip; Tripathi, Reva; Wadhwa, Nitya; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Prakash, Visvanathan Gnana; Radha, Venkatesan; Anjana, R. M.; Mohan, V.; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kurakawa, Takashi; Nair, G. Balakrish; Das, Bhabatosh

    2016-01-01

    To explore the natural microbial community of any ecosystems by high-resolution molecular approaches including next generation sequencing, it is extremely important to develop a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method that facilitate isolation of microbial DNA of sufficient purity and quantity from culturable and uncultured microbial species living in that environment. Proper lysis of heterogeneous community microbial cells without damaging their genomes is a major challenge. In this study, we have developed an improved method for extraction of community DNA from different environmental and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved method has been named as the THSTI method to depict the Institute where the method was developed. PMID:27240745

  11. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples.

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi; Anbumani, D; Kumar, Naveen; Dayal, Mayanka; Pant, Archana; Kumar, Pawan; Saxena, Shruti; Allin, Kristine H; Hansen, Torben; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Pereira, Verima; Abraham, Philip; Tripathi, Reva; Wadhwa, Nitya; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Prakash, Visvanathan Gnana; Radha, Venkatesan; Anjana, R M; Mohan, V; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kurakawa, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Das, Bhabatosh

    2016-01-01

    To explore the natural microbial community of any ecosystems by high-resolution molecular approaches including next generation sequencing, it is extremely important to develop a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method that facilitate isolation of microbial DNA of sufficient purity and quantity from culturable and uncultured microbial species living in that environment. Proper lysis of heterogeneous community microbial cells without damaging their genomes is a major challenge. In this study, we have developed an improved method for extraction of community DNA from different environmental and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved method has been named as the THSTI method to depict the Institute where the method was developed. PMID:27240745

  12. Determination of small amounts of nitric acid in the presence of large amounts of uranium (VI) and extraction of nitric acid into TBP solutions highly loaded with uranyl nitrate

    A new method for the determination of small amounts of nitric acid in the presence of large amounts of uranium(VI) was elaborated. The method is based on the precipitation of uranium(VI) as iodate and subsequent alkalimetric titration of the acid in the supernatant. The extraction of nitric acid and uranium(VI) with 30% TBP in dodecane was studied at high loading of the organic phase with uranyl nitrate and at 25, 40 and 600C. The results are compared with available published data on the extraction of nitric acid under similar conditions. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of three methods for isolation of nucleic acids from membranate inner ear tissue of rats

    KONG Wei-jia; WANG Ying; WANG Qiong; HAN Yue-chen; HU Yu-juan

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been found in sensorineural deafness. The aim of this study was to compare three methods for extraction of nucleic acid from membranate inner ear tissue of rats.Methods Alkaline denaturation, a conventional phenol-chloroform method and Trizol reagent were respectively used to extract the slight nucleic acid from membranate inner ear tissue of rats. We assessed the amount and quality of nucleic acid using a UV-spectrometer and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results The yield and purity (OD260/OD280) of DNA from inner ear tissue using the phenol-chloroform method was the highest of the three methods. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment can be amplified by PCR from nucleic acid prepared by all methods, while no nuclear DNA (nDNA) fragment can be amplified by method of alkaline denaturation. Both nuclear and mitochondrial genescould be amplified by reverse transcriptional PCR from the RNA prepared by Trizol reagent.Conclusion Adequate amount and high-quality of mtDNA, nDNA and RNA were obtained from unilateral membranate inner ear tissue of rats. Method of alkaline denaturation could be chosen when mtDNA without nDNA was needed, while phenol-chloroform method was suitable for extracting total DNA (including nDNA and mtDNA); method with Trizol reagent was suitable for extracting total RNA and total DNA.

  14. Solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of palladium with 2-(2-quinolylazo-5-diethylaminobenzoic acid

    WEIZU YANG

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Asensitive, selective and rapid method for the determination of palladium based on the rapid reaction of palladium(II with 2-(2-quinolylazo-5-diethylaminobenzoic acid (QADEAB and the solid phase extraction of the Pd(II –QADEAB chelate with a reversed phase polymer-based C18 cartridge was developed. In the presence of 0.05 – 0. 5 mol/L of hydrochloric acid solution and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB medium, QADEAB reacts with palladium(II to form a violet complex with a mole ratio 1:2 (palladium to QADEAB. The chelate was enriched by solid phase extraction with a reversed phase polymer-based C18 cartridge. An enrichment factor of 200 was obtained by elution of the chelate form the cartridge with the minimal amount of isopentyl alcohol. The molar absorptivity of the chelate in the isopentyl alcohol medium was 1.43 × 105 L mol-1 cm-1 at 628 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 0.01 – 1.2 mg/mL. The relative standard deviation for eleven replicate samples at the 0.2 mg/L level was 2.18 %. The attained detection limit amounted to 0.02 mg/L in the original samples. This method was applied to the determination of palladium in environmental samples with good results.

  15. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  16. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic,Malic,Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid,malic acid,maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform,4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol.Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid show that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid,malic acid and maleic acid,and 1:1,2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid.It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid,pKa2.Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affects extraction behavior,and depend on the solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective tthan the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid,otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>1-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids,and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid.Overloading(Solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent.The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations,while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  17. Degradation of tannic acid by cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus plantarum

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Muñoz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T to degrade hydrolysable tannins was evaluated. Three commercial tannic acids were incubated in presence of cell-free extracts containing soluble proteins from L. plantarum. By HPLC analyses, almost a complete tannic acid degradation was observed in the three samples assayed. By using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, we partially determined the composition of tannic acid from Quercus infectoria galls. This tannic acid is a gallotannin mainly composed o...

  18. Solvent effects on focused microwave assisted extraction of polyphenolic acids from Eucommia ulmodies.

    Li, Hui; Chen, Bo; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2004-01-01

    An open microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid from Eucommia ulmodies. The effect of extraction variables, especially solvent, on the recoveries of these polyphenolic compounds was investigated using factorial design. As extracting solvent for these compounds, methanol produced a higher recovery than pure water. For straight chain alcohol solvents, the lower the carbon number, the higher the recoveries of the polyphenolic acids. The optimal ratio of methanol:water:glacial acetic acid in the solvent mixture used in microwave-assisted extraction was 2:8:0.3 (v/v) and this solvent could be directly used as the mobile phase in HPLC separation without additional intermittent treatment as reported in literature. The extraction under the condition of 50% microwave power and 30 s irradiation at a solvent:sample ratio of 10 (mL/g) was found to be the most advantageous. The repeatability test of extraction and chromatographic analysis was satisfactory for the analysis of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:15508835

  19. Effect of transglutaminase on yield of proteins extracted from whole Antarctic krill(Euphausia superba) by alkaline solubilization and acid precipitation method%谷氨酰胺转氨酶对碱溶酸沉法提取南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)蛋白质得率的影响

    王灵昭; 薛长湖; 王玉明; 薛勇

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline solubilization and acid precipitation method was employed to extract proteins from whole Antarctic krill(Euphausia superba),and effect of transglutaminase on protein recovery yield was researched.Results indicated that the alkaline solubilization and acid precipitation method was good at recovering protein from whole Antarctic krill,and protein recovery yield was increased by approximate 5%,when transglutaminase was correctly applied during acid-induced protein precipitation.%通过碱溶酸沉法提取了南极磷虾蛋白质,研究了谷氨酰胺转氨酶的应用对蛋白质得率的影响。结果表明:碱溶酸沉法能够较好地回收南极磷虾蛋白质;在酸沉过程中,合理添加谷氨酰胺转氨酶能够提高蛋白质得率约5%。

  20. Assessment of metal bioavailability in the vineyard soil-grapevine system using different extraction methods.

    Vázquez Vázquez, Francisco A; Pérez Cid, Benita; Río Segade, Susana

    2016-10-01

    This study was focused on the assessment of single and sequential extraction methods to predict the bioavailability of metals in the vineyard soil-grapevine system. The modified BCR sequential extraction method and two single-step extraction methods based on the use of EDTA and acetic acid were applied to differently amended vineyard soils. The variety effect was studied on the uptake of metals by leaves and grapes. Most of the elements studied (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb) were weakly mobilized from vineyard soils, with the exception of Cu and Mn. The determination of total metal content in leaves and grapes showed a different accumulation pattern in the two parts of the vine. A significant relationship was observed, for all the elements studied except for Fe, between the content bioavailable in the soil and the accumulated in both leaves and grapes (R=0.602-0.775, p<0.01). PMID:27132841