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Sample records for acid disodium salt

  1. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    2010-07-01

    ... (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride), sodium borate and sodium metaborate; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1121 Section 180.1121... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  2. Photodynamic therapy of human skin tumors using topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and edetic acid disodium salt (EDTA)

    Orenstein, Arie; Kostenich, Gennady; Tsur, H.; Roitman, Leonid; Ehrenberg, Benjamin; Malik, Zvi

    1995-01-01

    The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in 48 patients bearing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 7 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin are described. Five- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was applied topically in two formulations. The first formulation contained 20% of 5-ALA in a base cream, and the second formulation (5-ALA composite cream), contained an additional 2% of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 2% of edetic acid disodium salt (EDTA). The creams were left on the skin for 2 - 5 hours. Production of protoporphyrin (PP) was measured in situ by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. The results of fluorescence measurement clearly indicate that PP accumulation in tumors induced by the 5-ALA composite cream was markedly higher than that induced by the 5-ALA cream. The tumors were light-irradiated (600 - 720 nm) after 4 - 5 hours of cream applications, using the light delivery system Versa-Light by a light dose of 100 J/cm2. The clinically superficial BCC tumors were highly responsive to PDT; the overall result in BCC patients was an 85.4% complete response. Histological examination showed an initial edematous reaction, followed by necrosis and complete disappearance of the tumor. The superficial SCC tumors showed a 100% complete response after PDT. The ulcerated nodular SCC showed partial responses.

  3. Preliminary chelation and dissolution effects of oxalic acid and disodium oxalate on polymeric 123-superconductors

    The polymeric 123-superconductor material was selectively etched by exposure to aqueous solutions of oxalic acid and disodium oxalate. Superconductivity decreased with time. XPS, AES, FTIR and ATF show that the amount of copper at the surface is decreased, shows the presence of bound oxalate and shows a decrease in peaks associated with superconductivity for the sample treated with oxalate

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions.

    Itoh, Yuji; Hine, Kyoko; Miura, Hiroshi; Uetake, Tatsuo; Nakano, Masahiko; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound first identified in 1979. It has been reported that rats fed a PQQ-supplemented diet showed better learning ability than controls, suggesting that PQQ may be useful for improving memory in humans. In the present study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study to examine the effect of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on cognitive functions was conducted with 41 elderly healthy subjects. Subjects were orally given 20 mg of BioPQQ™ per day or placebo, for 12 weeks. For cognitive functions, selective attention by the Stroop and reverse Stroop test, and visual-spatial cognitive function by the laptop tablet Touch M, were evaluated. In the Stroop test, the change of Stroop interference ratios (SIs) for the PQQ group was significantly smaller than for the placebo group. In the Touch M test, the stratification analyses dividing each group into two groups showed that only in the lower group of the PQQ group (initial score<70), did the score significantly increase. Measurements of physiological parameters indicated no abnormal blood or urinary adverse events, nor adverse internal or physical examination findings at any point in the study. The preliminary experiment using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) suggests that cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was increased by the administration of PQQ. The results suggest that PQQ can prevent reduction of brain function in aged persons, especially in attention and working memory. PMID:26782228

  6. Synthesis of Disodium Salt of Sulfosuccinate Monoester from the Seed Oil of Terminalia catappa and Its Inhibitive Effect on the Corrosion of Aluminum Sheet in 1 M HCl

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from the seed of Terminalia catappa and used to synthesize disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester using simple reaction mechanism. The disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester was applied as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum sheet in 1 M HCl via weight loss method. The adsorption was found to obey Langmuir isotherm. The results presented disodium salt of sulfosuccinate monoester as an efficient inhibitor of aluminum sheet corrosion in 1 M HCl.

  7. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-β-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-β-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that Schwann

  8. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao [State Key Lab Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan, E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: aoqiang@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Neurological Disorders, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that

  9. Effect of amino acids on the dispersion of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Chew, Nora Y K; Shekunov, Boris Y; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L; Savage, Charles; Wu, James; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2005-10-01

    Modified disodium cromoglycate powders were prepared by co-spray drying with different concentrations of leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, asparagine, and arginine. Amorphous spherical particles of the same size and density where obtained which, however, exhibited different surface properties as measured by the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The surface energy parameters, such as the dispersive component of surface free energy of the sample, gammaSD, and the total solubility parameter, delta, were significantly lower in the presence of nonpolar chain amino acids, particularly with leucine and phenylalanine, than pure DSCG. However no quantitative relationship between these parameters, the additive concentrations, and the fine particle fractions, FPF, determined for different inhalers and air flow rates, was observed. The FPF significantly increased with addition of leucine and this effect was attributed to reduced intermolecular interactions between leucine and disodium cromoglycate molecules, as indicated by the difference in corresponding Hansen solubility parameters. Decrease of interparticle interactions for leucine-containing powders also led to a lesser dependence of FPF on the flow rate and inhaler type. PMID:16136546

  10. EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF DISODIUM GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID HEMIPHTHALATE IN MICE

    H. Marzbnn

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Disodium glycyrrhetinic acid hemiphthalaic (GAP was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant NMRI mice. GAP was administered intrapcritoneally on days S, 9, 10, of gestation at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg/dav. On gestation day of IS, after operational delivery, the fetuses were examined for soft tissue, external and skeletal defects."nIncreased absorptions, dead fetuses, and reduce fetal body weight per litter were observed at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day. In addition by using different doses of GAP at different critical gestation times, developmental delay was observed as reduction in ossification centers and vertebral number in caudal region. It seems that GAP at doses of (50 and 75 mg/kg/day has a cmbiyotoxic and teratogenic potential in mice.

  11. Transport of quercetin di-sodium salt in the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayer 139.

    Milane, H A; Al Ahmad, A; Naitchabane, M; Vandamme, T F; Jung, L; Ubeaud, G

    2007-01-01

    Quercetin di-sodium salt (QDS), a water-soluble derivative of quercetin (Q), is a potent free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro intestinal transport of QDS compared to that of Q using the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cell line. The apical (A) to basolateral (B) transport of QDS was found to be higher than the B to A transport of this compound. This polarized transport involved the presence of a carrier protein system. The involvement of the sodium/glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) was shown by using phloridzin, a selective inhibitor of this conveyor system. However, the transport of Q was not affected by this inhibitor. Moreover, the influx of QDS was pH-sensitive and decreased at pH 5.5 compared with that observed at pH 7.4 and 6.5. The permeability of QDS was 10-fold higher than that of Q. This could be explained by the involvement of SLGT-1 and the absence of an active efflux pump in the absorption of QDS in comparison with Q. This finding was supported by comparing the solubility of Q with that of QDS. This study indicates that both the higher solubility of QDS and its dependence on the SGLT-1 transport system resulted in more efficient permeability compared to Q. PMID:18062406

  12. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L. PMID:26964003

  13. Crystal structure and characterization of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium trihydrate

    Ikemoto Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a tricarboxylic acid, has attracted attention as a growth factor, and its application to supplements and cosmetics is underway. The product used for these purposes is a water-soluble salt of PQQ disodium. Although in the past, PQQ disodiumpentahydrates with a high water concentration were used, currently, low hydration crystals of PQQ disodiumpentahydrates are preferred. Results We prepared a crystal of PQQ disodium trihydrate in a solution of ethanol and water, studied its structure, and analyzed its properties. In the prepared crystal, the sodium atom interacted with the oxygen atom of two carboxylic acids as well as two quinones of the PQQ disodium trihydrate. In addition, the hydration water of the prepared crystal was less than that of the conventional PQQ disodium crystal. From the results of this study, it was found that the color and the near-infrared (NIR spectrum of the prepared crystal changed depending on the water content in the dried samples. Conclusions The water content in the dried samples was restored to that in the trihydrate crystal by placing the samples in a humid environment. In addition, the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray diffraction-differential calorimetry (XRD-DSC analyses show that the phase of the trihydrate crystal changed when the crystallization water was eliminated. The dried crystal has two crystalline forms that are restored to the original trihydrate crystals in 20% relative humidity (RH. This crystalline (PQQ disodium trihydrate is stable under normal environment.

  14. Study of apparent molal volume and viscosity of mutual citric acid and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous systems

    Man Singh

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental properties, density () and viscosity (), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The and values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The , and values were regressed against molality for ρ0, 0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f, the limiting constants at infinite dilution ( → 0) forionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$ functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.

  15. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  16. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  17. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  18. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and... Preservatives § 172.135 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-tate... following foods at not to exceed the levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA:...

  19. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  20. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 to 34 percent. Calcium hydroxide 3 percent maximum. Water 14 percent maximum. Arsenic 3 parts per... blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  1. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA. 573.360 Section 573.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-...

  2. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  3. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic......The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA was...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  4. Solubility of disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate and sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in aqueous organic solutions and its application feasibility in oxidation stage of DSD acid synthesis

    Highlights: • Solubility of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate in two aqueous organic solution were measured using dynamic method. • Solubility of disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate in corresponding solution were measured using dynamic method. • The experimental data were correlated with electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model. • A synergistic effect on disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate solubility was observed. • A suitable solvent for oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic to 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic has been suggested. -- Abstract: Solid–liquid equilibrium (SLE) measurements for disodium 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate (DNSNa) and sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate (NTSNa) in aqueous ethylene glycol monoethyl ether solution and aqueous ethylene glycol monobutyl ether solution were conducted using a dynamic method over the temperature range from (280 to 335) K. A synergistic effect on DNSNa solubility was observed with the maximum solubility at solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether w30=0.4000 and solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether w40=0.5999, respectively. The solubility data were correlated using the thermodynamic electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model and model parameters were determined simultaneously. Aqueous ethylene glycol monobutyl ether solution at solute-free mass fraction of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether w40=0.2000 was found to be suitable solvent medium for the oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid (NTS) to 4,4′-dinitrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DNS) and the conclusion was confirmed using the static analytical method combined with UV–VIS spectrophotometer

  5. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  6. A co-crystal of nonahydrated disodium(II with mixed anions from m-chlorobenzoic acid and furosemide

    Bianca King London

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na2(H2O9](C7H4ClO2(C12H10ClN2O5S {systematic name: catena-poly[[[triaquasodium(I]-di-μ-aqua-[triaquasodium(I]-μ-aqua] 3-chlorobenzoate 4-chloro-2-[(furan-2-ylmethylamino]-5-sulfamoylbenzoate]}, both the original m-chlorobenzoic acid and furosemide exist with deprotonated carboxylates, and the sodium cations and water molecules exist in chains with stoichiometry [Na2(OH29]2+ that propagate in the [-110] direction. Each of the two independent Na+ ions is coordinated by three monodentate water molecules, two double-water bridges, and one single-water bridge. There is considerable cross-linking between the [Na2(OH29]2+ chains and to furosemide sulfonamide and carboxylate by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. All hydrogen-bond donors participate in a complex two-dimensional array parallel to the ab plane. The furosemide NH group donates an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the carboxylate group, and the furosemide NH2 group donates an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the Cl atom and an intermolecular one to the m-chlorobenzoate O atom. The plethora of hydrogen-bond donors on the cation/water chain leads to many large rings, up to graph set R44(24, involving two chains and two furosemide anions. The chlorobenzoate is involved in only one R22(8 ring, with two water molecules cis-coordinated to Na. The furan O atom is not hydrogen bonded.

  7. NOVEL SALTS OF FUMARIC ACID MONOALKYLESTERS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL USE

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to novel strontium salts of fumaric acid monoalkylesters. The salts are suitable for use as active subtances in the treatment of e.g. psoriasis or other hyperproliferative, inflammatory or autoimmune disorders either alone or in combination with another fumaric acid...

  8. Characterization of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid with varying amounts of cation, KxH3-xPW12O40 (x = 1, 2, 3) have been prepared and their characteristics investigated by thermal analyses, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. It was found that the number of replaced protons by potassium ions in the 12-tungstophosphoric acid structure has influence on the presence of different protonic species, their dynamic equilibrium and on the conductivity of salts. The results reported in this study have been applied to improve the structural model of insoluble acidic salts. It is shown that an acidic potassium salt presents a mixture of neutral salt and unreacted acid. The nature of this mixture depends on the number of replaced protons-oxonium ions by cations. Preliminary measurements with synthesized compounds as solid electrolytes in fuel cells have been done, too.

  9. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... coco acid triamine condensate, poly-car-box-ylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-446) is subject to...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. GROWTH-REGULATING ACTIVITY OF SOME SALTS OF 1-NAPHTHALENACETIC ACID AND 2-NAPHTHOXYACETIC ACID

    Maria Laichici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The salts of 1-naphthalene acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid with ethanolamine have been synthetized. The two salts have been assessed using Tsibulskaya-Vassiliev biological test using agar-agar as the medium. Statistical processing of the data has been carried out. The good results of the bioassay indicate an auxinic growth-regulating activity of the two salts.

  12. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N2O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N2O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N2O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N2O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N2O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  13. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas streams. Initially, a group of promising amino acid salts (taurine, sarcosine, L-proline, -alanine, 6-aminohexanoic acid and DL-methionine) was screened for their CO2 absorption kinetics, pKa value...

  14. Interaction between fatty acid salts and the elastin network.

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the formation of a

  15. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    Oksana Sereda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group.

  16. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  17. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. Preparation and characterization of ambazone salt with nicotinic acid

    Kacsó, I.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2012-02-01

    Salt formation is a good method of increasing solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs. The aim of this study was to obtain and to investigate the structural properties of the compound that was obtained by solvent drop grinding method at room temperature starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and nicotinic acid (NA). The obtained compound (AMB•NA) was investigated by thermal analysis (DSC, TG-DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The difference between the patterns of AMB•NA and of the starting compounds evidenced the formation of a salt. Using X-ray powder diffraction data, the lattice parameters were determined. The thermal and FTIR measurements on the pure compounds and on the (1:1) grinding mixture of AMB with NA confirm the salt formation.

  19. Pemetrexed disodium (Eli Lilly).

    Norman, P

    2001-11-01

    Pemetrexed, a thymidylate synthase (TS) and transferase inhibitor, is in phase III trials with Eli Lilly as a potential treatment for several common solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mesothelioma [321789], [410731]. Studies on pemetrexed have concluded that not only is the compound a TS inhibitor but also a potent inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results suggest that pemetrexed acts upon multiple intracellular targets and that the antitumor effect may be derived from its simultaneous inhibition of multiple folate-requiring enzymes [203662]: this compound has been designated as a multitargeted antifolate (MTA) [386680]. The drug also causes concentration- and time-dependent apoptosis [284380]. Other studies in which the 4-oxo group of the pyrimidine ring portion of pemetrexed was replaced with a hydrogen atom, demonstrated that the resulting analogs were potent DHFR inhibitors with very little activity against the enzymes glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT) and TS [310674]. In phase II European studies in 64 patients with advanced breast cancer, encouraging responses were seen in anthracycline-failure (23%) and anthracycline-refractory (19%) patients. Responses were observed in 28% of patients who had been previously treated with a taxane [326097]. Data from a phase II trial of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 once every 21 days as a 10 min i.v. infusion) as a salvage therapy in advanced breast cancer showed that supplementation of the treatment regime with folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 reduced its already manageable and tolerable toxicities [408821], [409650]. At doses of 500 mg/m2, the drug was also safely administered to 35 patients with impaired renal function [409953]. Phase I and II trials have shown that the main side effects include neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, nausea and vomiting [203666], [272241]. Princeton University holds the patent rights to this drug under EP-00432677. In June

  20. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    2012-04-11

    ... human skin. Since Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl... Register of Thursday, December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL-9328-8), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section... human health. In order to determine the risks from aggregate exposure to pesticide inert...

  1. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  2. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-)....

  3. 21 CFR 172.120 - Calcium disodium EDTA.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium disodium EDTA. 172.120 Section 172.120 Food... Food Preservatives § 172.120 Calcium disodium EDTA. The food additive calcium disodium EDTA (calcium... 100 Promote color retention. 1 By weight of egg yolk portion. (2) With disodium EDTA...

  4. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  5. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  6. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  8. A spectroscopic investigation of 12-tungstophosphoric acid alkali salts

    NADA S BOSNJAKOVIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the latest results of our continuing investigation of heteropoly acids and their salts are reported. Specially attention was paid to the influence of cations on the dynamic equilibrium of protonic species, as well as on the structure of the host lattice itself, i.e., the Keggin anions. The investigations were done by IR and Raman spectroscopy within the range of 1200-40 cm-1.

  9. Effects of Fatty Acid Salts against Trichophyton Violaceum

    Era Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus. Dermatophytosis (Tinea is fungal infection that can infect the scalp, glabrous skin, and nails. In general, Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or bathroom or floor materials. The treatments of Tinea need antifungal medication and good hygiene environment. The effective antifungal medication and infection prevention, and the creation of antifungal medication with high safety are required. In this study was focused on the antifungal effect of fatty acids potassium salts. The antifungal activity of nine fatty acid salts (butyrate, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate was tested on the spores of Trichophyton violaceum NBRC 31064. The results show that C6K, C8K, C10K, C12K, C18:2K, C18:3K was the most inhibit 4-log unit (99.99 % of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min. It was observed that C12K and C18:3K was most high antifungal activity MIC. Commercially soap was lowest antifungal activity. This is because of the oleic acid is a major component of soap. Although further investigation is necessary to make clear antifungal mechanisms, our results suggest that fatty acid potassium will use to the development of a coating agent such as furniture.

  10. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  11. Flotation of uranyl ions by alkylcarboxylic acid salts of potassium

    Physical and chemical features of uranyl cation flotation by potassium salts of fatty acids from diluted solutions are presented. Maximum degree of uranyl flotation is shown to occur in the range of pH=5-6 which corresponds to flotoactive forms of UO22+(OH)+ and to the form of collector as RCOO-. Efficiency of collector first increases with the length of hydrocarbon radical (due to decreasing sublate solubility) and then declines (due to increasing electrokinetic potential). Increase of the temperature of solutions leads to an increase in sublate solubility and to a decrease in the extent of uranyl flotation. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Investigation into nitric acid extraction by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and its acid zirconium (4) and hafnium (4) salts

    Using IR spectroscopy methods mechanism of nitric acid extraction by solutions of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid HX and its zirconium (4) and hafnium (4) polymeric salts in decane is investigated. Di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid extracts HNO3 by usual coordination mechanism adding HNO3 molecules to P=O group of (XH)2 dimer by means of its proton. Zr4 and Hf4 acid salts add HNO3 molecules bidentately due to availability in polymeric molecules of extractant metal atoms - electron acceptors. Structure of separate fragments, being part of polymeric products of adding HNO3 to acid salts and containing nonequivalent POO-groups, is determined. IR spectra absorption band interpretation is carried out

  13. Self-assembly of fatty acid-alkylboladiamine salts.

    Douliez, Jean-Paul; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric

    2006-01-17

    Long-chain fatty acids are insoluble in aqueous solution and form crystal precipitates. It is then of particular importance to determine the physicochemical parameters allowing their dispersion in water to improve their bioavailability and their utilization as surfactants. Herein, we report a study on salt-free catanionic systems in aqueous solution made of mixtures between palmitic or stearic fatty acids and alkylboladiamines (Abd's) differing by their alkyl chain length. Phase contrast microscopy, solid-state NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering were used to characterize the phase behavior of these systems at molar ratio of fatty acid to Abd of 1 and 2. Whatever the Abd and the molar ratio, fatty acids were embedded at low temperature in a bilayer gel phase which crystallizes after a period of rest. At an equimolar ratio, the gel phases transited upon raising the temperature to an isotropic phase made of worm-like micelles except in the case of the ethylenediamine chain for which a lamellar fluid phase was observed. At a molar ratio of 2 and high temperature, fatty acids were embedded in a lamellar fluid phase which self-orients with its stacking axis perpendicular to the magnetic field. However, for a long alkylboladiamine such as spermine, worm-like micelles formed. The phase behavior at high temperature is discussed in terms of molecular volume. PMID:16401110

  14. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  16. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A co-crystal of nona-hydrated disodium(II) with mixed anions from m-chloro-benzoic acid and furosemide.

    London, Bianca King; Claville, Michelle O Fletcher; Babu, Sainath; Fronczek, Frank R; Uppu, Rao M

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, [Na2(H2O)9](C7H4ClO2)(C12H10ClN2O5S) {systematic name: catena-poly[[[triaquasodium(I)]-di-μ-aqua-[triaquasodium(I)]-μ-aqua] 3-chlorobenzoate 4-chloro-2-[(furan-2-ylmethyl)amino]-5-sulfamoylbenzoate]}, both the original m-chloro-benzoic acid and furosemide exist with deprotonated carboxyl-ates, and the sodium cations and water mol-ecules exist in chains with stoichiometry [Na2(OH2)9](2+) that propagate in the [-110] direction. Each of the two independent Na(+) ions is coordinated by three monodentate water mol-ecules, two double-water bridges, and one single-water bridge. There is considerable cross-linking between the [Na2(OH2)9](2+) chains and to furosemide sulfonamide and carboxyl-ate by inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. All hydrogen-bond donors participate in a complex two-dimensional array parallel to the ab plane. The furosemide NH group donates an intra-molecular hydrogen bond to the carboxyl-ate group, and the furosemide NH2 group donates an intra-molecular hydrogen bond to the Cl atom and an inter-molecular one to the m-chloro-benzoate O atom. The plethora of hydrogen-bond donors on the cation/water chain leads to many large rings, up to graph set R 4 (4)(24), involving two chains and two furosemide anions. The chloro-benzoate is involved in only one R 2 (2)(8) ring, with two water mol-ecules cis-coordinated to Na. The furan O atom is not hydrogen bonded. PMID:26594422

  18. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  19. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance.A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.93; specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92; positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20-11.92; negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08-0.14 were obtained. The area under curve (AUC and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91, specificity: 0.96 (0.94-0.97, positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77-30.16, negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07-0.14 were obtained. The AUC value was 0

  20. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik [Pukyoung National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination.

  1. Catalytic Conversion of Dihydroxyacetone to Lactic Acid Using Metal Salts in Water

    Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Fachri, Boy A.; Makertihartha, I. Gusti B. N.; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified

  2. Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous amino acid salt solutions containing α-aminobutyric acid

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • Density, electrolytic conductivity, refractive index, and viscosity of the solution were measured. • The concentrations of amino acid salt ranges from x1 = 0.009 to 0.06. • The temperature range studied was (303.15 to 343.15) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. - Abstract: In this study, density, electrical conductivity, refractive index and viscosity of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of α-aminobutyric acid were presented. Measurements were done over the temperature range (303.15 to 343.15) K and atmospheric pressure for salt compositions from x1 = 0.009 to 0.062. A modified Graber et al. equation was used to correlate the density, electrical conductivity, and refractive index with temperature and composition leading to average absolute deviations (AAD) between the predicted and calculated values of 0.04%, 0.7%, and 0.01%, respectively. The viscosity data were represented as a function of temperature and composition via Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) type equation at an AAD of 0.6%

  3. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  4. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic acids and their hydrazinium salts

    T Premkumar; S Govindarajan; Wei-Ping Pan

    2003-04-01

    Some new hydrazinium 2-pyrazinecarboxylate and 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate salts of the formulae N2H5pc, N2H5pc.H2O (Hpc = 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid), N2H5Hpdc, (N2H5)2pdc.H2O and N2H5(Hpdc).H2pdc (H2pdc = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N-N stretching frequencies of the N2H$_{5}^{+}$ ion in the region 975-960 cm-1. The thermoanalytical behaviour of the free acids and their salts has been investigated by simultaneous TG and DTA. While pyrazinecarboxylic acid shows single-step endothermic (229°C) complete decomposition, pyrazindicarboxylic acid shows exothermic decarboxylation followed by identical endothermic decomposition as that of the former. Similarly, salts of the monocarboxylic acid show endothermic effects during pyrolysis, whereas salts of the dicarboxylic acid show endothermic followed by exothermic decomposition. The acids and their salts both undergo complete decomposition to gaseous products.

  5. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

  6. Enzyme assays with boronic acid appended bipyridinium salts.

    Vilozny, Boaz; Schiller, Alexander; Wessling, Ritchie A; Singaram, Bakthan

    2009-09-01

    In-vitro fluorescent enzyme assays have been developed for sucrose phosphorylase (SPO) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). These assays make use of a selective carbohydrate sensing system that detects the unlabeled enzymatic products fructose and glucose-6-phosphate. The system comprises 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt as the reporter unit and boronic acid appended viologens as selective receptors with working ranges from 70 microM to 1.0 mM for fructose (SPO) and 190 microM to 2.0 mM for glucose-6-phosphate (PGM). The change in fluorescence can be converted into product concentration, allowing initial reaction velocities and Michaelis-Menten kinetics to be calculated. The assays are also carried out in multiwell plate formats, making them suitable for high-throughput screening of enzyme inhibitors. Rapid PGM inhibition screening is demonstrated with EDTA and LiCl. The PGM assay can also be used for enzyme quantification with a detection limit of 50 ng mL(-1). PMID:19699401

  7. Three Salts of Labdanic Acids from Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae)%穿心莲中的三个二萜酸盐

    钟德新; 宣利江; 徐亚明; 白东鲁

    2001-01-01

    从穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata Nees.)水溶性部位分离得到3个新的二萜酸盐:穿心莲酸镁、穿心莲酸二钠和穿心莲酸二钾葡萄糖甙.同时,首次从穿心莲中分得鸟嘌呤核苷、尿嘧啶核苷、6-epiharpagide、procumbide、三色堇黄苷和芹菜素-7-氧-葡萄糖甙.通过波谱解析和化学方法确定了它们的结构.%Three salts of labdanic acids, named as magnesium andrographate, disodium andrographate and dipotassium andrographate 19-O-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the hydrophilic extract of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), together with guanosine, uridine, 6-epiharpagide, procumbide, violanthin and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation.

  8. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  9. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    Singha, S.; Kumar, S., E-mail: skndey@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Dey, S. K., E-mail: skndey@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); Department of Physics, NITMAS, 24 Paragana(S)-743368 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  10. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory

  11. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    Singha, S.; Dey, S. K.; Kumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br...π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  12. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  13. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz;

    2015-01-01

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  14. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  15. Bile Salt and Acid Tolerant of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Proventriculus of Broiler Chicken

    E. Damayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to obtain the lactic acid bacteria (LAB as probiotic candidates which have resistance to bile salt and acid condition. LAB was obtained using isolation method from proventriculus of broiler chicken. Selective MRS media with 0.2% CaCO3 addition were used for LAB isolation using pour plate sampling method under anaerobic condition. The result showed that four selected isolates had morphological and biochemical characteristics as LAB. The selected LAB was characterized as follow: antibacterial activities, antibiotic sensitivity, resistance on bile salt, gastric juice and acid condition, and biochemical identification. Antibacterial activities assay of cell free supernatant was confirmed using disc paper diffusion method which was arranged on factorial design and each treatment consisted of three replications. The cell free supernatant of LAB isolates had antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, and Salmonella pullorum. Molecular identification procedure using 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that R01 and R02 as Pediococcus acidilactici. The viability of the two isolates were tested by acid pH (pH 1, 2, and 3, gastric juice pH 2, and bile salt condition for digestives tract simulation. The result showed that R01 and R02 had a high viability percentages at pH 1, 2, and 3 (95.45%, 99.49%, 104.01%, and 67.17%, 120.74%, 103.4%, respectively and at bile salt simulation for 1-2 hours (100.35%-102.71% and 100.02%-102.65%, respectively, but at gastric juice simulation for 1-2 hours, the P. acidilactici R01 had higher viability than P. acidilactici R02 (59.69%-76.53% versus 43.57%-40.69%, respectively. In the antibiotic sensitivity test for three antibiotics (i.e. erythromicin 15 µg, penicillin G 10 µg, and streptomycin 10 µg, the P. acidilactici R02 showed resistance to Streptomycin and Penicillin. It is concluded that P. acidilactici R01 and P. acidilactici R02 isolated from proventriculus

  16. Method of separating uranium from zirconium salts by crystallization from sulphuric acid medium

    In solutions containing uranium and zirconium salts the concentration of sulfuric acid is adjusted to 30 to 50%. Zirconium forms crystals of zirconium sulfate tetrahydrate while uranium remains in the substrate. (H.S.)

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  18. Study of radiation chemistry of onium salt acid generators for microlithographic application

    In this study, we investigated methods to improve chemically amplified resists for microlithographic application. For the solutions of onium salts in various solvents, the amounts of generated acid after γ-ray irradiation were measured using a pH meter. A solution of iodonium salt in 2-propanol had the highest efficiency in acid generation. The results could be evaluated by Gibbs free energy of the reactions. (author)

  19. Reaction of /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated acyl isothiocyanates with salts of dithiocarbamic acids

    Krus, K.; Masias, A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1989-01-10

    The reaction of unsaturated isothiocyanates with the sodium and calcium salts of N-alkyl- and N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamic acids was studied. Depending on the structure of the dithiocarbamate, the reaction products are thiazines or acyl dithiocarbamates. For the salts of methyldithiocarbamic acid the effect of the concentration and the nature of the metal on the relative yields of 6-phenyl-3-methylpropiorhodanine and 6-phenylpropiorhodanine was studied. A method is proposed for the synthesis of 3-substituted propiorhodanines.

  20. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Samet Azman; Ahmad F. Khadem; Grietje Zeeman; van Lier, Jules B.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophili...

  1. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  2. Pre-sowing application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid to seed of pumpkin and seedling response to salt

    The effects of seed soaking with salicylic acid or ascorbic acid on pumpkin seedlings growth under saline (10 dS m/sup -1/) conditions were investigated. Seedlings fresh weight, protein contents, protease and nitrate reductase activities were significantly affected by 15 and 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid and 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid priming treatments, under both normal and saline conditions. Priming reduced the severity of the salt stress, the amelioration was better due to 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid or 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid treatments as these treatments showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry matter production under non-saline and saline environments. Application of seed priming with ascorbic acid and salicylic acid in pumpkin ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress. (author)

  3. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as...... hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  4. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... loading capacity of aqueous solutions of the potassium salts of selected amino-acids (glycine, taurine, lysine proline, and glutamic acid) were examined, and the relation between the initial amino acid salt concentration and precipitation ability of each solution were determined. Experiments were...... glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  5. Production of Polyamines Is Enhanced by Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Maize Seedlings Subjected to Salt Stress

    Jun LIU; Ming-Yi JIANG; Yi-Feng ZHOU; You-Liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    It is known that salt stress and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) can enhance the polyamine content in plants and that salt stress itself can lead to an increase in endogenous ABA production.In the present study, the relationships between salt-induced ABA and polyamine accumulation were investigated using ABA-deficient mutant (vp5/vp5) maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and ABA and polyamine :biosynthesis inhibitors. The results show that reduced endogenous ABA levels, as a result of either the mutation or by using a chemical inhibitor (sodium tungstate), also reduced the accumulation of polyamines in salt-stressed leaves of maize seedlings. The polyamine synthesis inhibitors D-arginine and αdifluoromethylornithine also reduced the polyamine content of the leaves of maize seedling under salt stress. Both ABA and polyamine enhanced the dry weight accumulation of salt-stressed seedlings and also increased the activities of the two dominant tonoplast membrane enzymes, H+-ATPase and H+-PPase, when plants were under salt stress. The results suggest that salt stress induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which then enhances polyamine synthesis. Such responses may increase a plant's tolerance to salt.

  6. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  7. Microwave-assisted base-free synthesis of trans-cinnamic acids using hypervalent iodonium salts

    Min Zhu; Chao Shentu; Zhong Shi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    A fast and convenient base-free Heck reaction of acrylic acid with hypervalent iodonium salts was achieved under microwave irradiation in water, providing a simple method for the synthesis of trans-cinnamic acids in good yields in short time.

  8. Sulfonate salts of amino acids: novel inhibitors of the serine proteinases.

    Groutas, W C; Brubaker, M J; Zandler, M E; Stanga, M A; Huang, T L; Castrisos, J C; Crowley, J P

    1985-04-16

    A series of amino acid-derived sulfonate salts have been synthesized. They were found to inactivate efficiently and selectively human leukocyte elastase. The sulfonate salts of the methyl esters of L-norleucine, L-norvaline and L-valine were the most potent. The enzyme is inactivated irreversibly with concomitant release of bisulfite ion. The results demonstrate for the first time that ionic compounds can indeed function as novel inhibitors for the serine proteinases. PMID:3885950

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  10. The effect of postirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in sublethally X-irradiated mice

    The effect of aspartic acid salts, especially of K and Mg aspartates, on certain hematological changes in the peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs of sublethally X-irratiated male mice of the strain C57Bl/10 was investigated. Salts of aspartic acid were administered in tap water after irradiation. A favorable effect of aspartic acid salts on erythropoietic recovery and on regeneration of thymus weight was found during the first two weeks after irradiation. (orig.)

  11. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits production of immunoglobulin E.

    Seo, S B; Park, S J; Park, S T; Cho, C C; Park, B H; Lee, S J; Kim, H M; Kajiuchi, T; Shin, T Y

    2001-05-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) has been shown to inhibit the release of mediators from mast cells. In the present study, the effect of DSCG on active anaphylactic reaction was studied in mice. DSCG dose-dependently inhibited the active systemic anaphylactic reaction and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E production induced by immunization with ovalbumin, Bordetella pertussis toxin and aluminum hydroxide gel. DSCG strongly inhibited IL-4-dependent IgE production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine whole spleen cells. In the case of U266 human IgE-bearing B cells, DSCG also showed an inhibitory effect on the IgE production. These results suggest that DSCG has an anti-anaphylactic activity by inhibition of IgE production from B cells. PMID:11417850

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION

    Fercha Azzedine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

  13. Second-harmonic generation in mixed stilbazium salt/arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Jiabiao; Wang, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiming; Tao, Fenggang; Xu, Linxiao; Hu, Jiacong

    1992-10-01

    A stilbazium salt was synthesized and its second-order molecular polarizability was deduced to be 1.2×10 -27 esu. Measurements of second-harmonic generation and small-angle X-ray diffraction on Langmuir-Blodgett films of the stilbazium salt/arachide acid mixtures showed that the mixed compounds with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:5 could form multilayers with large second- order optical nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation study on the alternate multilayers of stilbazium salt/arachide acid and arachidic acid showed that the second-harmonic signals were increasing monotonously up to 80 bilayers, but the increment was lower than the value predicted theoretically by the quadratic law. Possible reasons are discussed.

  14. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  15. 76 FR 6347 - (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    2011-02-04

    ... September 23, 2010 (75 FR 57942) (FRL- 8845-4), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408 of FFDCA, 21 U.S... (S,S)-EDDS trisodium salt, EDTA, and (S,S)-EDDS readily disassociates in the body to their respective... to (S,S)-EDDS trisodium salt and EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) and its salts and...

  16. Thermodynamics of binding water and solute to powdered long-chain salts of fatty acids.

    Mahapatra, P K; Chattoraj, D K

    1994-10-01

    Hydration of powdered fatty acids and their salts has been studied both in presence and absence of neutral salts, sucrose and urea using the isopiestic vapour pressure technique. Moles of water vapour adsorbed per mole or kg of soaps like sodium palmitate, sodium stearate, sodium myristate and sodium laurate have been measured in presence and absence of salts and compared with that of detergents (SDS, CTAB, DTAB and MTAB). For each case of positive excess adsorption of water vapour and negative excess adsorption of inorganic salts, urea and sucrose to different soaps, the standard free energy change (delta G degrees) per kg of substrate in bringing the bulk mole fraction from zero to unity have been calculated using an appropriate thermodynamic equation and the values so obtained have been compared critically. PMID:7851944

  17. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    M. Frosch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  18. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  19. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  20. Synergy of boric acid and added salts in the catalytic dehydration of hexoses to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in water

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.......Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural....

  1. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  2. New co-crystal and salt form of sulfathiazole with carboxylic acid and amide

    Ranita Samanta; Shipra Kanaujia; C Malla Reddy

    2014-09-01

    One co-crystal and one salt of an antibacterial drug sulfathiazole with 4-aminobenzamide and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid have been synthesized. These new forms are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In solid state, sulfathiazole preferentially adopts the imidine tautomeric form.

  3. Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts as photoactivated acidic catalysts for ring-opening polymerisation.

    Barker, Ian A; Dove, Andrew P

    2013-02-11

    Triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate salts were shown to be effective catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of various cyclic monomers under UV irradiation. A dual basic/acidic catalytic system demonstrated the potential for UV-triggered formation of poly(δ-valerolactone)-b-poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(δ-valerolactone) in a 'one-pot' reaction. PMID:23283246

  4. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Catalyzed by Amino Acid Hydrochloride Salts

    2008-01-01

    Using amino acid hydrochloride salt as a catalyst, the coupling reaction of CO2 with epoxides could proceed smoothly to give cyclic carbonates in very good yields and high selectivity. The reaction conditions such as the pressure of carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were carefully investigated.

  5. Kinetic study of CO2 with various amino acid salts in aqueous solution

    Holst, van J.; Versteeg, G.F.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A study towards the kinetics of CO2 with several aqueous salts of amino acids was performed at a temperature of 298 K. Absorption rate experiments were carried out in the pseudo-first-order regime, enabling the determination of the kinetic rate constant from the flux. In a preliminary screening at a

  6. Kinetic study of CO2 with various amino acid salts in aqueous solution

    van Hoist, J.; Versteeg, G. F.; Brilman, D. W. F.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Holst, J. v

    2009-01-01

    A study towards the kinetics Of CO2 with several aqueous salts of amino acids was performed at a temperature of 298 K. Absorption rate experiments were carried out in the pseudo-first-order regime, enabling the determination of the kinetic rate constant from the flux. In a preliminary screening at a

  7. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    Carmichael, A.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O/sub 2//sup -/.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O/sub 2//sup -/. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O/sub 2//sup -/. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O/sub 2//sup -/..

  8. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O2-.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O2-. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O2-. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O2-

  9. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H2O2/ HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  10. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  11. Aggregation of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid and Its Lithium Salt in Hexane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Gordon, Ryan; Stober, Spencer T; Abrams, Cameron F

    2016-07-28

    12-Hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) is a well-known organogelator, and its metal salts and derivatives find roles in many important applications. The structures of aggregates of 12-hydroxysteric acid and its salts depend sensitively on cation type, but a fundamental understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on the microsecond long time scales for (1) 12HSA and (2) its lithium salt, each at 12.5 wt % in explicit hexane solvent. Self-assembly was accelerated by using a modified potential to prohibit alkane chain dihedral gauche states (all-trans-12HSA) and then verified by continuation using standard force-field parameters. In three independent simulation, acceleration using "gauche-less" potentials resulted in self-assembled pseudocrystalline aggregates through formation of polarized five- and six-membered rings between inter-12-hydroxyl groups and head-to-head carboxylic acid dimerization. When subjected to the unmodified dihedral potential, two of the three structures remained stable after 1 μs of MD. Stable structures exhibited a "ring-of-rings" motif, composed of two six-membered acetic acid-dimerized ring bundles with six satellite rings, while the unstable structure did not. In strong contrast, the lithium salt produced a network of fibrils that spanned the volume of the sample. When lithium ions were substituted for carboxylic acid protons in the stable acid structures, they remained intact but lost their chiral nature. Both the acid and lithium structures displayed scattering peaks that agreed with experiment. Taken together, our results suggest that this ring-of-rings structure could be a primary feature of the self-assembly of 12HSA in organic solvents. PMID:27387154

  12. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐中二钠盐来源分析及改进%Source analysis of dio-sodium salt in fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate and amelioration

    蒋惠亮; 王相明

    2012-01-01

    实验考察了脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐(MES)合成的各工序中α-磺基脂肪酸二钠(二钠盐)的变化量。其中再酯化阶段二钠盐减少最多,中和阶段二钠盐产生最多,这是由于再酯化阶段引入了部分甲醇以及中和阶段的强碱性环境和较高温度引起的。同时提出了各阶段的改进方法。经过优化实验,得到二钠盐含量最低时,各阶段最佳条件为:漂白温度75℃,再酯化时间6 h,甲醇与脂肪酸甲酯磺酸摩尔比30∶1,中和方式为以碳酸钠粉末干法中和。%The content ofdi-sodium salt ( DSS ) in every step of MES's synthesis was measured, the maximal decrease of DSS is in reesterification stage, the maximal increase of DSS is in neutralization stage. It could be resulted from the methanol introduction in reesterification stage, strong alkaline environment and higher temperature in neutralization stage. Meanwhile, improvement is also proposed for every stage in ameliorated method. By optimizing the experiment, the optimal condition for every stage was obtained as, bleaching temperature 75 ℃, reesterification time 6h, the mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid methyl ester sulfonic acid 30 : 1, neutralization pattern, dry neutralization by sodium carbonate powder when the content of di-sodium salt is the lowest.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of disodium 5?-ribonucleotides, disodium 5?-guanylate, disodium 5?-inosinate for all animal species and categories

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavours included in this assessment are widely present in nature as the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the FEEDAP Panel is unable to ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. Disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture are considered to be safe for the target animals and the consumer. However, considering the lack of information on the production process, these conclusions apply only to the compounds ‘per se’ and their extrapolation to any feed additive containing these compounds is not possible. In the absence of any data related to hazard to the user, it would be prudent to regard disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture as potentially hazardous to workers by skin or inhalation exposure. The compounds under assessment are naturally present in feed materials; therefore, no risk to the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since these compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  14. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  15. Synthesis of heteropoly acids and their salts using mechanochemical activation

    A method of heteropolyacid synthesis from oxides of molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium based on increase in the oxides reactivity via mechanochemical activation is suggested. Scientific grounds for the method of synthesis of heteropolyacids with different ligand atoms and heteroatoms were developed. A high reactive ability of new compounds i.e. V2O5 · nMoO3, during interaction with phosphoric acid was detected, stemming from the lack of coordination saturation of vanadium cations and defective compounds. The applications of the method of heteropolyacid were defined. It has the most promising application for the synthesis of phosphorus-molybdenum-vanadium and phosphorus-molybdenum heteropolyacids

  16. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik (CNRS-UMR); (NIH); (ILL)

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  17. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient DNSE measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, DDLS. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, DDLS approaches DNSE, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  18. Mechanistic aspects of the acid and salt effect in radiation grafting

    The enhancement of radiation grafting or photografting yields found in the presence of either acid or neutral salt has been attributed to a ''salting out'' of monomer from the solution into the grafting region within the polymer substrate. Measurements using a swelling/leaching technique and tritium labelled styrene, have shown that the rate of transfer and the equilibrium distribution are dependent on the polarities of the monomer, substrate and solvent as well as the concentrations of ionic solute and monomer. Molecular weight studies and the effect of other additives confirmed the proposed mechanism. A number of other additives exhibited specific radiolytic chemical effects. These usually reduced the grafting yield. (author)

  19. Salt Contribution to the Flexibility of Single-stranded Nucleic Acid of Finite Length

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids are negatively charged macromolecules and their structure properties are strongly coupled to metal ions in solutions. In this paper, the salt effects on the flexibility of single stranded (ss) nucleic acid chain ranging from 12 to 120 nucleotides are investigated systematically by the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations where the salt ions are considered explicitly and the ss chain is modeled with the virtual bond structural model. Our calculations show that, the increase of ion concentration causes the structural collapse of ss chain and multivalent ions are much more efficient in causing such collapse, and trivalent and small divalent ions can both induce more compact state than a random relaxation state. We found that monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions can all overcharge ss chain, and the dominating source for such overcharging changes from ion exclusion volume effect to ion Coulomb correlations. In addition, the predicted Na and Mg dependent persistence length lp of ss nucleic acid a...

  20. Mixed insoluble acidic salts of tetravalent metals Pt. 5

    Solid ZrOCl2x8H2O was added in a slow stream to a solution of phosphoric acid or to a solution of TiCl4 in phosphoric acid to obtain granules of amorphous Zr(HPO4)2xnH2O or ZrxTi(1-x)(HPO4)2xnH-2O (where x=0.95-0.80). It was found that the particle size of the resulting materials is very similar to that of ZrOCl2x8H2O, in such a way that it may be controlled indirectly. These materials are suitable for ion-exchange column operations. The relatively high gamma radiation doses of 60Co source did not alter its exchange properties. pH-titrations were performed by an automatic titrimeter and the exchange capacities of alkali metal ions were determined by isotopic tracer technique. Other characterizations were made by usual chemical analysis and thermography. (author) 20 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Improvement in the docosahexaenoic acid production of Schizochytrium sp. S056 by replacement of sea salt.

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Pengpeng; Zhu, Yuanmin; Xie, Chen; Ma, Lin; Wang, Xiaopeng; Bao, Zhendong; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-02-01

    Schizochytrium is a marine microalga that requires high concentrations of sea salt for growth, although problems arise with significant amounts of chloride ions in the culture medium, which corrodes the fermenters. In this work, we evaluated that cell growth and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production can be improved when using 1 % (w/v) sodium sulfate instead of 2 % (w/v) sea salt in the culture medium for Schizochytrium sp. S056. In practice, the use of sodium sulfate as the sodium salt led to chloride ion levels in the medium that can be completely removed, thus avoiding fermenter corrosion during Schizochytrium sp. S056 growth, reducing cost and increasing DHA production, and simplifying the disposal of fermentation wastewater. Additionally, we demonstrated that the osmolality of growth media did not play a crucial role in the production of DHA. These findings may be significantly important to companies involved in production of PUFAs by marine microbes. PMID:26658812

  2. Onium salts as radiation-sensitive acid generators for resists with chemical amplification (review)

    The necessity of mastering alternative lithographic processes for development and production of 64 and 256 Mbit dynamic random-access memory units has been substantiated. It is shown that conventional positive photoresists based on diazonaphthoquinone and novalac resins do not meet the requirements of modern microlithography. The concept of chemical amplification offered a means for developing adequate topological structures with sizes of resist components of 0.35 μm or less. Onium salts are universal and efficient acid generators for resists with chemical amplification. Studies in the field of photo- and radiochemistry of onium salts have been summarized and correlated. It has been shown that the quantum yield and distribution of photolysis products are governed to a major extent by geminal and bulk recombination. Specific features of photolysis and radiolysis of onium salts in a polymer matrix are considered

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE STABILITY AND SHELF LIFE OF OINTMENT WITH ZINC SALT OF HYALURONIC ACID AND THIOTRIAZOLINE

    Bezrukaviy Y.A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of physical-chemical andmicrobiological research investigated the stability andshelf life of ointment with zinc salt of hyaluronic acid andthiotriazoline. Ointment which stored in aluminum tubes,during all term of researches met all the indicators ofdrugs QC. Ointment which kept in jars from orange glassdid not meet the indicator "acidic number" in defining ofindicators per 24 months of storage. Was established shelflife of medication with zinc salt of hyaluronic acid andthiotriazoline - 2 years.

  4. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  5. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  6. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  7. Extraction properties of zirconium salt of dibutylphosphoric acid in the case of TPE and REE extraction from nitric acid solutions

    On the basis of extraction data and IR spectra the structure id proposed of zirconium salt of dibutylphosphoric acid (ZS DBPA) and so structure of complexes forming in organic phase during extraction of REE by ZS DBPA in dependence on acidity, ZS DBPA concentration and extractant saturation by metal. By the method of mathematical modeling the contribution of different mechanisms of extraction for all rare earths and so Am and Cm is exposed. TBP presence in ZS DBPA independently on diluent during Ce, Eu and Am extraction decreases distribution coefficients of elements, but increases extractant capacity by REE to the extent sufficiently being more than element extraction by TBP

  8. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    The reversible absorption of CO2 into a chemical solvent is currently the leading CO2 capture technology. Available solvents are almost exclusively based on aqueous alkanolamine solutions, which entail both economic and environmental complications, making the commercialization of the technology...... difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...... monoethanolamine (MEA) were performed, using a stirred cell reactor experimental setup. The absorption of gas containing 10 mol % CO2 and 90 mol % N2 was followed by measuring the percentage of CO2 in the outlet gas. Also the temperature and pH in the solutions were measured during the absorption. The results...

  9. Acceptor extraction of uranyl salts with mixtures of organophosphoric acids with neutral additives

    Uranium solvent extraction by mixtures of organophosphoric acids (HX) with neutral additives (L) (phosphine oxides, sulfoxides, tbp) excibits, along with the widely known synergic effect at low HX saturation with uranium, a new synergic effect occurring after complete HX saturation. Three types of isotherms of uranyl salt extraction by benzene solutions of HX and mixtures of HX with L were revealed. Their forms depend on superposition of cation-exchange and noncation-exchange synergic effects. Similarity of synergic effect of acid and neutral mixture components during solvent extraction from diluted and concentrated solutions of uranyl salts testified to the same nature of these two effects; both of them are determined by acceptor properties of uranium atom in monomeric UO2(HX2)2 and polymeric (UO2X2)p complexes. The established reqularities were confirmed, when studying uranyl sulfate extraction by UO2X2 mixture with L

  10. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  11. [Psychotropic effect of phenibut salts and their compositions with organic acids].

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Krivitskaia, A N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2011-01-01

    The spectra of psychotropic action of some phenibut salts (succunate, maleate, nicotinate) and a composition of phenibut with glutamic acid were studied. It is established, that the substances studied show psychotropic activity spectrum generally similar to that of phenibut, but different in expressiveness of some particular effects. Compound RSPU-149 exhibited the most pronounced psychotropic action: its anxiolytic effect was below, the antidepressant effect was comparable with, and the nootrope action exceeded that of phenibut. PMID:21476277

  12. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Hirokazu Nakayama; Aki Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution...

  13. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  14. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  15. Taxonomic homogeneity of a salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated from shoyu mash.

    Hanagata, Hiroshi; Shida, Osamu; Takagi, Hiroaki

    2003-04-01

    Forty-seven salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria, which had been isolated from different places and grown in 15% NaCl, were examined to assess their taxonomic heterogeneity. Among the isolates, 42 were isolated from shoyu mash during the acid fermentation phase, 2 were from miso and 3 were from anchovy pickles. All isolates were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus on the basis of DNA relatedness values. We further examined 102 phenotypic characteristics of them. The isolates exhibited differences in only 16, supporting the conclusion obtained from the DNA relatedness analysis. PMID:12833212

  16. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated disodium phthalocyanine derivative thin films

    M E Sánchez-Vergara; M Rivera; R A Torres-García; C O Perez-Baeza; E A Loza-Neri

    2014-08-01

    Thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers using disodium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone, 2,6-dihydroxianthraquinone and its potassium derivative salt. The surface morphology of these films was analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). IR spectroscopy was employed in order to investigate possible changes of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm and the effects of post-deposition heat treatment were analysed. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. In addition, the optical gap dependence upon the thickness of these thin films was evaluated.

  17. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  18. Biphasic dissolution method for quality control and assurance of drugs containing active substances in the form of weak acid salts.

    Franc, Aleš; Muselłk, Jan; Goněc, Roman; Vetchý, David

    2016-03-01

    Substances in the form of weak acid salts have been found to be problematic for dissolution testing. Their absorption can start only after they are turned into the form of an acid following the gastric passage although they were administered in the form of a salt. Due to poor solubility, they cannot be tested in acidic gastric environment for a biased dissolution profile. The biphasic dissolution method is promising for overcoming this obstacle. Tablets with warfarin clathrate sodium salt in two concentrations and two different particle size distributions were tested as a suitable model for finding the medium and process conditions of dissolution. The dissolution method based on the use of the upper organic layer (1-octanol) and the lower aqueous layer 0.1 mol L-1 HCl) was found suitable and discriminatory for tablets containing active substances in the form of salts of weak acids. The method also reflects physical differences in the quality of used substances. PMID:26959550

  19. Structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid salts from electron, x-ray, and neutron diffraction data

    The data on the structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films of fatty acid salts obtained by the methods of electron diffraction structure analysis are compared with the corresponding results of X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements

  20. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy; Sorensen, Henning Osholm; Larsen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Twenty two p-substituted benzoic acid derivates were used to prepare salts of N-methylbenzylamine (II) and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine (III), respectively. Only five salts of (II) and two salts of (III) were obtained in a crystalline state. The solubility of these salts was orders of magnitude higher...

  1. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous methanesulfonic acid with NaCl and sea salt particles

    2009-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid(MSA) has been identified as one of the most important intermediate products of DMS reactions in the atmosphere.Although considerable amounts of MSA have been found in the ma-rine boundary layer,little is known about the interaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt particles.To understand the fate of MSA in the atmosphere and its potential importance in atmospheric chemistry,the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous MSA with micron-scale NaCl and sea salt particles were studied using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.The CH3SO3Na and CH3SO3-were the major products of the condensed phase of the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl and with sea salt particles.The steady-state uptake coefficient was determined to be(5.94±2.32)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl particles and(2.23±1.25)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt parti-cles.The heterogeneous reaction of MSA with NaCl particles was found to be first-order for MSA.The reaction mechanisms were discussed.

  2. Effect of High Temperature on the Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Emeraldine Salt Doped with DBSA and Sulfuric Acid

    Salma Gul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermally treated polyaniline in its emeraldine salt form is presented here. It offers an understanding of the thermal stability of the polymer. Emeraldine salt was prepared by a novel emulsion polymerization pathway using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid together as dopants. The effect of temperature and heating rate on the degradation of this emeraldine salt was studied via thermogravimetric analysis. The thermally analyzed sample was collected at various temperatures, that is, 250, 490, 500, and 1000°C. The gradual changes in the structure of the emeraldine salt were followed through cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that emeraldine salt shows high thermal stability up to 500°C. This is much higher working temperature for the use of emeraldine salt in higher temperature applications. Further heat treatment seems to induce deprotonation in emeraldine salt. Cyclic voltammetry and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed that complete deprotonation takes place at 1000°C where it loses its electrical conductivity. It is interesting to note that after the elimination of the dopants, the basic backbone of emeraldine salt was not destroyed. The results reveal that the dopants employed have a stability effect on the skeleton of emeraldine salt.

  3. Salt-mediated self-assembly of thioctic acid on gold nanoparticles.

    Volkert, Anna A; Subramaniam, Varuni; Ivanov, Michael R; Goodman, Amanda M; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-06-28

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modification is a widely used method to improve the functionality and stability of bulk and nanoscale materials. For instance, the chemical compatibility and utility of solution-phase nanoparticles are often improved using covalently bound SAMs. Herein, solution-phase gold nanoparticles are modified with thioctic acid SAMs in the presence and absence of salt. Molecular packing density on the nanoparticle surfaces is estimated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and increases by ∼20% when molecular self-assembly occurs in the presence versus the absence of salt. We hypothesize that as the ionic strength of the solution increases, pinhole and collapsed-site defects in the SAM are more easily accessible as the electrostatic interaction energy between adjacent molecules decreases, thereby facilitating the subsequent assembly of additional thioctic acid molecules. Significantly, increased SAM packing densities increase the stability of functionalized gold nanoparticles by a factor of 2 relative to nanoparticles functionalized in the absence of salt. These results are expected to improve the reproducible functionalization of solution-phase nanomaterials for various applications. PMID:21524135

  4. Supra-molecular Association and Polymorphic Behaviour In Systems Containing Bile Acid Salts

    Camillo La Mesa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide number of supra-molecular association modes are observed in mixtures containing water and bile salts, BS, (with, eventually, other components. Molecular or micellar solutions transform into hydrated solids, fibres, lyotropic liquid crystals and/or gels by raising the concentration, the temperature, adding electrolytes, surfactants, lipids and proteins. Amorphous or ordered phases may be formed accordingly. The forces responsible for this very rich polymorphism presumably arise from the unusual combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond contributions to the system stability, with subsequent control of the supra-molecular organisation modes. The stabilising effect due to hydrogen bonds does not occur in almost all surfactants or lipids and is peculiar to bile acids and salts. Some supra-molecular organisation modes, supposed to be related to malfunctions and dis-metabolic diseases in vivo, are briefly reported and discussed.

  5. Surface chemical properties of sodium salts of carboxylic acids isolated from Green River shale. [Sodium carboxylates

    McKay, J.F.; Blanche, M.S.; Robertson, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    Organic material isolated from Green River shale varies substantially with the method of isolation. Short-time supercritical fluid treatment and solvent extraction of Green River shale produces large amounts of sodium carboxylates. These sodium salts were observed to form emulsions and therefore be surface active. Quantitative surface activity measurements were then determined using the shale extract. The material was found to have a limiting surface tension of about 41 dynes/cm (as expected) for carboxylates. However, the critical micelle concentration is quite high and has a measured molecular weight value of 600. This probably results from higher solubility of the lower molecular weight species. The solution did not display hysteresis. In general the carboxylic acid salts isolated from Green River shale displayed surface activity similar to those of model compounds cited in the literature.

  6. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Modou Sarr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  7. Drug: D07720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D07720 Drug Clodronic acid disodium salt; Disodium clodronate; Clodronate disodium; Bonefos (TN) ... .gif Calcium regulating ATC code: M05BA02 map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classi ...

  8. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits. PMID:25694719

  9. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented. PMID:27327567

  10. Growth, Gas Exchange, Abscisic Acid, and Calmodulin Response to Salt Stress in Three Poplars

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of increasing salinity on growth, gas exchange, abscisic acid(ABA), calmodulin (CAM), and the relevance to salt tolerance in seedlings of Populus euphratica Oliv. and cuttings of P. "pupularis 35-44" (P. popularis) and P. x euramericana cv. 1-214 (P. cv. Italica). The relative growth rates of shoot height (RGRH) for P. cv. Italica and P. popularis were severely reduced by increasing salt stress,whereas the growth reduction was relatively less in P. euphratica. Similarly, P. euphratica maintained higher net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and unit transpiration rates (TRN) than P. cv. Italica and P. popularis under conditions of higher salinity. Salinity caused a significant increase in leaf ABA and CaM in the three genotypes after the onset of stress, but NaCl-induced ABA and CaM accumulation was more pronounced in P. euphratica,suggesting that P. euphratica plants are more sensitive in sensing soil salinity than the other two poplars.Furthermore, P. euphratica maintained relatively higher ABA and CaM concentrations under conditions of high salinity. The higher capacity to synthesize stress signals, namely ABA and CaM, in P. euphratica and the contribution of this to the salt resistance of P. euphratica are discussed.

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID, BILE SALT-INDEPENDENT, RETINYL ESTER HYDROLASE FROM RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Previous work in this laboratory has revealed the presence of both acidic and neutral bile-salt independent retinyl ester hydrolase activities in rat liver homogenates. Here we present the purification, identification and characterization of an acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity from solubilized ...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  13. Effect of Salt Stress on Purslane and Potential Health Benefits: Oxalic Acid and Fatty Acids Profile

    Carvalho, Isabel S.; Teixeira, Mónica; Brodelius, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are crucial for human health and nutrition since they cannot be synthesized in the body and hence must be provided by the diet. Portulaca oleracea L. (purslane) is the eighth most commonly distributed plant in the world. It is a heat- and drought-tolerant plant and our previous study demonstrates that their leaf provide high amounts of antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and proteins. In the present study, we set out to characterize the oxalic acid and the fat...

  14. Influence of neutral salts on the hydrothermal stability of acid-soluble collagen.

    Brown, E M; Farrell, H M; Wildermuth, R J

    2000-02-01

    The thermal stability of acid-soluble collagens was studied by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Adult bovine dermal collagen (BDC), rat-tail tendon collagen (RTC), and calf skin collagen (CSC) were compared. Despite some variability in amino acid composition and apparent molecular weight, the CD spectra for helical and unordered collagen structures were essentially the same for all the sources. The melting of these collagens occurs as a two-stage process characterized by a pretransition (Tp) followed by complete denaturation (Td). The characteristic temperatures vary with the source of the collagen; for mature collagens (BDC, RTC) Tp = 30 degrees C and Td = 36 degrees C, and for CSC Tp = 34 degrees C and Td = 40 degrees C. Neutral salts, NaCl or KCl, at low concentrations (0.02-0.2 M) appear to bind to the collagens and shift the thermal transitions of these collagens to lower temperatures. PMID:10945432

  15. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate. PMID:25274086

  16. Enhancement of the wet properties of transparent chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose.

    Nordqvist, David; Idermark, Johan; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Ankerfors, Mikael; Lindström, Tom

    2007-08-01

    This report presents a new route to enhance the wet properties of chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The enhancement makes it easier to form chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films into various shapes at room temperature in the wet state. Chitosan with MFC was compared with the well-known buffer treatment. It was observed that films containing 5 wt % MFC were visually identical to the buffered/unbuffered films without MFC. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that MFC formed a network with uniformly distributed fibrils and fibril bundles in the chitosan matrix. The addition of MFC reduced the risk of creases and deformation in the wet state because of a greater wet stiffness. The wet films containing MFC were also extensible. Although the stiffness, strength and extensibility were highest for the buffered films, the wet strength of the MFC-containing unbuffered films was sufficient for wet forming operations. The effects of MFC on the mechanical properties of the dry chitosan films were small or absent. It was concluded that the addition of MFC is an acceptable alternative to buffering for shaping chitosan films/products in the wet state. The advantages are that the "extra" processing step associated with buffering is unnecessary and that the film matrix remains more water-soluble. PMID:17645308

  17. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  18. Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid against bone changes in salt-loaded rats: possible role of kidney

    Ahmed, Mona A.; Abd EL Samad, Abeer A

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fats are important components contributing in bone health and that bone mineral density is inversely related to sodium intake. Salt loading is also known to impose negative effects on renal function. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 on bone changes imposed by salt loading, highlighting the role of kidney as a potential mechanism involved in this effect. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: cont...

  19. Preparing poly(aryl ethers) using alkaline earth metal carbonates, organic acid salts, and optionally copper compounds, as catalysts

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing poly(aryl ethers) and poly(aryl ether ketones) by the reaction of a mixture of at least one bisphenol and at least one dihalobenzenoid compound, and/or a halophenol. The improvement comprises providing to the reaction, a base which is a combination of an alkaline earth metal carbonate and/or bicarbonate and a potassium, rubidium, or cesium salt of an organic acid or combination of organic salts thereof

  20. Preparing poly(aryl ethers) using alkaline earth metal carbonates, organic acid salts, and optionally copper compounds, as catalysts

    Winslow, P.A.; Kelsey, D.R.; Matzner, M.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes an improved process for preparing poly(aryl ethers) and poly(aryl ether ketones) by the reaction of a mixture of at least one bisphenol and at least one dihalobenzenoid compound, and/or a halophenol. The improvement comprises providing to the reaction, a base which is a combination of an alkaline earth metal carbonate and/or bicarbonate and a potassium, rubidium, or cesium salt of an organic acid or combination of organic salts thereof.

  1. The Association between Bile Salt Export Pump Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Susceptibility and Ursodeoxycholic Acid Response

    Rui-rui Chen; Yuan-jun Li; Xin-min Zhou; Lu Wang; Juan Xing; Shuang Han; Li-na Cui; Lin-hua Zheng; Kai-chun Wu; Yong-quan Shi; Zhe-yi Han; Ying Han; Dai-ming Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestasis liver disease. Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the predominant bile salt efflux system of hepatocytes. BSEP gene has been attached great importance in the susceptibility of PBC and the response rate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment of PBC patients. Methods. In this study, TaqMan assay was used to genotype four variants of BSEP, and the Barcelona criteria were used for evaluating the response rate of U...

  2. The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid-An antidote for subacute cadmium intoxication: a study using an ICR mouse model.

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka G; Kamenova, Kalina; Arpadjan, Sonja; Mitewa, Mariana

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the ability of the chelating agent monensic acid (administered as the tetraethylammonium salt) to reduce the cadmium (Cd) concentration in the kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes of Cd-intoxicated mice was investigated. Chelation therapy with the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid led to a significant decrease of the Cd concentration in all of the organs of the Cd-treated mice. This effect varied from 50% in the kidneys to 90% in the hearts of the sacrificed animals (compared to the Cd-treated controls). No redistribution of the toxic metal ions to the brain of the animals as a result of the detoxification with the chelating agent was observed. The detoxification of the animals with the antibiotic salt did not perturb the endogenous levels of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn). The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid significantly ameliorated the Cd-induced total iron (Fe) depletion in the liver and spleen of Cd-treated mice. It also restored to control levels the values of transferrin-bound Fe and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the plasma. These results imply that the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid could be an efficient antidote in cases of Cd-intoxication. PMID:22677540

  3. Application of acid pugging and ferric salts leaching on West Central Sinai uraniferrous siltstone

    Application of acid pugging as well as leaching with ferric salts [FeC13 and Fe2(SO4)3] methods were investigated to overcome the solid - liquid separation problem normally faced in the conventional acid leaching methods. The applied methods minimized the leachant consumption and leaching time. In addition, the radium removal during the ferric salts leaching was actually taken in consideration to meet the environmental requirements. The acid pug leaching experiments were conducted by using 10 gm concentrated H2SO4 (equal to 200 kg/ton in the conventional leaching methods) upon 50 gm sample fractions. The pug was cured at 110oC for 1.5 hours. After curing, agitation leaching was performed with distilled water using a solid - liquid ratio of 1/3 for 6 hours at room temperature. The obtained leaching efficiencies were 95.7% for U, 97.3% for Cu and almost complete leaching for Mn. This method could also be applied at the mine sites on ores when making use of the sunlight for only a few hours a day. Bench scale studies proved that when applying the curing step in the sunlight for 4 hours using the other optimum operating conditions, U dissolution efficiency reached about 85.6% and about 86.6% for Cu but it was only about 25.7% for Mn. In comparison, application of ferric salts leaching on the ore proved that 93.3% and 37% U dissolutions were obtained when using 100 kg/t Fe2(SO4)3 versus FeC13, respectively. With respect to both Cu and Mn leaching efficiencies, it was found that higher recoveries were obtained when using FeC13 than when using Fe2(SO4)3. Tests were performed to improve the poor uranium leaching efficiencies in the FeC13 leaching method by the addition of HC1 which acted as initiating reagent. The results indicated that by adding 40 kg/t FeC13 an improvement of the uranium leaching was obtained, 92.2%. (author)

  4. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  5. Composite polyether electrolytes with a poly(styrenesulfonate) lithium salt and Lewis acid type additive

    A poly(styrenesulfonate) lithium salt was tested as a single-ion conductor in a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether matrix. Impedance spectroscopy and voltage step polarization were used to characterize the composite electrolytes. A specific conductivity of about 7x10-8 S cm-1 was evaluated at 70 deg. C. The very low conductivity was attributed to the poor solubility of Li+ in the polymer matrix. AlCl3 was added to the polymer electrolyte to increase the salt dissolution. The addition of the Lewis acid strongly increases the conductivity and a specific conductivity of about 4x10-6 S cm-1 was measured at 20 deg. C. For temperature lower than 60 deg. C, the specific conductivity dependence with increasing temperature follows an Arrhenius-type behavior. An activation energy of about 55.6 kJ mol-1 was calculated. A very similar activation energy (60.3 kJ mol-1) was found for the charge transfer resistance. The transport properties of the polymer electrolyte were tested by applying a d.c. voltage step to a symmetrical lithium cell. The current at the applied voltage decreased with time. The decrease was related to an increase in the cell resistance due to the continuous growth of a passivation layer on the lithium surface

  6. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  7. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  8. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Hirokazu Nakayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  9. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs

  10. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  11. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  12. 21 CFR 522.161 - Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.161 Betamethasone acetate and betamethasone disodium phosphate aqueous suspension. (a) Chemical names. Betamethasone acetate: 9-α-Fluoro-16-β-methylprednisolone -...

  13. Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile acid stress

    Chen, Huey-Ling; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chien, Chin-Sung; Chou, Shi-Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2012-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (Bsep) mediates the hepatic excretion of bile acids, and its deficiency causes progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The current study aimed to induce bile acid stress in Bsep −/− mice and to test the efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in this disease model. We fed Bsep −/− and wild-type mice cholic acid (CA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Both CA and UDCA caused cholestasis and apoptosis in the Bsep −/− mouse liver. Wild-type mice had minimal liver inj...

  14. Cytoprotective effects of disodium cromoglycate on rat stomach mucosa.

    Goossens, J.; Van Reempts, J.; Van Wauwe, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of the anti-asthmatic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on gastric mucosal necrosis induced by ethanol in rats were studied. Subcutaneous, but not oral, DSCG prevented the formation of gastric lesions and this effect was dose-dependent between 1.25 and 40 mg kg-1, with an ED50 value of 6.8 mg kg-1. Maximal cytoprotection occurred 15-30 min after DSCG treatment. Histological examination revealed that DSCG effectively protected the gastric mucosa against ethanol-ind...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A...

  16. INHIBITION OF GERMINATION AND OUTGROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS SPORES BY LACTIC ACID SALTS DURING COOLING OF COOKED GROUND TURKEY

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by lactic acid salts during exponential cooling of cooked ground turkey products was evaluated. Injected turkey containing either calcium lactate, potassium lactate, or sodium lactate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 or 4.8% w/w) along with a cont...

  17. Identification of robust synthon in the molecular salts of 2-aminothiazole with substituted benzoic acids: A case stu

    Madhavi Oruganti; Raghavaiah Pallepogu; Darshak R Trivedi

    2014-09-01

    Six new salts of an API intermediate 2-aminothiazole with different carboxylic acid coformers were synthesized and characterized by IR (Infrared spectroscopy), 1H-NMR, DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry), XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction) and single crystal XRD. The crystal structure of the salts with benzoic acid, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6- dihydroxybenzoic acids and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid were determined. The thiazole moiety exhibited solvent (polarity) assisted tautomerism in all reported salts and proton transfer was noticed to the ring N of thiazole due to which two point supramolecular synthon N+−H(thiazole)…O−(acid), N−H(amine)…O−(acid) was observed. The crystal structures were studied with respect to the positional effect of the competing functional groups like hydroxyl (−OH) and nitro (−NO2) as well as their donor and acceptor abilities for hydrogen bonding. The presence of the non-conventional hydrogen bond (C−H…O) has been found to play a critical role in the formation of secondary supramolecular architectures.

  18. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  19. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected. PMID:25779084

  20. Synthesis of methyl acetate from dimethyl ether using group VIII metal salts of phosphotungstic acid

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Tartamella, T.

    2002-04-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced much more efficiently in a single-stage, liquid-phase process from natural gas-based syngas as compared to the conventional process via dehydration of methanol. This process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, alleviates the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improves per-pass syngas conversion and reactor productivity. The potential, therefore, for production of methyl acetate via dimethyl ether carbonylation is of industrial importance. In the present study, conversion of dimethyl ether and carbon monoxide to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of group VIII metal-substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Experimental results of this catalytic reaction using rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and palladium catalysts are evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity toward methyl acetate. The effects of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions on carbonylation activity of DME are examined. Iridium metal substituted phosphotungstic acid supported on Davisil type 643 (pore size 150 A, surface area 279 m{sup 2}/g, mesh size 230-425) silica gel shows the highest activity for DME carbonylation. (author)

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  2. Effect of feeding sequence on solubility of two salts%加料顺序对两种盐溶解性的影响

    张连明; 胡仰栋; 伍联营; 张伟涛

    2015-01-01

    盐的溶解及盐效应的研究对化工技术开发具有重要意义.采用平衡法,常压下,测得了对苯二甲酸二钠在不同温度下于水中的溶解度.在常压和298.15 K下,考察了对苯二甲酸二钠等7种有机盐和无水硫酸钠等3种无机盐在水中的两两溶解过程,发现加料顺序会影响两种盐的溶解性.得到如下结果:先溶解难电离的盐再溶解易电离的盐,则后者的溶解速度变化不明显;而先溶解易电离的盐再溶解难电离的盐,则后者的溶解速度会显著降低且溶解度变小.将其中一种盐的量固定后,在一定时间内另一种盐所能溶解的量定义为准溶解度.测定了对苯二甲酸二钠在不同浓度的柠檬酸三钠水溶液中的准溶解度,为相关化工行业的产品分离纯化提供依据.%Study on salt dissolution and salt effect is important for development of chemical technology. The solubility of terephthalic acid disodium in water at different temperatures was measured by using equilibrium method at atmospheric pressure. For seven organic salts and three inorganic salts, the dissolving process of two salts in water was examined under the normal pressure and 298.15 K. It is found that the feeding sequence affects the dissolution of two salts. When difficult ionized salt is dissolved first and easily ionized salt is dissolved later, the dissolution rate of the latter does not change obviously; when easily ionized salt is dissolved first, the dissolution rate of difficult ionized salt is significantly reduced and the solubility decreases. Fixing the amount of one salt, the amount of another salt dissolved in a period of time is defined as the quasi-solubility. The determination of quasi-solubility of terephthalic acid disodium in different concentrations of sodium citrate solution provides the basis for purification of chemical products.

  3. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Pienaar, Jacobus J.; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina; Shaw, Mike; Ro, Chul-Un; Aas, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition has been carried out under the direction of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Scientific Advisory Group for Precipitation Chemistry (SAG-PC). The assessment addressed three questions: (1) what do measurements and model estimates of precipitation chemistry and wet, dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity, and phosphorus show glob...

  4. Effects of Acid Vapor, Basic Vapor and Heat Treatments on the Properties of Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Divalent Metal Salts of Fatty Acids

    Saito, Mitsuyoshi; Sugi, Michio; Ikegami, Keiichi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Iizima, Sigeru

    1986-06-01

    When LB films are exposed to the atmosphere vaporized from acid at room temperature, the X-ray diffraction peaks attributed to the lamellar structure disappear and new peaks appear depending on the metal ion species of the salt, whereas such noticeable change is not observed by basic vapor treatment and heat treatment. Diffraction patterns for LB films of free fatty acids are not influenced by these three treatments.

  5. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  6. Investigation of solubility of uranium (4) salfate-fluoride salts in sulfuric acid

    Electrochemical reduction of uranyl ions was used to prepare sulfate-fluoride solutions of U(4) from which the crystallohydrates UFSO4HSO4x6H2O and UF2SO4x41/2H2O were isolated. Their solubility in H2SO4 was studied. The chemical analysis of the solid and the liquid phases for uranium, fluoride and sulphate-ions was carried out after equilibrium had been reached, which required 3 hours stjrring. As the temperature was raised from 15 to 55 deg C, the solubility of UFSO4HSO4x6H2O increased from 14.09 to 20.34 mass % UFSO4HSO4. At 25 deg C with the increase in the acid concentration from 0.05 to 2.0 M the solubility of this salt decreased from 16.25 to 7.85 mass % UFSO4HSO4. As the temperature was raised from 15 to 20 deg C, the solubility of UF2SO4x41/2H2O in 0.25 M acid increased from 6.82 to 12.80 mass % UF2SO4. At 55 deg it decreased to 6.54 mass % UF2SO4 due to partial dehydration and conversion into less soluble UF2SO4x3H2O. At 25 deg C the increase in the acid concentration from 0.05 to 2.0 M brought about the decrease in UF2SO4x41/2H2O solubility from 7.41 to 5.93 mass % UF2SO4

  7. Acid and salt uptake during the marinatig process of Engraulis anchoita fillets influence of the solution: fish ratio and agitation

    María Eugenia Capaccioni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of different conditions of the marination stage on the salt and acid uptake, immersion time, and sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita. Different solution:fish ratios and the agitation effect during this stage were analyzed. The ratios used were: 0.77:1, 3:1 and 10:1 (with and without agitation. An increase of marinating solution:fish ratio causes a higher speed of acid and salt penetration The product obtained with the 10:1 ratio had a dry and fibrous texture and a slightly salty taste. Salt concentration was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the samples with agitation. Agitation did not influence the acid uptake, and the salt penetration speed decreased, but rancidity was detected in this product. The ratio 3:1 decreases the marinating time without damaging sensory attributes and can be used in the fish marinating process.

  8. Synthesis and antitussive evaluation of verticinone-cholic acid salt, a novel and potential cough therapeutic agent

    Fang-zhou XU; Chang CHEN; Yong-hui ZHANG; Han-li RUAN; Hui-fang PI; Pong ZHANG; Ji-zhou WU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To seek a novel and potent antitussive drug based on Shedan-Chuanbei powder, a complex of traditional Chinese medicine preparation for cough therapy.Methods: Verticinone-cholic acid (Vet-CA) salt, a novel, salifying derivative of verticinone and cholic acid, both of which are the major bioactive components in Shedan-Chuanbei powder, was synthesized. We then evaluated the antitussive activity and the acute toxicity of the salt. Results: The new compound, with good solubility in water, has much more potent antitussive activity in comparison with the same dose of single verticinone and single cholic acid. The administration 3 mg/kg of Ver-CA could result in over 50% reduction of a citric acid-induced cough.Pretreatment with naloxone (0.8 mg/kg, ip) can only partially antagonize its anti-tussive effect. On the other hand, glybenclamide (3 mg/kg, ip), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, can also significantly reduce the antitussive effect of Ver-CA.A further acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 values of Ver-CA were 3 times that of verticinone. Conclusion: Based on the studies of pharmacology and acutetoxicity, the salt has a synergic and attenuated toxicity compared with single verticinone and cholic acid. Moreover, the present study also suggests that Ver-CA, a potential novel antitussive agent, may exert its antitussive effect via both the peripheral (modulated by ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and central mechanisms(modulated by the opioid receptor).

  9. Degradation of the herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) dimethylamine salt by gamma radiation from cobalt-60 in aqueous solution containing humic acid

    In this study, gamma radiation from cobalt-60 was used to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) dimethylamine salt in water in the presence of humic acid. The 2,4-D dimethylamine salt 1.13x10-4 mol dm-3 solution was irradiated with different doses. HPLC was used as an analytical technique to determine the degradation rate of herbicide studied. The results showed that the herbicide was completely degraded at an absorbed dose of 3 kGy. Degradation decreased when humic acid was added to all the doses. ESI/MS and MS/MS were used to identify the radiolytic degradation products. A fragmentation path for production of 4.6-dichlororesorcinol, is suggested. The radiolytic yields (G) were calculated

  10. Feasibility of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography in chronic cholestatic biliary disease

    Aim: To investigate the feasibility of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography in chronic obstructive cholestatic biliary disease in the clinical setting. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with dilated bile duct trees and ten volunteers underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR cholangiography and were enrolled in the present retrospective study. Gadoxetate disodium was given in a standardized manner as a bolus injection at a dose of 0.25 mmol/kg of body weight (0.1 ml/kg). Region of interest-based measurement of mean enhancement of the dilated bile ducts was performed in series before gadoxetate disodium administration and during hepatobiliary phases. Results: Direct comparison of mean bile duct enhancement during hepatobiliary phases in the clinical imaging window between healthy volunteers [4.7 ± 2.2 arbitrary units (au)] and patients with dilated bile ducts (0.1 ± 0.3 au) revealed significantly lower or absent enhancement in dilated bile ducts (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Standard clinical gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography is not a reliable technique for the evaluation of the biliary trees, because of altered biliary gadoxetate disodium elimination in patients with chronic obstructive biliary diseases. - Highlights: • Biliary excretion of gadoxetic disodium is impaired in subjects with chronic central or segmental bile duct obstruction. • MR cholangiography using gadoxetic disodium is not feasible in patients with chronic cholestatic bile duct disease. • Gadoxetic disodium enhanced MRI is a potential biomarker to measure hepatobiliary transporter function

  11. Structure and catalytic properties of magnesia-supported copper salts of molybdovanadophosphoric acid.

    Zhou, Guangdong; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Jie; Zhen, Kaiji; Wang, Haishui; Cheng, Tiexin

    2006-05-25

    The structure and stability of magnesia-supported copper salts of molybdovanadophosphoric acid (Cu(2)PMo(11)VO(40)) were characterized by different techniques. The catalyst was prepared in ethanol by impregnation because this solvent does not hurt texture of the water-sensitive MgO and Cu(2)PMo(11)VO(40). The Keggin-type structure compound may be degraded partially to form oligomerized polyoxometalate when supported on MgO. However, the oligomers can rebuild as the Keggin structure again after thermal treatment in air or during the reaction. Meanwhile, the V atoms migrate out of the Keggin structure to form a lacunary structure, as observed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of Cu(2+) as a countercation showed an affirmative influence on the migration of V atoms, and the active sites derived from the lacunary species generated after release of V from the Keggin anion. The electron paramagnetic resonance data imply that V(5+) autoreduces to V(4+) in the fresh catalyst, and during the catalytic reaction a large number of V(4+) ions are produced, which enhance the formation of O(2-) vacancies around the metal atoms. These oxygen vacancies may also improve the reoxidation function of the catalyst. This behavior is correlated to higher catalytic properties of this catalyst. The oxidative dehydrogenation of hexanol to hexanal was studied over this catalyst. After reaction at 553.2 K for 50 h, catalytic properties did not decrease and exhibited higher selectivity (>96.0%) toward hexanal. PMID:16706435

  12. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the morpholinium salts of four phenoxyacetic acid analogues

    Graham Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts morpholinium (tetrahydro-2-H-1,4-oxazin-4-ium phenoxyacetate, C4H10NO+·C8H7O3−, (I, morpholinium (4-fluorophenoxyacetate, C4H10NO+·C8H6 FO3−, (II, and isomeric morpholinium (3,5-dichlorophenoxyacetate (3,5-D, (III, and morpholinium (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, C4H10NO+·C8H5Cl2O3−, (IV, have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In the crystals of (I, (III and (IV, one of the the aminium H atoms is involved in a three-centre asymmetric cation–anion N—H...O,O′ R12(4 hydrogen-bonding interaction with the two carboxyl O-atom acceptors of the anion. With the structure of (II, the primary N—H...O interaction is linear. In the structures of (I, (II and (III, the second N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond generates one-dimensional chain structures extending in all cases along [100]. With (IV, the ion pairs are linked though inversion-related N—H...O hydrogen bonds [graph set R42(8], giving a cyclic heterotetrameric structure.

  13. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. PMID:26005789

  14. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  15. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    Assem Barakat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity value of 0.229.

  16. Crystal structure of a lithium salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid.

    Gubitosi, Marta; Meijide, Francisco; D'Annibale, Andrea; Vázquez Tato, José; Jover, Aida; Galantini, Luciano; Travaglini, Leana; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Pavel, Nicolae V

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure of a Li(+) salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid (lithium 3α-(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-5β-cholan-24-oate) has been solved. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, P212121 spatial group, and includes acetone and water in the structure with a 1:1:2 stoichiometry. Monolayers, having a hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic edges, are recognized in the crystal structure. Li(+) is coordinated to three hydroxyl groups of three different glucose residues, with two of them belonging to the same monolayer. A fourth molecule, located in this monolayer, is involved in the coordination of the cation through the carboxylate ion by an electrostatic interaction, thus completing a distorted tetrahedron. All Li(+)-oxygen distances values are very close to the sum of the ionic radius of Li(+) and van der Waals radius of oxygen. Each steroid molecule is linked to other five steroid molecules through hydrogen bonds. Water and acetone are also involved in the hydrogen bond network. A hierarchical organization can be recognized in the crystal, the helical assembly along 21 screw axes being left-handed. PMID:27394960

  17. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  18. Ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid as potent vaginal trichomonacides and fungicides.

    Kushwaha, Bhavana; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Pandey, Aastha; Pandey, Deepti; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, P K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Chemical attenuation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive anaerobes Trichomonas vaginalis, which is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection, and two often coexisting vaginal infections, namely Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, which are opportunistic reproductive tract infections, was attempted with novel ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid through inhibition of free thiols. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of the designed compounds were evaluated as topical vaginal microbicides. Five compounds showed exceptional activity against drug-resistant and -susceptible strains with negligible toxicity to host (HeLa) cells in vitro in comparison with the standard vaginal microbicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9), without disturbing the normal vaginal flora (i.e. Lactobacillus). The compounds significantly inhibited the cytopathic effects of Trichomonas on HeLa cells in vitro with efficacies comparable with metronidazole (MTZ); however, their efficacy to rescue host cells from co-infection (protozoal and fungal) was greater than that of MTZ. The compounds inhibited β-haemolysis of red blood cells caused by Trichomonas and were found to be active in vivo in the mouse subcutaneous abscess assay. Some compounds rapidly immobilized human sperm. A mechanism involving inhibition of free thiols and consequently the cysteine proteases of T. vaginalis by the new compounds has been proposed. Thus, a unique scaffold of antimicrobial agents has been discovered that warrants further investigation for development as contraceptive vaginal microbicides. PMID:26706422

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of magnesium and calcium salts of p-anisic acid

    Kiran T Dhavskar; Pooja H Bhargao; Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure and properties of the magnesium and calcium salts of p-anisic acid viz. [Mg(H2O)6](C8H7O3)2·2H2O (C8H7O3=p-anisate or 4-methoxybenzoate) (1) and [Ca(H2O)(C8H7O3)2] (2) are reported. The p-anisate ion is not coordinated to Mg(II) and functions as a charge balancing counter anion for the centrosymmetric octahedral [Mg(H2O)6]2+ unit in 1. The unique lattice water molecule links pairs of [Mg(H2O)6] 2+ cations and p-anisate anions with the aid of O-H···O interactions. The μ2-bridging bidentate and the μ3-bridging tetradentate binding modes of the crystallographically unique p-anisate ligands in (2) result in a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer.

  20. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstić, Jugoslav [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation conditions influence to self-assembly of nanocrystallites of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. • Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by filtration is microporous, Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by evaporation is non-porous. • Thermal properties of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and its soluble salts are similar. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite′s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  1. Effect of dietary potassium and anionic salts on acid-base and mineral status in periparturient cows.

    Rérat, M; Schlegel, P

    2014-06-01

    Dry cow diets based on grassland forage from intensive production contain high amounts of K and could be responsible for a reduced ability to maintain Ca homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate anionic salt supplementation to a forage-based pre-calving diet with varying native K content affects the mineral and acid-base status in transition cows. Twenty-four dry and pregnant Holstein cows, without antecedent episodes of clinical hypocalcemia, were assigned to two diets during the last 4 weeks before estimated calving date. Twelve cows were fed a hay-based diet low in K (18 g K/kg DM), and 12, a hay-based diet high in K (35 g K/kg DM). Within each diet, six cows received anionic salts during the last 2 weeks before the estimated calving day. After calving, all cows received the high K diet ad libitum. Blood samples were taken daily from day 11 pre-partum to day 5 post-partum. Urine samples were taken on days 7 and 2 pre-partum and on day 2 post-partum. The anionic salt did not alter feed intake during the pre-partum period. Serum Ca was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Feeding pre-partum diets with low K concentrations induced a reduced metabolic alkalotic charge, as indicated by reduced pre-partum urinary base-acid quotient. Transition cows fed the low K diet including anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis before calving, as indicated by higher urinary Ca, lower urinary pH and net acid-base excretion. Although serum Ca during the post-partum period was not affected by dietary treatment, feeding a low K diet moderately supplemented with anionic salts to reach a dietary cation-anion difference close to zero permitted to obtain a metabolic response in periparturient cows without altering the dry matter intake. PMID:23796109

  2. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Wang, S. [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Y.L.; Zhao, H.L.; Liang, H. [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Liu, B., E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Pan, S., E-mail: span@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous film has been prepared by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism relies on the electrostatic screening effect of the cations in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The factors influencing the size and area of the pores were investigated. - Abstract: Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  3. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Highlights: ► Porous film has been prepared by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution. ► The mechanism relies on the electrostatic screening effect of the cations in salt solution. ► The factors influencing the size and area of the pores were investigated. - Abstract: Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  5. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  6. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  7. Liquid phase nitration of benzene over supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts prepared by sol-gel method

    A mild and clean liquid nitration of benzene with 65% nitric acid as nitrating agent over silica supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts has been investigated. These catalysts with different loadings were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectra. The acidity of these catalysts was measured by the potentiometric titration method. The XRD and IR analysis revealed that supported catalysts possess the Keggin structure which is similar to 12-molybdophosphoric acid. And it can be found that the supported catalysts had high nitration reaction catalytic activity and selectivity over nitrobenzene. The effects of various parameters such as nitric acid/benzene volume ratio, temperature and time of reaction have also been systematically studied.

  8. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran at different temperatures

    M L Parmar; M K Guleria

    2005-07-01

    Relative viscosities for the solutions of oxalic acid and its salts, viz. ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, at different concentrations have been determined in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) [5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of THF] at 298.15 K, and in water and in 5% (w/w) THF + water at five different temperatures. The data have been evaluated using the Jones-Dole equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have been obtained which depicts the mechanism of viscous flow. The oxalic acid and its salts behave as structure breakers in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of THF.

  9. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. PMID:26794261

  10. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity. PMID:26026278

  11. Upregulation of miRNA-143, -145, -192, and -194 in esophageal epithelial cells upon acidic bile salt stimulation.

    Bus, P; Siersema, P D; Verbeek, R E; van Baal, J W P M

    2014-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus that occurs because of chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Previous studies have identified BE-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in comparison with normal squamous epithelium (SQ). We hypothesized that BE-specific miRNAs could be induced in esophageal SQ cells by exposure to acid and/or bile salts. We aimed to determine whether BE-specific miRNAs are upregulated in an esophageal SQ cell line (Het-1A) in an environment with acid and/or bile salts and whether this is nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dependent. Acid and/or bile salt incubations were performed in Het-1A cells. Experiments were performed with or without inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine expression of miRNA-143, -145, -192, -194, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), mucin 2 (MUC2), and sex determining region Y-box 9. For validation, we determined levels of these miRNAs in biopsies from patients with reflux esophagitis and normal SQ. Significantly increased expression levels of miRNA-143 (2.7-fold), -145 (2.6-fold), -192 (2.0-fold), -194 (2.2-fold), COX2, MUC2, and sex determining region Y-box 9 were found upon acidic bile salt incubation, but not upon acid or bile salt alone. NF-κB pathway inhibition significantly decreased miRNA-143, -192, -194, COX2, and MUC2 expression. Additionally, miRNA-143, -145 and -194 expression was increased in reflux esophagitis biopsies compared with normal SQ, but no changes were found in miRNA-192 expression. Our findings suggest that upregulation of BE-specific miRNAs by acidic bile may be an early event in the transition of SQ to BE and that their expression is partly regulated by the NF-κB pathway. PMID:24006894

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PEMETREXED DISODIUM IN BUL K DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    Ankit D. Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatographic method and a UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of Pemetrexed disodium, a highly potent antifolate, in powder for infusion were developed in present work. The parameters linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The HPLC was carried out by reversed-phase technique on Kromasil C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m column with a mobile phase composed of 20 mM dibasic phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 6.50 with ortho-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (88:12; v/v. The samples were prepared in water and the stability of Pemetrexed disodium in aqueous solution at 25°C was studied. The results were satisfactory with good stability after 24 hr at 25°C. UV spectroscopic determination was carried out at an absorption maximum of 225 nm using distilled water as solvent. Statistical analysis by Student’s t - test showed no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods. The proposed methods are simple, rapid, precise and accurate and can be used for the reliable quantitation of Pemetrexed disodium in pharmaceutical formulation.

  13. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions

  14. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Downs, Bernard W. [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Bagchi, Manashi [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V. [Laila Impex Research Center, Vijayawada (India); Shara, Michael A. [Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States); Preuss, Harry G. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Bagchi, Debasis [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States) and Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States)]. E-mail: debsis@creighton.edu

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca{sup 2+} (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K{sup +} (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca{sup 2+} ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K{sup +}, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  15. Melatonin combined with ascorbic acid provides salt adaptation in Citrus aurantium L. seedlings.

    Kostopoulou, Zacharoula; Therios, Ioannis; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kanellis, Angelos K; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) and melatonin (Mel) are known molecules participating in stress resistance, however, their combined role in counteracting the impact of salinity in plants is still unknown. In this work the effect of exogenous application of 0.50 mΜ AsA, 1 μΜ Mel and their combination (AsA + Mel) on various stress responses in leaves and roots of Citrus aurantium L. seedlings grown under 100 mΜ NaCl for 30 days was investigated. Application of AsA, Mel or AsA + Mel to saline solution decreased NaCl-induced electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation and prevented NaCl-associated toxicity symptoms and pigments degradation. Also, leaves exposed to combined AsA + Mel treatment displayed lower Cl(-) accumulation. Treatments with AsA and/or Mel modulated differently carbohydrates, proline, phenols, glutathione and the total antioxidant power of tissues as well as the activities of SOD, APX, POD, GR and PPO compared to NaCl alone treatment. Exposure of leaves and roots to chemical treatments and especially to combined AsA and Mel application was able to regulate CaMIPS, CaSLAH1 and CaMYB73 expression, indicating that sugar metabolism, ion homeostasis and transcription regulation were triggered by AsA and Mel. These results provide evidence that the activation of the metabolic pathways associated with combined AsA and Mel application are linked with salt adaptation in citrus plants. PMID:25500452

  16. Origin of dimethylsulfide, non-sea-salt sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid in eastern Antarctica

    Cosme, E.; Hourdin, F.; Genthon, C.; Martinerie, P.

    2005-02-01

    Ignoring the origin of atmospheric chemicals is often a strong limitation to the full interpretation of their measurement. In this article, this question is addressed in the case of the sulfur species in Antarctica, with an original method of retrotransport of tracers. The retrotransport model is derived from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom-Tracers (LMD-ZT) atmospheric general circulation model, optimized for polar climate and expanded to simulate atmospheric sulfur chemistry. For two East Antarctic scientific stations (Dumont d'Urville and Vostok) the effects of transport and chemistry and the influence of oceanic, volcanic, and anthropogenic sources on dimethylsulfide (DMS), non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentrations are evaluated in summer and winter. The oceanic source largely dominates, but other sources can episodically be significant. The meridional origin and the age of DMS, MSA, and biogenic nss sulfate are also estimated. The latitudes of origin of MSA and nss sulfate are similar in summer, but they differ markedly in winter. This is a signature of their different chemical production scheme. Also, the interannual variability of the origin of the sulfur species at Vostok is weak compared to that at Dumont d'Urville. Acknowledging that the DMS concentrations in the ocean have no interannual variability in the model, this result suggests unsurprisingly that inland Antarctic stations may be better observation sites to monitor large-scale DMS bioproductivity variability than coastal sites are. The combination of slower chemistry and more intense atmospheric circulation in winter leads to unexpected results, such as a younger DMS in winter than in summer at Vostok.

  17. Determination of the faecal excretion of labelled bile salts after i.v. injection of 14C - cholic acid

    By measuring total faecal radioactivity, correlated to 24-hour enterohepatic circulation, following i.v. administration of 14C -cholic acid, bile salt malabsorption was evaluated before and/or after surgery in 80 patients with Crohn's disease localized to the ileum and/or the colon and the results related to the length of ileum diseased or resected. Before operation bile salt malabsorption was observed only in patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum, but no significant was found between bile salt excretion and the extent of ileal disease. In patients subjected to ileal resection with sacrifice of the ileocaecal valve, bile salt malabsorption correlated strongly to the length of ileum resected. This correlation was about the same in ileostomy patients and in patients subjected to restorative operation. We conclude that determination of 14C in faeces is a more sensitive test than the Schilling test and the faecal fat excretion test in reflecting ileal dysfunction, at least in patients with ileal resections. (Auth)

  18. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Yu-jie Hu; Chao-bo Tang; Mo-tang Tang; Yong-ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead–acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:T = 880°C;t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The re-sults suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic cal-culations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  19. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10-2M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  20. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H+ + B ↔ HB+ in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pKA value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO- + H+ ↔ H2O has been investigated and a relation been found between pKi values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors)

  1. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  2. Controlling Listeria monocytogenes on Pork Meat with Combinations of Lyophilized Cell-adsorbed Bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 and Organic Acids or Salts

    Privat Kouakou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to see if the antilisterial action of lyophilized cell-adsorbed bacteriocin from Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 might be reinforced by simultaneous treatment with an organic acid or salt. Slices of raw pork (lean bacon inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes (at 102 cfu/g meat were either vacuum packaged directly and stored at 4°C or treated prior to packaging with a solution containing either lyophilized cell-adsorbed bacteriocin from Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 (at 1 g/100 mL, an organic acid or salt, or both. The organic acids/salts used were acetic acid, lactic acid, sodium acetate, sodium diacetate, potassium sorbate, and potassium benzoate and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions were calculated so as to treat each slice with approximately 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mg acid/salt. Of the antimicrobials used alone, LCaB had the strongest inhibitory effect (a 1-Log reduction in the Listeria cfu count after two weeks, followed by an increase. In combination with LCaB, three antimicrobials had a much more drastic effect: acetic acid, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate. At the highest acid/salt concentration tested in such combinations, Listeria became undetectable after one or two weeks and remained so until the end of the 6-week experiment.

  3. The chemistry of aminoguanidine derivatives - preparation, crystal structure, thermal properties, and molecular docking studies of aminoguanidinium salts of several carboxylic acids

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Geib, Steven J.; Muthu Sankar, Aathi; Premkumar, Thathan; Govindarajan, Subbaiah

    2015-11-01

    The reaction of aminoguanidine bicarbonate (Amg) with oxamic, oxalic, malonic and sulfoacetic acids yielded (AmgH)H2NOC-COO (1), OOC-CONHNHC(NH2)NH2 (2) (AmgH)HOOC-CH2-COO (3) and O3S-CH2-CONHNHC(NH2)NH2 (4), respectively. For the first time, we studied the salt-forming ability of aminoguanidine with several carboxylic acids, such as oxamic, oxalic, malonic and sulphoacetic acids. We also compared the structural and thermal properties of these salts. Oxamic and malonic acids form only mono-aminoguanidinium salts, whereas oxalic acid mainly forms di-aminoguanidinium oxalate. In addition, oxalic acid forms guanylhydrazido-oxalic acid which exists as zwitter ion. Unlike other acids, sulfoacetic acid readily forms only the zwitter ionic salts (2-guanylhydrazido-oxo-methanesulfonic acid) rather than the usual simple salt. This result may be a result of the highly acidic nature of the sulfonic group, which favors acid catalyzed condensation. More significantly, for the first time, the ability guanylhydrazido-oxalic acid (2) and 2-guanylhydrazido-oxo-methanesulfonic acid (4) to inhibit human butyrylcholinesterase (human BChE) receptor has been studied with a molecular docking approach. The binding of the compounds to human BChE was examined as it is crucial to understanding the biological significance of aminoguanidine derivatives. The compounds were identified and characterized by analytical, FT-IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. Furthermore, the structures of compounds 1, 2 and 4 were confirmed by single X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallized in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c and Cc space groups, respectively, whereas compound 4 crystalized in an orthorhombic system with a Pbca space group. All the compounds (1-4) underwent endo- followed by exothermic decomposition in the temperature range from 130 to 600 °C to yield gaseous products.

  4. Investigation of salt formation between memantine and pamoic acid: Its exploitation in nanocrystalline form as long acting injection.

    Mittapelly, Naresh; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Pandey, Gitu; Sharma, Shweta; Arya, Abhishek; Bhatta, Rabi Shankar; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, we prepared memantine-pamoic acid (MEM-PAM) salt by counter ion exchange in the aqueous phase to reduce the water solubility of MEM hydrochloride (native form) to make it suitable for long acting injection. The ratio of MEM to PAM in salt formation was optimized to maximize the loading efficiency and complexation efficiency. The 2:1 molar ratio of MEM to PAM salt form displayed nearly 95% complexation efficiency and 50% drug loading. The solubility was decreased by a ∼1250 folds. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis (PXRD) studies revealed the formation of new solid phase. Additionally, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed the anhydrous nature of the salt form. Through Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) we identified the molecular interactions. Further, the microcrystals of the salt were transformed into nanocrystals (NCs) using high pressure homogenization. The particle size distribution and atomic force microscopy confirmed the monodispersed and spherical shape of the NCs. The in vitro dissolution studies were performed under sink condition in phosphate buffer saline pH 6.8. The results of MTT assay in murine fibroblast 3T3 cell line show that the NCs were less cytotoxic and more tolerable than plain MEM HCl. The in vivo performance of NCs administered as i.m. injection at three different doses in female Sprague-Dawley rats showed that the plasma levels lasted till the 24th day of the study. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased linearly with increasing dose. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable NCs could represent a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of AD. PMID:26850817

  5. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  6. Self-consistent field theory investigation of the behavior of hyaluronic acid chains in aqueous salt solutions

    Nogovitsin, E. A.; Budkov, Yu. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we continue to develop a field-theoretic methodology, which combines the technique of Gaussian equivalent representation for the calculation of functional integrals with the continuous Gaussian thread model of flexible polymers for solving statistical-mechanical problems of polyelectrolyte solutions. We present new analytic expressions for the osmotic pressure, the potential of mean force, and the monomer-monomer pair distribution function, and employ them to investigate the structural and thermodynamic quantities of the polyelectrolyte system. We demonstrate the applicability of the method for systems of polyelectrolyte chains in which the monomers interact via a Yukawa-type pair potential. As a specific example, the present work focuses on aqueous solutions of hyaluronic acid with added salts NaCl and CaCl2. Hyaluronic acid is a high molecular weight linear polysaccharide, which has a multitude of roles in biological tissues. We conclude that the effect of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions can be accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. Nevertheless, the effects of coiling and self-association can be stimulated in solution by added salt.

  7. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J.; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ˜35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ˜23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ˜7.19 ± 0.14 kBT (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 kBT (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 kBT (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ˜40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases.

  8. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Dragana J Jovanović; Ivana Lj Validžić; Miodrag Mitrić; Jovan M Nedeljković

    2013-02-01

    The structure of plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate (Na2W2O7) synthesized by newmethod in the process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using acidified aqueous solutions of tungsten (VI) oxide clusters as a precursor was refined down to the -factor of 8.9%. X-ray diffraction analysis undoubtedly confirmed formation of orthorhombic Na2W2O7 and refinement of the diffraction data showed that Na2W2O7 powder belongs to the base-centred orthorhombic type of structure with 64 space group, . The structure of Na2W2O7 can be described as infinite chains formed from tetrahedral (WO4) and octahedral (WO6) building units joined together. It was found that the basic units of the precursor complexes exist in the structure of Na2W2O7. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed formation of plate/shelf like Na2W2O7 particles with an average thickness of about 1.2 m.

  9. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5.

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A; Kaduk, James A

    2016-07-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 (+)·C6H6O7 (2-)·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb-oxy-lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å. PMID:27555936

  10. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O)1.5

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2 +·C6H6O7 2−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven) share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carb­oxy­lic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O⋯O distances of 2.46 Å.

  11. Catalytic Reduction of Noble Metal Salts by Sodium Hypophosphite Promoted by the Film Poly-(p-Allyl Ether Benzenesulfonic Acid).

    Costa, M I C F; Steter, J R; Purgato, F L S; Romero, J R

    2011-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrodes were coated with the film poly-(p-allyl ether benzenesulfonic acid) by an anodic procedure. Nickel, platinum, and palladium ions were introduced into the film by ion exchange of H(+) with the corresponding salts. These ions were catalytically reduced to their corresponding metals using the known electroless reducing agent sodium hypophosphite. Scanning electron microcopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to demonstrate the occurrence of the catalytic process. To compare this method with another one carried out in our laboratory, the electrocatalytic reduction of H(+) was studied using the same modified electrodes. A suggested mechanism for the catalysis is proposed. PMID:24052832

  12. Ammoxidation of 2-methyl pyrazine on supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts: The influence of nature of support

    Katabathini Narasimharao; B Hari Babu; N Lingaiah; P S Sai Prasad; Shaeel A Al-Thabaiti

    2014-03-01

    Influence of the nature of support on the formation of catalytically active species was investigated to clarify the key factor for the synthesis of supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid (AMPA) catalyst which maintains the activity of ammoxidation during 2-methylpyrazine reaction.With this aim, different loadings of niobia-, silica- and alumina-, supported AMPA catalysts were prepared. The AMPA loading was varied in the range of 5-25 wt%. The synthesized solids were characterized by nitrogen adsorption for BET surface area, XRD and 31P MAS NMR techniques. All the AMPA-supported samples are poorly crystalline even after 25 wt% AMPA loading. Investigations using 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy of samples revealed that Keggin ion existed as at least five different species on the supports. The investigated properties were acidity of the support and amount of AMPA loading on the support. Active sites for the ammoxidation of MP on supported AMPA catalysts seem to be the interacted and/or the lacunary species.Maximum catalytic activity could be obtained at lower loadings with AMPA deposited on acidic supports whereas the less acidic supports require higher loading. It was found that in order to efficiently generate the active interactive species, the support must have an acidity which promotes the formation of support-AMPA interactive species. It is possible to enhance the catalytic activity of the supported AMPA catalyst for ammoxidation of 2-methylpyrazine by controlling the acidity of the support and AMPA loading on the support.

  13. Study of endogenic abscisic acids and cytokinin content in soybean crops of variable salt sensitivity as well as the effect of exogenically applied abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ translocation. [in German

    Roeb, G.

    1981-05-01

    A study of the phytohormones abscisic acid and cytokinin with respect to plant salt stress and its relationship to genetic control over endogen content. An analysis is made of the acid cytokinin content, and an investigation is made of the influence exerted by exogenic applied synthetic abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ uptake and accumulation. 275 references, 14 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids.

    Kuroki, S; Schteingart, C D; Hagey, L R; Cohen, B I; Mosbach, E H; Rossi, S S; Hofmann, A F; Matoba, N; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1988-04-01

    The bile salts present in gallbladder bile of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, an herbivorous marine mammal of the tropical and subtropical margins of the Atlantic Ocean, were found to consist of a mixture of bile alcohol sulfates. Bile acids, previously believed to be present in all mammals, were not detected. Using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the major bile alcohol was identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha-25,26-pentol; that is, it had the nuclear structure of alpha-muricholic acid and the side chain structure of bufol. This compound has not been described previously and the trivial name "alpha-trichechol" is proposed. The second most abundant compound was 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,25,26-tetrol. Other bile alcohols were tentatively identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,25,26-pentol (named beta-trichechol), 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta, 25-26-pentol (named omega-trichechol) and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha,26-tetrol. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the four 6,7 epimers of 3,6,7 trihydroxy bile acids are described and discussed. All bile alcohols were present as ester sulfates, the sulfate group being tentatively assigned to the 26-hydroxy group. 12-Hydroxy compounds were not detected. The manatee is the first mammal found to lack bile acids, presumably because it lacks the enzymes required for oxidation of the 26-hydroxy group to a carboxylic acid. Trichechols, like other bile salts, are water-soluble end products of cholesterol metabolism; whether they also function as biological surfactants in promoting biliary cholesterol secretion or lipid digestion is unknown. PMID:3392467

  15. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Azman, S.; Khadem, A.F.; Zeeman, G.; Van Lier, J.B.; Plugge, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the

  16. Precipitation regime for selected amino acid salts for CO2 capture from flue gases

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena E.; Brilman, D.W.F. (Wim); Groeneveld, Michiel J.

    2009-01-01

    The tendency of alkaline (sodium, potassium and lithium) salts of taurine, β-alanine, sarcosine and L-proline to form precipitates under varying operational conditions of CO2 absorption has been investigated. CO2 absorption experiments have been performed at 293.15 and 313.15 K, at partial pressures

  17. Embryotoxicity of the calcium and zinc salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in Wistar rats

    Sikov, M.R.; Smith, V.H.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Injection of Ca-DTPA, used for removal of most internally deposited radioactive actinide and lanthanide elements, increases Zn excretion. Since zinc deficiency is teratogenic, such treatments might be expected to affect prenatal development. Daily intraperitoneal injections of Ca- or Zn-DTPA were given to rats on days 8 through 12 of gestation at dose lvels ranging from 1 to 64 times the usual intravenous dose to humans (1HD-64HD, HD = 28.7 ..mu..mol/kg). Upon examination after 20 days of gestation, it was found that 8HD Ca-DTPA was not lethal but 16HD produced 80% prenatal mortality, with most deaths occurring at about 9--10 days of gestation, and decreased the weight of the survivors. Even 64HD Zn-DTPA had no effect on mortality or weight. A few major malformations were found with both salts but were not clearly attributable to a specific treatment. The incidence of hydronephrosis and renal honeycombing, however, were markedly increased by exposure to higher doses of both the Zn and Ca salts. Administration of either salt resulted in a darkening of many viscera, including the kidney, liver and heart; histologically, this was found to be produced by a granular golden pigment. Taken together, these results indicate that while both the Zn and Ca salts of DTPA have some embryotoxic actions, only the Ca salt was embryocidal. By analogy with the studies of Swenerton and Hurley (Science 173: 62, 197) with the homolog, EDTA, it is speculated that the embryocidal effect of Ca-DTPA is attributable to a Zn deficiency.

  18. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency and...... base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...

  19. 耐盐乳酸菌添加对高盐稀态酱油风味的影响%The Impact of Adding Salt-tolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Flavor of High-salt Liquid Soy Sauce

    戚晨晨; 王猛; 沈艾彬

    2016-01-01

    In the fermentation process of high-salt liquid soy sauce,the addition of salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria has a great influence on the final flavor components of soy sauce.Through adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th and 45th day of fermentation,research the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds.The results show that adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 45th day,the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds is higher than that adding and without adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th day.The research has laid a foundation for its future application in the industrial production of brewed soy sauce with good flavor.%高盐稀态酱油发酵过程中,耐盐乳酸菌的添加时间对于酱油最终风味成分的影响很大。通过分别在发酵30,45天添加耐盐乳酸菌、未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,研究总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量。研究表明:发酵45天添加耐盐乳酸菌,总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量均高于30天添加和未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,为其以后应用于工业生产酿造出风味良好的酱油打下基础。

  20. Investigation into state of Zr4 and Hf4 acid di-(2 ethylhexyl)phosphates and Ti4 neutral salt in decane by the method of infrared spectroscopy

    Using the method of IR spectroscopy, coordination types of POO groups to metal atoms and proton state of (P)OH group in solutions of acid di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphates of Zr4 and Hf4 and neutral salt of Ti4 in decane are studied. It is ascertained that the salts investigated mainly contain bridge POO groups of different types and they are coordination polymers. As a result of IR spectra interpretation the structure of titanium (4), zirconium (4) and hafnium (4) salts is suggested. The detected great differences in the composition and structure of Ti4 salt from Zr4 and Hf4 salts agree with their different behaviour as extractants

  1. Disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin in the presence of acidic excipients

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    . Of the excipients investigated, citric acid and polyacrylic acid were found to induce disproportionation. Moreover, it was also observed that exposure to high relative humidity, elevated temperatures, and milling all promoted disproportionation. The results suggest that disproportionation of drug...

  2. A novel Brönsted-Lewis acidic heteropoly organic-inorganic salt: preparation and catalysis for rosin dimerization.

    Yuan, Bing; Xie, Congxia; Yu, Fengli; Yang, Xiaoying; Yu, Shitao; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    A novel Brönsted-Lewis acidic heteropoly organic-inorganic salt has been prepared via the replacement of protons in neat phosphotungstic acid with both organic and metal cations. This hybrid catalyst, Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40, exhibited satisfactory performance in the dimerization of rosin to prepare polymerized rosin Under optimum conditions (15.0 g rosin and 5.0 g Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40 catalyst in 18.0 mL toluene at 90 °C for 10 h), a polymerized rosin product with a softening point of 120.1 °C was obtained. In addition, the Sm0.33[TEAPS]2PW12O40 catalyst maintains excellent catalytic performance over five recycles. PMID:27119064

  3. Comparative study of destruction of sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose in the course of acid hydrolysis under γ-irradiation

    A study was made on the effect of substituent distribution along chain length on hydrolytic and radiation destruction of commercial compound-Na-salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) with 0.7 substitution degree. Na-CMC was subjected to 60Co γ-irradiation in the air in 0-0.92 MGy dose range; absorbed dose rate was equal to 9.2x10-3 MGy/h. Acidic hydrolysis of Na-CMC was conducted at 100 deg C, 0.09 M HCl during 0.2-4h. Characteristic viscosity and the number of reducing groups were determined in solutions of irradiated and partially hydrolized Na-CMC. It is shown that carboxylmethyl groups produce the protecting effect on glucoside bond breaking during Na-CMC radiation destruction, as in the case of acidic hydrolysis

  4. Downregulation of p63 upon exposure to bile salts and acid in normal and cancer esophageal cells in culture.

    Roman, Sabine; Pétré, Aurélia; Thépot, Amélie; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mion, François; Hainaut, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    p63 is a member of the p53 protein family that regulates differentiation and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues and is required for the formation of squamous epithelia. Barrett's mucosa is a glandular metaplasia of the squamous epithelium that develops in the lower esophagus in the context of chronic, gastroesophageal reflux and is considered as a precursor for adenocarcinoma. Normal or squamous cancer esophageal cells were exposed to deoxycholic acid (DCA, 50, 100, or 200 microM) and chenodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acid at pH 5. p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions were studied by Western blot and RT-PCR. DCA exposure at pH 5 led to a spectacular decrease in the levels of all isoforms of the p63 proteins. This decrease was observed within minutes of exposure, with a synergistic effect between DCA and acid. Within the same time frame, levels of p63 mRNA were relatively unaffected, whereas levels of COX-2, a marker of stress responses often induced in Barrett's mucosa, were increased. Similar results were obtained with chenodeoxycholic acid but not its taurine conjugate at pH 5. Proteasome inhibition by lactacystin or MG-132 partially blocked the decrease in p63, suggesting a posttranslational degradation mechanism. These results show that combined exposure to bile salt and acid downregulates a critical regulator of squamous differentiation, providing a mechanism to explain the replacement of squamous epithelium by a glandular metaplasia upon exposure of the lower esophagus to gastric reflux. PMID:17615180

  5. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  6. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid. PMID:27097666

  7. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product. PMID:27478218

  8. Supra-molecular Association and Polymorphic Behaviour In Systems Containing Bile Acid Salts

    Camillo La Mesa; Patrizia Andreozzi; Marco Calabresi

    2007-01-01

    A wide number of supra-molecular association modes are observed in mixtures containing water and bile salts, BS, (with, eventually, other components). Molecular or micellar solutions transform into hydrated solids, fibres, lyotropic liquid crystals and/or gels by raising the concentration, the temperature, adding electrolytes, surfactants, lipids and proteins. Amorphous or ordered phases may be formed accordingly. The forces responsible for this very rich polymorphism presumably arise from th...

  9. Nano-structured Pt embedded in acidic salts of heteropolymolybdate matrices: MS EXAFS study

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Dsoke, Sonia; Marassi, Roberto; Di Cicco, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    A structural study of Pt nano-catalysts is presented in the paper. The innovation in the case of the considered catalytic materials resides in the use a meso-microporous inorganic matrix of heteropolyacid salt of composition X2.5H0.5YMo12O40 where X = Rb, Cs and Y = P, Si as a catalyst support. Metallic nanoparticles were created by platinum ions reduction in a hot H2/Argon stream and were mainly located into matrix pores. As the porous structure can be controlled by the type and content of the cation used, the desired/optimal Pt nanoparticle size can be precisely defined by using a proper heteropolyacid salt composition. Multiple-scattering extended X-ray absorption fine structure (MS EXAFS) analysis was applied to obtain the relation between the matrix composition and the size of the catalyst nanoparticles. The results showed that it was only the secondary structure form of the heteropolymolybdate salt (i.e. Rb or Cs cations) that influenced the metallic nanoparticle size. The smaller the X atom ionic radii, the larger the mean diameter of the embedded Pt nanoparticles.

  10. In vitro antifungal effect of EDTA disodium salt in tested black aspergilli

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Na2EDTA on an Aspergillus carbonarius, an A. ibericus, an ochratoxigenic A. niger and a non-ochratoxigenic A. niger strain was studied. Also, the effect of Na2EDTA on the production of ochratoxin A by A. carbonarius and the ochratoxigenic A. niger was evaluated. The poisoned food technique was used with CYA medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 10 mmol L-1 of Na2EDTA. The colony diameters were recorded daily and the amount of ochratoxin A produced was quantified every two...

  11. Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Using Tungstophosphoric Acid- and Cs-salt Immobilized-Silica

    Wimonrat TRAKARNPRUK

    2012-01-01

    H3PW12O40/SiO2 and Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 composites with controllable acid loadings (5 - 15 wt% loading) were prepared by direct co-condensation sol-gel methods in the presence of triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer. Biodiesel production from palm fatty acids distillate (PFAD) having 93 % free fatty acids (FFA), a residual product from the refining of crude palm oil was investigated using these heterogeneous catalysts. The results demonstrated th...

  12. Effect of soluble additives, boric acid (H3BO3) and salt (NaCI), in pool boiling heat transfer

    The effects on pool boiling heat transfer of aqueous solutions of boric acid (H3BO3) and sodium chloride (NaCl) as working fluids have been studied. Borated and NaCl water were prepared by dissolving 0.5∼5% volume concentration of boric acid and NaCl in distilled-deionized water. The pool boiling tests were conducted using 1 x 1 cm2 flat heaters at 1 atm. The critical heat flux (CHF) dramatically increased compared to boiling pure water. At the end of boiling tests it was observed that particles of boric acid and NaCl had deposited and formed a coating on the heater surface. The CHF enhancement and surface modification during boiling tests were very similar to those obtained from boiling with nanofluids. Additional experiments were carried out to investigate the reliability of the additives deposition in pure water. The boric acid and NaCl coatings disappeared after repeated boiling tests on the same surface due to the soluble nature of the coatings, thus CHF enhancement no longer existed. These results demonstrate that not only insoluble nanoparticles but also soluble salts can be deposited during boiling process and the deposited layer is solely responsible for significant CHF enhancement

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids Accumulated in Kochia Scoparia Shoots and Roots by Reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Under Salt and Alkali Stress

    2006-01-01

    Several organic acids accumulated in Kochia Scoparia shoots and roots were studied by means of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a C18 column. Five types of binary organic acids were separated. The organic acid concentrations were determined in K. Scoparia seedlings stressed by saline (NaCl) and alkaline(NaHCO3) at the same Na + concentration. Concentrations of organic acids are stimulated by alkaline because the cells will adjust their pH values through the accumulation of organic acids, when the environment is basic. The concentrations of oxalic acid and succinic acid are higher than those of other organic acids, including tartaric acid and malic acid, and the concentration of citric acid is the lowest. The concentrations of the organic acids in the roots are higher than those in the shoots under salt(NaCl) stress, but the results are opposite while the roots are under alkali (NaHCO3) stress. This indicates that there are different adaptive strategies for K. Scoparia seedlings in organic acid metabolism under salt and alkali stress.

  14. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    Vissers, Maud N; Trip, Mieke D; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single dose of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 2,000 mg FM-VP4 or placebo. In phase 2, 100 men were treated with 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 or placebo for 4 weeks. Results The drug was well tolera...

  15. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency...... and base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...... and intensity of sea-salt episodes as well....

  16. Use of sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late pregnancy

    Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 days were divided into three groups balanced by bodyweight and expected date of parturition. The first group received a control ration consisting of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem (Trifolim alexandrinum) hay and rice straw. In the second and third groups, yellow corn was replaced with either sodium salts of fatty acids (Na-SFA) or calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-SFA). The content of acid ether extract (AEE) in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA were higher. Degradability rates of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), effective degradability (ED) and potential degradability (PD) decreased with the ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values of DM, OM and CP increased with adding Na-SFA compared with adding Ca-SFA or the control diet. Digestion coefficients of DM, OM, CP and cell wall constituents (CWC) were lower with feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between the control and Ca-SFA-containing rations. Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) were reduced (P < 0.05) with the ration contained Na-SFA compared with Ca-SFA. Feed intake was not affected by feeding rations containing Na-SFA or Ca-SFA, but bodyweight (BWt) was higher after feeding rations containing Ca-SFA or Na-SFA compared with the control. pH values, propionic acid and free fatty acids (FFA's) in the rumen were higher (P < 0.05) when feeding the ration containing Na-SFA compared with that containing Ca-SFA or the control, while total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs), acetic, Ac:Pr ratio and NH3-N were significantly decreased. Adding Na-SFA in the ration decreased glucose and total protein concentrations in blood compared with Ca-SFA or in the control. Concentrations of albumin, globulin and their ratio were not affected with feeding

  17. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    naturally occurring substances, and partly because they have desirable properties, such as lower vapor pressures and higher stability against oxidative degradation. One important feature of these new solvents is the formation of solids upon CO2 absorption, which happens especially at higher CO2 loadings and...... of the components in the apparatus. Ideally, measurements in the full temperature range for desorption, which usually needs approximately 393 K (120 ºC), would be desirable. Using the 2 apparatuses, CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions of MEA and the potassium salts of taurine, glycine, L-alanine, L...

  18. Potassium salts of fatty acids as precipitating agents of alkaline earth metal ions

    Regularities have been studied of precipitation of ions of alkaline-earth elements with caprilate, pelargonate, caprinate, undecanate, laurate, tridecanate, myristate, pentadecanate, palmitate, and stearate of potassium. It has been shown that completeness of precipitation of metal ions is determined by the nature of alkaline-earth metal and potassium salt as well as by pH value and temperature of the solution. The study of temperature dependence of soaps of alkaline-earth metals makes it possible to calculate the heats of dissolution of laurates of alkaline-earth metals, and a change in entropy and free energy

  19. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    2010-04-01

    ... a weight-average molecular weight in the range of 540 to 850 and a number-average molecular weight in the range of 520 to 650, calculated as the acid. Molecular weights shall be determined by a method entitled “Determination of Molecular Weight Distribution of Poly(Maleic) Acid,” March 17, 1992, produced...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  1. Bimetallic catalysts for CO.sub.2 hydrogenation and H.sub.2 generation from formic acid and/or salts thereof

    Hull, Jonathan F.; Himeda, Yuichiro; Fujita, Etsuko; Muckeman, James T.

    2015-08-04

    The invention relates to a ligand that may be used to create a catalyst including a coordination complex is formed by the addition of two metals; Cp, Cp* or an unsubstituted or substituted .pi.-arene; and two coordinating solvent species or solvent molecules. The bimetallic catalyst may be used in the hydrogenation of CO.sub.2 to form formic acid and/or salts thereof, and in the dehydrogenation of formic acid and/or salts thereof to form H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2.

  2. Synthesis of new Guanidium-Meldrum acid zwitterionic salts and dynamic NMR study of rotational energy barrier around C-NH bond of guanidine moiety

    Ali Aminkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the Guanidium-Meldrum acid zwitterionic salts was developed through a three component reaction of 2, 2-dimethyl-1, 3-dioxane-4, 6-dione (Meldrum acid, aromatic aldehydes and N, N, N', N'-Tetramethyl-guanidine in benzen at room temperature. These reaction conditions allow the preparation of stable zwitterionic salts in good yields. A dynamic NMR effect is observed as a result of restricted rotation around the C-NH bond in the 1H NMR spectra of these compounds. The free-energy of activation (∆G# for this process is 66 ± 2 kJmol-1 for 4b.

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study on microemulsion systems of alkali metal salts of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester

    Zhou, Weijin; Shi, Nai; Xu, Zhen-hua; Wu, JinGuang

    1994-01-01

    There has recently been a growing interest in the reverse micelle and microemulsion formation in the solvent extraction process. In our previous papers, the formation of W/O type microemulsions in the organic phase of sodium or potassium salt of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester was investigated by using the subtraction technique on FTIR. In this paper, the conductance and the FTIR spectroscopic study on the microemulsion systems of Li, Na, and K salts of this acidic extractant was reported.

  4. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Wang, S.; Li, Y. L.; Zhao, H. L.; Liang, H.; Liu, B.; Pan, S.

    2012-11-01

    Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  5. The Association between Bile Salt Export Pump Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Susceptibility and Ursodeoxycholic Acid Response

    Rui-rui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic and progressive cholestasis liver disease. Bile salt export pump (BSEP is the predominant bile salt efflux system of hepatocytes. BSEP gene has been attached great importance in the susceptibility of PBC and the response rate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA treatment of PBC patients. Methods. In this study, TaqMan assay was used to genotype four variants of BSEP, and the Barcelona criteria were used for evaluating the response rate of UDCA treatment. Results. Variant A allele of BSEP rs473351 (dominant model, OR = 2.063; 95% CI, 1.254–3.393; P=0.004 was highly associated with PBC susceptibility. On the contrary, variant A allele of BSEP rs2287618 (dominant model, OR = 0.617; 95% CI, 0.411–0.928; P=0.020 provided a protective role and Barcelona evaluation criterion indicated that the frequency of variant allele at BSEP rs2287618 was significantly decreased in UDCA-responsive PBC patients (P=0.021. Conclusion. These results suggested that BSEP rs473351 was closely associated with the susceptibility of PBC and if people with BSEP rs2287618 were diagnosed as PBC, the UDCA treatment was not satisfactory. Larger studies with mixed ethnicity subjects and stratified by clinical and subclinical characteristics are needed to validate our findings.

  6. Surface modification of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) as coating material

    Surface-modified magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by co-precipitation of aqueous solution of ferrous and ferric salts (molar ratio 1:2) upon adding a base followed by calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (Ca-γ-PGA) for uniform coating on the surface of MNPs. Both uncoated and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs were characterized using various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometric (VSM) studies. Compared with bare MNPs, the IR spectra of coated MNPs showed characteristic peaks of γ-PGA, implying the γ-PGA coating on MNPs did occur. The TEM images depicted an average size of 8-10 nm for bare MNPs and 14 nm for coated MNPs, with their shape being spherical in nature. In the presence of applied magnetic field, a superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature for both bare and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs, with no magnetism left upon magnetic-field removal.

  7. Quantification of Abscisic Acid, Cytokinin, and Auxin Content in Salt-Stressed Plant Tissues

    Dobrev, P.; Vaňková, R. (Radomíra)

    2012-01-01

    Plant hormones cytokinins, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), and abscisic acid are central to regulation of plant growth and defence to abiotic stresses such as salinity. Quantification of the hormone levels and determination of their ratios can reveal different plant strategies to cope with the stress, e.g., suppression of growth or mobilization of plant metabolism. This chapter describes a procedure enabling such quantification. Due to the high variability of these hormones in plant tissues, it...

  8. Forest-soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 2. Aluminum and base cations

    Reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns were used to examine the effects of 52 weeks of additions of various simulated throughfall solutions on base cation, Al, acid neutralizing capacity, and pH levels in soil leachates. The work illustrates the importance of soil cation exchange (especially in the forest floor), anion concentrations, and pCO2 levels in controlling the leachate chemistry in response to acidic and 'seasalt' deposition events

  9. Forest soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 3. Solubilization and composition of dissolved organic carbon

    A year-long experiment, using reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns, was conducted to examine the effects of various simulated throughfall solutions on soil C dynamics. Soil organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and decomposition rates were studied using simulated acidic and salt throughfall solutions. Based on the results of the study the authors propose that throughfall solutions of pH above 3.7 will have little or no influences on dissolved organic C cycling in the types of spodosol and alfisol forest soils used here. However, at pH 3.0 some alterations in organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and mobility could be expected

  10. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Graham Smith

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, and poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged comple...

  11. Molecular structure and spectroscopic analysis of homovanillic acid and its sodium salt - NMR, FT-IR and DFT studies

    Samsonowicz, M.; Kowczyk-Sadowy, M.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of the electronic charge distribution in metal complex or salt allows to predict what kind of deformation of the electronic system of ligand would undergo during complexation. It also permits to make more precise interpretation of mechanism by which metals affect the biochemical properties of ligands. The influence of sodium cation on the electronic system of homovanillic acid was studied in this paper. Optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G** method. Mulliken, MK and ChelpG atomic charges were analyzed. The theoretical NMR and IR spectra were obtained. 1H and 13C NMR as well as FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of studied compounds were also recorded and analyzed. The calculated parameters are compared with experimental characteristics of these molecules.

  12. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  13. Heat Storage Performance of Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate Dodecahydrate: Prevention of Phase Separation by Thickening and Gelling Methods

    LAN, Xiao-Zheng; TAN, Zhi-Cheng; YUE, Dan-Ting; SHI, Quan; YANG, Chang-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O) is an attractive candidate for phase change materials. The main problem for its practical use comes from incongruent melting character during thermal cycling.Additives such as thickening agent or in-situ synthesized polyacrylate sodium in the molten salt can prevent its phase separation to some extent. In the test, sodium alginate 3.0%-5.0% (w/w) thickened mixture containing Optimum conditions composed of sodium acrylate 3.0%-5.0% (w/w), cross-linking agent N,N-methylenebisparticles dispersed in the gel network at room temperature, commonly less than 2 mm. But only those sample particles with sizes less than 0.2 mm may have relatively stable thermal storage property. A problem encountered was the poor reproducibility of the synthesis method: heat storage capacity of the product was often very different even though the synthesis was carried out in the same conditions. An alternative gelling method by sodium alginate grafted sodium acrylate was tried and it showed a fairly good effect. Heat capacities and heat of fusion of

  14. Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acids Distillate Using Tungstophosphoric Acid- and Cs-salt Immobilized-Silica

    Wimonrat TRAKARNPRUK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available H3PW12O40/SiO2 and Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 composites with controllable acid loadings (5 - 15 wt% loading were prepared by direct co-condensation sol-gel methods in the presence of triblock poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide copolymer. Biodiesel production from palm fatty acids distillate (PFAD having 93 % free fatty acids (FFA, a residual product from the refining of crude palm oil was investigated using these heterogeneous catalysts. The results demonstrated that under the same reaction conditions the catalytic activity of H3PW12O40/SiO2 was higher than Cs1.5H1.5PW12O40/SiO2 due to higher acidity. A study on effects of reaction temperature, time and catalyst amount has been performed. The FAME content was 96.7 % at a temperature of 85 °C, 15 h reaction time, a molar ratio of methanol to PFAD at 12:1 and catalyst 15 wt% based on PFAD.Graphical abstract

  15. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY CA2+- TOLERANT DISODIUM 2-(SULFATOMETHYL)-1-ALKYLSULFATE SURFACTANTS

    KOOREMAN, PA; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis, critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and Krafft temperatures (T(Krafft)) of a series of disodium 2-(sulfatomethyl)-1-alkylsulfates (2a-d) are presented, with alkyl being n-tetradecyl (C-14), n-hexadecyl (C-16), n-octadecyl (C18) and n-eicosyl(C20). The surfactants exhibit a large Ca2

  17. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein); J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled tria

  18. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    Horn, C R; Jones, R.M.; Lee, D.; Brennan, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties.

  19. Phase diagrams and water activities of aqueous ammonium salts of malonic acid.

    Beyer, Keith D; Richardson, Michael; Reusch, Breanna

    2011-04-14

    Malonic acid has been observed in the free troposphere and as a component of tropospheric aerosol, among other dicarboxylic acids. These aerosols can uptake ammonia, which partially or completely neutralizes the acids. Therefore, the impact of ammoniated dicarboxylic acids on the phases that can exist in aerosols at atmospheric temperatures needs investigation. To that end, the low temperature, solid/liquid phase diagrams of ammonium hydrogen malonate/water, ammonium malonate/water, and triammonium hydrogen malonate/water have been investigated with differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. Results show that the order of increasing solubility is triammonium hydrogen malonate, ammonium hydrogen malonate, malonic acid, and ammonium malonate. We have also determined a hydrate may form in the ammonium malonate system and decompose below 240 K. We report water activities at the ice melting points for each system up to the respective eutectic concentrations, and find for a given mole fraction of water, increasing ammonium content leads to decreasing water activity coefficients. PMID:21428389

  20. Dissolution of nickel ferrite in aqueous solutions containing oxalic acid and ferrous salts

    The dissolution of nickel ferrite in oxalic acid and in ferrous oxalate-oxalic acid aqueous solution was studied. Nickel ferrite was synthesized by thermal decomposition of a mixed tartrate; the particles were shown to be coated with a thin ferric oxide layer. Dissolution takes place in two stages, the first one corresponding to the dissolution of the ferric oxide outer layer and the second one being the dissolution of Ni1.06Fe1.96O4. The kinetics of dissolution during this first stage is typical of ferric oxides: in oxalic acid, both a ligand-assisted and a redox mechanism operates, whereas in the presence of ferrous ions, redox catalysis leads to a faster dissolution. The rate dependence on both oxalic acid and on ferrous ion is described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. In the second stage, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics also describes the dissolution of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite. It may be concluded that oxalic acid operates to dissolve iron, and the ensuing disruption of the solid framework accelerates the release of nickel

  1. Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced spectral dual-energy CT for evaluation of cholangiocarcinoma: Preliminary data

    Thomas, John V.; Bolus, David N.; Jackson, Bradford E.; Berland, Lincoln L.; Yester, Michael; Morgan, Desiree E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate Gadoxetate Disodium enhanced dual-energy CT for visualization of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma by exploiting the hepatobiliary uptake of Gadoxetate Disodium and viewing images at the k-edge of gadolinium on the spectrum of simulated monoenergetic energies available with Dual Energy CT. Material and methods In this prospective, IRB-approved study in patients with suspected cholangiocarcinoma, subjects who underwent a clinically indicated Gadoxetate Disodium liver MRI were immediately scanned without further IV contrast administration using rapid kVp-switching dual energy CT (rsDECT). Initial Gadoxetate Disodium dose was the FDA approved clinical dose, 0.025 mmol/kg; after additional IRB/FDA approval, 10 subjects were scanned with 0.05 mmol/kg. Both 50 keV and 70 keV simulated monoenergetic images as well as gadolinium(-water) material density images were viewed qualitatively and measured quantitatively for gadolinium uptake in the hepatic parenchyma and any focal lesions identified. Results Of 18 subjects (mean age 55 years, 10M, 8F, weight 84 kg), eight were scanned with 0.025 mmol/kg (Group 1) and 10 with 0.05 mmol/kg Gadoxetate Disodium (Group 2). Five patients had cholangiocarcinoma (all in Group 1). On synthetic monoenergetic images using standard and double Gadoxetate Disodium dose, the liver parenchyma did not appear enhanced qualitatively. Comparison of mean hepatic parenchymal HU at 50 and 70 keV showed a measurable increase in attenuation at the lower viewing energy, which corresponded to the k-edge of gadolinium. No statistically significant difference was observed on quantitative gadolinium measurement of hepatic parenchyma for single versus double Gadoxetate Disodium dose using rsDECT gadolinium material density images. Of the five cholangiocarcinomas, the tumor to nontumoral hepatic tissue HU differences were 51.1 (32.2) (mean and std dev) and 49.0(26.5) at 50 and 70 keV, respectively. Conclusion In this small pilot population

  2. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried co-amorphous drug-amino acid salts

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co...... dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization...... mixtures were physically stable (>10 months) at room temperature and 40°C under dry conditions. Intrinsic dissolution of the co-amorphous mixtures showed an improved dissolution behaviour under intestinal pH conditions for IND-ARG compared with the crystalline and amorphous forms of the drug. On the other...

  3. Respiratory motion artefacts in dynamic liver MRI: a comparison using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Kupczyk, Patrick A.; Doerner, Jonas; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of respiratory motion artefacts in patients undergoing dynamic liver magnetic resonance (MR) either with gadoxetate disodium or gadobutrol. Two hundred and thirty liver MR studies (115 with gadobutrol, 115 with gadoxetate disodium) were analysed. Respiratory motion artefacts on dynamic 3D T1-weighted MR images (pre-contrast, arterial, venous, and late-dynamic phase) were assessed using a five-point rating scale. Severe motion was defined as a score ≥ 4. Mean motion scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney-U-test. The chi-squared-test was used for dichotomous comparisons. Mean motion scores for gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol showed no relevant differences for each phase of the dynamic contrast series (pre-contrast: 1.85 ± 0.70 vs. 1.88 ± 0.57, arterial: 1.85 ± 0.81 vs. 1.87 ± 0.74, venous: 1.82 ± 0.67 vs. 1.74 ± 0.64, late-dynamic: 1.75 ± 0.62 vs. 1.79 ± 0.63; p = 0.469, 0.557, 0.382 and 0.843, respectively). Severe motion artefacts had a similar incidence using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol (11/460 [2.4 %] vs. 7/460 [1.5 %]; p = 0.341). Gadoxetate disodium is associated with equivalent motion scores compared to gadobutrol in dynamic liver MRI. In addition, both contrast agents demonstrated a comparable and acceptable rate of severe respiratory motion artefacts. (orig.)

  4. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the Arctic troposphere

    Chi, J. W.; Li, W. J.; Zhang, D. Z.; Zhang, J. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Shen, X. J.; Sun, J. Y.; Chen, J. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes in physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased, the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C- mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C- line scan further shows that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces likely determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA as reactive surfaces adsorbing inorganic and organic acidic gases can shorten acidic gas lifetime and influence the possible gaseous reactions in the Arctic atmosphere, which need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models in the Arctic troposphere.

  5. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  6. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p...

  7. 小檗碱脂肪酸盐的制备及理化性质研究%Synthesis and Physicochemical Properties of Berberine Fatty Acid Salts

    田非非; 江东波; 刘真君; 翁伟宇

    2011-01-01

    合成了两种脂溶性的小檗碱脂肪酸盐,并考察其在常见溶剂中的溶解度和正辛醇-水中的分配系数.采用硫酸小檗碱与脂肪酸钾反应生成了小檗碱的硬脂酸盐和月桂酸盐,用质谱、氢谱等方法确证结构.结果表明,2种脂肪酸盐在保持小檗碱母核结构的同时,脂溶性较硫酸盐明显增大,其中月桂酸盐在无水乙醇、聚乙二醇400和油酸等溶剂中的溶解性均较好.%Two lipophilic berberine fatty acid salts were synthesized and their solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients were investigated. Berberine stearate and berberine laurate were synthesized by the reaction between berberine sulfate and corresponding fatty acid potassium salts. MS and 'H NMR were used to confirm the structure of the products. Compared with sulfate salt, the synthesized fatty acid salts greatly increased the lipophilicity, while the structure of berberine remained unchanged. Berberine laurate could be dissolved easily in several solvents, such as anhydrous ethanol, polyethylene glycol 400 and oleic acid.

  8. Estimation of Bacterial Cell Numbers in Humic Acid-Rich Salt Marsh Sediments with Probes Directed to 16S Ribosomal DNA

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Mcdonald, John H.; Devereux, Richard; Smith, David W.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of using probes directed towards ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) as a quantitative approach to estimating cell numbers was examined and applied to study the structure of a bacterial community in humic acid-rich salt marsh sediments. Hybridizations were performed with membrane-bound nucleic acids by using seven group-specific DNA oligonucleotide probes complementary to 16S rRNA coding regions. These included a general eubacterial probe and probes encompassing most members of the gram-ne...

  9. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    2012-02-07

    ... and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June... Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). \\2\\ Archer Daniels Midland Company... Rescind in Part, 70 FR 39735, 39737 (July 11, 2005), unchanged in Notice of Final Results and...

  10. Salt dependent stability of stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films exposed to aqueous electrolytes

    Kumar, Naveen; Wang, Lei; Siretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Frieder

    2013-01-01

    We use contact angle goniometry, imaging ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy to study the stability and wettability of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers of stearic acid on silica substrates, upon drying and exposure to aqueous solutions of varying salinity. The influences of Ca2+ and Na+ ions

  11. Synthesis and structural studies of amino amide salts derived from 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazole and α-amino acids

    Avila-Montiel, Concepción; Tapia-Benavides, Antonio R.; Falcón-León, Martha; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Tlahuext, Hugo; Tlahuextl, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    2-{[(Ammoniumacetyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 4, 2-{[(2-ammoniumpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 5, and 2-{[(2-ammonium-3-phenylpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 6 amino amides were synthesized via condensation of 2AMBZ dihydrochloride with the corresponding amino acid. Compounds 7-12 were obtained by replacing chloride ions (in salts 4-6) with nitrate or tetrachlorozincate ions. The results of X-ray diffraction crystallographic studies indicated that the geometries, charges and sizes of the anions are essential for the formation of the strong hydrogen bond interactions of compounds 4, 5, 9-12. Moreover, in most cases, the presence of water and solvent molecules stabilizes the supramolecular structures of these compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated that the presence of chloride or tetrachlorozincate anions increases the acidity of the benzimidazolic and amide groups more significantly than the presence of nitrate anions. However, Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) computations of the crystal structures demonstrate that amino amides interact more strongly with NO3- than with Cl- and ZnCl42- anions; this difference explains the spectroscopic results.

  12. Al/Pb lightweight grids prepared by molten salt electroless plating for application in lead-acid batteries

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Ketao; Liu, Fangyang; Yu, Xiaoying; Xue, Haitao; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a lightweight Pb plated Al (Al/Pb) grid was prepared by molten salt electroless plating. The SEM and bonding strength test show that the lead coating is deposited with a smooth surface and firm combination. CV test shows that the electrochemical properties of Al/Pb electrodes are stable. 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with Al/Pb grids as negative collectors are assembled and the performances including 20 h capacity, rate capacity, cycle life, internal resistance are investigated. The results show that the cycle life of Al/Pb-grid cells is about 475 cycles and can meet the requirement of lead-acid batteries. Al/Pb grids are conducive to the refinement of PbSO4 grain, and thereby reduce the internal resistance of battery and advance the utilization of active mass. Moreover, weight of Al/Pb grid is only 55.4% of the conventional-grid. In this way, mass specific capacity of Al/Pb-grid negatives is 17.8% higher and the utilization of active mass is 6.5% higher than conventional-grid negatives.

  13. Structural transformations of the synthetic salt 4`, 7-dihydroxyflavylium chloride in acid and basic aqueous solutions. Part 1-Ground state

    Pina, F.; Benedito, L.; Melo, M.J.; Parola, A.J. [Centro de Quimica Fina e Biotecnologia. Departamento de Quimica FCT/UNL, Portugal (Portugal); Lima, J.C.; Macanita, A.L. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Portugal (Portugal)

    1997-09-01

    A complete study of the structural pH dependent transformations of the synthetic flavylium salt 4`-7-dihydroxyflavylium chloride (DHF), occurring in aqueous solutions, including the basic region, is described. The kinetics study of the transformations occurring in acidic media (quinoidal base (A) {l_reversible} flavylium cation (AH{sup +}) {l_reversible} hemiacetal (B) {l_reversible} cis-chalcone (C-cis) {l_reversible} trans-chalcone (C-trans)) allowed to conclude that the cis-transisomerization is faster than the tautomerization and the hydration processes, which is unique in the anthocyanins family. Results obtained with the parent compound 4`-7-dimethoxyflavylium chloride (DMF)with relevance to this study are also presented. In equilibrated basic solutions the existence of acid-base equilibria involving the trans-Chalcone (C-trans) and its conjugated bases, (C-trans, and C``2-trans), was detected. Freshly prepared solutions at pH>7 show also the presence of a transient species identified as the ionized quinoidal base (A``-), which is almost completely converted into C``2-trans with a Ph dependent rate constant, (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at <1-log CFU/g; however, the APC recovered somewhat. The pH and salinity of the treated salted napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time. PMID:26210534

  15. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid at high pressures

    Highlights: • CO2 solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • The CO2 partial pressures studied was up to 1000 kPa. • The temperatures studied were (313.2, 333.2, 353.2) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. • The CO2 absorption capacity of the studied systems was high and comparable with monoethanolamine. - Abstract: In the present work, the solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of potassium prolinate (KPr) and potassium α-aminobutyrate (KAABA) was measured at temperatures (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and CO2 partial pressures up to 1000 kPa for amino acid salt concentrations: KPr, w = (7.5, 14.5, and 27.4 wt%) and KAABA, w = (6.9, 13.4, and 25.6 wt%). It was found that the CO2 absorption capacities of the studied amino acid salt systems were considerably high and comparable with that of industrially important alkanolamines including monoethanolamine. The CO2 loadings in aqueous potassium α-aminobutyrate at high pressures were also found to be generally higher than the loadings in aqueous potassium prolinate. A modified Kent–Eisenberg model was applied to correlate the CO2 solubility in the amino acid salt solution as function of CO2 partial pressure, temperature, and concentration. The model gave good representation of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data obtained for the amino acid salt systems studied, and provided accurate predictions of the solubility

  16. Promotion by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid of Germination of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Liang-Ju WANG; Wei-Bing JIANG; Hui LIU; Wei-Qin LIU; Lang KANG; Xi-Lin HOU

    2005-01-01

    The seed germination and seedling growth of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var.communis Tsen et Lee cv. Hanxiao) were not significantly inhibited until the concentration of NaCl was increased to150 mmol/L. Treatment of pakchoi seeds with exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.00 mg/L, promoted seed germination when seeds were stressed by salinity, whereas levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of ALA dehydrase, significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, suggesting that metabolism of ALA into porphyrin compounds was necessary for seed germination and seedling growth. Determination of respiratory rate during seed germination showed that ALA increased seed respiration under both normal conditions and salt stress. Furthermore, salt stress decreased levels of endogenous ALA, as well as heme, in etiolated seedlings. More salt-tolerant cultivars of pakchoi contained higher relative levels of endogenous ALA and heme under conditions of salt stress.These results indicate that salt stress may inhibit the biosynthesis of endogenous ALA and then heme,which is necessary for seed germination, and treatment of seeds with exogenous ALA prior to germination may be associated with the biosynthesis of heme.

  17. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems...

  18. Quantification of Abscisic Acid, Cytokinin, and Auxin Content in Salt-Stressed Plant Tissues

    Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra

    Vol. 913. New York: Humana Press, 2012 - (Shabala, S.; Cuin, T.), s. 251-261. (Methods in Molecular Biology). ISBN 978-1-61779-985-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Auxin * Cytokinin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2012_Dobrev.pdf

  19. A new multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid: Structural, optical, thermal, electrical transport properties and antibacterial activity along with Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; Saha, Rajat; Singha, Soumen; Biswas, Susobhan; Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath; Ray, Partha Pratim; Bandhyopadhyay, Debasis; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the structural, optical, thermal and electrical transport properties of a new multicomponent salt (TBTA2-)·2(IM+)·(water) [TBTA-IM] of tetrabromoterepthalic acid (TBTA) with imidazole (IM). The crystal structure of TBTA-IM is determined by both the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The structural analysis has revealed that the supramolecular charge assisted O-⋯Hsbnd N+ hydrogen bonding and Br⋯π interactions play the most vital role in formation of this multicomponent supramolecular assembly. The Hirshfeld surface analysis has been carried out to investigate supramolecular interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots reveal the relative contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. According to theoretical analysis the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the salt is 2.92 eV. The salt has been characterized by IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopic studies. It shows direct optical transition with band gaps of 4.1 eV, which indicates that the salt is insulating in nature. The photoluminescence spectrum of the salt is significantly different from that of TBTA. Further, a comparative study on the antibacterial activity of the salt with respect to imidazole, Gatifloxacin and Ciprofloxacin has been performed. Moreover, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ITO/TBTA-IM/Al sandwich structure exhibits good rectifying property and the electron tunneling process governs the electrical transport mechanism of the device.

  20. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization. PMID:26954089

  1. AGGREGATION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED CARBOXYLIC ACID SALTS OF CHITOSAN%壳聚糖不饱和羧酸盐聚集行为的研究

    林宝凤; 黎演明; 周妤莲; 杜予民

    2011-01-01

    Five kinds of unsaturated carboxylic acid salts of chitosan were prepared by the semidry way including chitosan salicylate ( al ) , chitosan benzoate (a2) , chitosan cinnamate ( a3 ) , chitosan acrylate ( a4 ) and chitosan itaconate (a5). The products were characterized via FTIR and UV,the content of carboxylic acid in the unsaturated carboxylic acid salt of chitosan was determinated by the Kjeldahl method. The results showed that unsaturated carboxylic acid salts of chitosan were combined with salt bond between amino and carboxyl,the content of carboxylic acid in the unsaturated carboxylic acid salts was ranged from 40% to 70%. The crystalline morphology of these unsaturated carboxylic acid salts of chitosan were obtained by polarized optical microscopy. The results showed that the films of a2 and a5 obtained by a casting solvent vaporation technique had formed fractal crystal at 25℃ and RH = 65%. The crystalline morphology was closely related to the structures of unsaturated carboxylic acid salts of chitosan. The fractal crystal of a2 showed that the extendedmolecular chains were parallel to the long axis. The fractal crystal of a5 showed that the extended molecularchains were perpendicular to the long axis. The methods for controlling aggregation behavior of unsaturated carboxylic acid salts of chitosan had also been studied. It was feasible for the inter-conversion between aggregation and crystallization. The crystallization process of chitosan unsaturated carboxylic acid salts was explained by fractal theory, and the results showed that its aggregation behavior abide by the model of diffusions-limited aggregation.%以半干法制备了一系列壳聚糖不饱和羧酸盐--壳聚糖水杨酸盐(a1)、壳聚糖苯甲酸盐(a2)、壳聚糖肉桂酸盐(a3)壳聚糖丙烯酸盐(a4)和壳聚糖衣康酸盐(a5).用红外光谱和紫外光谱表征了该产品的结构,以凯氏定氮法测定了羧酸的结合量.结果表明壳聚糖和不饱和羧酸盐是

  2. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  3. HLW partitioning by complex solvent on the basis of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid and polyethylene glycol

    Addition of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide to the solvent on the basis of zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid makes possible to extract not only RE and TPE but also to extract cesium from aqueous nitric acid media. At the same time RE and TPE distribution coefficients noticeably increase because of synergetic effect induced by formation of the complex acid of the possible composition H3[Zr(DBP)4(CCD)3]. The proposed solvent extraction system could be used for partitioning of the main radionuclides contained in high and intermediate level wastes. (author)

  4. Seasonal changes in the microbial community of a salt marsh, measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis

    Keith-Roach, Miranda; Bryan, N.D.; Bardgett, R.D.;

    2002-01-01

    to characterise biogeochemical processes occurring at this site. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis of sediment samples collected at monthly intervals was used to measure seasonal changes in microbial biomass and community structure. The PLFA data were analysed using multivariate techniques...... (Ward's method and the Mahalanobis distance metric), and we show that the use of the Mahalanobis distance metric improves the statistical analysis by providing detailed information on the reasons samples cluster together and identifying the distinguishing features between the separate clusters. Five...... increases in the abundance of PLFA, in the warmer months. The conditions therefore remained most favourable for aerobic species throughout the year, explaining their continual dominance at this site. However, as the abundance of PLFA synthesised by anaerobes increased, increases in dissolved Mn...

  5. Synthesis of rod-like ultrafine K4Ce2Nb10O30 via a salt-assistant stearic acid method

    ZHU Junwu; MA Junxing; WU Jike; YANG Xujie; LU Lude; WANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    A salt-assistant stearic acid method (SAM) capable of forming ultrafme K4Ce2Nb10O3o products was described.XRD pattern revealed that tetragonal K4Ce2Nb10O30 products could be obtained by heat treatment at 900 ℃ for 2 h.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)observations indicated the introduction of KCl could lead to the formation of rod-like K4Ce2Nb1oO30 products.The species of salts played a crucial role in fine tuning the shapes and sizes of K4Ce2Nb20O30 products.Furthermore,the K4Ce2Nb10O30 prepared by salt-assistant SAM had considerable activity under visible light irradiation.

  6. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat. PMID

  7. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part I: Preparation and characterization

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural sepiolite from Andrici (Serbia was functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt to the Si-OH sepiolite groups. The functionalized material, MSEAS, was characterized by determination of phase composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, analysis of morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential thermal analyses (DTA, determination of specific surface areas and pore size distribution using B.E.T. method and point of zero charge (pHpzc determination. The crystal structure of sepiolite does not change significantly upon surface modification. FT-IR and DTA analysis confirmed that the modified sample maintained the basic structure of sepiolite and also the presence of organic groups in functionalized sepiolite sample. The point of zero charge of MSEAS in KNO3 solutions of different concentrations determination by the batch technique from was at pH 7.0 ± 0.1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, and FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  8. Electro-membrane reactor for separation and in situ ion substitution of glutamic acid from its sodium salt

    Kumar, Mahendra; Tripathi, Bijay P. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Shahi, Vinod K. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: vkshahi@csmcri.org

    2009-08-30

    An electro-membrane reactor with four compartments (EMR-4) (anolyte, catholyte and comp. 1 and 2) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane (CEM and AEM, respectively) was developed to achieve separation and recovery of glutamic acid (GAH) from its sodium salt by in situ ion substitution and acidification. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of CEM and AEM were characterized and its suitability was assessed in operating environment. The separation of GA{sup -} from the mixture of nonionic organic compounds and further ion substitution was achieved by EMR-4. But the higher energy consumption (5.75 kWh/kg of GAH produced), low current efficiency (50.5%) and recovery of GAH (57.2%) in this process were main obstacles for the industrial exploration of the process. Latter, electro-membrane reactor with three compartments (EMR-3) (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) was developed based on CEMs for only in situ ion substitution of GANa to achieve GAH, in which GA{sup -} was not allowed for electro-migration from its feed compartment. CE and recovery of GAH were close to 73% and 96% that indicate the suitability of the EMR-3 process for industrial application over the EMR-4. It was concluded that EMR-3 was efficient as compared to EMR-4 for separation and recovery of GAH from fermentation broth by in situ ion substitution in eco-friendly manner.

  9. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance studies of electrodeposited polypyrrole nanoparticles doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt

    Ebrahim, Sh. M., E-mail: shebrahim@igsr.alex.edu.e [Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Postal Code 21526, Alexandria (Egypt); Latif, M.M. Abd-El [Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Gad, A.M.; Soliman, M.M. [Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Postal Code 21526, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-05-31

    Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPY), doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (AMPSNa), was carried out using chronoamperometric technique. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that the electroactivity of PPY films, doped with AMPSNa, increases with the film thickness. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed that the PPY particles are in the nano-scale range and that their size depends on the potential at which the PPY has formed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the potential range of + 1.0 and - 1.0 V, revealed in the PPY film charge transfer domination with a semicircle at high frequencies, and anion diffusion dominance at low frequencies. EIS also showed that the charge transfer resistance of PPY film at - 1.0 V is lower than what is expected and that on increasing the thickness of the PPY films, the overall impedance decreases. The proposed equivalent circuit model, based on the double layer capacity and the Warburg impedance, was replaced by two constant-phase elements to fit the experimental work of this study. The values of the fractional exponent of the first constant phase element at approximately 0.5 indicate that the processes have a diffusion-limited nature.

  10. Hydrophilic bile salt ursodeoxycholic acid protects myocardium against reperfusion injury in a PI3K/Akt dependent pathway.

    Rajesh, Katare Gopalrao; Suzuki, Ryoko; Maeda, Hironori; Yamamoto, Murio; Yutong, Xing; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2005-11-01

    The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) during reperfusion injury of heart has been well demonstrated and thus controlling PTP would attenuate the myocardial damage and cell death. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile salt and has been shown to prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes by inhibiting the opening of PTP. Here we demonstrate the role of UDCA in preventing the reperfusion injury of heart through its ability to inhibit PTP. Wistar rats underwent 30 min left coronary artery occlusion (LCA) followed by 180 min reperfusion after treatment with 40 mg/kg per iv infusion of UDCA over 30 min before LCA occlusion. Other groups of rats were treated with PTP agonist atractyloside(5 mg/kg) or PI3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin (16 ug/kg) before UDCA treatment. UDCA treatment prior to LCA occlusion, activated phosphorylation of Akt and Bad. Phosphorylating Bad prevented its translocation in to mitochondria, there by preventing the down regulation of Bcl-2 expression and PTP opening. This was confirmed by reduced cytochrome C release from intramitochondrial space in to the cytosol and hence reduced cell death either by apoptosis (4.8 vs 11.8%, Pinjury by inhibiting the PTP in a PI3K/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:16171810

  11. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance studies of electrodeposited polypyrrole nanoparticles doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt

    Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPY), doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (AMPSNa), was carried out using chronoamperometric technique. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that the electroactivity of PPY films, doped with AMPSNa, increases with the film thickness. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed that the PPY particles are in the nano-scale range and that their size depends on the potential at which the PPY has formed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the potential range of + 1.0 and - 1.0 V, revealed in the PPY film charge transfer domination with a semicircle at high frequencies, and anion diffusion dominance at low frequencies. EIS also showed that the charge transfer resistance of PPY film at - 1.0 V is lower than what is expected and that on increasing the thickness of the PPY films, the overall impedance decreases. The proposed equivalent circuit model, based on the double layer capacity and the Warburg impedance, was replaced by two constant-phase elements to fit the experimental work of this study. The values of the fractional exponent of the first constant phase element at approximately 0.5 indicate that the processes have a diffusion-limited nature.

  12. Electro-membrane reactor for separation and in situ ion substitution of glutamic acid from its sodium salt

    An electro-membrane reactor with four compartments (EMR-4) (anolyte, catholyte and comp. 1 and 2) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane (CEM and AEM, respectively) was developed to achieve separation and recovery of glutamic acid (GAH) from its sodium salt by in situ ion substitution and acidification. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of CEM and AEM were characterized and its suitability was assessed in operating environment. The separation of GA- from the mixture of nonionic organic compounds and further ion substitution was achieved by EMR-4. But the higher energy consumption (5.75 kWh/kg of GAH produced), low current efficiency (50.5%) and recovery of GAH (57.2%) in this process were main obstacles for the industrial exploration of the process. Latter, electro-membrane reactor with three compartments (EMR-3) (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) was developed based on CEMs for only in situ ion substitution of GANa to achieve GAH, in which GA- was not allowed for electro-migration from its feed compartment. CE and recovery of GAH were close to 73% and 96% that indicate the suitability of the EMR-3 process for industrial application over the EMR-4. It was concluded that EMR-3 was efficient as compared to EMR-4 for separation and recovery of GAH from fermentation broth by in situ ion substitution in eco-friendly manner.

  13. Amino Acids in the Asteroidal Water-Bearing Salt Crystals Hosted in the Zag Meteorite

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Burton, A. S.; Locke, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Solid evidence of liquid water in primitive meteorites is given by the ordinary chondrites H5 Monahans (1998) and H3-6 Zag. Aqueous fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals were shown to be common in Zag. These striking blue/purple crystals (Figure 1), which gained the coloration from electron-trapping in the Cl-vacancies through exposure to ionizing radiation, were determined to be over 4.0-4.7 billion years old by I-Xe dating. The halite grains are present as discrete grains within an H-chondrite matrix with no evidence for aqueous alteration that indicates a xenogenic source, possibly ancient cryovolcanism. They were proposed to be formed from the cryovolcanic plumes on icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and were transferred and incorporated into the H chondrite parent asteroid following the eruption event(s). A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. The solid inclusions were suggested to be entrained within the fluid erupted from the cryovolcanic event(s), and were shown to be comprised of abundant organics. Spectrofluorometric study and Raman imaging of the halites have identified macromolecular carbon and aliphatic carbon compounds. In order to investigate the type of organics present in Zag and in particular within the fluid-bearing halites, we studied for the first time the amino acid contents of a selected mineral (halite) phase in a meteorite sample.

  14. Ascorbic Acid and/or 24-Epibrassinolide Trigger Physiological and Biochemical Responses for the Salt Stress Mitigation in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C and/or 24-epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR in mitigation of salt-induced stress in potato (Solanum tuberousum L. The 10-d-old plants were exposed to 150 mM NaCl and they were subsequently treated by ASA and/or EBL. The salt stress reduced significantly the plant growth, tuber yield, total chlorophyll and increased proline content and electrolyte leakage in the leaves. Toxic effects induced by salt stress were completely overcome by the combined exogenous application of AsA and EBL. The AsA and/or EBL treatments improved the growth parameters of the salt treated plants, such as shoot length, tuber number and size, fresh and dry mass and other physiological parameters. Our data also indicated that applications of AsA and EBL up-regulated the stress regulating plant hormone such as IAA, IBA and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and under salt stress.

  15. Disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Binder, V; Elsborg, L.; Greibe, J; Hendriksen, C; Høj, L; Jensen, K. B.; Kristensen, E.; Madsen, J R; Marner, B; Riis, P; Willumsen, L

    1981-01-01

    A controlled clinical study on disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) at a dose of 800 mg per day versus placebo was carried out in 141 patients with ulcerative colitis and 25 patients with Crohn's disease. Those of the ulcerative colitis patients who had been on sulphasalazine treatment continued that treatment during the trial (101 patients). Forty patients were intolerant of sulphasalazine. No patient received steroids during the last month before the study. Patients with Crohn's disease had their p...

  16. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    Black, J.; Vincenc, K; Salome, C.

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P les...

  17. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    Tasche, Marjolein; Uijen, Hans; Bernsen, Roos; de Jongste, Johan; Wouden, Hans

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled trials of DSCG in the prophylactic treatment of children with asthma. METHODS: Several databases were searched to identify trials. Studies were included if they investigated subjects with asthma aged 0-18 years old, addressed maint...

  18. Modification of Disodium Cromoglycate Passage Across Lung Epithelium In Vitro Via Incorporation into Polymeric Microparticles

    Haghi, Mehra; Salama, Rania; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using ...

  19. Disodium EDTA used as anticoagulant causes hemolysis in common carp blood

    Witeska, Malgorzata; WARGOCKA, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Disodium EDTA used as anticoagulant for common carp blood caused a significant increase and high variability in hematocrit readings comparing to the heparinized samples. Na2EDTA induced erythrocyte swelling, causing cell membrane disruption (hemolysis). The nuclei released from destroyed cells changed shape from oval to round, and underwent gradual swelling and vacuolation, followed by karyolysis. The degree of observed changes was similar at all Na2EDTA concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/m...

  20. Composition for preventing salt depositing

    Mikhaylov, S.A.; Balakin, V.M.; Lezhenin, V.V.; Litvinets, Yu.I.; Marinin, N.S.; Talankin, V.S.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for preventing salt depositing which includes polyethylene-polyamine-N-methyl phosphonic acid or its salt and water. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the degree of prevention of the salt depositing under low temperature conditions, it additionally contains ethylene glycol with the following ratio of components (% by mass): polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid or its salt 5-12; ethylene glycol 30-50; water--the rest.

  1. Mechanism of hydrofluoric acid formation in ethylene carbonate electrolytes with fluorine salt additives

    Tebbe, Jonathon L.; Fuerst, Thomas F.; Musgrave, Charles B.

    2015-11-01

    We utilized density functional theory to examine HF generation in lithium-ion battery electrolytes from reactions between H2O and the decomposition products of three electrolyte additives: LiPF6, LiPOF4, and LiAsF6. Decomposition of these additives produces PF5, AsF5, and POF3 along with LiF precipitates. We found PF5 and AsF5 react with H2O in two sequential steps to form two HF molecules and POF3 and AsOF3, respectively. PF5 (or AsF5) complexes with H2O and undergoes ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH (AsF4OH) with an activation barrier of 114.2 (30.5) kJ mol-1 and reaction enthalpy of 14.6 (-11.3) kJ mol-1. The ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte forms a Lewis acid-base complex with the PF4OH (AsF4OH) product, reducing the barrier to HF formation. Reactions of POF3 were examined and are not characterized by complexation of POF3 with H2O or EC, while PF5 and AsF5 complex favorably with H2O and EC. HF formation from POF3 occurs with a reaction enthalpy of -3.8 kJ mol-1 and a 157.7 kJ mol-1 barrier, 43.5 kJ mol-1 higher than forming HF from PF5. HF generation in electrolytes employing LiPOF4 should be significantly lower than those using LiPF6 or LiAsF6 and LiPOF4 should be further investigated as an alternative electrolyte additive.

  2. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of lactic acid fermentation of radish: effect of addition of salt, additives and growth stimulators.

    Joshi, V K; Chauhan, Arjun; Devi, Sarita; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of radish was conducted using various additive and growth stimulators such as salt (2 %-3 %), lactose, MgSO4 + MnSO4 and Mustard (1 %, 1.5 % and 2 %) to optimize the process. Response surface methodology (Design expert, Trial version 8.0.5.2) was applied to the experimental data for the optimization of process variables in lactic acid fermentation of radish. Out of various treatments studied, only the treatments having ground mustard had an appreciable effect on lactic acid fermentation. Both linear and quadratic terms of the variables studied had a significant effect on the responses studied. The interactions between the variables were found to contribute to the response at a significant level. The best results were obtained in the treatment with 2.5 % salt, 1.5 % lactose, 1.5 % (MgSO4 + MnSO4) and 1.5 % mustard. These optimized concentrations increased titrable acidity and LAB count, but lowered pH. The second-order polynomial regression model determined that the highest titrable acidity (1.69), lowest pH (2.49) and maximum LAB count (10 × 10(8) cfu/ml) would be obtained at these concentrations of additives. Among 30 runs conducted, run 2 has got the optimum concentration of salt- 2.5 %, lactose- 1.5 %, MgSO4 + MnSO4- 1.5 % and mustard- 1.5 % for lactic acid fermentation of radish. The values for different additives and growth stimulators optimized in this study could successfully be employed for the lactic acid fermentation of radish as a postharvest reduction tool and for product development. PMID:26243913

  3. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  4. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  5. The poisoning of 201 x 7 resin by humic acid (salt) in recovery of uranium from mine water and its mechanism

    The strong-base ion exchange resin 201 x 7 is used to recover uranium from the nearly neutral and weak alkaline mine water of three mines A, B and C. The poisoning of resin is found very serious. The results of investigation by using infrared spectrometry and others show that the poisoning of the resin originates from the humic acid (salt). The decreasing of speed of ion exchange is the main feature, but there is no significant effect on ion exchange capacity of the resin. The mechanism of the poisoning is also explored and the model of poisoning is given as follows: the humic acid (salt) stops up the vacant sites of the resin as a sponge and occupies a lot of them

  6. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  7. The phases formed by the dehydration of disodium zirconium (IV) bis(orthophosphate) trihydrate and their ion-exchange behavior

    The phase transformation of Na2Zr(PO4)2.3H2O which had been obtained from zirconium (IV) bis(hydrogenphosphate) monohydrate(α-zirconium phosphate), prepared by the direct precipitation method, was studied by means of gravimetry, X-ray analysis, and acid-base titration. When the material was heated for 2d, it was transformed to a monohydrate at 800C and then successively to three anhydrous phases, depending on the temperature. The monohydrate was also formed by letting the trihydrate stand over P2O5 at room temperature for longer than two weeks. The processes were confirmed to be irreversible by an examination of the rehydration behavior, from which the conditions of the storage of five modifications of disodium zirconium (IV) bis(orthophosphate) were established. It is of special interest that the second anhydrous phase reverted to the first one when it was allowed to stand at room temperature in air or in a desiccator. The rate of the reversion decreased with the temperature of heat-treatment and with a decrease in the relative humidity of the surroundings. The difference between the present results and Clearfield's was clarified and attributed mainly to the difference in the crystallinity of the starting α-zirconium phosphate. (author)

  8. Effects of Organic Acids and Salts on the Development of Penicillium italicum: The Causal Agent of Citrus Blue Mold

    Boudyach El Hassane; Serghini Mohammed Amine; Boubaker Hassan; Talibi Idriss; Askarne Latifa; Ait Ben Aoumar Abdellah

    2011-01-01

    Control of Citrus blue mold, caused by Penicillium italicum, has been accomplished by postharvest application of synthetic fungicides. However, the development of resistant fungal strains and increasing public concern over food safety and the environment are driving a search for alternative disease control strategies. In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of several organic acid and salt compounds on mycelial growth, sporulation, spore germination and germ tube elongation of P...

  9. Optical Resolution of DL-Tartaric Acid Mediated by Diastereomeric Salts Crystallization: A Useful Method for Exploring and Optimizing Experimental Conditions

    2002-01-01

    A response surface modeling approach for simultaneous optimization of optical purity and yield wasapplied to the resolution of tartaric acid to study the effects of both the amount of the solvent and the amountof the resolving agent α-methylbenzyl amine on the resolution results. The direction of changing the experimen-tal conditions was determined from the initial response study, and expected high yield of the pure L(+)-tartaricacid-L(-)-α-methylbenzyl amine salt was obtained.

  10. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically a...... alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  12. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinker do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat foods poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  13. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food and placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinkers do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  14. New method for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropylthiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of xhantogenic acid

    Milisavljević Smiljka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates by oxidation of ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid in a presence of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide were performed. Ammonium salt of ethyl and isopropylxanthogenic acid was obtained by the reaction of alkylammonium sulfate and sodium ethyl and isopropyl xanthate. Studies on a dependence of N-ethyl-O-isopropylthiocarbamate yield and purity with respect to reaction parameters (reaction time, molar ratio of oxidant and ethylamonium salt of isopropylxanthogenic acid were performed. Optimal reaction conditions for synthesis of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates were established. Synthesized compounds have been fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and MS data, while purity has been determined by GC method. A plausible pathway for the N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates synthesis, in the presence of the oxidative agents sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, was proposed. The presented synthetic methods has been developed at laboratory and applied at semi-industrial level. The developed optimal method provides a powerful and versatile method for the preparation of N-alkyl and N,N-dialkyl-O-ethyl and O-isopropyl thiocarbamates. This new optimized method offer several benefits, namely, simple operation, mild reaction conditions, bypass of hazardous organic solvents, moderately toxic and inexpensive reagents, and also short reaction times and high product yields.

  15. TOWARDS A RATIONAL DESIGN OF RESOLVING AGENTS .4. CRYSTAL PACKING ANALYSES AND MOLECULAR MECHANICS CALCULATIONS FOR 5 PAIRS OF DIASTEREOMERIC SALTS OF EPHEDRINE AND A CYCLIC PHOSPHORIC-ACID

    LEUSEN, FJJ; SLOT, HJB; NOORDIK, JH; VANDERHAEST, AD; WYNBERG, H; BRUGGINK, A

    1992-01-01

    Detailed structural studies of five pairs of diastereomeric salts of ephedrine and halogen-substituted chiral cyclic phosphoric acids indicate a correlation between the efficiency of the resolution process and the lattice energy difference between the salts of a diastereomeric pair. Attempts to mode

  16. Increased abscisic acid levels in transgenic maize overexpressing AtLOS5 mediated root ion fluxes and leaf water status under salt stress.

    Zhang, Juan; Yu, Haiyue; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Yubing; Li, Maoying; Zhang, Jiachang; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2016-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital cellular signal in plants, and effective ABA signalling is pivotal for stress tolerance. AtLOS5 encoding molybdenum cofactor sulphurase is a key regulator of ABA biosynthesis. Here, transgenic AtLOS5 plants were generated to explore the role of AtLOS5 in salt tolerance in maize. AtLOS5 overexpression significantly up-regulated the expression of ZmVp14-2, ZmAO, and ZmMOCO, and increased aldehyde oxidase activities, which enhanced ABA accumulation in transgenic plants under salt stress. Concurrently, AtLOS5 overexpression induced the expression of ZmNHX1, ZmCBL4, and ZmCIPK16, and enhanced the root net Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx, but decreased net K(+) efflux, which maintained a high cytosolic K(+)/Na(+) ratio in transgenic plants under salt stress. However, amiloride or sodium orthovanadate could significantly elevate K(+) effluxes and decrease Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx in salt-treated transgenic roots, but the K(+) effluxes were inhibited by TEA, suggesting that ion fluxes regulated by AtLOS5 overexpression were possibly due to activation of Na(+)/H(+) antiport and K(+) channels across the plasma membrane. Moreover, AtLOS5 overexpression could up-regulate the transcripts of ZmPIP1:1, ZmPIP1:5, and ZmPIP2:4, and enhance root hydraulic conductivity. Thus transgenic plants had higher leaf water potential and turgor, which was correlated with greater biomass accumulation under salt stress. Thus AtLOS5 overexpression induced the expression of ABA biosynthetic genes to promote ABA accumulation, which activated ion transporter and PIP aquaporin gene expression to regulate root ion fluxes and water uptake, thus maintaining high cytosolic K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis and better water status in maize exposed to salt stress. PMID:26743432

  17. A green approach to the synthesis of chalcones via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction using cesium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid as a reusable nanocatalyst

    The catalytic efficacy of different cesium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid as nanocatalysts was checked in Claisen-Schmidt condensation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions to produce chalcones. The reaction is fast and environmentally benign with excellent selectivity for the synthesis of chalcones. Results of potentiometric titration and catalytic reactivity of the catalysts indicated that the catalytic reactivity should be directly proportional to the strength and number of the surface acid sites, which are the ones accessible to the reactants. Reusability of the catalysts and acidic properties of reused catalysts were investigated. Coking could cause a loss in catalyst acidity, leading to a decrease in the product yield. But the amount of coke remains constant in successive runs. Furthermore, the use of this catalyst is feasible because of its easy preparation and handling, and stability. Large-scale synthesis is also beneficial in this method. Two new compounds are synthesized and fully characterized. (author)

  18. Exposure to Salt and Organic Acids Increases the Ability of Listeria monocytogenes To Invade Caco-2 Cells but Decreases Its Ability To Survive Gastric Stress†

    Garner, Matthew R.; James, Karen E.; Callahan, Michelle C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37°C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-2 cells, and survive exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (pH 2.5 or 4.5). Our results indicate that (i) L. monocytogenes log-phase generation times and maximum cell numbers are not dependent on the alternative sigma factor σB in the presence of NaCl and organic acids at concentrations typically found in foods; (ii) growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes through the addition of organic acids is pH dependent; (iii) the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells is affected by growth phase, temperature, and the presence of salt and organic acids, with the highest relative invasion capabilities observed for cells grown with SL or NaCl at 37°C and pH 7.4; (iv) growth of L. monocytogenes in the presence of NaCl, SD, or SL reduces its ability to survive exposure to gastric fluid; and (v) exposure of L. monocytogenes to gastric fluid reduces the enhanced invasiveness caused by growth in the presence of NaCl or SL. These findings suggest that virulence-associated characteristics that determine the L. monocytogenes infectious dose are likely to be affected by food-specific properties (e.g., pH or the presence of salt or organic acid). PMID:16885290

  19. Exposure to salt and organic acids increases the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells but decreases its ability to survive gastric stress.

    Garner, Matthew R; James, Karen E; Callahan, Michelle C; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2006-08-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37 degrees C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-2 cells, and survive exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (pH 2.5 or 4.5). Our results indicate that (i) L. monocytogenes log-phase generation times and maximum cell numbers are not dependent on the alternative sigma factor sigmaB in the presence of NaCl and organic acids at concentrations typically found in foods; (ii) growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes through the addition of organic acids is pH dependent; (iii) the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells is affected by growth phase, temperature, and the presence of salt and organic acids, with the highest relative invasion capabilities observed for cells grown with SL or NaCl at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4; (iv) growth of L. monocytogenes in the presence of NaCl, SD, or SL reduces its ability to survive exposure to gastric fluid; and (v) exposure of L. monocytogenes to gastric fluid reduces the enhanced invasiveness caused by growth in the presence of NaCl or SL. These findings suggest that virulence-associated characteristics that determine the L. monocytogenes infectious dose are likely to be affected by food-specific properties (e.g., pH or the presence of salt or organic acid). PMID:16885290

  20. Salt Reduction in a Model High-Salt Akawi Cheese: Effects on Bacterial Activity, pH, Moisture, Potential Bioactive Peptides, Amino Acids, and Growth of Human Colon Cells.

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution with potassium chloride on Akawi cheese during storage for 30 d at 4 °C. Survival of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum) and starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and concentrations of standard amino acids as affected by storage in different brine solutions (10% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl+KCl [1:1], 5% NaCl, and 5% NaCl+KCl [1:1]) were investigated. Furthermore, viability of human colon cells and human colon cancer cells as affected by the extract showing improved peptide profiles, highest release of amino acids and antioxidant activity (that is, from cheese brined in 7.5% NaCl+KCl) was evaluated. Significant increase was observed in survival of probiotic bacteria in cheeses with low salt after 30 d. Calcium content decreased slightly during storage in all cheeses brined in various solutions. Further, no significant changes were observed in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of cheeses during storage. Interestingly, concentrations of 4 essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and leucine) increased significantly during storage in brine solutions containing 7.5% total salt. Low concentration of cheese extract (100 μg/mL) significantly improved the growth of normal human colon cells, and reduced the growth of human colon cancer cells. Overall, the study revealed that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved the growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides. PMID:26919457

  1. Short hydrogen bonds in salts of dicarboxylic acids; structural correlations from solid-state 13C and 2H NMR spectroscopy

    Kalsbeek, Nicoline; Schaumburg, Kjeld; Larsen, Sine

    1993-10-01

    Solid-state 13C and 2H NMR spectra are found to very suitable for characterizing the short Osbnd H...O hydrogen bonds observed in acid salts of dicarboxylic acids. The majority of the investigated compounds are acid salts of malonic, succinic and tartaric acid with monovalent cations derived from alkali metals and small aliphatic amines. They include systems with symmetric and asymmetric hydrogen bonds. Accurate structural information about their geometry is available from low-temperature X-ray diffraction data. The 13C chemical shifts of the C atoms in the different carboxy groups display a linear variation with the absolute difference between the two Csbnd O bond lengths. Theoretical ab initio calculations for model systems showed that the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant NQCC for 2H increases with increasing asymmetry of the hydrogen-bonded system. NQCC values for 2H in the short symmetric hydrogen-bonded systems are in the range 53-59 kHz compared with the larger values of up to 166kHz found in systems with longer asymmetric hydrogen bonds. The 2H NQCC values display a perfect linear dependence on the asymmetry of the hydrogen bond. 2H NQCC decreases with decreasing temperature in the symmetric hydrogen bonds showing that the corresponding potential has a single well.

  2. Immunomodulatory effect of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi grown in high-salt medium.

    Masuda, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Toshiko; Shirakami, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2008-02-10

    A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt. The Th1-promoting activity was also manifested in an in vivo mouse study, since Th1-dependant contact sensitivity was augmented and Th2 immunity, as evaluated by specific immunoglobulin E production, was suppressed following oral ingestion of Th221. Based on these findings, Th221 administration may be useful for improving allergic symptoms. PMID:18061297

  3. New Polymorphic Forms of Pemetrexed Diacid and Their Use for the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Pure Amorphous and Hemipentahydrate Forms of Pemetrexed Disodium

    Olga Michalak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of stable amorphous pemetrexed disodium of pharmaceutical purity as well as the process optimization for the preparation of the hemipentahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium are described. Analytical methods for the polymorphic and chemical purity studies of pemetrexed disodium and pemetrexed diacid forms were developed. The physicochemical properties of the amorphous and hydrate forms of pemetrexed disodium, as well as new forms of pemetrexed diacid (a key synthetic intermediate were studied by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methods were used for the chemical purity and residual solvents determination. In order to study the polymorphic and chemical stability of the amorphous and hemipentahydrate forms, a hygroscopicity test (25 °C, 80% RH was performed. Powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the amorphous character and high chemical purity were preserved after the hygroscopicity test. The hemipentahydrate form transformed completely to the heptahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium. Both pemetrexed disodium forms were produced with high efficiency and pharmaceutical purity in a small commercial scale. Amorphous pemetrexed disodium was selected for further pharmaceutical development. Two new polymorphs (forms 1 and 2 of pemetrexed diacid were used for the preparation of high purity amorphous pemetrexed disodium.

  4. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-based combination adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A and aluminum salt for hepatitis B vaccine.

    Moon, Se-hee; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Noh, Young-Woock; Lim, Yong Taik

    2015-09-11

    Here, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and aluminum salt (Alum) were introduced into a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based combination vaccine adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Although Alum is a well-known hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant that induces an enhanced humoral immune response, it cannot induce the cellular immune responses. On the other hand, MPLA has been generally reported to promote IFN-γ production via antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, but it is not water soluble as a result of its long hydrophobic alkyl chains. To this end, water insoluble MPLA could be solubilized in an aqueous solution with the help of HA, which contains many carboxyl and hydroxyl groups that can be used to attach to the hydroxyl head groups of MPLA via hydrogen bonds. Three groups of mice were treated with either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) alone, HBsAg_Alum complex, or HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex. The group immunized with the HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex exhibited a high increase in cellular immune response as well as in humoral immune response relative to the other two groups. The antibody, cytokine and T cell levels were most elevated in the group of mice immunized with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex, even at a 1μg/mice dose, and the magnitude was still maintained even after 8 weeks. Specifically, the antibody value was 120 times larger in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum complex designed similar to commercially available hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix B. The cytokine and T cell proliferation levels were 2 times and 6 times larger in mice adjuvanted with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in those vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum. The results therefore indicate that incorporating MPLA and Alum with HA can be a potent strategy to increase both the magnitude and the persistence of HBsAg-specific immune responses to protect hosts against hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:26271830

  5. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  6. Acidity decline in Antarctic ice cores during the Little Ice Age linked to changes in atmospheric nitrate and sea salt concentrations

    Pasteris, Daniel; McConnell, Joseph R.; Edwards, Ross; Isaksson, Elizabeth; Albert, Mary R.

    2014-05-01

    Acidity is an important chemical variable that impacts atmospheric and snowpack chemistry. Here we describe composite time series and the spatial pattern of acidity concentration (Acy = H+ - HCO3-) during the last 2000 years across the Dronning Maud Land region of the East Antarctic Plateau using measurements in seven ice cores. Coregistered measurements of the major ion species show that sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), and hydrochloric acid (HCl) determine greater than 98% of the acidity value. The latter, also described as excess chloride (ExCl-), is shown mostly to be derived from postdepositional diffusion of chloride with little net gain or loss from the snowpack. A strong inverse linear relationship between nitrate concentration and inverse accumulation rate provides evidence of spatially homogenous fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack across the study area. A decline in acidity during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 Common Era) is observed and is linked to declines in HNO3 and ExCl- during that time. The nitrate decline is found to correlate well with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), indicating that it is caused by a decline in biomass burning. The decrease in ExCl- concentration during the LIA is well correlated to published sea surface temperature reconstructions in the Atlantic Ocean, which suggests increased sea salt aerosol production associated with greater sea ice extent.

  7. Evaluation of calcium di-sodium EDTA intramuscular injection using gamma scintigraphy against heavy metal poisoning

    Full text: Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in soft tissues. These metals may enter the body through food, water, air or absorption through skin when an individual is exposed to areas with high heavy metal content such as agriculture, pharmaceutical manufacturing, paint and heavy metal industries or residential settings. Majority of population commonly get affected by heavy metal poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning is more likely to result through inhalation or ingestion route. Aim of the present study is to provide an easy, effective and controlled chelating therapy against heavy metal using Ca-disodium EDTA intramuscular injection. Ca-disodium-EDTA and Sesame oil were procured from Merck, India and Sigma Aldrich, USA respectively. Ca-Na2EDTA radiolabeling with 99mTc-pertechnetate was standardized using stannous ions as reducing agent. The hypothesis of present work is to maintain effective concentration of chelating agent in blood for prolong time period. To test this hypothesis, we studied 1% Ca-Na2EDTA blood bioavailability after intramuscular depot administration in new zealand white rabbit. The optimized radiolabeled intramuscular formulation was evaluated for its dissolution and permeation studies in isotonic buffer solution were envisaged through radiometry. Sub-acute toxicity studies were performed after a single dose intramuscular administration of 1% Ca-Na2EDTA in Sprague Dawley rats. Radiolabeled Ca-disodium-EDTA (>95% labeled) was found to be fairly stable up to 24 h in physiological solution (Serum) as well as in normal saline with negligible degradation of 2.5% and 5.0% respectively, thereby indicating high stability of radiolabeled product. In-vitro data indicates that control release pattern (Cmax 24 hrs) with effective concentration up to seven days. 99mTc-CaNa2EDTA retention at depot site was estimated up to 3 days by scintigraphy. Subacute toxicity studies done by histopathological investigation of

  8. Effect of lodoxamide and disodium cromoglycate on tear eosinophil cationic protein in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Leonardi, A.; Borghesan, F.; Avarello, A.; Plebani, M.; Secchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To validate the use of tear eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a marker for eosinophil activation, and its pharmacological modulation, in addition to evaluating the efficacy of lodoxamide and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—Tears were collected from 30 patients affected by active mild to moderate VKC before and after therapy with disodium cromoglycate 4% (DSCG) (n=15) or lodoxamide 0.1% (n=15) for 10 days. Tear cytology and ECP measurem...

  9. [Disodium cromoglycate--mast cell degranulation blocker in the process of tissue remodelation].

    Maxová, H; Vasilková, M; Tkaczyk, J; Vízek, M

    2010-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a compound commonly used in the treatment of allergic diseases. The effect of DSCG is due to its ability to stabilize the mast cell membrane and to prevent release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are also an abundant source of tissue metalloproteinases, serine proteases and growth factors, which play an important role in the processes of the tissue remodeling. In this view the DSCG is a substance which allows us to study the mechanisms of the pulmonary vascular bed remodeling in the experimental animals exposed to chronic hypoxia and in a phase of the recovery from hypoxia. PMID:21254664

  10. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    Liu, Xin, E-mail: fangfei6073@126.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu2001@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhai, Hong, E-mail: Zhai.h@neigaehrb.ac.cn [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150040 (China); Cai, Hua, E-mail: small-big@sohu.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Ji, Wei, E-mail: iwei_j@hotmail.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Luo, Xiao, E-mail: luoxiao2010@yahoo.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn [Plant Secondary Metabolism Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Bai, Xi, E-mail: baixi@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2-3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.

  11. Local chemical purification of vapor generators of supercritical pressure with inhibited solution of ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    Inhibition of boiler steel corrosion by chemical cleaning of vapor generators by EDTC ammonium salt solutions was studied. The washing solution velocity was 1.5-2.0 m/s, EDTC ammonium salt concentration of 0.5-1.0 g/l, temperature of 150-170 deg C. The best inhibition was provided by M-1, MSDA inhibitors, ''composition 3'' and by OP-10 or OP-7 surfactants in concentrations of 0.05-0.06 g/l each. Advanced technology of local chemical cleaning is proposed

  12. Exposure to Salt and Organic Acids Increases the Ability of Listeria monocytogenes To Invade Caco-2 Cells but Decreases Its Ability To Survive Gastric Stress†

    Garner, Matthew R.; James, Karen E.; Callahan, Michelle C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37°C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-...

  13. Effects of Various Calcium Levels and Anionic Salts on Blood Acid-Base Balance, Growth Performance and Development of Tibial Dyscondroplasia in Broilers

    KARAMÜFTÜOĞLU, Şerife; KOCABAĞLI, Neşe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of chlorine and phosphate salts in the diet, and 2 different levels of diet Ca,on the acid-based balance,growth performance and development of tibial dyscondroplasia (TD)in broiler chicks. Three hundred Ross X PM3, 1-day-old broiler chicks were used during the 5-week trial.Chicks were divided into 6 groups. Three groups (2 experimental and 1 control)were given diets with Ca levels near the bottom limit of the normal requirement (starter ...

  14. Surfactant partitioning in cloud droplet activation: a study of C8, C10, C12 and C14 normal fatty acid sodium salts

    Prisle, Nønne L.; Raatikainen,Tomi; Sorjamaa, Riikka; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Laaksonen, Ari; Bilde, Merete

    2011-01-01

    We have measured critical supersaturations of dried single-component particles of sodium caprylate [CH3(CH2)6COONa], sodium caprate [CH3(CH2)8COONa], sodium laurate [CH3(CH2)10COONa] and sodium myristate [CH3(CH2)12COONa] in the diameter range 33–140 nm at 296 K using a static thermal gradient diffusion cloud condensation nucleus counter. These fatty acid sodium salts are surface active molecules which have all been identified in atmospheric aerosol particles. Experimental critical supersatur...

  15. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically...... associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric...

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...... IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  17. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of...

  18. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  19. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  20. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  1. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  2. Acid-generating salts and their relationship to the chemistry of groundwater and storm runoff at an abandoned mine site in southwestern Indiana, USA

    Cation distributions in twenty samples of acid-generating salts were compared to those in groundwater and storm runoff from a coal-refuse deposit in an effort to identify source-product relationships. Two mineral suites, one primarily composed of melanterite, rozenite and szomolnokite, and the other composed almost entirely of copiapite, were found to be most abundant at the study site. Comparisons of cation distributions in salts with those in water samples led to an hypothesis that a copiapite-rich suite precipitated from vadose-zone groundwater that was brought to the surface by evaporative forcing. The copiapite-rich suite, which contained larger concentrations of aluminum, calcium and zinc than the melanterite-rozenite-szomolnokite mineral suite, was the primary source of solutes in captured storm runoff. An analysis of samples collected during a summer thunderstorm indicated that the chemistry of surface runoff varied little with time or with distance downstream. The cation distributions in samples of groundwater indicated that iron-rich pore waters observed near the surface in late autumn may have influenced water chemistry in the deeper portions of the unsaturated zone during the 1989 recharge season. The results of this study show that the solutes produced by the two observed salt suites can be distinguished by their mole percent iron and that the source-product relationships can explain observed variability in mine drainage chemistry at the study site

  3. Pattern of accumulation of inorganic elements in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) plants subjected to salt stress and exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

    Influence of a potential plant growth regulator, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the pattern of accumulation of some key inorganic elements in salt-stressed sunflower plants was observed under greenhouse conditions. Two cultivars of sunflower viz., Hysun-33 and S-278 were grown under non-saline and saline (150 mM NaCl) regimes in sand culture. After two weeks of salt treatment, all plants were subjected to four (0 (no spray), 20, 50 and 80 mg L/sup -1/) levels of 5-ALA as a foliar spray for 14 days. Shoot fresh and dry matter of both sunflower cultivars was markedly reduced due to salt stress. Of different inorganic ions, Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ in leaf, stem and root tissues increased markedly while, K/sup +/, and Ca/sup 2+/ in all these tissues reduced under the saline regime. However, salt stress did not alter the leaf, stem or root P as well as root K/sup +/ /Na//sup +/ ratio. Foliar-applied ALA improved growth under normal (non-saline) and saline conditions, and 20 and 80 mg L/sup -1/ levels of 5-ALA were relatively more effective than the other levels used in this study. Of nutrient accumulation, 5-ALA altered only root Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ and root K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio e.g., root Na/sup +/ was lower at 50 mg L/sup -1/, while root K/sup +/and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio were higher at 80 mg L/sup -1/. In contrast, accumulation of all other ions in plant organs remained unaffected. Overall, foliar-applied 5-ALA did not alter the accumulation of different nutrients in different plant parts except root Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio in both sunflower cultivars. (author)

  4. Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium Fluoride, Xylitol and Metals Salts on in Vitro Growth Inhibition, Acid Production and Ultrastructure of Streptococcus mutans

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), dietary sugars, sugar alcohols (xylitol and sorbitol) and different metals salts either separately or in combination, by different concentrations at different ph, on the growth inhibition, acid production and ultra structure of Streptococcus mutans. NaF was more effective at low ph, when NaF was added to actively growing Streptococcus mutans broth culture, the growth rate was unaffected by 75 ppm F-, slowed by 150 ppm F-, and immediately arrested by 300 or 600 ppm F-. On the other hand, the best effect of xylitol was at high ph. The effect of xylitol was more marked in the presence of NaF as the acid production was inhibited and the ph did not fall to 5.0. The response of Streptococcus mutans to metals salts was typical of this organism's response to a number of trace metals above optimum concentrations of which may be inhibitory. Synergistic effect observed by addition of metals salts by concentration ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 mML-1, 300 ppm NaF and 5% xylitol. This formula can work at any ph value and causes no drop of the broth culture ph to below 5.0 which is the optimal ph for growth and multiplication of Streptococcus mutans, so this formula worked as ph buffer regulation and growth inhibition for S. mutans. Low concentration of this combined formula after 5 min only at 5.0 and 7.0 ph values caused effective complete destruction of the bacterial viable cells and this effect was observed clearly by Electron Microscope photo graph

  5. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Risk After Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gadoxetate Disodium in Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Impairment

    Lauenstein, Thomas; Ramirez-Garrido, Francisco; Kim, Young Hoon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ricke, Jens; Phongkitkarun, Sith; Boettcher, Joachim; Gupta, Rajan T.; Korpraphong, Pornpim; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Furtner, Julia; Liu, Peter S.; Henry, Maren; Endrikat, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed. PMID:25756684

  6. ANALYSIS OF BETAMETHASONE DISODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION AND OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY HPLC, KINETIC INTERPRETATION AND DETERMINATION OF SHELF LIFE

    A. Ghanbarpour

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in therapeutics in different formulations. Betamethasone disodium phosphate is one of the most soluble of the adrenocorticosteroidal agents. It is therefore very suitable for intravenous use and particularly for ophthalmic formulations."nAcceleration method is used to determine expiration date of aqueous formulations manufactured in Iran.

  7. Effects of Resources Exploitation on Water Quality: case studies in Salt Water Intrusion and Acid Mine Drainage

    Kralj, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, pressures on water resources are increasing, mainly as a result of human activity. Because of their accessibility, groundwater and surface water are the most used reservoirs. The evaluation of the water quality requires the identification of the interconnections among the water reservoirs, natural landscape features, human activities and aquatic health. This study focuses on the estimation of the water pollution linked to two different environmental issues: salt water...

  8. Assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of contrast-enhanced US and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Taira, Junichi; Imai, Yasuharu [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo (Japan); Shiraishi, Junji [School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saito, Kazuhiro; Saguchi, Toru [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    To compare contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodule (DN), with CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) as the reference standard. This study included 54 consecutively diagnosed patients, with 57 histologically confirmed HCCs and 3 DNs (high-grade). All patients underwent CE ultrasound, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and CTHA. Two trained diagnostic radiologists interpreted the CTHA images and rated the degree of intratumoral arterial vascularity by consensus using a five-point confidence scale as the reference standard. In the observer study, the degrees of vascularity on CE ultrasound and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR images were qualitatively analysed by four independent readers using a five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracies of the average area under the ROC curve (AUC) were significantly greater with CE ultrasound (average AUC: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.00) than with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging (average AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, P = 0.0014). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound yields a significantly higher AUC value than gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of HCC and DN. Key Points circle Arterial hypervascularity is an important feature determining treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma. circle It can be assessed by contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. circle CE ultrasound was more accurate than Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI in assessing intratumoral vascularity. circle Hypovascular hepatic nodules should be further investigated using CE ultrasound. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of contrast-enhanced US and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging

    To compare contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodule (DN), with CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) as the reference standard. This study included 54 consecutively diagnosed patients, with 57 histologically confirmed HCCs and 3 DNs (high-grade). All patients underwent CE ultrasound, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and CTHA. Two trained diagnostic radiologists interpreted the CTHA images and rated the degree of intratumoral arterial vascularity by consensus using a five-point confidence scale as the reference standard. In the observer study, the degrees of vascularity on CE ultrasound and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR images were qualitatively analysed by four independent readers using a five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracies of the average area under the ROC curve (AUC) were significantly greater with CE ultrasound (average AUC: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.00) than with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging (average AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, P = 0.0014). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound yields a significantly higher AUC value than gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of HCC and DN. Key Points circle Arterial hypervascularity is an important feature determining treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma. circle It can be assessed by contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. circle CE ultrasound was more accurate than Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI in assessing intratumoral vascularity. circle Hypovascular hepatic nodules should be further investigated using CE ultrasound. (orig.)

  10. Enhanced inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes by exposure to 405 nm light under sub-lethal temperature, salt and acid stress conditions.

    McKenzie, Karen; Maclean, Michelle; Timoshkin, Igor V; MacGregor, Scott J; Anderson, John G

    2014-01-17

    The antimicrobial effects of 405 nm light have generated interest in its use as an emerging disinfection technology with potential food-related applications. The aim of this study was to assess the bactericidal efficacy of 405 nm light for inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes under sub-lethally stressed environmental conditions. Bacteria were exposed to 405 nm light from a light emitting diode (LED) array under various temperature, salt (NaCl) and acid conditions to determine if bacterial susceptibility to 405 nm light inactivation is affected when exposed under these conditions. Non-stressed bacterial populations (10(5) CFU/mL) were exposed to increasing doses of 405 nm light (~70 mW/cm(2)) and the inactivation results were compared with those generated under stress conditions. Bacteria were held at various temperatures (4°C, 22°C and 45°C), acid concentrations (pH3, 3.5 and 7) and salt concentrations (0%, 0.8%, 10% and 15% NaCl), and simultaneously exposed to 405 nm light. Enhanced inactivation of both E. coli and L. monocytogenes was achieved when light exposure was combined with each of the sub-lethal stresses, with significantly increased inactivation rates compared to non-stressed populations (P≤0.05). One exception was with L. monocytogenes when light-exposed in the presence of 15% salt, as this combination reduced bacterial inactivation. The greatest enhancement of 405 nm light inactivation for both bacterial species was achieved when light exposure was combined with sub-lethal acid stress conditions at pH3. This was demonstrated by a 5-log10 reduction of E. coli following a 405 nm light dose of 84 J/cm(2) compared to 378 J/cm(2) for non-stressed populations (77% reduction in dose) and by a 5-log10 reduction of L. monocytogenes achieved with a dose of 42 J/cm(2) which corresponded to 50% of the dose required for the equivalent reduction of non-stressed populations. This acid-enhanced 405 nm light inactivation effect was

  11. An Infrared spectroscopic study on divalent metal salt of p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA(CA)) tetracyanonickelate complexes

    Infrared spectra of MLNi (CN)4 (M= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, or Cd and L=Divalent metal of p-aminobenzoic acid ABA(Ca)) are reported. Their structure consists of polymeric layers of (M-Ni(CN)4) with divalent metal of p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA(Ca)) molecules bound directly to the metal (M). The wavenumbers are compared between divalent metal of p-aminobenzoic acid ABA(Mg) and ABA(Ca)

  12. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG and apolipoprotein B (apo B secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Draining and salting as responsible key steps in the generation of the acid-forming potential of cheese: Application to a soft blue-veined cheese.

    Gore, Ecaterina; Mardon, Julie; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-09-01

    A disregarded nutritional feature of cheeses is their high acid-forming potential when ingested, which is associated with deleterious effects on consumers' health. This work aimed to characterize the acid-forming potential of a blue-veined cheese during manufacturing to identify the main steps of the process involved in this phenomenon. Sampling was performed on 3 batches at 10 steps of the cheese-making process: reception of raw milk, pasteurization, maturation of milk, coagulation, stirring, draining of the curds, and 4 ripening stages: 21, 28, 42, and 56d. The acid-forming potential of each sample was evaluated by (1) the calculation of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) index (considering protein, Cl, P, Na, K, Mg, and Ca contents), and (2) its organic anion content (lactate and citrate), considered as alkalinizing elements. Draining and salting were identified as the main steps responsible for generation of the acid-forming potential of cheese. The draining process induced an increase in the PRAL index from 1.2mEq/100g in milk to 10.4mEq/100g in drained curds due to the increase in dry matter and the loss of alkaline minerals into the whey. The increase in PRAL value (20.3mEq/100g at d 56) following salting resulted from an imbalance between the strong acidogenic elements (Cl, P, and proteins) and the main alkalinizing ones (Na and Ca). Particularly, Cl had a major effect on the PRAL value. Regarding organic anions, draining induced a loss of 93% of the citrate content in initial milk. The lactate content increased as fermentation occurred (1,297.9mg/100g in drained curds), and then decreased during ripening (519.3mg/100g at d 56). This lactate level probably helps moderate the acidifying potential of end products. Technological strategies aimed at limiting the acid-forming potential of cheeses are proposed and deserve further research to evaluate their nutritional relevance. PMID:27344382

  14. 化妆品中7种抗生素及地塞米松磷酸钠和水杨酸的高效液相色谱测定法%Determination of 7 Kinds of Antibiotics, Dexamethasone Phosphate Disodium Salt and Salicylic Acid in Anti-acne Cosmetics by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    杨艳伟; 朱英; 张卫强; 袁韧

    2006-01-01

    目的建立祛痘除螨类化妆品中7种抗生素、1种糖皮质激素(地塞米松磷酸钠)和水杨酸同时测定的高效液相色谱法.方法采用C18色谱柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),以甲醇:乙腈:0.01 mol/L草酸=11:22:67(体积比)为流动相,流速为0.8 ml/min,检测波长为240和268 nm,柱温为25℃,在此色谱条件下进行检测.结果该方法各组分检出限为0.1~5 mg/L,线性范围为10~600mg/L,RSD≤2.58%,加标回收率为99.1%~126.3%.结论该法操作简便、准确、快速,能够检测祛痘除螨类化妆品中7种抗生素以及地塞米松磷酸钠和水杨酸的含量.

  15. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on the growth of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in vitro.

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Nozomu; Inoue, Miyuki; Sato, Kozue; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG. PMID:16595921

  16. Effect of disodium cromoglycate on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions.

    Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Jung-Sook; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Park, Rae-Kil; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-04-23

    We investigated the effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. DSCG inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 dose-dependently. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 71.6% by oral administration of DSCG (1 g/kg). When DSCG was pretreated at concentration rang from 0.01-1000 g/kg, the serum histamine levels were reduced in a dose dependent manner. DSCG also significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cell (RPMC) by compound 48/80. We confirmed that DSCG inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of RPMC by alcian blue/nuclear fast red staining. In addition, DSCG showed a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that DSCG inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction. PMID:15050425

  17. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility. PMID:12967589

  18. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P.; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A.

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N ), and columnar (also called M ) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  19. Synthesis of Phosphocreatine Disodium%磷酸肌酸钠的合成

    练美华

    2013-01-01

    肌酐经三氯氧磷磷酰化制得二氯代磷酸肌酐,用碳酸氢钠部分水解得磷酸肌酐钠,再经氢氧化钠水解开环得到磷酸肌酸钠,总收率约51%.%Phosphocreatine disodium was synthesized from creatinine by phosphorylation to obtain N-(4,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4-oxo-1H-imidazo-2-y1) aminophosphonic dichloride,which was subjected to hydrolysis with sodium bicarbonate and then cleavage of the lactam cycle in the presence of sodium hydroxide with an overall yield of about 51%and purity of 99.65 %.

  20. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in full- and low-sodium frankfurters at 4, 7, or 10°C using spray-dried mixtures of organic acid salts.

    Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon

    2013-09-01

    In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (∼4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats. PMID:23992500

  2. Effects of Orally Administered Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Dry Skin Conditions in Mice and Healthy Female Subjects.

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kamimura, Ayako; Watanabe, Fumiko; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Etsushi; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme involved in the redox-cycling system. The supplemental use of PQQ has been examined based on its properties as an antioxidant and redox modulator. Although an animal study on deficiency of PQQ suggested that PQQ contributes to skin conditions, its efficacy in humans has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of orally administered PQQ on skin moisture, viscoelasticity, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both in dry skin mouse models and in healthy female subjects with a subjective symptom of dry skin. In our dry skin mouse model study, oral intake of PQQ (0.0089%, w/w, in the diet for 6 wk) significantly decreased the number of mast cells in the dermis and the number of CD3⁺ T-cells in the epidermis. In our human study, oral intake of PQQ (20 mg/d for 8 wk) significantly inhibited the increase in TEWL on the forearm. Finally, subject questionnaires showed positive impressions for the improvement of skin conditions. These results suggest that oral intake of PQQ improves skin conditions both in female subjects with dry skin and in mice with a compromised skin barrier function. PMID:26226961

  3. The pepper late embryogenesis abundant protein CaLEA1 acts in regulating abscisic acid signaling, drought and salt stress response.

    Lim, Chae Woo; Lim, Sohee; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-08-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Among the various abiotic stresses, osmotic stress is one of the most important factors for growth and significantly reduces crop productivity in agriculture. Here, we report a function of the CaLEA1 protein in the defense responses of plants to osmotic stress. Our analyses showed that the CaLEA1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves exposed to drought and increased salinity. Furthermore, we determined that the CaLEA1 protein has a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)_3 homolog domain highly conserved among other known group 5 LEA proteins and is localized in the processing body. We generated CaLEA1-silenced peppers and CaLEA1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to dehydration and high salinity. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLEA1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced sensitivity to drought and salt stresses, which was accompanied by high levels of lipid peroxidation in dehydrated and NaCl-treated leaves. CaLEA1-OX plants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination and in the seedling stage; furthermore, these plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stress than the wild-type plants because of enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Collectively, our data suggest that CaLEA1 positively regulates drought and salinity tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling. PMID:25302464

  4. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid/Poly(vinyl alcohol IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release

    Jingqiong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified poly(aspartic acid/poly(vinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550 and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN, and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  5. Liquid-vapor distribution of some amines and acid-ionization constants of their ammonium salts in high temperature aqueous systems

    Ammonia and volatile organic amines are used to treat the water in steam generating systems to afford protection of the steam and feedwater circuits from corrosion by acidic condensate. The base strength and the volatility of the reagent used are two important parameters that have bearing on its ability to inhibit corrosion; they determine the pH of the solution produced from condensing steam. The distribution of thirteen amines between water and steam in the temperature range 150 to 325 degree C was studied. The amines were chosen on the basis of their known room temperature base strength. The acid ionization constants (Ka) of the ammonium salts of seven of these amines were determined by conductivity measurement in the temperature range 25 to 275 degree C. Amines with high room temperature base strength and distribution coefficient in the optimum range were chosen for the high-temperature base strength determination. The results of these studies were used to estimate the effectiveness of these amines in raising the pH of the condensate from steam containing carbon dioxide and acetic acid in order to provide the basis for further studies on the corrosion inhibition properties of the amines

  6. In vitro release control of ketoprofen from pH-sensitive gels consisting of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) and saturated fatty acid sodium salts

    Negishi, M.; Hiroki, A.; Miyajima, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Katakai, R.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of saturated fatty acid sodium salts (C n), sodium laurate (C 12), sodium myristate (C 14), sodium palmitate (C 16), and sodium stearate (C 18), on the swelling of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (A-ProOMe) gel was investigated in different pH solutions. The C n-loaded gels collapsed in a buffer solution with pH 3.0, while they expanded in a buffer solution with pH 6.5. This effect was strongly influenced by the number of methylene units in C n, as the threshold for causing this sensitivity existed between C 12 and C 14. On the other hand, a pulsatile release of ketoprofen occurred when the gel was cycled in buffer solutions between pH 3.0 and pH 6.5. This behavior may be attributable to the surface-regulated mechanism.

  7. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Smith, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinucle...

  8. The effect of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid sodium salt on the germination and growth of cereal grains and seedlings and on the development of pathogenic fungi

    Jan Michalczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid was studied in the context of its possible use as a systemic fungicide and, concurrently, as a source of physiologically active iron fur crop plants. It was found that this metallocene was taken up by maize seedlings growing in liquid mediums, and used for chlorophyll synthesis, in a concentration range as low as 0.05-0.08 mM dm-3. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.5 mM dm-3, it inhibited germination, seedling growth and Y-amylase activity while it stimulated the activities of proteinases, catalase and peroxidase. When sprayed on cereal leaves at a concentration of 1.0-2.0 mM dm-3, it exhibited fungicidal properties: inhibition of fungus development without harming cereal plant leaves and stimulated chlorophyll synthesis.

  9. Preparation of Poly[Styrene(ST)-co-Allyloxy-2-Hydroxypropane Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt(COPS-I)] Colloidal Crystalline Photonic Crystals.

    Choo, Hun Seung; Lee, Ki Chang

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal crystalline photonic crystals using highly monodisperse poly[Styrene(ST)-co-Allyloxy-2-hydroxypropane sulfonic acid sodium salt(COPS-I)] microspheres were prepared to study their optical properties under visible light. For this purpose, a series of surfactant-free emulsion copolymerizations was carried out at various reaction conditions such as the changes of ST/COPS-I ratio, polymerization temperature, KPS initiator and DVB crosslinker concentration. All the latices showed highly uniform spherical particles in the size range of 165-550 nm and the respective opaline structural colors from their colloidal photonic crystals. It is found that the changes in such polymerization factors greatly affect the number of particles and particle diameter, polymerization rate, molecular weight, zeta-potential, and refractive indices. PMID:26726395

  10. Extraction of uranium from anomaly ores no 1,6,8 in salt domes of Bandar Abbas region using column leaching by seawater in sulfuric acid medium

    Column leaching is one of the experimental methods which is used for identifying the specifications of uranium ores. From the efficiency point of view, the process has some complications and usually it is applied in parallel with the conventional leaching process in order to facilitate of finding an appropriate design and operational method, to be applicable in an large practical scale. In this research work, at the first stage, the existed free chlorine in the samples was washed out using seawater. Then, in a process of acid leaching with seawater and sulfuric acid by the use of the column leaching was applied. The results show that the maximum of 85% of uranium from the ore of Anomali ≠1 is extracted. The extra residual of the used acid dose not react with the uranium and therefore it will increase the free acidity of the leach liquor. In Anomali ≠6, the extraction efficiency of uranium is 75%, while in Anomali ≠8, using 30 periods of leaching, the efficiency is 81%. However, the maximum efficiency achievement has to be avoided by the non-economical circumstances. Based on some comparisons, it is shown that the presence of chlorine in ore will affect the efficiency. The capability of seawaterin uranium extraction from salted, compared with the normal or sweat waterhas some advantages. These include: reduction of the operational period, less acid consumption, and reduction in the ore leaching costs. Thus, the heap leaching industry is believed to be a valuable and economical method for uranium extraction, where the needs of utilizing the complicated technical facilities can be reduced. The present work is the first research project on the uranium extraction and concentration in solution containing chlorine. Our experimental results can provide a valuable pattern for the heap leaching of uranium ores design from arches shaped in the region Bandar Abbas

  11. Seven organic salts assembled from hydrogen-bonds of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O between acidic compounds and bis(benzimidazole)

    Jin, Shouwen; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xin Jun; Lin, Zhanghui; Chen, Guqing; Wang, Daqi

    2014-10-01

    Seven crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from 1,4-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)butane/1,2-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)-1,2-ethanediol and acidic components (picric acid, 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, oxalic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) were prepared and characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the seven compounds are organic salts involving proton transfer from the acidic components to the bis(benzimidazole). For the salt 3, although a competing carboxyl group is present, it has been observed that only the proton at the -SO3H group is deprotonized rather than the H at the COOH. While in the salt 7, both COOH and SO3H were ionized to exhibit a valence number of -2. For 4, the oxalic acid existed as unionized molecule, monoanion, and dianion simultaneously in one compound. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1-7 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. Since the potentially hydrogen bonding phenol group is present in the ortho position to the carboxyl group in 2, 3, and 7, it forms the more facile intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  12. Salt Effect on the Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of (Water + Propionic Acid + Cyclohexanol) System at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2) K

    Bahram Ghalami-Choobar; Ali Ghanadzadeh and Shahram Kousarimehr

    2011-01-01

    Effects of salt and temperature on the liquid phase equilibrium of the(water + propionic acid + cyclohexanol) system were investigated.The liquid-liquid equilibrium data in the presence of KCl for various salt ionic strength of 0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,and 2.5 mol·dm3 and in absence of the salt at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2)K were determined.The experimental results were correlated based on the Othmer-Tobias equation and Pitzer ion-interaction model.Thermodynamic properties such as distribution coefficients and activity coefficients of propionic acid in water + cyclohexanol were determined.In addition,the separation factor,S,of the chosen solvent was obtained for the investigated system.

  13. Salt Tolerance

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the fatty acid composition of salted, semi-dried Vietnamese scad and Bombay duck

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the lipid and fatty acid composition of semi-dried Bombay duck (Harpodon nehcreus) and Vietnamese scad (Alepes mate) was studied. In both these dried fishes, c16:0 aand c18:1 were the predominant fatty acids and the fishes contained ignificant quantities of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), C20:5 and C22:6. Irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, did not cause any alterations in the total lipid content and he overall lipid class profile in these fishes. However, in the Vietnamese scad, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6 were significantly decreased in the irradiated samples. In spite of this decrease the irradiated semi-dried scad retained 82% of the initial amount of n-3 PUFAs

  15. Effect of ultrasound-assisted crystallization in the diastereomeric salt resolution of tetramisole enantiomers in ternary system with O,O'-dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Kis-Mihály, Erzsébet; Semsey, Sándor; Pataki, Hajnalka; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Marosi, György; Pokol, György; Fogassy, Elemér; Madarász, János

    2016-09-01

    The diastereomeric salt resolution of racemic tetramisole was studied using ultrasound irradiation. We examined the effect of power and duration of ultrasonic irradiation on the properties of the crystalline phase formed by ultrasound-assisted crystallization and the result of the whole optical resolution. The results were compared with reference experiment without using ultrasound. The US time (5-30min) caused higher enantiomeric excess. Although yield was lower continuously high resolving efficiency could have been reached through ultrasound. We had the best results with 4.3W ultrasound power when resolvability was even higher than the best of reference. Furthermore, we accomplished a deep and thorough examination of the salts that possibly could form in this resolution. One of the four diastereomeric salts, which have been identified by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR-spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the ternary system of the two tetramisole enantiomers and the resolving agent, namely the bis[(S)-tetramisole]-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-tartrate salt have been proven the key compound in the resolution process, and presented the highest melting point of 166°C (dec.) among the four salts. The originally expected diastereomeric bitartrate salts with 1:1M base:acid ratio [(S)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt and (R)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] and their 'racemic' co-crystal [(RS)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] showed somewhat lower melting points (152, 145, and 150°C, respectively) and their crystallization was also prevented by application of ultrasound. Based on the melting points and enthalpies of fusion measured by DSC, all the binary and ternary phase diagrams have been newly established and calculated in the system with help of classical modelling equations of liquidus curves. PMID:27150740

  16. Synthesis of Racemic Bis[2-(6-fluoro-2-chromanyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-amine Methanesulfonic Acid Salt Using Lithium Aluminum Amide as a Promoter in Regioselective Ring Opening of Epoxide

    Yun Xu YANG; Nai Xing WANG; Ya Lan XING; Wu Wei WANG; Jia ZHAO; Gui Xia WANG; Shi TANG

    2005-01-01

    Lithium aluminium amide [LiAl(NHR)4] 5 obtained by treating the primary amine 4 with LiAlH4 could promote the ring opening of epoxide 2 and led to high regioselective product of racemic bis[2-(6-fluoro-2-chromanyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amine methanesulfonic acid salt 7.

  17. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  18. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Disodium in Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Li-jun Di; Jun Ren; Ying Yan; Feng-ling Wan; Guo-gong Song; Jing Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate disodium in patients with bone lesions secondary to advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 62 patients receiving intravenous pamidronate disodium for metastatic breast cancer. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one skeletal related event (SRE) after 12 months of therapy was determined.Results: The proportion of patients who had an SRE was 29.00% (18 individuals) and the median time to first event was greater than 350 days. Radiotherapy(11 individuals)and pathologic fracture(6 individuals)were the most frequent type of SRE, while cord compression(1 individuals) and hypercalcaemia(0 individuals) were rare. A total of 37 individuals had transient hypocalcaemia without any clinical symptom. No significant creatinine abnormalities were encountered. There were no clinically relevant changes of calcium ,phosphate and creatinine before and after therapy.Conclusion: Long-term treatment with pamidronate disodium significantly reduces and delays skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases . Prolonged therapy was well tolerated. This study suggests that the rate of clinically relevant SREs is substantially lower than the event rate observed in phase III clinical trials.

  19. Influence of cation nature of dialkyl phosphoric acid salts on stratification and interphase tension of extraction systems

    The influence of cation nature on interphase surface activity of DBPA salts in the system: n-dodecane-MeOH solution, where Me-Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, has been studied. It is shown that adsorption work practically does not vary in the series of equimolar solutions of the above-mentioned hydroxides and increases with hydroxide concentration growth in aqueous phase for all the cations mentioned, except NH4+. Area occupied by surfactant molecules in the interface increases insignificantly with the growth of cation hydration degree when passing from K+ to Li+. Stratification of extractant irradiated by the dose of 5.4x104 Gy and non-irradiated one in system with aqueous solutions of MeOH is investigated. It is ascertained that stratification rates are determined by the factors affecting the distribution in the system of ionogenic surfactants-decomposition products of extractant and diluent, as well as by the difference in the phase densities and, to a less degree, by the values of interphase tension. The highest stratification rates are observed in systems with LiOH and CsOH

  20. Effects of nisin, EDTA and salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and native microflora on fresh vacuum packaged shrimps stored at 4 °C.

    Wan Norhana, M N; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    Nisin (500 IU ml⁻¹), EDTA (0.02 M), potassium sorbate (PS) (3%, w/v), sodium benzoate (SB) (3%, w/v) or sodium diacetate (SD) (3%, w/v); alone or in combination were used to dip uninoculated shrimps and shrimps inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella (∼4.0-5.0 log CFU g⁻¹). Shrimps were then drip-dried, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Untreated shrimps were used as a control. Numbers of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella and native background microflora were determined on uninoculated and inoculated shrimps on days 0, 3 and 7. Nisin-EDTA-PS and nisin-EDTA-SD significantly reduced (p 0.05) Salmonella counts on shrimps throughout storage. On day 7, numbers of aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas on combined nisin-EDTA-salt of organic acids treated shrimps were significantly lower (p < 0.05) by 4.40-4.60, 3.50-4.01, and 3.84-3.99 log CFU g⁻¹ respectively, as compared to the control. Dipping in organic acids solutions followed by vacuum packaging and chilled storage can help reduce L. monocytogenes and native microflora, but not Salmonella, on fresh shrimps. PMID:22475941

  1. Cs salt of tungstophosphoric acid-promoted zirconium titanium phosphate solid acid catalyst: An active catalyst for the synthesis of bisphenols

    Niranjan Biswal; Dipti Prakasini Das; Kulamani Parida

    2014-03-01

    A series of novel CsTPA-ZTP ( = 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 wt%) solid acid composite catalysts were synthesized by ion-exchange process using cesium nitrate, tungstophosphoric acid (TPA), zirconium titanium phosphate (ZTP) with varied surface areas, acidities and microstructures. Detailed characterizations of the composite catalysts were done by Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, N2 adsorption desorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD).We have studied the catalytic activities, kinetics and reusability of the catalysts. 60CsTPA-ZTP is found to be an effective and re-usable catalyst for the synthesis of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) using acetonitrile as solvent.

  2. The effect of vehicle on physical properties and aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromoglycate microparticles spray dried alone or with L-leucine.

    Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Barghi, Mohammadali; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the aerosolisation behaviour of disodium cromogycate (DSCG), using spray drying technique. The effect of vehicle on the drug particle properties was investigated. L-leucine was selected as a natural antiadherent amino acid to improve the deagglomeration of DSCG particles. Spray dried samples of DSCG alone or with L-leucine were prepared from water and ethanol under the same conditions. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, helium densitometer, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The in vitro deposition was determined, using an Andersen cascade impactor with a Spinhaler at a flow rate of 60 l/min. An amorphous form of the drug was obtained when water was used. However, crystal transformation of original DSCG in the presence of ethanol during spray drying resulted in production of elongated particles. These particles exhibited improved aerodynamic properties, compared to the amorphous and commercial materials. Significant differences in fine particle fraction were observed using the two vehicles. Co-spray drying of DSCG and L-leucine improved the deposition profiles of the drug. These results indicated that the change in crystal structure of DSCG during spray drying process was susceptible to the nature of the vehicle. A crystalline form of DSCG with good aerodynamic properties was achieved during spray drying process. In addition, the processing of DSCG with L-leucine in a single step using ethanol resulted in an improvement in dispersion properties of the drug particles. PMID:15488683

  3. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: a new perspective.

    Delgado, Joaquín; Pérez-López, Rafael; Galván, Laura; Nieto, José Miguel; Boski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (E(MREE)) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of E(MREE)>0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the E(MREE) may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods. PMID:22748838

  4. Enrichment of rare earth elements as environmental tracers of contamination by acid mine drainage in salt marshes: A new perspective

    Rare earth elements (REE) were analyzed in surface sediments from the Guadiana Estuary (SW Iberian Pyrite Belt). NASC (North American Shale Composite) normalized REE patterns show clearly convex curvatures in middle-REE (MREE) with respect to light- and heavy-REE, indicating acid-mixing processes between fluvial waters affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) and seawater. However, REE distributions in the mouth (closer to the coastal area) show slightly LREE-enriched and flat patterns, indicating saline-mixing processes typical of the coastal zone. NASC-normalized ratios (La/Gd and La/Yb) do not discriminate between both mixing processes in the estuary. Instead, a new parameter (EMREE) has been applied to measure the curvature in the MREE segment. The values of EMREE > 0 are indicative of acid signatures and their spatial distribution reveal the existence of two decantation zones from flocculation processes related to drought periods and flood events. Studying REE fractionation through the EMREE may serve as a good proxy for AMD-pollution in estuarine environments in relation to the traditional methods.

  5. Effects of whole flaxseed, raw soybeans, and calcium salts of fatty acids on measures of cellular immune function of transition dairy cows.

    Gandra, J R; Barletta, R V; Mingoti, R D; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Oliveira, L J; Takiya, C S; Kfoury, J R; Wiltbank, M C; Renno, F P

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental n-3 and n-6 fatty acid (FA) sources on cellular immune function of transition dairy cows. Animals were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (n-3 FA source; n=11), 60 and 80g/kg of whole flaxseed [diet dry matter (DM) basis] during pre- and postpartum, respectively; whole raw soybeans (n-6 FA source; n=10), 120 and 160g/kg of whole raw soybeans (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated FA (Megalac-E, n-6 FA source; n=10), 24 and 32g/kg of calcium salts of unsaturated FA (diet DM basis) during pre- and postpartum, respectively. Supplemental FA did not alter DM intake and milk yield but increased energy balance during the postpartum period. Diets containing n-3 and n-6 FA sources increased phagocytosis capacity of leukocytes and monocytes and phagocytosis activity of monocytes. Furthermore, n-3 FA source increased phagocytic capacity of leukocytes and neutrophils and increased phagocytic activity in monocytes and neutrophils when compared with n-6 FA sources. Supplemental FA effects on adaptive immune system included increased percentage of T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells, cells that expressed IL-2 receptors, and CD62 adhesion molecules. The results of this study suggest that unsaturated FA can modulate innate and adaptive cellular immunity and trigger a proinflammatory response. The n-3 FA seems to have a greater effect on phagocytic capacity and activity of leukocytes when compared with n-6 FA. PMID:27060809

  6. Analysis of organic acid salts of marine carbonate rocks in Tarim Basin%塔里木盆地海相碳酸盐岩中有机酸盐的分析

    孙敏卓; 孟仟祥; 郑建京; 王国仓; 房嬛; 王作栋

    2013-01-01

    提出热重/差热(TG/DTA)、红外光谱(IR)和气相色谱/质谱联用结合(GC/MS)分析塔里木盆地海相碳酸盐岩中有机酸盐的方法.用TG/DTA对标样(硬脂酸、硬脂酸镁、硬脂酸钙和碳酸钙)进行分析,确定有机酸气化而有机酸盐不气化的温度区间,由此设计从碳酸盐岩中分离和提取有机酸盐的实验步骤.研究结果表明:验证碳酸盐岩中确实存在有机酸盐;塔里木盆地海相碳酸盐岩中有机酸盐的含量与样品中的碳酸盐含量无相关性,而与样品的沉积相类型具有一定的相关性,即斜坡相沉积环境的沉积岩中相对富集有机酸盐.%A method was developed for the determination of the organic acid salts of marine carbonate rocks in Tarim Basin by the thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).By analyzing the guide sample such as the stearic acid, the magnesium stearate, the calcium stearate and the calcium carbonate by TG/DTA, the temperature range where the organic acid was gasificated while the organic acid salt wasn't gasificated were defined, and thereby the experimental procedures for separating and extracting the organic acid salt from the carbonatite rock was designed.The results show that the organic acid salt exists in carbonatite rock by using the infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The quantity of the organic acid salts of marine carbonate rocks in Tarim Basin is insignificantly correlated with the carbonate content of samples, but it is correlated with the types of sedimentary facies of samples, namely relative enrichment of the organic acid salts in sedimentary strata of the slope facies sedimentary environment.

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of EDTA, calcium disodium EDTA, diammonium EDTA, dipotassium EDTA, disodium EDTA, TEA-EDTA, tetrasodium EDTA, tripotassium EDTA, trisodium EDTA, HEDTA, and trisodium HEDTA.

    Lanigan, Rebecca S; Yamarik, Torill A

    2002-01-01

    EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) and its salts are substituted diamines. HEDTA (hydroxyethyl ethylenediamine triacetic acid) and its trisodium salt are substituted amines. These ingredients function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. The typical concentration of use of EDTA is less than 2%, with the other salts in current use at even lower concentrations. The lowest dose reported to cause a toxic effect in animals was 750 mg/kg/day. These chelating agents are cytotoxic and weakly genotoxic, but not carcinogenic. Oral exposures to EDTA produced adverse reproductive and developmental effects in animals. Clinical tests reported no absorption of an EDTA salt through the skin. These ingredients are likely, however, to affect the passage of other chemicals into the skin because they will chelate calcium. Exposure to EDTA in most cosmetic formulations, therefore, would produce systemic exposure levels well below those seen to be toxic in oral dosing studies. Exposure to EDTA in cosmetic formulations that may be inhaled, however, was a concern. An exposure assessment done using conservative assumptions predicted that the maximum EDTA dose via inhalation of an aerosolized cosmetic formulation is below that shown to produce reproductive or developmental toxicity. Because of the potential to increase the penetration of other chemicals, formulators should continue to be aware of this when combining these ingredients with ingredients that previously have been determined to be safe, primarily because they were not significantly absorbed. Based on the available data, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel found that these ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:12396676

  8. Preparation of acid salt M(HPO4)2.nH2 O thin films

    The layered crystalline powders of Titanium Phosphate with the formula Ti(HPO4)2.nH2 O (phase α when n=2, phase γ when n=1) were prepared by reaction of titanium three chloride with phosphoric acid under specific thermal conditions. Starting from these powders thin films have been prepared using some methods such as: Thermal evaporation, sol-gel and vapor phase transport. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal deferential analysis show that the temperature plays an important role in the determination of the crystalline phases and the phase transition of the prepared films. (author). 7 refs

  9. Effect of reproterol either alone or combined with disodium cromoglycate on airway responsiveness to methacholine.

    Kanniess, Frank; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-01-01

    Regular use of inhaled beta2-agonists might lead to tolerance as reflected in a loss of bronchoprotection. In vitro-data suggest that this might be prevented by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Therefore, we studied the effect of the beta2-agonist reproterol in combination with DSCG. In a cross-over design, 19 subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness inhaled either placebo, 1mg reproterol, 2 mg DSCG, or 1mg reproterol plus 2 mg DSCG 4x daily over 2 weeks. Treatment periods were separated by > or = 7 days. Before and at the end of periods, lung function and methacholine responsiveness were determined in the morning, and 6h later the bronchodilator effect and the protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Reproterol or DSCG or their combination did not exert detrimental effects on lung function, airway responsiveness, or bronchodilator capacity. However, bronchoprotection was significantly reduced (p DSCG, the respective changes being 0.59, 0.96 and 1.37 doubling concentrations. All changes were small as compared to intraindividual variability. In this model all treatments except with DSCG caused a significant but small loss of protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Thus, tolerance was not prevented by 2 weeks of additional treatment with DSCG, in contrast to in vitro findings. PMID:15939309

  10. Modification of disodium cromoglycate passage across lung epithelium in vitro via incorporation into polymeric microparticles.

    Haghi, Mehra; Salama, Rania; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using a modified twin-stage impinger showed the DSCG/PVA to have greater aerosol performance than that of DSCG alone. Aerosol particles of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were deposited onto the surface of the Calu-3 air interface epithelium monolayer and the drug uptake from apical to basal directions measured over time. Drug uptake was measured across a range of doses to allow comparison of equivalent drug and powder mass deposition. Analysis of the data indicated that the percentage cumulative drug uptake was independent of the mass of powder deposited, but dependent on the formulation. Specifically, with the formulation containing DSCG, the diffusion rate was observed to change with respect to time (indicative of a concentration-dependent diffusion process), whilst DSCG/PVA showed a time-independent drug uptake (suggesting a zero-order depot release). PMID:22203523

  11. Disodium cromoglycate attenuates hypoxia induced enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume in rats.

    Maxová, H; Hezinová, A; Vízek, M

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism responsible for the enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) induced by chronic hypoxia remains unclear. The fact that the increase in EELV persists after return to normoxia suggests involvement of morphological changes. Because hypoxia has been also shown to activate lung mast cells, we speculated that they could play in the mechanism increasing EELV similar role as in vessel remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We, therefore, tested an effect of mast cells degranulation blocker disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on hypoxia induced EELV enlargement. Ventilatory parameters, EELV and right to left heart weight ratio (RV/LV+S) were measured in male Wistar rats. The experimental group (H+DSCG) was exposed to 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia and treated with DSCG during the first four days of hypoxia, control group was exposed to hypoxia only (H), two others were kept in normoxia as non-treated (N) and treated (N+DSCG) groups. DSCG treatment significantly attenuated the EELV enlargement (H+DSCG = 6.1+/-0.8; H = 9.2+/-0.9; ml +/-SE) together with the increase in minute ventilation (H + DSCG = 190+/-8; H = 273 +/- 10; ml/min +/- SE) and RV/LV + S (H + DSCG = 0.39 +/- 0.03; H = 0.50 +/- 0.06). PMID:22106819

  12. Phase behavior of chromonic liquid crystal mixtures of Sunset Yellow and Disodium Cromoglycate

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) are formed when planar molecules dissolved in water stack into rod-like aggregates that can order as liquid crystals. Isotropic, nematic, and M-phases can be observed depending on the degree of molecular orientational and positional order by variation of the CLC concentration. We focused on mixtures of two well-known CLCs, Sunset Yellow, a food dye, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an asthma medication. In order to study the phase behaviors of these mixtures, we observed their textures in glass cells and capillaries using polarized light microscopy. We report here a ternary phase diagram describing the complete phase behavior of the CLC mixtures. We observed a variety of phase behaviors depending on species ratio and concentration. In the isotropic phase, no clear phase separation of the two dyes was observed, while separation did occur in many nematic and M-phase combinations. We will also describe phase observations made using a light spectroscopy and bulk centrifugal partitioning. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820579.

  13. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of disodium cromoglycate on influenza virus infection.

    Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Tsujii, Eisaku; Hiroi, Jun; Mano, Eriko; Miyatake, Akihiko; Miyamoto, Daisei; Suzuki, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2004-06-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is one of the safest drugs for the prevention of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis attacks. The effect of DSCG on acute upper respiratory tract viral infection is still controversial. Here we investigated DSCG inhibition of influenza virus infection in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects of DSCG on viral infection were assessed using a murine model of respiratory tract infection. Intranasal administration of DSCG protected mice from death induced by infection with influenza virus A/PR/8/34. We analyzed DSCG anti-viral effects in vitro by either (i) treating cells prior to viral adsorption, (ii) treating cells concurrently with viral adsorption, or (iii) treating cells after viral adsorption. DSCG treatment of cells during or after, but not before, viral adsorption significantly inhibited influenza viral infection, indicating DSCG acts on events late in viral infection. DSCG exerts anti-influenza effect both in vitro and in vivo at the doses compatible with treatment for asthma. DSCG marginally inhibited influenza viral neuraminidase and membrane fusion functions, suggesting that DSCG inhibition of viral neuraminidase and fusion activities may partially mediate this anti-influenza effect. Our results indicate that treatment of patients including children with DSCG may take advantages for prevention from influenza virus infection. PMID:15187427

  14. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  15. Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure

    Carsten D. Ley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP is a vascular-disruptive agent that causes an abrupt decrease in tumor blood flow. The direct actions of CA4DP include increases in vascular permeability and destabilization of the endothelial cytoskeleton, which are thought to contribute to occlusion of the tumor vasculature. It has been proposed that increased permeability causes a transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP, which in turn could collapse intratumoral blood vessels. We examined the immediate effects of CA4DP on tumor IFP in C3H mammary carcinoma. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg CA4DP by intraperitoneal injection. Tumor perfusion was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at separate time points, and IFP was recorded continuously by the wickin-needle method. In this study, we found that CA4DP treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor perfusion, followed by a decrease in IFP; no increases in IFP were observed. This suggests that CA4DP-induced reductions in tumor perfusion are not dependent on increases in IFP.

  16. Phase conjugation by degenerate four wave mixing in disodium fluorescein solution in methanol

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Sekhar, P. Chandra; Venkateswarlu, P.; Geroge, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic dyes are known to show the resonant type of nonlinear optical properties, including phase conjugation. In the present work, disodium fluorescein in methanol is used as an organic nonlinear medium for degenerate four wave mixing at 532 nm to see the intensity dependence of the phase conjugate signal at different concentrations of the solution. It is observed that the maximum reflectivity of the signal occurs in a concentration range of 5 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm to 1.2 x 10(exp -2) g/cu cm. It is also observed that the intensity of the signal drops suddenly to less than half of its maximum outside the concentration range mentioned above. An investigation of the phase conjugate signal intensity by changing the delay time between probe signal and the forward pump is also examined. Briefly discussed is the possibility of population grating in dye liquids as a source of enhancing the third order susceptibility besides the other techniques mentioned in reference. The experiment is done by beam splitting the second harmonic (532 nm) of Nd:YAG laser, Q-switched at 20 pulses/sec (pulse width is approximately 8 and 200 mJ per pulse).

  17. Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction.

    Wang, Yan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2009-08-01

    Pretreatments with different chemicals at different concentrations to remove Ca compounds were studied to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales. During Ca removal with HCl, citric acid, and EDTA, all 3 chemicals were able to decalcify (>90%) scales; however, protein losses with EDTA were lower than with HCl and citric acid (P EDTA for Ca removal gave a yield of 22% and a gel strength of 152 g. These data suggest that EDTA at 0.20 mol/L provides the best Ca removal with minimal collagen/gelatin removal (estimated gelatin loss was less than 0.013%) during the Ca removal step, and subsequently gave a high gelatin yield and gel strength. Fish gelatin has generally been extracted from fish skins and occasionally fish bones. This article focuses on removing the Ca compounds in fish scales and then producing fish gelatin with a good gel strength and yield. With further studies, this study may help the fish industry to have a new source of fish gelatin for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:19723178

  18. 基于不同方法测定土壤酸性磷酸酶活性的比较%Comparison of soil acid phosphatase activity determined by different methods

    李莹飞; 耿玉清; 周红娟; 杨英

    2016-01-01

    Method, edited by Songyin Guan, for measurement method of soil acid phosphatase activity based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate. In contrast, researchers outside China mainly cite the book entitled Methods of Soil Enzymology, edited by Dick, that was based on disodium p-Nitrophenyl phosphate tetrahydrate (PNPP) substrate. However, non-conspicuous coloration has existed for the measurement of products based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate. Furthermore, it has been difficult for researchers to select an optimal method for determining acid phosphatase activity since these methods use different substrates. To determine the optimal method for measuring soil acid phosphatase activity, three different methods were used to measure the acid phosphatase activity of 10 soil samples of acid, neutral and alkaline soils, respectively. The three selected methods were 1) based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate and colored using pH 5.0 acetate buffer (DPP 1);2) based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate and colored using pH 9.4 borate buffer (DPP 2) during chromogenic process;or 3) the PNPP method. Furthermore, the study analyzed the effects of different pH buffers and phenol concentrations on product absorbance. The results showed that chromogenic reaction of phenol with 2,6-dibromchinone-chlorimide was colorless within pH≤6 buffer solution with phenyl phosphate disodium salt as the substrate. In contrast, the above chromogenic reaction was observed under alkaline buffer (pH≥ 8) in all the samples. And there were significant differences in the Pearson correlation coefficient (R2) between phenol concentration and product absorbance at 0.01 level. Therefore, pH was a significant factor in determining the coloration between phenol and 2,6-dibromchinone-chlorimide. Furthermore, when acid phosphatase activity was determined using the PNPP method, the coefficient of variation of acid phosphatase activities in the 10 soil samples increased by 70

  19. Preformulation investigation of some clopidogrel addition salts:

    Benkič, Primož; Kristl, Albin; Plevnik, Miha; Ritlop, Gregor; Simonič, Igor; Smrkolj, Matej; Vrečer, Franc; Zupančič, Vinko

    2010-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties of active substances such as solubility, dissolution rate, chemical stability, pharmaceutical processibility, etc. can be improved by salt formation of active substances. Characterization of physical properties of such salts is important for selection of an optimal salt having required biopharmaceutical properties, stability and manufacturability. The present study deals with the preformulation study of selected clopidogrel acid addition salts, i.e. hydrogen sulfat...

  20. Stoichiometric C6-oxidation of hyaluronic acid by oxoammonium salt TEMPO⁺Cl⁻ in an aqueous alkaline medium.

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, Elvira A; Tyumkina, Tatyana V; Romadova, Irina V; Odinokov, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the selective oxidation of hyaluronic acid (HA) by stoichiometric quantity of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium chloride (TEMPO(+)) in aqueous alkaline medium. High efficiency of the HA oxidation and quantitative yield of carboxy-HA per starting TEMPO(+), as well as unusual behavior of the oxidation system generating an oxygen upon alkali-induced oxoammonium chloride decomposition are demonstrated. The scheme for HA oxidation involving both TEMPO(+) and oxygen produced upon the TEMPO(+)Cl(-) decomposition and/or air oxygen is proposed. For comparison, the data on stoichiometric oxidation of such substrates as dermatan sulfate, water-soluble potato starch, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside and ethanol are presented. PMID:26076602

  1. Phosphate salts

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  2. Salt cookbook

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  3. Impact of using sodium or calcium salts of fatty acids as sources of energy in buffalo rations during late gestation

    mammary adipose tissue and subsequent milk yield. Soapstock is produced from seeds oil refining processes as a by-product potentially harmful to the environment but can use it as dietary fat source. The aim of this study were to study impact of adding either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA as a energy source instead of corn grains in buffalo rations on rumen activities and performance of late pregnant buffalo. Thirty pregnant buffaloes expected to calve within 60-75 day were divided into three balanced groups. First group received the control ration consisted of concentrate diet (75% concentrate feed mixture with 25% yellow corn) plus berseem hay and rice straw. In the second and third rations, yellow corn was replaced with either Na-SFA or Ca-SFA. Chemical composition of Na-SFA, Ca- SFA and the experimental rations are presented. Content of AEE in Ca-SFA was lower than that of Na-SFA, while TFA's in Ca-SFA was higher. Incubation of teased rations in the rumen showed reduction in DM, OM and CP disappearances, also ED and PD with ration containing Na-SFA. Undegradable values increased with adding Na- SFA compared to adding Ca-SFA or control diet. As a result of foaming and physical coating of the fibre with added Na-SFA has been proposed as a possible theory for the sometimes observed depressed DM, OM and CP disappearances. Digestion coefficient of DM, OM, CP and WCS were decreased with feeding ration containing Na-SFA compared to that containing Ca-SFA, while no significant differences were found between ration containing Ca-SFA and control one. These results might be due to the effect of LCFA in Na-SFA, which reflects on rumen fermentation, and consequently affect fibre digestibility. Nutritive values as TDN and DCP were decreased (P 3-N. These results might be due to release of FFA's in the rumen when feeding Na-SFA decreased both NH3-N and TVFA's. Fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids, are antimicrobial and interfere with normal function of the ruminal microbes

  4. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  5. Phase Structure Transition and Properties of Salt-Free Phosphoric Acid/Non-ionic Surfactants in Water.

    Wang, Lihuan; Zhao, Wenrong; Dong, Renhao; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-08-23

    Precise control of phase structure transition for the synthesis of multi-dimensional soft materials is a fascinating target in amphiphilic molecule self-assembly. Here, we demonstrate a spontaneous formation of a closely packed lamellar phase consisting of uni- and multi-lamellar vesicles through the incorporation of a small amount of an extractant, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEHPA), into the highly swollen, planar lamellar phase of a non-ionic tetraethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12EO4) surfactant in water. It is figured out that the introduction of negative membrane charges results in the electrostatic repulsion among the lamellae, which suppresses the Helfrich undulation and induces a phase structure transition from planar lamellae to closely packed vesicles. Our results provide important insight into amphiphilic molecule self-assembly, where additives and pH can satisfy the opportunities for the precise tuning of the lamellar structures, which makes a way for the development of lamellar soft materials. PMID:27490998

  6. Desorption of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. using solutions of acids and their salts mixtures

    ANA A. ČUČULOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The desorption of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen was investigated using the solutions: A H2SO4–HNO3–K2SO4, B H2SO4–HNO3–Na2SO4 and C H2SO4–HNO3– (NH42SO4–(NH4NO3 at pH 2.00, 2.58, 2.87, 3.28 and 3.75, similar to acid rain. After five consecutive desorptions using solutions A, B and C, from 44.0 % (solution B, pH 3.75 to 68.8 % (solution C, pH 3.28 of 137Cs had been desorbed from the lichen. In all cases, the most successful 137Cs desorption was the first one. In the presence of K+ (solution A the total amount of desorbed 137Cs did not depend on the pH of the solution and this was confirmed by the analogous reactions of Cs+ and K+, due to their similar ionic radii. The dependencies of the non-desorbed content of 137Cs on the number of desorptions gave curves indicating that at least two types of sorption occur. One of them can be dominant if suitable desorbants are used. The results indicate lichens as secondary sources of environment pollution with 137Cs.

  7. EVALUASI IN VITRO TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN ISOLAT BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT ASAL AIR SUSU IBU UNTUK MENGASIMILASI KOLESTEROL DAN MENDEKONJUGASI GARAM EMPEDU [In Vitro Evaluation of Cholesterol Assimilation and Bile Salt Deconjugation by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Breast Milk

    Lilis Nuraida1,2*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in many countries. Several studies have shown that reduction of excessive levels of cholesterol in the blood decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop ways of reducing serum cholesterol. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, some of lactic acid bacteria (LAB having potential probiotic properties can reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of LAB isolated from breast milk in reducing cholesterol by assimilation and by bile salt deconjugation activity in vitro.Thirteen strains of LABs were evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance and selected to test their ability to assimilate cholesterol and to deconjugate bile salt (natrium taurocholate in vitro. Cholesterol assimilation activity was determined by measuring the difference between the remaining cholesterol in broth medium inoculated with LAB with cholesterol in control after incubation. Bile salt deconjugation activity was determined by measuring free cholic acid released in broth medium after incubation with LAB. The results shows that most of the isolates was susceptible to low pH and all isolates used were able to survive in the presence of 0.5% bile salt. The LAB were also able to assimilate cholesterol at varying levels ranging from 0.86-14.97 µg/ml, with the highest activity showed by Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38, Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-B2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-A16. Taurocholate deconjugation assay showed that the isolates have weak bile salts deconjugation activity as indicated by free cholic acid released ranging from 0.06-0.25 µmol/ml, with the highest release in Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A22. The present study suggest that Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 was potential for the development of probiotic products with

  8. Ditosylate Salt of Itraconazole and Dissolution Enhancement Using Cyclodextrins

    Kumar, Neeraj; Shishu; Bansal, Gulshan; Kumar, Sandeep; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation has been a promising approach for improving the solubility of poorly soluble acidic and basic drugs. The aim of the present study was to prepare the salt form of itraconazole (ITZ), a hydrophobic drug to improve the solubility and hence dissolution performance. Itraconazolium ditolenesulfonate salt (ITZDITOS) was synthesized from ITZ using acid addition reaction with p-toluenesulfonic acid. Salt characterization was performed using 1H NMR, mass spectrometry, Fourier transform i...

  9. Distribution and excretion of boron after intravenous administration of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate to rats

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is an important compound for boron neutron capture therapy. The pharmacokinetics of boron by BSH were studied in normal rats after rapid intravenous injection at three doses (30, 100, 300 mg/kg) or continuous infusion (100 mg/kg/ 30 min). The boron concentration in biological samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The blood half-lives of boron in the elimination phase (t1/2 β) after rapid injection of BSH at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg were 1.7, 17 and 19 hr, respectively. AUC (32, 219 and 4030 μg·hr/ml) increased with the dose, but there was no proportionality among the values. Total clearance decreased drastically from 233 ml/hr/kg (100 mg/kg) to 38 ml/hr/kg (300 mg/kg). As boron was excreted mainly into urine, these results suggest that renal function failure might occur with dosing of 300 mg/kg. In the case of continuous infusion of 100 mg/kg of BSH for 30 min, the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those of rapid injection of 100 mg/kg. The highest boron concentration was observed in the kidney and the lowest in the brain. After multiple dosing of BSH at 100 mg/kg/day x 14 days, the boron concentrations in blood, liver, lung and kidney at 24 hr after the last dosing were higher than those after single dosing and were similar to those of simulated values calculated from the single dosing parameters. These results clearly indicated that boron does not accumulate unexpectedly in any tissue with multiple dosing of 100 mg/kg of BSH for two weeks. (author)

  10. Effect of particle size, air flow and inhaler device on the aerosolisation of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Chew, N Y; Bagster, D F; Chan, H K

    2000-09-25

    Recently, the dispersion of mannitol powders has demonstrated the importance of particle size, air flow and inhaler device (Chew and Chan, 1999). The aim of the present study is to extend our investigation to a different compound, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) powders. Solid state characteristics of the powders were assessed by particle sizing, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, moisture content, particle density determination and freeze fracture. The aerosol behaviour of the powders was studied by dispersion using Rotahaler(R) and Dinkihaler(R), connected to a four-stage liquid impinger operating at 30-120 l/min. Three amorphous powders with a mass median diameter (MMD) of 2.3, 3.7, 5.2 microm and a similar polydispersity were prepared. The particles were nearly spherical with a particle density of 1.6 g/cm(3) and moisture content of 6.6 wt.%. Using Rotahaler(R), the maximum fine particle fraction (FPF(max)) for all three powders was only 15 wt.%, attained at the highest flow of 120 l/min. Using Dinkihaler(R), the FPF(max) was two to four times higher, being 36 and 29 wt.% for the 2.3 and 3.7 microm powder, respectively, at 60 l/min; and 18 wt.% for the 5.2 microm powder at 120 l/min. Hence, the study shows that the FPF in the DSCG powder aerosols was determined by the interaction of the particle size, air flow and inhaler design. The attribution of the amorphous nature and the different physico-chemical properties of the powder may explain the incomplete and low dispersibility of DSCG. PMID:11058812

  11. Hsp90 is a direct target of the anti-allergic drugs disodium cromoglycate and amlexanox.

    Okada, Miki; Itoh, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2003-09-01

    Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) alone can act to prevent protein aggregation and promote refolding in vitro, but in vivo it operates as a part of a multichaperone complex, which includes Hsp70 and cohort proteins. Since the physiological function of Hsp90 is not yet fully understood, the development of specific antagonists might open new lines of investigation on the role of Hsp90. In an effort to discover Hsp90 antagonists, we screened many drugs and found that the anti-allergic drugs DSCG (disodium cromoglycate) and amlexanox target Hsp90. Both drugs were found to bind directly wild-type Hsp90 via the N- and C-terminal domains. Both drugs strongly suppressed the in vitro chaperone activity of native Hsp90 towards citrate synthase at 1.5-3.0 microM. Amlexanox suppressed C-terminal chaperone activity in vitro, but not N-terminal chaperone activity, and inhibited the association of cohort proteins, such as cyclophilin 40 and Hsp-organizing protein, to the C-terminal domain of Hsp90. These data suggest that amlexanox might disrupt the multichaperone complex, including Hsp70 and cohort proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. Although DSCG inhibited the in vitro chaperone activity of the N-terminal domain, the drug had no effect either on the C-terminal chaperone activity or on the association of the cohort proteins with the C-terminus of Hsp90. The physiological significance of these interactions in vivo remains to be investigated further, but undoubtedly must be taken into account when considering the pharmacology of anti-allergic drugs. DSCG and amlexanox may serve as useful tools for evaluating the physiological significance of Hsp90. PMID:12803546

  12. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  13. Extraction of protoporphyrin disodium and its inhibitory effects on HBV-DNA

    Chao-Pin Li; Li-Fa Xu; Qun-Hong Liu; Chao Zhang; Jian Wang; Yu-Xia Zhu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore an ideal method for extracting protoporphyrin disodium (PPN) from unanticoagulated animal blood, and to study the inhibitory effects of PPN on HBV-DNA duplication and its cytotoxicity to 2.2.15 cell strain.METHODS: Protoporphyrin methyl ester and other intermediate products were prepared with protoheme separated from protein hydrolysates of coagulated animal blood, which were finally made into PPN and detected quantitatively with an ultraviolet fluorescent analyzer.Ten μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml of PPN-aqueous solution were added into culture medium for 2.2.15 cells respectively. Eight days later, the drug concentration in supernatant from the culture medium was detected when inhibition rate of HBeAg, cell Survival rate when inhibition rate of HBeAg was 50% (ID50), and when survival cells in experimental group were 50% of those in control group (CD50), and the therapeutic index (TI) was also detected. PPN with different concentration of 10 μg/ml,20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml was respectively mixed and cultivated with HepG2 2.2.15 cell suspension,and then the inhibition of PPN against HBV-DNA was judged by PCR.RESULTS: The extract of henna crystal was identified to be PPN. When the concentrations of PPN were 160 μg/ml and 80 μg/ml, the inhibition rates of HBeAg were 89.8% and 82.4%, and the cell survival rates were 98.7% and 99.2%.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that PPN can be extracted from unanticoagulated animal blood. PPN can inhibit HBV-DNA expression and duplication ih vitro, and has no cytotoxicity to liver cells. Further study and application of PPN are warranted.

  14. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  15. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells

    1994-01-01

    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T ce...

  16. CO2/pH-Controllable Viscoelastic Nanostructured Fluid Based on Stearic Acid Soap and Bola-Type Quaternary Ammonium Salt.

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; An, Pengyun; He, Shuai; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-03-15

    Fatty acid soaps such as sodium stearate (NaOSA) represent a class of cheap, environmentally friendly surfactants; however, their poor solubility seriously challenges their application in various fields. Herein, we describe a CO2/pH-controllable viscoelastic nanostructured fluid, which was developed by simple mixing of the commodity soap NaOSA with a bola-type quaternary ammonium salt (Bola2be) in a 2:1 molar ratio without the need for complex organic synthesis. The introduction of Bola2be increased NaOSA solubility and promoted micelle growth by forming a noncovalent pseudo-Gemini structure, 2NaOSA-Bola2be. Long aggregates are formed with increases in concentration, and these become entangled into a three-dimensional network at 10 times that of the critical micelle concentration (0.057 mM), showing strong thickening ability. Micellar branching occurs above 22.38 mM, as deduced by rheology and verified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The worm-based fluid formed from the noncovalent pseudo-Gemini surfactant is highly thermosensitive, and features a higher flow activation energy of 399.76 kJ·mol(-1) compared with common worm systems. Because of the pH-sensitivity of NaOSA, the viscoelastic fluid can respond to common pH stimuli or green CO2 gas, and shows a transition between a gel-like wormlike micellar network and a water-like dispersion with precipitate. However, the CO2-responsive behavior is irreversible. PMID:26907546

  17. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers.

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen-oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl-ate O atom of the oxo-acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb-oxy-ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)-2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)-3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol-ecule forms an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl-ate O atom. PMID:26594400

  18. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  19. Phosphate salts

    ... for children 9-18 years of age. Phosphate salts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE if the amount of phosphate consumed (expressed as phosphorous) exceeds the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The ULs are 3 grams per day for children 1-8 years; and 4 grams per day ...

  20. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  1. Organic Acids and Their Salts

    Intensive fish farming, because of its potential for high production and economic return, is expanding very rapidly and is becoming an important enterprise worldwide. Under this production practice, loss due to infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a major economic loss to producers. ...

  2. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid

    Graham Smith

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the ammonium salts of phen­oxy­acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H6O3 −, (I), (4-fluoro­phen­oxy)acetic acid, NH4 +·C8H5FO3 −, (II), and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methyl­phen­oxy)acetic acid (MCPA), NH4 +·C9H8ClO3 −·0.5H2O, (III) have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I) and (II) are isomo...

  3. Growth of the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in microtiter plates: effects of NaCl, pH and temperature on growth and fusel alcohol production from branched-chain amino acids.

    Jansen, Michael; Veurink, Janine H; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2003-05-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a salt-tolerant yeast isolated from the soy sauce process, produces fusel alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol) from branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine, respectively) via the Ehrlich pathway. Using a high-throughput screening approach in microtiter plates, we have studied the effects of pH, temperature and salt concentration on growth of Z. rouxii and formation of fusel alcohols from branched-chain amino acids. Application of minor variations in pH (range 3-7) and NaCl concentrations (range 0-20%) per microtiter plate well allowed a rapid and detailed evaluation of fermentation conditions for optimal growth and metabolite production. Conditions yielding the highest cell densities were not optimal for fusel alcohol production. Maximal fusel alcohol production occurred at low pH (3.0-4.0) and low NaCl concentrations (0-4%) at 25 degrees C. At pH 4.0-6.0 and 0-18% NaCl, considerable amounts of alpha-keto acids, the deaminated products from the branched-chain amino acids, accumulated extracellularly. The highest cell densities were obtained in plates incubated at 30 degrees C. The results obtained under various incubation conditions with (deep-well) microtiter plates were validated in Erlenmeyer shake-flask cultures. PMID:12689638

  4. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  5. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  6. A three-dimensional model study of methanesulphonic acid to non sea salt sulphate ratio at mid and high-southern latitudes

    H. Castebrunet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic and sub-Antarctic methanesulphonic acid (MSA to non sea salt sulphate (nssSO4 ratio is simulated with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Atmospheric General Circulation Model including an atmospheric sulphur chemistry module. Spatial variations of the MSA/nssSO4 ratio in different regions have been suggested to be mostly dependent on temperature or sulphur source contributions. Its past variations in ice cores have been interpreted as related to the DMS precursor source location. Our model results are compared with available field measurements in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. This suggests that the MSA/nssSO4 ratio in the extra-tropical south hemisphere is mostly dependent on the relative importance of various DMS oxidation pathways. In order to evaluate the effect of a rapid conversion of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO into MSA, not implemented in the model, the MSA+DMSO to nssSO4 ratio is also discussed. Using this modified ratio, the model mostly captures the seasonal variations of MSA/nssSO4 at mid and high-southern latitudes. In addition, the model qualitatively reproduces the bell shaped meridional variations of the ratio, which is highly dependent on the adopted relative reaction rates for the DMS+OH addition and abstraction pathways, and on the assumed reaction products of the MSIA+OH reaction. MSA/nssSO4 ratio in Antarctic snow is fairly well reproduced except at the most inland sites characterized with very low snow accumulation rates. Our results also suggest that atmospheric chemistry plays an important role in the observed decrease of the ratio in snow between coastal regions and central Antarctica. The still insufficient understanding of the DMS oxidation scheme limits our ability to model the MSA/nssSO4 ratio. Specifically, reaction products of the MSIA+OH reaction should be better quantified, and the impact of a fast DMSO

  7. Atomic force measurements of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and its salt with CH{sub 3}, OH, and CONHCH{sub 3} functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Morales-Cruz, Angel L. [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Tremont, Rolando [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Martinez, Ramon [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Roman-tilde ach, Rodolfo [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez 00681-5000 (Puerto Rico); Cabrera, Carlos R. [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)]. E-mail: ccabrera@goliath.cnnet.clu.edu

    2005-03-15

    Chemical and mechanical properties of different compounds can be elucidated by measuring fundamental forces such as adhesion, attraction and repulsion, between modified surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mode calibration. This work presents a combination of AFM, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and crystallization techniques to study the forces of interaction between excipients and active ingredients used in pharmaceutical formulations. SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, which represent magnesium stereate, were used to modify the probe tip, whereas CH{sub 3}-, OH- and CONHCH{sub 3}-functional SAMs were formed on a gold-coated mica substrate, and used as examples of the surfaces of lactose and theophylline. The crystals of lactose and theophylline were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modification of gold surfaces with 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, 10-mercapto-1-decanol (OH-functional SAM), 1-decanethiol (CH{sub 3}-functional) and N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide (CONHCH{sub 3}-functional SAM) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in specular reflectance mode. XPS and AES results of the modified surfaces showed the presence of sulfur binding, and kinetic energies that correspond to the presence of 10-mercapto-1-decanol, 1-decanethiol, N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide and the salt of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. The absorption bands in the IR spectra further confirm the modification of the gold-coated substrates with these compounds. Force versus distance measurements were performed between the modified tip and the modified gold-coated mica substrates. The mean adhesion forces between the COO{sup -}Ca{sup 2+} functionalized tip and the CH{sub 3}-, OH-, and CONHCH{sub 3}-modified substrates were determined to be 4.5, 8.9 and 6.3 nN, respectively. The magnitude of the adhesion force (ion

  8. Atomic force measurements of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and its salt with CH3, OH, and CONHCH3 functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Chemical and mechanical properties of different compounds can be elucidated by measuring fundamental forces such as adhesion, attraction and repulsion, between modified surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mode calibration. This work presents a combination of AFM, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and crystallization techniques to study the forces of interaction between excipients and active ingredients used in pharmaceutical formulations. SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, which represent magnesium stereate, were used to modify the probe tip, whereas CH3-, OH- and CONHCH3-functional SAMs were formed on a gold-coated mica substrate, and used as examples of the surfaces of lactose and theophylline. The crystals of lactose and theophylline were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modification of gold surfaces with 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, 10-mercapto-1-decanol (OH-functional SAM), 1-decanethiol (CH3-functional) and N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide (CONHCH3-functional SAM) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in specular reflectance mode. XPS and AES results of the modified surfaces showed the presence of sulfur binding, and kinetic energies that correspond to the presence of 10-mercapto-1-decanol, 1-decanethiol, N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide and the salt of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. The absorption bands in the IR spectra further confirm the modification of the gold-coated substrates with these compounds. Force versus distance measurements were performed between the modified tip and the modified gold-coated mica substrates. The mean adhesion forces between the COO-Ca2+ functionalized tip and the CH3-, OH-, and CONHCH3-modified substrates were determined to be 4.5, 8.9 and 6.3 nN, respectively. The magnitude of the adhesion force (ion-dipole) interaction between the modified tip and

  9. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminoolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins and DMSO/EDTA for basal cell carcinoma

    Warloe, Trond; Peng, Qian; Heyerdahl, Helen; Moan, Johan; Steen, Harald B.; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Seven hundred sixty three basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in 122 patients were treated by photodynamic therapy by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in cream topically applied, either alone, in combination with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA), or with DMSO as a pretreatment. After 3 hours cream exposure 40 - 200 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light was given. Fluorescence imaging of biopsies showed highly improved ALA penetration depth and doubled ALA-induced porphyrin production using DMSO/EDTA. Treatment response was recorded after 3 months. After a single treatment 90% of 393 superficial lesions responded completely, independent of using DMSO/EDTA. In 363 nodulo-ulcerative lesions the complete response rate increased from 67% to above 90% with DMSO/EDTA for lesions less than 2 mm thickness and from 34% to about 50% for lesions thicker than 2 mm. Recurrence rate observed during a follow-up period longer than 12 months was 2 - 5%. PDT of superficial thin BCCs with ALA-induced porphyrins and DMSO/EDTA equals surgery and radiotherapy with respect to cure rate and recurrence. Cosmetic results of ALA-based PDT seemed to be better than those after other therapies. In patients with the nevoid BCC syndrome the complete response rate after PDT was far lower.

  10. Micellar aggregates and hydrogels from phosphonobile salts

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Chopra, D.; Row, Guru TN; Maitra, Uday

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation properties of novel bile acid analogs-phosphonobile salts (PBS)-have been studied. The critical micellar concentration of 23 and 24-phosphonobile salts were measured using fluorescence and P-31 NMR methods. All the ten synthesized phosphonobile salts formed gels at different pH ranges in water. The pH range at which individual PBSs could gelate water was narrow and influenced by the number and conformation of hydroxyl groups. A reversible thermochromic system has been develope...

  11. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. PMID:27211618

  12. Mapping marine and fluvial salt crusts in estuaries collecting acid water using hyperspectral Hyperion imagery (Marshes of the river Odiel, Huelva

    A. Riaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence on the marshes at the mouth of the river Odiel (Huelva is made using hyperspectral archive Hyperion data. Climate variability estimations are made based on well-known spectral features related to vegetation and shallow water, using archive spectral libraries. The observations point to spectral and geomorphological indicators which can be monitored through image processing supported by field and laboratory spectral data, on a repeatable basis. Mapping a larger sequence of images under different climate regime and wider tidal range, would improve the estimation of spectral features to ensure a routine monitoring of salt crusts with hyperspectral data.

  13. Polymer-Supported Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Ammonium Salts as Recoverable Phase-Transfer Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Acids

    Carmen Nájera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids such as cinchonidine, quinine and N-methylephedrine have been N-alkylated using polymeric benzyl halides or co-polymerized and then N-alkylated, thus affording a series of polymer-supported chiral ammonium salts which have been employed as phase-transfer catalysts in the asymmetric benzylation of an N-(diphenylmethyleneglycine ester. These new polymeric catalysts can be easily recovered by simple filtration after the reaction and reused. The best ee’s were achieved when Merrifield resin-anchored cinchonidinium ammonium salts were employed.

  14. Ion chromatographic analysis of tetracyclines using polymeric column and acidic eluent.

    Ding, X; Mou, S

    2000-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) is first successfully used to analyze tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in this work. The TCs are well separated on a solvent compatible polymeric cation-exchange column within 12 min. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile-hydrochloride is very advantageous for routine analysis. HPIC may be seen as a specific variant of the more common high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for water-soluble and polar pharmaceuticals with low hydrophobicity. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3:1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC) are 10, 10, 20 and 20 microg l(-1), respectively. Samples are prepared by vortex mixing with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA)-McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.0) solution and the mixture filtrates through a molecular weight cut-off filter. The method has been successfully applied to monitor the OTC removal rate through every reactor in the process of OTC manufacturing wastewater treatment by bio-chemical technology. It is also applicable to determine the TCs residues in milk and milk powder with satisfying results. PMID:11128204

  15. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy.

    Suzuki, Junzo; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Nozawa, Ruriko; Isome, Masato; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ai; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    We present a case report of a 10 years old boy with protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis who had positive histamine release tests, increased allergen-specific IgE antibodies to some food items, and low levels of total serum protein and albumin. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a number of polyps and diffuse gastritis. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and duodenum showed widespread eosinophilia and neutrophilia. Although a restricted diet was recommended, a diet which excluded foods with positive results to both histamine release test and allergen-specific IgE antibodies was poorly tolerated, and the patient rejected systemic administration of corticosteroids. Thus, we initiated an oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and ketotifen therapy. After oral DSCG and ketotifen administration, the patient's condition improved gradually. Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy. PMID:15032404

  16. The effects of disodium cromoglycate on enhanced adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to A549 cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Fukasawa, Chie; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ogita, Junko; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

    2009-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) secondary infection often complicates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Previous studies have revealed that RSV infections enhance NTHi adherence to airway epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and corticosteroids, which are frequently used for the treatment of wheezing often related to RSV infections, on the adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells. DSCG inhibited enhanced adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells, whereas dexamethasone (Dex) and fluticasone propionate (Fp) did not. DSCG suppressed the expression of ICAM-1, which is one of the NTHi receptors. Furthermore, DSCG exhibited an inhibitory effect on RSV infections. It is suggested that DSCG exerts an anti-RSV effect, and consequently attenuates the expression of NTHi receptors. PMID:19390482

  17. Enhancing effects of organic acids on saltiness of low-sodium salt%有机酸味剂对低钠盐增咸作用的研究

    王仕钰; 张立彦

    2012-01-01

    The combination effects between low-sodium salt and L-malic acid,amber acid,citric acid ,fumaric acid and other organic acids were researched.Using ].0% (w/w)of sodium chloride solution as standard,the sourness and saltiness of the combination solution was evaluated by a special panel.The results showed that= L-malic acid, amber acid,citric acid and fumaric acid all had an obvious effect to enhance the saltiness of low-sodium salt at ].6% ,0.8%, 2.4%, 0.8% (w/w) addition level, respectively.The combination solution which had been added into ].6% L-malic acid had a pure saltiness and good taste,and the saltiness could be increased by 1.33 times.%以1.0%(w/w)的氯化钠溶液为标准参照,重点研究了L一苹果酸、琥珀酸、柠檬酸、富马酸等有机酸味剂与低钠盐的复配效果。通过品尝小组对复配溶液的成度、酸度等进行感官评定,结果表明:当单独添加L-苹果酸、琥珀酸、柠檬酸、富马酸的量依次分别为1.6%、0.8%、2.4%、0.8%(w/w)时,对低钠盐有明显的掩盖苦味及增成效果,其中添加1.6%L-苹果酸的复配溶液成味纯正,综合口感良好,增成效果可达1.33倍。

  18. Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress.

    Al-Quraan, Nisreen A; Sartawe, Fatima Al-Batool; Qaryouti, Muien M

    2013-07-15

    The molecular response of plants to abiotic stresses has been considered a process mainly involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Nevertheless, recent findings have suggested new layers of regulation and complexity. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. Plants gain resistance to abiotic stress by reprogramming metabolism and gene expression. GABA is proposed to be a signaling molecule involved in nitrogen metabolism, regulating the cytosolic pH, and protection against oxidative damage in response to various abiotic stresses. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the GABA shunt pathway-specific response in five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hurani 75, Sham I, Acsad 65, Um Qayes and Nodsieh) to salt and osmotic stress in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation), and characterization of the glutamate decarboxylse gene (GAD) m-RNA level were determined using RT-PCR techniques. Our data showed a marked increase in GABA, MDA and GAD m-RNA levels under salt and osmotic stress in the five wheat cultivars. Um Qayes cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, GABA accumulation, and MDA level under salt and osmotic stresses. The marked increase in GAD gene expression explains the high accumulation of the GABA level under both stresses. Our results indicated that the GABA shunt is a key signaling and metabolic pathway that allows wheat to adapt to salt and osmotic stress. Based on our data, the Um Qayes wheat cultivar is the cultivar most recommended to be grown in soil with high salt and osmotic contents. PMID:23602379

  19. Determination of barium, strontium and nine minor and trace elements in impure barite and strontianite by inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry after dissolution in disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Gupta, J G

    1991-10-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of barium, strontium, silicon and nine minor and trace elements of barite and strontianite associated with gangue materials. It involves dissolution of the sample by boiling under reflux with a concentrated solution of disodium ethylenedi-aminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide. Barite and strontianite dissolve quantitatively under this condition, and any associated silicate and sulphide mineral impurities, remaining insoluble, are filtered off and ignited to constant weight in a platinum crucible. Silica is determined gravimetrically by heating the residue with concentrated sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids, followed by ignition to oxides. The residue is fused with sodium bisulphate and dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid. After suitable dilution of the EDTA-2Na solution, Ba, Sr, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Ni, V, Yb and Zn are determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The bisulphate fusion product is separately analysed by ICP-AES, and the elements found are combined with those obtained from the EDTA-2Na solution. The replicate values of this work compare well with each other and with other values obtained by independent methods. PMID:18965264

  20. Improving thermal stability and light fastness of Acid Red 114 by incorporating its anions in a ZnAl-layered double hydroxides matrix

    Haifeng Zhu; Liren Wang; Pinggui Tang; Yongjun Feng; Dianqing Li

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of anions of Acid Red 114 dye (1,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid,8-[2-[3,3'-dimethyl-4'-[2-[4-[[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]oxy] phenyl]diazenyl] [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]diazenyl]-7-hydroxy-,disodium salt) (denoted as NPDA) into ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been carried out by an anionexchange method in an effort to improve their thermal stability and light fastness.After intercalation of NPDA anions,the interlayer distance of the LDHs increases from 0.87 to 2.18nm,confirming their incorporation into the interlayer galleries of the LDHs host.Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed the presence of host-guest interactions between LDHs layers and NPDA anions.The thermal stability of NPDA and ZnAl-NPDA-LDHs was compared by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis,UV-visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy.It was found that the thermal stability of NPDA anions was markedly improved by incorporation into the ZnAl-LDHs matrix,while the light fastness was also enhanced.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  2. The effect of calcium salts, ascorbic acid and peptic pH on calcium, zinc and iron bioavailabilities from fortified human milk using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Etcheverry, Paz; Wallingford, John Charles; Miller, Dennis Dean; Glahn, Raymond Philip

    2005-05-01

    The calcium, zinc, and iron bioavailabilities of human milk with commercial and noncommercial human milk fortifiers (HMFs) were evaluated under a variety of conditions: peptic digestion at pH 2 and pH 4, supplementation of ascorbic acid, and addition of three calcium salts. The noncommercial HMFs consisted of casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), alpha-lactalbumin, colostrum, and hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC). They were mixed with human milk (HM) and calcium, zinc, and iron were added. Ascorbic acid (AA) was added in certain studies. The commercial HMFs were Nestlé FM-85, Similac HMF (SHMF), and Enfamil HMF (EHMF). All HMFs were compared to S-26/SMA HMF. Results showed that the peptic pH (2 vs. 4) had no effect on mineral bioavailability. Addition of different calcium salts had no effect on calcium cell uptake and cell ferritin levels (an indicator of iron uptake), however, the addition of calcium glycerophosphate/gluconate increased zinc uptake by Caco-2 cells. Addition of AA significantly increased ferritin levels, with no effect on calcium or zinc uptake. Among the commercial HMFs, FM-85 was significantly lower in zinc uptake than S-26/SMA, and HM+EHMF was significantly higher than HM+S-26/SMA. Cell ferritin levels were significantly higher for HM+S-26/SMA than for all other commercial fortifiers. None of the commercial HMFs were different from HM+S-26/SMA in calcium uptake. PMID:16028632

  3. 建昌板鸭中乳酸菌的分离鉴定与特性%Separation,Identification and Biological Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Jianchang Dried Salted Duck

    林巧

    2012-01-01

    In our present study,MRS medium was used as basic medium for the separation,identification and biological characterization of lactic acid bacteria from Jianchang dried salted duck made using the traditional process of natural fermentation.A total of 17 strains were obtained.Lactic acid bacteria isolates showed the most vigorous growth during cultivation at 30 ℃,and could grow in an environment containing 5 g/100mL NaCl or 100 mg/L Na2NO2.Strain B1 was the most suitable fermentation starter for Jianchang dried salted duck.%以MRS培养基为基础培养基对自然发酵板鸭中的乳酸菌进行分离、鉴定及其基本特性的研究。从建昌发酵板鸭中分离得到17个菌株。进一步测试表明在30℃培养时分离的乳酸菌生长最好,且在5g/100mL NaCl和100mg/L Na2NO2的环境中均能生长,最适宜作为建昌板鸭发酵剂的是B1号菌株。

  4. Three-stage lime-ferric salt process for treating high-arsenic waste acid%三段石灰-铁盐法处理高砷污酸

    易求实

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage lime-ferric salt treatment process is proposed for treating high-arsenic waste acid from off-gas or pyrited-based sulphuric acid plants. In the first stage, non-dangerous solid gypsun waste is produced by neutralization with lime, which could be used as additive for cement production. In the second stage, arsenic is highly concentrated in residues by adjusting pH and/or adding oxidant to produce calcium arsenite or arsenate, which is suitable for recycle or stabilizing treatment. In the third stage, wastewater is treated by iron salt to further remove arsenic and meet industrial discharge standards. The good results were obtained in the tests treating waste acids from off-gas and pyrite-based sulphuric acid plants.%提出一种处理高砷污酸的三段石灰-铁盐法。第一段利用石灰乳中和污酸中的硫酸,得到非危险固体石膏,可作为水泥生产添加剂;第二段通过调节pH值和(或)加入氧化剂生成亚砷酸钙或砷酸钙,将砷高度富集在渣中,以便后续资源化利用或稳定化处理;第三段利用铁盐去除残留砷,使水达标排放。该法在冶炼烟气制酸和硫铁矿制酸的污酸处理试验中取得了良好的结果。

  5. Viscosity Behavior of α-Amino Acids in Acetate Salt Solutions at Temperatures (303.15 to 323.15) K

    Siddique, Jamal Akhter; Naqvi, Saeeda

    2012-01-01

    Viscosities of l-lysine monohydrochloride, l-histidine, and l-arginine in 1 m (mol · kg-1) aqueous solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and calcium acetate salts has been determined at (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K. The Falkenhagen coefficient, A, and Jones-Dole coefficient, B, relative viscosity, and specific viscosity of the solutions have also been determined using the measured viscosities. The results are interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions occurring in the system under investigation and also discussed in terms of the structure-making/breaking ability of the solute in these salt solutions. The structure making/breaking abilities of the solutes in the studied systems are strongly influenced by temperature.

  6. Effects of creatine phosphate disodium on the uncoupling protein 2 in myocardial mitochondria and the energy metabolism in rats after exhaustive exercise

    Xiao-yan LI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of creatine phosphate disodium (CPDS on the energy metabolism of myocardial mitochondria in rats after single exhaustive exercise, and the underline mechanism of protection effects of CPDS on myocardium under stress situation. Methods Thirty six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, once exhaustive exercise group, and CPDS group (12 for each. The concentrations of myocardial ATP, plasma epinephrine (E, norepinephrine (NE and free fatty acid (FFA were determined. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expressions of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 in myocardial mitochondria. Results The concentrations of plasma FFA, E and NE increased and the contents of myocardial ATP declined significantly in single exhaustive exercise group and CPDS group as compared with that in control group (P<0.05. RT-PCR revealed that the expressions of UCP2 mRNA were up-regulated by 64% and 24%, respectively, in single exhaustive exercise group and CPDS group when compared with that in control group. Western blotting showed that the expressions of UCP2 were increased by 65% and 26%, respectively, in single exhaustive exercise group and CPDS group when compared with that in control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation of the expression of myocardial UCP2 to the concentration of plasma FFA (r=0.98, P<0.01, also of the concentration of plasma FFA to the levels of plasma E and NE (r=0.93, r=0.88, P<0.01. Conclusions After exhaustive exercise, the expression of myocardial UCP2 is significantly up-regulated, the synthesis of ATP reduced, and the energy metabolism disturbed, which may be one of the mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac death in sports training. Meanwhile, supplement of external CPDS may antagonize the increased expression of UCP2 induced by exercise stress, increase ATP reserves and improve the energy metabolism, and it may have a positive effect on

  7. Crystal structures of three anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with the ring-substituted benzoic acid analogues 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    Graham Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with 4-aminobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 4-aminobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H6NO2− (I], 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O6−, (II] and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O7−, (III] have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In both (II and (III, the DBU cations have a common disorder in three of the C atoms of the six-membered ring moieties [site-occupancy factors (SOF = 0.735 (3/0.265 (3 and 0.686 (4/0.314 (4, respectively], while in (III, there is additional rotational disorder in the DNSA anion, giving two sites (SOF = 0.72/0.28, values fixed for the phenol group. In the crystals of (I and (III, the cation–anion pairs are linked through a primary N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond [2.665 (2 and 2.869 (3 Å, respectively]. In (II, the ion pairs are linked through an asymmetric three-centre R12(4, N—H...O,O′ chelate association. In (I, structure extension is through amine N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bonds between the PABA anions, giving a three-dimensional structure. The crystal structures of (II and (III are very similar, the cation–anion pairs being associated only through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving in both overall two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  8. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Synthesis and antiestrogenic activity of [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-naphthalenyl][4-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethoxy]-phenyl]methanone, methanesulfonic acid salt.

    Jones, C D; Suarez, T; Massey, E H; Black, L J; Tinsley, F C

    1979-08-01

    Acylation of the sodio anion of beta-tetralone with phenyl anisoate, followed by a Grignard reaction of the resultant 4 with 4-methoxyphenylmagnesium bromide, gave rise to two novel dihydronaphthalene isomers 5 and 6. Regioselective demethylation of either 5 or 6 by NaSEt produced [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-naphthalenyl](4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone (7). Etherification of the phenolic group of 7 by N-(2-chloroethyl)pyrrolidine and subsequent methanesulfonate salt formation provided [3,4-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-maphthalenyl

  10. Crystallization Kinetics of CaOxa and the Influence of Different Carboxylic Acid Salt%草酸钙的结晶动力学及不同种类羧酸盐的影响

    李君君; 杨锦; 夏志月; 欧阳健明

    2012-01-01

    通过检测体系中游离Ca2+离子浓度及草酸钙(CaOxa)的粒径随时间的变化,研究了CaOxa的结晶动力学及3种羧酸盐对CaOxa结晶动力学的影响,这些羧酸盐为:一元羧酸盐甘氨酸钠(NaGlu)、二元羧酸盐酒石酸钠(Na2Tart)和三元羧酸盐柠檬酸三钠(Na3Cit).在生理盐水中CaOxa的结晶动力学方程为r=kc3.3±0.36,平均反应速率常数(-k)为(3.1±1.8)×109;3种抑制剂对k的影响程度从大到小为:Na3Cit>Na2Tart>NaGlu,但其平均反应级数(-α)相差不大,-α=3.2±0.1.Na3Cit 、Na2Tart可抑制CaOxa晶体的生长和聚集过程,是潜在的肾结石抑制剂.%The kinetics of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystallization and the effect of three carboxylates were studied by determining the changes of free Ca2+ ions concentration and the size of CaOxa crystallites with the reaction time. These carboxylates were monocarboxylic acid salt (NaGlu), dicarboxylie-acid salt (Na2Tart), and tricarboxylic acid salt (NajCit), respectively. The dynamics equations of calcium oxalate crystallization in normal saline was r=Ac33±0.3, the average reaction rate constant (k) was (3.1±1.8)×l09. The effect of three inhibitors on k values was in the order from large to small: Na3Cit>Na2Tart>NaGlu>blank. However, there is little difference for the average reaction order (a) value and α =3.2 ±0.1. Since Na3Cit and Na3Tart can inhibit the growth and aggregation of CaOxa crystals, they may be potential inhibitors for formation of kidney stones.

  11. Retarded acid emulsion

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  12. Swelling and Surface Interactions of End-Grafted Poly(2-vinylpyridine) Layers in Acidic Solution: Influence of Grafting Density and Salt Concentration.

    Elmahdy, Mahdy M; Drechsler, Astrid; Uhlmann, Petra; Stamm, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    In previous studies, the authors found that end-grafted layers of the weak polybase poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) in aqueous solutions do not only swell and collapse if the pH value and salt concentration are varied but also exhibit a pH- and salinity-dependent adhesion to microsized silica spheres. For a better understanding of these effects, in situ force measurements using the AFM colloidal probe technique were applied to end-grafted P2VP layers of different grafting densities in NaCl solutions at pH 2.5. Although a mushroom-to-brush transition could be seen in the dry state, the layers were in the brush regime in aqueous solutions at all NaCl concentrations and grafting densities. We observed an increase of the brush height with increasing grafting density and a salinity-dependent collapse and reswelling of the brushes. The adhesion between the P2VP layer and a silica sphere depended on both grafting density and salinity. At low salt concentrations, the adhesion reached its highest value at the intermediate grafting density and disappeared with denser brushes. Maximum adhesion was obtained for high NaCl concentrations and the lowest grafting density. From a detailed analysis of the experiments, we gained insight into chain stretching and density profiles under complex ionic conditions and into the mechanism of adhesion of polyelectrolytes to solid surfaces. PMID:27172173

  13. Alkali Metal Complexes: Mixed Ligand Complexes of Some Alkali Metal Salts of Some Organic Acids with Isonitroso-PMethylace to phenone

    O.P. Gupta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mixed ligand complexes of alkali metal salts of o-nitrophenol,2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6,- trinitrophenol, 1-nitroso-2- naphthol and 8- hydroxyquinoline with Insoniroso–p methylacetopheone have been synthesized in absolute ethanol & characterized by elemental analysis and I .B. spectral data. Their I.R spectral data indicate the presence of hydrogen bonding in them, which many be one of the dominant factors of their stability. Further appreciable shift in 1650 cm-1 band (possibly vC=O and 1600 cm-1 band (possibly vC=NSuggests their coordination behavior in these mixed ligand complexes The reactions that take place in natural systems are highly specific and selective. Alkali metal ions actively participate in most of the reaction occurring in the biological systems, which are dominated by mixed ligand complexes. Studies of such mixed ligand complexes of alkali metals can threw light in understanding the role and mechanism of selective absorption of alkali metals ions by plants Coordinating ability of alkali metal with isonitrosoacetophenone1-2 and transition metals with isonitrosoacetophenone3 and isonitroso-p-methylacetophenone4 have been reported earlier. In the present paper we report the mixed ligand complexes of alkali metal salts having the general formula ML.HL, ‘ where M=Li, Na & K and L=deprotonated o- nitrophenol, 2,4 dinitrophenol, 2, 4, 6- trinitrophenol, 1-nitroso-2-naphthol or 8- hydroxquinoline; HL’= p -MeHINAP (isonitroso-p-methylacetophenone.

  14. 钠盐焙烧-酸浸处理高铝高硅极难选褐铁矿研究%Research on Sodium Salt Roasting-Acid Leaching Technology for High-alumina and High-silicon Refractory Limonite

    舒聪伟; 唐云; 王在谦; 张覃

    2012-01-01

    采用钠盐焙烧-酸浸工艺处理以部分铁氧化物呈浸染状分布在粘土矿物中的某高铝硅极难选褐铁矿.通过单因素试验分别考察了焙烧工艺中焙烧温度、焙烧时间、钠盐用量、磨矿粒度等对焙烧的影响,酸浸工艺中考察了硫酸浓度、液固比、酸浸温度和时间等因素对浸出指标的影响.试验结果表明,在磨矿粒度为-0.074 mm粒级占90.36%,碳酸钠用量为15%,焙烧温度为950℃,焙烧时间为30 min,硫酸浓度为7%,液固比为15:1,酸浸温度为60℃,酸浸时间15 min条件下,可获得TFe品位为60.21%,回收率为93.49%,SiO2和Al2O3含量分别为3.28%和6.81%的铁精矿.%The sodium salt roasting-acid leaching technology was adopted to treat high-alumina and high-silicon refractory limonite with part of iron oxides disseminated in the clay minerals. Some single-factor tests were conducted to investigate the effects of roasting temperature, roasting time, sodium salt consumption and grinding size, respectively, on the roasting, as well as the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, L/S ratio, acid leaching temperature and time on the leaching index. The test results showed that under the following conditions, such as the grinding size of -0. 074 mm 90.36% , the dosage of sodium carbonate of 15% , roasting for 30 mins at the temperature of 950℃ , sulfuric acid concentration of 7% , L/S ratio of 15: 1 , acid leaching for 15 mins at the temperature of 60 ℃ , the iron concentrates containing 3.28%SiO2 and 6.81%A12O3 were obtained with Tfe grade of 60.21% at a recovery of 93.49%.

  15. The novel bisphosphonate disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio) phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate increases bone mass in post-ovariectomy rats.

    Takizawa, Aiko; Chiba, Mirei; Ota, Takeru; Yasuda, Mayumi; Suzuki, Keiko; Kanemitsu, Takuya; Itoh, Takashi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Igarashi, Kaoru

    2016-05-01

    The novel bisphosphonate (BP) disodium dihydrogen-4-[(methylthio) phenylthio] methanebisphosphonate (MPMBP) is a non-nitrogen-containing BP with an antioxidant side chain that possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the systemic effects of this compound on bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in adult rats. Micro-computed tomography revealed that MPMBP increased bone mass and density in both the metaphysis and diaphysis, and improved the structural properties important for mechanical strength of osteoporotic bone. Sequential bone labeling with tetracycline and calcein indicated that MPMBP decreased longitudinal growth of the primary spongiosa (PS), but stimulated cortical bone formation in the diaphysis. MPMBP increased type I collagen accumulation in the PS, and decreased the number and size of adipocytes in the bone marrow, suggesting inhibition of increased bone marrow adipogenesis induced by OVX. Furthermore, MPMBP reduced the number of bone resorbing cathepsin K-positive osteoclasts induced by OVX. These results suggest that MPMBP could improve bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency. Both stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption might play a role in the increase in bone mass and bone density after MPMBP treatment. PMID:27245552

  16. Exploring the sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate as anode for organic battery using density-functional theory calculations

    Sk, Mahasin Alam; Manzhos, Sergei

    2016-08-01

    We present an ab initio study of sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate (Na2TP) which is a very promising anode material for organic sodium (Na)-ion batteries with reported experimental capacities of ∼255 mAh g-1, previously attributed to Na attachment to the two carboxylate groups (coordinating to oxygen atoms). We show here that the inserted Na atoms prefer to bind at carboxylate sites at low Na concentrations and are dominant for insertion of up to one Na atom per molecule; for higher Na concentrations, the hexagonal sites (on the aromatic ring) become dominant. We confirm that the Na2TP crystal can store a maximum of two Na atoms per molecule, as observed in experiments. Our current results are intriguing as we reveal that the Na binding at carboxylate sites contributes to the initial part of Na2TP sodiation curve and the Na binding at hexagonal sites contributes to the second part of the curve. The inserted Na atoms donate electrons to empty states in the conduction band. Moreover, we show that the Na diffusion barriers in clean Na2TP can be as low as 0.23 eV. We also show that there is significant difference in the mechanism of Na interaction between individual molecules and the crystal.

  17. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  18. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  19. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  20. Fused salt electrolysis

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  1. Design of co-crystals/salts of some Nitrogenous bases and some derivatives of thiophene carboxylic acids through a combination of hydrogen and halogen bonds

    Jennifer, Samson Jegan; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The utility of N-heterocyclic bases to obtain molecular complexes with carboxylic acids is well studied. Depending on the solid state interaction between the N-heterocyclic base and a carboxylic acid a variety of neutral or ionic synthons are observed. Meanwhile, pyridines and pyrimidines have been frequently chosen in the area of crystal engineering for their multipurpose functionality. HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are the well known synthons that are forme...

  2. The influence of high concentration of salts on the oxidation of Fe(phen)sup(2+)3 by Ce(IV) in sulphuric acid medium

    The influence of NaClO4, NaCl and Na2SO4 on the oxidation of Fe(phen)2+3 by Ce(IV) was investigated by means of the stopped-flow method. At the concentrations range of NaClO4 and NaCl 0.1 - 1.0 M the rate constant values decrease from 1.03.105 to 0.56.105 M-1s-1 and from 1.08.105 to 0.81.105 M-1s-1 respectively. In varying concentration of Na2SO4 solutions (0.05 - 0.35 M) the rate constant values decrease from 1.05.105 M-1s-1 to 0.45.105 M-1s-1. Taking into account the negative salt effect the mechanism of the reaction progress is proposed. (author)

  3. Salt: a sacred substance.

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; Petrelli, L; Gallo, L; Cirillo, M; Capasso, G

    1997-11-01

    Salt is the last relic of the ocean where life was born. Its presence has influenced the whole gamut of history and its name is linked to hundred of geographical locations. Its importance for nutrition is supported by the discovery of Aeneolithic salt cellars. Salt cellars and pyramids of salt have been included in paintings and other works of art. In Japan where salt was and still is obtained from the sea, a salt culture has developed that can be traced in the rituals of everyday life, including meal preparation, sports, and Shinto ceremonies. PMID:9350697

  4. Complexes of Al(3), Ga(3) and In(3) ions with sodium salt of morin-5'-sulfonic acid (NaMSA) in aqueous solutions

    The complexation equilibria of Al(3), Ga(3) and In(3) with NaMSA in acid aqueous solutions have been investigated. The composition and the equilibrium constants of the reaction as well as the concentration stability constants of the complexes have been determined. The probable mechanisms of the complexation reaction have been suggested. (author)

  5. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  6. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  7. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  8. Development of a glucose-sensitive drug delivery device: Microencapsulated liposomes and poly(2-ethylacrylic acid)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada

    The current study is the development a self-regulated, glucose responsive drug delivery system, using dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes, a pH sensitive polymer, poly (2-ethylacrylic acid)(PEAA), and the feed back reaction of glucose with glucose oxidase enzyme (GO). The thesis investigates the use of PEAR and liposomes to work inside a microcapsule in response to the glucose level of the environment, by following the release of fluorescence probes, 8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, disodium salt/p-xylene-bis-pyridimuim bromide (ANTS/DPX) and a model protein, myoglobin. The continuing studies of PEAR and liposome interaction indicated an evidence of the previous hypothesis of two-mode release at different pHs. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of DOPC and PEAA complexes revealed the possibility of polymer adsorption to the liposomes in the pH range 5.5--7.0 and insertion in the liposome bilayer at pH optimal concentration in the capsules. The pH reduction inside the capsule due to GO reaction showed positive results for the use of GO in a non-buffered system. The procedure of liquid-core alginate capsules was modified to facilitate the pH-responsive release of ANTS/DPX and myoglobin. The capsules responded to high blood glucose concentration by releasing myoglobin within 30 minutes. Although more studies are required to improve the response of the system to the normal blood glucose and to control the total protein release from negative controls, the results of in vitro release experiments confirmed the hypothesis that an idealized feedback control insulin delivery system is feasible.

  9. The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR Analysis

    Daniela Fiocco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C, bile (0.3% w/v, hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl, and low pH value (pH 4. The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.

  10. The hsp 16 gene of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus is differently regulated by salt, high temperature and acidic stresses, as revealed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis.

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Arena, Mattia Pia; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. PMID:21954366

  11. X-ray crystallographic, FT-IR and NMR studies as well as anticancer and antibacterial activity of the salt formed between ionophore antibiotic Lasalocid acid and amines

    Huczyński, Adam; Rutkowski, Jacek; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Stefańska, Joanna; Maj, Ewa; Ratajczak-Sitarz, Małgorzata; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Bartl, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Two new complexes of the ionophore antibiotic Lasalocid acid (LAS) with phenylamine (PhA) and butylamine (BuA) were synthesized and their molecular structures were studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. In the solid state both amines are protonated and all NH3+ protons are hydrogen bonded to etheric, hydroxyl and carboxylic oxygen atoms of the LAS anion. In chloroform solutions the structure observed in the crystal of LAS-BuA complex is preserved and an equilibrium between the LAS-PhA complex and dissociated Lasalocid acid and phenylamine is observed. In vitro antimicrobial tests of the complexes showed a significant activity towards some strains of Gram-positive bacteria. For the first time Lasalocid acid and its complexes with amines were tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines: A-549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), HT-29 (colon) and mouse cancer cell line P-388 (leukemia). We found that LAS and its complexes are strong cytotoxic agents towards all tested cell lines. The cytostatic activity of the compounds studied is greater than that of cisplatin, indicating that Lasalocid and its complexes are promising candidates for new anticancer drugs.

  12. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  13. 水杨酸对盐胁迫下油菜幼苗生长抑制的缓解效应%Effects of salicylic acid mitigating on the inhibition of salt stress to the rape seedling growth

    常云霞; 陈璨; 王少尉; 陈龙

    2012-01-01

    以油菜品种"美国巨荚油王"为材料,采用室内水培实验研究了不同浓度SA处理对0.1mmol/LNaCl胁迫下油菜幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:盐胁迫下,油菜幼苗叶片内叶绿素含量及过氧化物酶活性明显降低,脯氨酸和丙二醛(MDA)含量明显增加.外施SA明显提高了盐胁迫下油菜幼苗叶片内叶绿素含量、过氧化物酶活性及脯氨酸含量,使膜脂过氧化产物MDA含量明显降低.外施SA可以缓解盐胁迫对幼苗生长的抑制作用,并以0.15mmol/L,0.2mmol/L SA缓解效果最好.%Using rape "American oil giant pods king"as the material, effects of the different concentration of salicylic acid on the growth of rape seedling under 0.1 mmol/L NaC1 stress was studied by hydroponic culture. The results showed as follow: under salt stress, the content of chlorophyll and the activity of POD were significantly decreased than those control, the content of proline and MDA were significantly increased. Exogenous SA can effectively mitigate the harmful effects from salt stress on plants, and the effect of 0.15 mmol/L and 0.2 mmol/L SA were optimal.

  14. Three-Stage Lime-Ferric Salt Process for High Arsenic Impure Acid Wasterwater%三段石灰-铁盐法处理高砷洗气污酸废水

    易求实

    2011-01-01

    砷化物的不可降解性决定了砷污染处理中化学法的不可替代性,针对高砷洗气污酸废水,在分析了几种主要处理方法特点的基础上,提出了三段石灰—铁盐法。以很低的处理费用确保高砷洗气污酸废水达标排放,同时得到三部分固体渣:高含量的砷钙渣、非危固石膏渣和极少量含砷铁盐渣。高含量的砷钙渣和非危固石膏渣可资源化利用,少量含砷铁盐渣送危险固体废物处理中心处理。%The non-degradability of arsenates determines that chemical processing is a must for arsenate-contaminated wastes.When addressing the characteristics of some major processing methods,a three-stage lime-ferric salt method is proposed for high arsenic impure acid wastewater.Using this method,the wastewater can be discharged with industrial standards after treated with very low costs.Meanwhile,three solid residues can be obtained: high-content calcium arsenate residues,non-dangerous gypsun waste,and minute arsenic-ferric salts residues;the former two can be reutilized while the latter can be treated in some dangerous solid waste processing centers.

  15. Technology of salt resistance and acid gas pollution resistance drilling fluid for carbonate reservoir in sour gas field%酸性气田碳酸盐岩储层抗盐抗酸性气钻井液技术

    刘晓栋; 崔应中; 王宇宾

    2011-01-01

    为预测酸性气田钻井作业所用钻井液中酸性气的侵入量,根据地质参数和钻井参数计算了现场酸性气侵入量和除硫剂碱式碳酸锌与二氧化碳清除剂氧化钙的加量.为评价酸性气污染对钻井液性能的影响,设计了一套酸性气对钻井液污染的室内评价方法——气瓶压力控制灌注法,并根据理想气体状态方程,推导了灌注不同浓度酸性气体所需要的灌注压力计算公式.室内采用此方法评价了H2S、CO2对适合于南帕斯气田碳酸盐岩储层无黏土相NaCl盐水钻井液和无固相甲酸钾有机盐钻井液体系性能的影响,实验表明两套钻井液体系具有能够抗200 mg/LH2S、1000 mg/L CO2酸性气污染的能力,以及抗灰岩钻屑、地层盐水和各种盐相污染能力,且具有优越的流变性能、润滑性能、防腐蚀性能和储层保护效果,能够满足南帕斯酸性气田碳酸岩储层安全、快速、高效钻井.%In order to predict the volume of acid gas intruded into drilling fluid for drilling in sour gas field, the acid gas invaded volume and dosage of sulfide scavenger basic zinc carbonate and carbon dioxide scavenger calcium oxide were calculated on-site according to the geological parameters and drilling parameters. To evaluate the impact of acid gas pollution on the drilling fluid performance, an indoor evaluation method "gas perfusion by control cylinder pressure" was designed. And then the required perfusion pressure formulas for infusing different concentration of acid gas were developed according to ideal gas state equation. Using this experiment method we evaluated the influence of acid gas H2S and CO2 on clay-free NaCl brine drilling fluid system and solid-free potassium formate organic salt drilling fluid system that suit for carbonate reservoir of sour gas field. The results show that the two series drilling fluid system have the resistance capacity of 200 mg/L H2S, 1000 mg/L CO2 acid gas pollution, and

  16. 无机金属盐对微波辅助酸预处理毛竹酶解的影响%Effect of Inorganic Salts on Enzymatic Saccharification of Moso Bamboo Pretreated by Microwave-Dilute Acid

    李志强; 费本华; 江泽慧

    2014-01-01

    采用加入无机金属盐的稀酸溶液预处理毛竹,分析预处理后底物的化学组成、预处理后的废液组成、糖降解发酵抑制物的生成量等。结果表明:稀酸预处理主要以脱除半纤维素为主,而对木质素的脱除没有明显效果。当硫酸用量为2%( w/w)、预处理温度为180℃时,竹材中绝大部分半纤维素已被脱除,底物纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率可达52.72%。加入硫酸铁催化后的稀酸预处理能提高底物的酶水解性能,可使纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率提高到72.15%。硫酸钠、硫酸亚铁、硫酸铜和硼砂等催化后的稀酸预处理底物的酶水解性能均有不同程度的下降,其中以硫酸铜催化预处理底物的酶水解性能最差。铜离子在预处理中可以被竹材底物吸附,并且在酶水解过程中可以脱附进入水解液中。%Global warming and energy shortage are the main challenges and puzzles that government and the public around the world are facing. It is believed that one of the solutions is to use biomass as a potential renewable energy resource for producing liquid fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Bamboo,with cellulose and hemicellulose as its main components,is a kind of fast growth and cheap renewable resource for bioethanol production. In the study,inorganic salts were studied as promoter in the dilute acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for the enzymatic saccharification. The chemical composition of the substrates and spent liquors,the enzymatic hydrolyability of substrates were analyzed. The results showed that dilute acid pretreatment ( DA) enhances the digestibility of lignocellulose mainly by dissolving hemicellulose and partially prehydrolyzing cellulose. DA has no delignified. The cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of 2% sulfuric acid( w/w) pretreated substrate was 52. 72%. Sulfuric acid with Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 pretreated substrate had the higher cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield

  17. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  18. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    Adassa Gama Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  19. Improvement on the leaching resistance of boron based wood preservative by metallic salts%金属盐对无机硼类防腐剂抗水流失性的改善

    余丽萍; 曹金珍; 闫丽

    2009-01-01

    为考察用金属盐与硼化物复合处理杉木后,处理材中硼的抗水流失性,采用3种硼化物(硼酸、硼砂、四水合八硼酸二钠)和3种金属盐(硫酸锌、乙酸锌和无水氯化钙),用两步法来复合处理杉木.针对每种金属盐设计了正交试验,考察硼化物种类、金属盐种类和浓度、后处理条件对硼保持率的影响,并进行了流失试验.结果表明:①将硼化物和金属盐分两步来处理木材,从而提高硼的抗水流失性是可行的;②处理材中硼的保持率随着金属盐浓度的增大而增大,同时也随着后处理温度的升高而提高;③无水氯化钙对硼的同着效果相对最好,其次是乙酸锌,而硫酸锌对硼的固着效果相对较差;④硼酸与无水氯化钙、硼砂或四水合八硼酸二钠与乙酸锌的组合比该种硼化物与其他2种金属盐复合处理材的硼的保持率高.%The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance leachability of soluble boron compounds (SBX) in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) by using metallic salts. Three SBX (including boric acid, borax, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and three metallic salts (including zinc sulfate, zinc acetate, anhydrous calcium chloride) were selected and two-step method was used to treat Chinese fir in this study. An orthogonal experiment was designed for each metallic salt and the effect of three factors (including the kind of borate, concentration of metallic salts, temperature of post-treatment) on the percentage of boron retention in treated wood was investigated. The leaching process of boron from wood blocks was performed. The results showed that:1) it is feasible to enhance the leaching resistance of boron by using boron compounds and metal salts in two steps;2) the retention rates of boron in treated wood increased with increasing concentration of metallic salts and temperature of post-treatment; 3) anhydrous calcium chloride had the best function on fixing

  20. Effect of Selectively Introducing Arginine and D-Amino Acids on the Antimicrobial Activity and Salt Sensitivity in Analogs of Human Beta-Defensins

    Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human β-defensins HBD-1and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs. PMID:24086767