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Sample records for acid decarboxylase expression

  1. A glutamic acid decarboxylase (CgGAD) highly expressed in hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Xu, Jiachao; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the reaction converting the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), not only functions in nervous system, but also plays important roles in immunomodulation in vertebrates. However, GAD has rarely been reported in invertebrates, and never in molluscs. In the present study, one GAD homologue (designed as CgGAD) was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The full length cDNA of CgGAD was 1689 bp encoding a polypeptide of 562 amino acids containing a conserved pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain. CgGAD mRNA and protein could be detected in ganglion and hemocytes of oysters, and their abundance in hemocytes was unexpectedly much higher than those in ganglion. More importantly, CgGAD was mostly located in those granulocytes without phagocytic capacity in oysters, and could dynamically respond to LPS stimulation. Further, after being transfected into HEK293 cells, CgGAD could promote the production of GABA. Collectively, these findings suggested that CgGAD, as a GABA synthase and molecular marker of GABAergic system, was mainly distributed in hemocytes and ganglion and involved in neuroendocrine-immune regulation network in oysters, which also provided a novel insight to the co-evolution between nervous system and immune system. PMID:27208883

  2. Cortical Gene Expression After a Conditional Knockout of 67 kDa Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Parvalbumin Neurons.

    Georgiev, Danko; Yoshihara, Toru; Kawabata, Rika; Matsubara, Takurou; Tsubomoto, Makoto; Minabe, Yoshio; Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori

    2016-07-01

    In the cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the enzyme primarily responsible for cortical GABA synthesis, is reduced in the subset of GABA neurons that express parvalbumin (PV). This GAD67 deficit is accompanied by lower cortical levels of other GABA-associated transcripts, including GABA transporter-1, PV, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B, somatostatin, GABAA receptor α1 subunit, and KCNS3 potassium channel subunit mRNAs. In contrast, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), another enzyme for GABA synthesis, are not altered. We tested the hypothesis that this pattern of GABA-associated transcript levels is secondary to the GAD67 deficit in PV neurons by analyzing cortical levels of these GABA-associated mRNAs in mice with a PV neuron-specific GAD67 knockout. Using in situ hybridization, we found that none of the examined GABA-associated transcripts had lower cortical expression in the knockout mice. In contrast, PV, BDNF, KCNS3, and GAD65 mRNA levels were higher in the homozygous mice. In addition, our behavioral test battery failed to detect a change in sensorimotor gating or working memory, although the homozygous mice exhibited increased spontaneous activities. These findings suggest that reduced GAD67 expression in PV neurons is not an upstream cause of the lower levels of GABA-associated transcripts, or of the characteristic behaviors, in schizophrenia. In PV neuron-specific GAD67 knockout mice, increased levels of PV, BDNF, and KCNS3 mRNAs might be the consequence of increased neuronal activity secondary to lower GABA synthesis, whereas increased GAD65 mRNA might represent a compensatory response to increase GABA synthesis. PMID:26980143

  3. Amino Acid Decarboxylase Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Pelin ERTÜRKMEN; Turhan, İlkay; Öner, Zübeyde

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms which have decarboxylase activity can form biogenic amine by enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids in foods. Histamine poisoning results from consumption of foods typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Therefore, decarboxylase activity is an important problem at the selection of lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture in fermented products. In this study, decarboxylase activities of 161 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain...

  4. A radiometric microassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase

    A simple method for purifying L-[3H] glutamic acid and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-glutamic acid decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycled cation-exchange procedure for separating γ-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamate are outlined and compared. Recycling increases the sensitivity of the cation-exchange method by 6-7 fold. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissue having wet-weights of approximately 1 μg. The cation-exchange method is compared with the anion-exchange and CO2-trapping methods. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo at Day 21/4 (stage 14) using the cation-exchange method. This is 5-6 days earlier than L-glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in embryonic neural tissue by previous investigators. L-Glutamate decarboxylase is present in the lumbar spinal cord at least as early as the birth of the first lumbar spinal cord neurons and at least 1-2 days before the initiation of synaptogenesis. (author)

  5. Differential expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat and human islets

    Petersen, J S; Russel, S; Marshall, M O;

    1993-01-01

    The GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD is a prominent islet cell autoantigen in type I diabetes. The two forms of GAD (GAD64 and GAD67) are encoded by different genes in both rats and humans. By in situ hybridization analysis of rat and human pancreases, expression of both genes was detected in rat isl...

  6. Differential gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus of the monkey

    In situ hybridization histochemistry, using cRNA probes, revealed a complementarity in the distributions of cells in the basal ganglia, basal nucleus of Meynert, thalamus, hypothalamus, and rostral part of the midbrain that showed gene expression for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or the alpha-subunit of type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAM II kinase-alpha). Cells in certain nuclei such as the thalamic reticular nucleus, globus pallidus, and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra show GAD gene expression only; others in nuclei such as the basal nucleus of Meynert, medial mamillary nuclei, and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei show CAM II kinase-alpha gene expression only. A few nuclei, for example, the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and the greater part of the subthalamic nucleus, display gene expression for neither GAD nor CAM II kinase-alpha. In other nuclei, notably those of the dorsal thalamus, and possibly in the striatum, GAD- and CAM II kinase-expressing cells appear to form two separate populations that, in most thalamic nuclei, together account for the total cell population. In situ hybridization reveals large amounts of CAM II kinase-alpha mRNA in the neuropil of most nuclei containing CAM II kinase-alpha-positive cells, suggesting its association with dendritic polyribosomes. The message may thus be translated at those sites, close to the synapses with which the protein is associated. The in situ hybridization results, coupled with those from immunocytochemical staining for CAM II kinase-alpha protein, indicate that CAM II kinase-alpha is commonly found in certain non-GABAergic afferent fiber systems but is not necessarily present in the postsynaptic cells on which they terminate. It appears to be absent from most GABAergic fiber systems but can be present in the cells on which they terminate

  7. Neuronal circuit-dependent alterations in expression of two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the hippocampus following electroconvulsive shock: A stereology-based study.

    Jinno, Shozo; Kosaka, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that GABAergic dysfunction is involved in various psychiatric disorders. The goal of our study was to investigate the influences of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), one of the most effective treatments for depression, on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. In this stereology-based study, we identified GABAergic neurons by immunostaining for two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GAD65, and GAD67 and estimated the expression changes induced by single or repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS; an animal model of ECT). The numerical density (ND) of entire population of GABAergic neurons (expressing GAD65 and/or GAD67) was seldom altered by the administration of ECS. GAD67-positive (GAD67(+)) neurons were also rarely affected by ECS. On the other hand, the ND of GAD65(+) neurons was changed in a layer-specific manner. In the CA1 region, the ND of GAD65(+) neurons was increased in the strata radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare (SR/SLM) by repeated ECS. In the CA3 region, the ND of GAD65(+) neurons was decreased in the stratum oriens and SR/SLM after single ECS. The expression ratio of GAD65 in GABAergic neurons was increased specifically in layers receiving afferents from the entorhinal cortex (EC), i.e., SR/SLM of the CA1 region and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), after repeated ECS administration, whereas the expression ratio of GAD67 in GABAergic neurons was decreased in several layers by the same treatment. These results indicate that the ECS-induced changes in ND of GAD65(+) or GAD67(+) neurons were most likely due to alterations in GAD expression rather than actual increases or decreases in cell numbers. Altogether, the neuronal circuit-dependent alterations in GABA-mediated signaling may play a contributory role in the depression treatment process introduced by ECT. PMID:19283776

  8. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    ... features of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Neurology. 2010 Jul 6;75(1):64-71. doi: ... WNL.0b013e3181e620ae. Epub 2010 May 26. Erratum in: Neurology. 2010 Aug 10;75(6):576. Dosage error ...

  9. Physiological characterization of the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Vuralhan, Zeynep; Luttik, Marijke A H; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; Morais, Marcos A; Schipper, Dick; Almering, Marinka J H; Kötter, Peter; Dickinson, J Richard; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2005-06-01

    Aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D were grown with different nitrogen sources. Cultures grown with phenylalanine, leucine, or methionine as a nitrogen source contained high levels of the corresponding fusel alcohols and organic acids, indicating activity of the Ehrlich pathway. Also, fusel alcohols derived from the other two amino acids were detected in the supernatant, suggesting the involvement of a common enzyme activity. Transcript level analysis revealed that among the five thiamine-pyrophospate-dependent decarboxylases (PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ARO10, and THI3), only ARO10 was transcriptionally up-regulated when phenylalanine, leucine, or methionine was used as a nitrogen source compared to growth on ammonia, proline, and asparagine. Moreover, 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity measured in cell extract from CEN.PK113-7D grown with phenylalanine, methionine, or leucine displayed similar broad-substrate 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity. Constitutive expression of ARO10 in ethanol-limited chemostat cultures in a strain lacking the five thiamine-pyrophosphate-dependent decarboxylases, grown with ammonia as a nitrogen source, led to a measurable decarboxylase activity with phenylalanine-, leucine-, and methionine-derived 2-oxo acids. Moreover, even with ammonia as the nitrogen source, these cultures produced significant amounts of the corresponding fusel alcohols. Nonetheless, the constitutive expression of ARO10 in an isogenic wild-type strain grown in a glucose-limited chemostat with ammonia did not lead to any 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity. Furthermore, even when ARO10 was constitutively expressed, growth with phenylalanine as the nitrogen source led to increased decarboxylase activities in cell extracts. The results reported here indicate the involvement of posttranscriptional regulation and/or a second protein in the ARO10-dependent, broad-substrate-specificity decarboxylase activity. PMID:15933030

  10. Phenolic Acid-Mediated Regulation of the padC Gene, Encoding the Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase of Bacillus subtilis▿ †

    Tran, Ngoc Phuong; Gury, Jerôme; Dartois, Véronique; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chi; Seraut, Hélène; Barthelmebs, Lise; Gervais, Patrick; Cavin, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, several phenolic acids specifically induce expression of padC, encoding a phenolic acid decarboxylase that converts these antimicrobial compounds into vinyl derivatives. padC forms an operon with a putative coding sequence of unknown function, yveFG, and this coding sequence does not appear to be involved in the phenolic acid stress response (PASR). To identify putative regulators involved in the PASR, random transposon mutagenesis, combined with two different screens, w...

  11. A systematic review on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase)

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, EC. 4.1.1.28) with L-5-hydroxytryptophan as a substrate (also called L-5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, 5-HTPDC) decarboxylates L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin (5-HT), an important neurotransmitter that involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, behaviour and emotion of higher animals. As it is an important enzyme, many researchers are now working on its physiological functions and properties and also on its isolation, purification and characterization from mammalian tissues. But up to now no systematic review studies have been done on this enzyme. We made systematic studies on this enzyme in tissues and brains of rats, and human subjects. We also developed highly sensitive assay methods of the enzyme. This new method led us to discover the enzyme in the sera of various animals. We examined the developmental changes of 5-HTPDC in the sera of animals. We discovered an endogenous inhibitor of the enzyme in the monkey blood. The purification of the enzyme were performed by us and other researches from the sera, brains, adrenals, liver and kidneys of mammals. These and other results of up to date research papers on 5-HTPDC have been reviewed in this paper. (author). 71 refs, 10 figs, 14 tabs

  12. Stereochemical course of rat liver cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase

    Rat liver homogenate, exhibiting very high cysteinesulfinic acid (CSA) decarboxylase activity, was used to decarboxylate [2-2H1]-L-CSA to [2-2H1]-hypotaurine (HT)2. The latter was desulfurized with Raney nickel to [1-2H1]-ethylamine. A 2H NMR spectrum of the (-)camphanamide derivative of the latter revealed the labeling stereochemistry. Similarly, unlabeled CSA was decarboxylated by rat liver homogenate in a D2O containing medium, and the product HT similarly desulfurized and derivatized. The reactions were followed by use of a new HPLC-based assay for CSA decarboxylase which allows simultaneous measurement of glutamate decarboxylation (which was negligible with rat liver homogenates). The results show that the decarboxylation proceeds with retention of configuration

  13. Antibody-bound amyloid precursor protein upregulates ornithine decarboxylase expression

    Nilsson, Tatjana; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Gabrielsson, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by extracellular accumulation of the Abeta peptide, derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The function of APP as a cell surface receptor was examined by ligand-mimicking using an antibody against the APP extracellular...... signalling events. This study shows that antibody-bound APP leads to altered gene expression that may be relevant to AD....... domain. Alterations in gene expression evoked by antibody-bound APP were analysed using human pathway-finder gene arrays and the largest change in expression levels was found for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). These results were confirmed by Western blotting which showed even higher upregulation on the...

  14. Enhancing Muconic Acid Production from Glucose and Lignin-Derived Aromatic Compounds via Increased Protocatechuate Decarboxylase Activity

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; Smith, Holly; Peterson, Darren J.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCA decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. This study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Gallic Acid Decarboxylase from Pantoea agglomerans T71

    Zeida, Mitsuhiro; Wieser, Marco; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen-sensitive gallic acid decarboxylase from Pantoea (formerly Enterobacter) agglomerans T71 was purified from a cell extract after stabilization by reducing agents. This enzyme has a molecular mass of approximately 320 kDa and consists of six identical subunits. It is highly specific for gallic acid. Gallic acid decarboxylase is unique among similar decarboxylases in that it requires iron as a cofactor, as shown by plasma emission spectroscopy (which revealed an iron content of 0.8 mol pe...

  16. Branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylases derived from Psychrobacter.

    Wei, Jiashi; Timler, Jacobe G; Knutson, Carolann M; Barney, Brett M

    2013-09-01

    The conversion of branched-chain amino acids to branched-chain acids or alcohols is an important aspect of flavor in the food industry and is dependent on the Ehrlich pathway found in certain lactic acid bacteria. A key enzyme in the pathway, the 2-keto acid decarboxylase (KDC), is also of interest in biotechnology applications to produce small branched-chain alcohols that might serve as improved biofuels or other commodity feedstocks. This enzyme has been extensively studied in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis, but is also found in other bacteria and higher organisms. In this report, distinct homologs of the L. lactis KDC originally annotated as pyruvate decarboxylases from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 were cloned and characterized, confirming a related activity toward specific branched-chain 2-keto acids derived from branched-chain amino acids. Further, KDC activity was confirmed in intact cells and cell-free extracts of P. cryohalolentis K5 grown on both rich and defined media, indicating that the Ehrlich pathway may also be utilized in some psychrotrophs and psychrophiles. A comparison of the similarities and differences in the P. cryohalolentis K5 and P. arcticus 273-4 KDC activities to other bacterial KDCs is presented. PMID:23826991

  17. Multicistronic lentiviral vector-mediated striatal gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and GTP cyclohydrolase I induces sustained transgene expression, dopamine production, and functional improvement in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Azzouz, Mimoun; Martin-Rendon, Enca; Barber, Robert D; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Carter, Emma E; Rohll, Jonathan B; Kingsman, Susan M; Kingsman, Alan J; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2002-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This loss leads to complete dopamine depletion in the striatum and severe motor impairment. It has been demonstrated previously that a lentiviral vector system based on equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) gives rise to highly efficient and sustained transduction of neurons in the rat brain. Therefore, a dopamine replacement strategy using EIAV has been investigated as a treatment in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) animal model of PD. A self-inactivating EIAV minimal lentiviral vector that expresses tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic amino acid dopa decarboxylase (AADC), and GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (CH1) in a single transcription unit has been generated. In cultured striatal neurons transduced with this vector, TH, AADC, and CH1 proteins can all be detected. After stereotactic delivery into the dopamine-denervated striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat, sustained expression of each enzyme and effective production of catecholamines were detected, resulting in significant reduction of apomorphine-induced motor asymmetry compared with control animals (p < 0.003). Expression of each enzyme in the striatum was observed for up to 5 months after injection. These data indicate that the delivery of three catecholaminergic synthetic enzymes by a single lentiviral vector can achieve functional improvement and thus open the potential for the use of this vector for gene therapy of late-stage PD patients. PMID:12451130

  18. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody positive neurological syndromes.

    Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-07-01

    A rare kind of antibody, known as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody, is found in some patients. The antibody works against the GAD enzyme, which is essential in the formation of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain. Patients found with this antibody present with motor and cognitive problems due to low levels or lack of GABA, because in the absence or low levels of GABA patients exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms. The anti-GAD antibody is found in some neurological syndromes, including stiff-person syndrome, paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), limbic encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, eye movement disorders, and epilepsy. Previously, excluding MFS, these conditions were calledhyperexcitability disorders. However, collectively, these syndromes should be known as "anti-GAD positive neurological syndromes." An important limitation of this study is that the literature is lacking on the subject, and why patients with the above mentioned neurological problems present with different symptoms has not been studied in detail. Therefore, it is recommended that more research is conducted on this subject to obtain a better and deeper understanding of these anti-GAD antibody induced neurological syndromes. PMID:27356651

  19. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p first to reveal the dominance of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. PMID:26643381

  20. Adenovirus-mediated Expression of both Antisense Ornithine Decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Growth

    Hui TIAN; Xianxi LIU; Bing ZHANG; Qifeng SUN; Dongfeng SUN

    2007-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis is controlled primarily by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and Sadenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC). Antisense sequences of ODC and AdoMetDC genes were cloned into an adenoviral vector (named Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas). To evaluate the effects of recombinant adenovirus Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas that can simultaneously express both antisense ODC and AdoMetDC,the human lung cancer cell line A-549 was infected with Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas or the control vector.Viable cell counting, determination of polyamine concentrations, cell cycle analysis, and Matrigel invasion assays were carried out to assess the properties of tumor growth and invasiveness. Our study showed that adenovirus-mediated antisense ODC and AdoMetDC expression inhibits tumor cell growth through blocking the polyamine synthesis pathway. Tumor cells were arrested at the G1 phase after gene transfer and the invasiveness was reduced. It suggested that the recombinant adenovirus Ad-ODC-AdoMetDCas might be a new anticancer reagent in the treatment of lung cancers.

  1. Correlation between arginine decarboxylase expression during abiotic stress and polyamine content in Withania somnifera

    Neha G. Wasnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010   In plants, polyamines are generally synthesized by the ornithine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC through polyamine pathway. In the current study, attempt was made to clone and characterize a gene encoding arginine decarboxylase from Withania somnifera. A full-length ADC cDNA (WsADC with the longest open reading frame of 828 nucleotides, encoding a 275 amino acids polypeptide was developed by primer walking. WsADC mRNA was expressed in organs such as flower when tested for different plant organs like leaf, root, callus, stem and whole plantlet. Expression level of WsADC in different tissues of ashwagandha was spatially regulated. Transcripts of WsADC in ashwgandha shoots were induced either transiently in response to various abiotc stresses. Treatment of ashwgandha shoots on chilling and wounding remarkably induced accumulation of WsADC mRNA whereas UV light down- regulated the mRNA expression levels. This is the first direct evidence of a function of polyamines in the chilling, wounding

  2. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    N. V. Piven

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by means of ELISA approach. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 257-260

  3. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate decarboxylase gene family

    Tae Kyung Hyun; Seung Hee Eom; Xiao Han; Ju-Sung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of L-glutamate into -aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid present in all organisms. Although plant GAD plays important roles in GABA biosynthesis, our knowledge concerning GAD gene family members and their evolutionary relationship remains limited. Therefore, in this study, we have analysed the evolutionary mechanisms of soybean GAD genes and suggested that these genes expanded in the soybean genome partly due to segmental duplication events. The approximate dates of duplication events were calculated using the synonymous substitution rate, and we suggested that the segmental duplication of GAD genes in soybean originated 9.47 to 11.84 million years ago (Mya). In addition, all segmental duplication pairs (GmGAD1/3 and GmGAD2/4) are subject to purifying selection. Furthermore, GmGAD genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under abiotic stress conditions like salt, drought, and cold. The expression pattern of paralogous pairs suggested that they might have undergone neofunctionalization during the subsequent evolution process. Taken together, our results provide valuable information for the evolution of the GAD gene family and represent the basis for future research on the functional characterization of GAD genes in higher plants.

  4. Mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene: cloning, structure, and expression.

    Brabant, M; McConlogue, L; van Daalen Wetters, T; Coffino, P

    1988-01-01

    We used molecular cloning to isolate a functional gene for mouse ornithine decarboxylase (OrnDCase; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) from a cell line in which that gene had been selectively amplified. The position of the 5' terminus of the mRNA was identified, and the coding sequence was shown to be preceded by a 312- or 313-nucleotide (nt) untranslated leader. The latter is highly G + C rich, particularly in its 5'-most portion. The leader can be anticipated to have extensive and stab...

  5. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  6. Substrate specificity of thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Luttik, Marijke A H; Kötter, Peter; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2012-11-01

    Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases (2ODCs). PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6 encode differentially regulated pyruvate decarboxylase isoenzymes; ARO10 encodes a 2-oxo-acid decarboxylase with broad substrate specificity, and THI3 has not yet been shown to encode an active decarboxylase. Despite the importance of fusel alcohol production in S. cerevisiae, the substrate specificities of these five 2ODCs have not been systematically compared. When the five 2ODCs were individually overexpressed in a pdc1Δ pdc5Δ pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ strain, only Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the linear-chain 2-oxo acids pyruvate, 2-oxo-butanoate, and 2-oxo-pentanoate in cell extracts. The presence of a Pdc isoenzyme was also required for the production of n-propanol and n-butanol in cultures grown on threonine and norvaline, respectively, as nitrogen sources. These results demonstrate the importance of pyruvate decarboxylases in the natural production of n-propanol and n-butanol by S. cerevisiae. No decarboxylation activity was found for Thi3 with any of the substrates tested. Only Aro10 and Pdc5 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the aromatic substrate phenylpyruvate, with Aro10 showing superior kinetic properties. Aro10, Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 exhibited activity with all branched-chain and sulfur-containing 2-oxo acids tested but with markedly different decarboxylation kinetics. The high affinity of Aro10 identified it as a key contributor to the production of branched-chain and sulfur-containing fusel alcohols. PMID:22904058

  7. Transcriptional regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the male mouse amygdala by dietary phyto-oestrogens.

    Sandhu, K V; Yanagawa, Y; Stork, O

    2015-04-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are biologically active components of many human and laboratory animal diets. In the present study, we investigated, in adult male mice with C57BL/6 genetic background, the effects of a reduced phyto-oestrogens intake on anxiety-related behaviour and associated gene expression in the amygdala. After 6 weeks on a low-phyto-oestrogen diet (fear memory task, in contrast, was not affected. We hypothesised that this mildly increased anxiety may involve changes in the function of GABAergic local circuit neurones in the amygdala. Using GAD67(+/GFP) mice, we could demonstrate reduced transcription of the GAD67 gene in the lateral and basolateral amygdala under the low-phyto-oestrogen diet. Analysis of mRNA levels in microdissected samples confirmed this regulation and demonstrated concomitant changes in expression of the second glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoform, GAD65, as well as the anxiolytic neuropeptide Y. These molecular and behavioural alterations occurred without apparent changes in circulating oestrogens or testosterone levels. Our data suggest that expression regulation of interneurone-specific gene products in the amygdala may provide a mechanism for the control of anxiety-related behaviour through dietary phyto-oestrogens. PMID:25650988

  8. Pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids but is not essential for fusel alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    ter Schure, E G; Flikweert, M T; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T; Verrips, C T

    1998-04-01

    The fusel alcohols 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-propanol are important flavor compounds in yeast-derived food products and beverages. The formation of these compounds from branched-chain amino acids is generally assumed to occur via the Ehrlich pathway, which involves the concerted action of a branched-chain transaminase, a decarboxylase, and an alcohol dehydrogenase. Partially purified preparations of pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) have been reported to catalyze the decarboxylation of the branched-chain 2-oxo acids formed upon transamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Indeed, in a coupled enzymatic assay with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, cell extracts of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibited significant decarboxylation rates with these branched-chain 2-oxo acids. Decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids was not detectable in cell extracts of an isogenic strain in which all three PDC genes had been disrupted. Experiments with cell extracts from S. cerevisiae mutants expressing a single PDC gene demonstrated that both PDC1- and PDC5-encoded isoenzymes can decarboxylate branched-chain 2-oxo acids. To investigate whether pyruvate decarboxylase is essential for fusel alcohol production by whole cells, wild-type S. cerevisiae and an isogenic pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain were grown on ethanol with a mixture of leucine, isoleucine, and valine as the nitrogen source. Surprisingly, the three corresponding fusel alcohols were produced in both strains. This result proves that decarboxylation of branched-chain 2-oxo acids via pyruvate decarboxylase is not an essential step in fusel alcohol production. PMID:9546164

  9. Enhanced expression of glutamate decarboxylase 65 improves symptoms of rat parkinsonian models.

    Lee, B; Lee, H; Nam, Y R; Oh, J H; Cho, Y H; Chang, J W

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we report the amelioration of parkinsonian symptoms in rat Parkinson's disease (PD) models, as a result of the expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65 with a modified cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The transfer of the gene for gamma-amino butryic acid (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme in gama-amino butrylic acid (GABA) production, has been investigated as a means to increase inhibitory synaptic activity. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that the transfer of the GAD65 gene to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can change the excitatory output of this nucleus to inhibitory output. Our in vitro results also demonstrated higher GAD65 expression in cells transfected with the JDK promoter, as compared to cells transfected with the CMV promoter. Also, a rat PD model in which recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 (rAAV2)-JDK-GAD65 was delivered into the STN exhibited significant behavioral improvements, as compared to the saline-injected group. Interestingly, we observed that these behavioral improvements were more obvious in rat PD models in which rAAV2-JDK-GAD65 was injected into the STN than in rat PD models in which rAAV2-CMV-GAD65 was injected into the STN. Moreover, according to electrophysiological data, the rAAV2-JDK-GAD65-injected group exhibited more constant improvements in firing rates than did the rAAV2-CMV-GAD65-injected group. These data indicate that the JDK promoter, when coupled with GAD65 expression, is more effective with regard to parkinsonian symptoms than is the CMV promoter. PMID:15829994

  10. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    The crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase from B. pumilus strain UI-670 has been determined and refined at 1.69 Å resolution. The enzyme is a dimer, with each subunit adopting a β-barrel structure belonging to the lipocalin fold. The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavouring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a β-barrel structure and two α-helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the β-barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site

  11. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  12. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay

  13. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive paraneoplastic stiff limb syndrome associated with carcinoma of the breast

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stiff limb syndrome (SLS is a rare "focal" variant of stiff person syndrome which presents with rigidity and painful spasms of a distal limb, and abnormal fixed foot or hand postures. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab are variably present in most cases. Most reported cases of SLS are unassociated with cancer. We describe a patient with SLS as a paraneoplastic manifestation of breast carcinoma, in whom GAD-Ab was present. The patient responded very well to oral diazepam, baclofen and steroids.This is the third reported case of SLS as a paraneoplastic accompaniment to cancer.

  14. Aromatic L-Amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: A new case from Turkey with a novel mutation

    Kivilcim Gucuyener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, a vitamin B6-requiring enzyme that converts L-dopa to dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin. Deficiency of this enzyme results in developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, dystonia, involuntary movements, autonomic dysfunction, and oculogyric crises. We now report a 2-year-old Turkish boy with AADC deficiency confirmed by greatly reduced AADC activity in the plasma and by genetic studies. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous mutation c.208C > T (p. His70Tyr in exon 3 of the AADC gene which has not been described to date.

  15. The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Marco Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the decreased levels of GABA, studies have concentrated on the activity of the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate to GABA, as a decreasing function of this enzyme induces lower levels of the neurotransmitter. Moreover, a very limited amount of research investigated the possible role of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA in determining a decreased enzymatic function of GAD. If these findings are confirmed, it will be possible to improve diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. In addition, if the presence of GADA is associated with a genetic trait, this would allow and facilitate early diagnoses.

  16. Ornithine decarboxylase, mitogen-activated protein kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions in human colon tumors

    Takahiro Nemoto; Shunichiro Kubota; Hideyuki Ishida; Nobuo Murata; Daijo Hashimoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expressions of omithine decarboxylase (ODC), MMP-2, and Erk, and their relationship in human colon tumors.METHODS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase activity (Erk phosphorylation) were determined in 58 surgically removed human colon tumors and their adjacent normal tissues, using [1-14C]-ornithine as a substrate, ELISA assay, and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS: ODC activity, MMP-2 expression, and Erk phosphorylation were significantly elevated in colon tumors, compared to those in adjacent normal tissues. A significant correlation was observed between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels.CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing a significant correlation between ODC activities and MMP-2 levels in human colon tumors. As MMP-2 is involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and colon cancer overexpresses ODC, suppression of ODC expression may be a rational approach to treat colon cancer which overexpresses ODC.

  17. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  18. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation

    Gänzle Michael G; Schlicht Sabine; Su Marcia S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. Results...

  19. Cloning and characterization of a locus encoding an indolepyruvate decarboxylase involved in indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Erwinia herbicola.

    Brandl, M. T.; Lindow, S E

    1996-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola 299R synthesizes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily by the indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. A gene involved in the biosynthesis of IAA was cloned from strain 299R. This gene (ipdC) conferred the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptophol upon Escherichia coli DH5 alpha in cultures supplemented with L-tryptophan. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product has high similarity to that of the indolepyruvate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae. Regions within py...

  20. Production of dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase cells after spinal cord injury

    Ren, Liqun; Wienecke, Jacob; Hultborn, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) cells are widely distributed in the spinal cord and their functions are largely unknown. We have previously found that AADC cells in the spinal cord could increase their ability to produce serotonin from 5-hydroxytryptophan after spinal cord injury (SCI...... inhibitor (pargyline) co-application, systemic administration of L-dopa resulted in ~ 94% of AADC cells to become DA-immunopositive in the spinal cord below the lesion, whereas in normal or sham-operated rats none or very few of AADC cells became DA-immunopositive with the same treatment. Using tail....... These findings demonstrate that AADC cells in the spinal cord below the lesion gain the ability to produce DA from its precursor in response to SCI. This ability also enables the AADC cells to produce 5-HT and trace-amines, and likely contributes to the development of hyperexcitability. These results...

  1. Intrathecal-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies at low titers in autoimmune neurological disorders.

    Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Chu, Kon; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Il; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-15

    Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad-Abs) are implicated in various neurological syndromes. The present study aims to identify intrathecal-specific GAD-Abs and to determine clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes. Nineteen patients had GAD-Abs in cerebrospinal fluid but not in paired serum samples. Neurological syndromes included limbic encephalitis, temporal lobe epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction, and stiff-person syndrome. Immunotherapy had beneficial effects in 57.1% of patients, and the patients with limbic encephalitis responded especially well to immunotherapy. Intrathecal-specific antibodies to GAD at low titers may appear as nonspecific markers of immune activation within the central nervous system rather than pathogenic antibodies causing neuronal dysfunction. PMID:26711563

  2. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha expression and growth in human breast cancer cells

    Zhu, Qingsong; Jin, Lihua; CASERO, ROBERT A.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Huang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that specific polyamine analogues, oligoamines, down-regulated the activity of a key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and suppressed expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in human breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the potential regulation of ERα expression by polyamine metabolism has not been explored. Here, we demonstrated that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ODC (ODC KD) down-regulated the polyamine pool, a...

  3. Glutamate acid decarboxylase 1 promotes metastasis of human oral cancer by β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation

    Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is found in the GABAergic neurons of the central nervous system. Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the expression status of GAD1 and its functional mechanisms in OSCCs. We evaluated GAD1 mRNA and protein expressions in OSCC-derived cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting analyses. To assess the critical functions of GAD1, i.e., cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migration, OSCC-derived cells were treated with the shRNA and specific GAD1 inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA). GAD1 expression in 80 patients with primary OSCCs was analyzed and compared to the clinicopathological behaviors of OSCC. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses detected frequent up-regulation of GAD1 in OSCC-derived cells compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Suppression of nuclear localization of β-catenin and MMP7 secretion was observed in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. We also found low cellular invasiveness and migratory abilities in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. In the clinical samples, GAD1 expression in the primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in normal counterparts and was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with regional lymph node metastasis. Our data showed that up-regulation of GAD1 was a characteristic event in OSCCs and that GAD1 was correlated with cellular invasiveness and migration by regulating β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation. GAD1 might play an important role in controlling tumoral invasiveness and metastasis in oral cancer

  4. Crystal Structures of Apo and Liganded 4-Oxalocrotonate Decarboxylase Uncover a Structural Basis for the Metal-Assisted Decarboxylation of a Vinylogous β-Keto Acid.

    Guimarães, Samuel L; Coitinho, Juliana B; Costa, Débora M A; Araújo, Simara S; Whitman, Christian P; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-05-10

    The enzymes in the catechol meta-fission pathway have been studied for more than 50 years in several species of bacteria capable of degrading a number of aromatic compounds. In a related pathway, naphthalene, a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is fully degraded to intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida G7. In this organism, the 83 kb NAH7 plasmid carries several genes involved in this biotransformation process. One enzyme in this route, NahK, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD), converts 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate to 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate using Mg(2+) as a cofactor. Efforts to study how 4-OD catalyzes this decarboxylation have been hampered because 4-OD is present in a complex with vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH), which is the next enzyme in the same pathway. For the first time, a monomeric, stable, and active 4-OD has been expressed and purified in the absence of VPH. Crystal structures for NahK in the apo form and bonded with five substrate analogues were obtained using two distinct crystallization conditions. Analysis of the crystal structures implicates a lid domain in substrate binding and suggests roles for specific residues in a proposed reaction mechanism. In addition, we assign a possible function for the NahK N-terminal domain, which differs from most of the other members of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase superfamily. Although the structural basis for metal-dependent β-keto acid decarboxylases has been reported, this is the first structural report for that of a vinylogous β-keto acid decarboxylase and the first crystal structure of a 4-OD. PMID:27082660

  5. Danish children born with glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies at birth had an increased risk to develop type 1 diabetes

    Eising, Stefanie; Nilsson, Anita; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2011-01-01

    A large, population-based case-control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes.......A large, population-based case-control cohort was used to test the hypothesis that glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) and islet antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) at birth predict type 1 diabetes....

  6. Postnatal expression of H1-receptor mRNA in the rat brain: correlation to L-histidine decarboxylase expression and local upregulation in limbic seizures.

    Lintunen, M; Sallmen, T; Karlstedt, K; Fukui, H; Eriksson, K S; Panula, P

    1998-07-01

    Histamine is implicated in the regulation of brain functions through three distinct receptors. Endogenous histamine in the brain is derived from mast cells and neurons, but the importance of these two pools during early postnatal development is still unknown. The expression of histamine H1-receptor in the rat brain was examined using in situ hybridization during postnatal development and in adults. For comparison, the expression of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the two pools was revealed. H1-receptor was evenly expressed throughout the brain on the first postnatal days, but resembled the adult, uneven pattern already on postnatal day 5 (P5). HDC was expressed in both mast cells and tuberomammillary neurons from birth until P5, after which the mast cell expression was no more detectable. In adult rat brain, high or moderate levels of H1-receptor expression were found in the hippocampus, zona incerta, medial amygdaloid nucleus and reticular thalamic nucleus. In most areas of the adult brain the expression of H1-receptor mRNA correlates well with binding data and histaminergic innervation. A notable exception is the hypothalamus, with high fibre density but moderate or low H1-receptor expression. Systemic kainic acid administration induced increased expression of H1-receptor mRNA in the caudate-putamen and dentate gyrus, whereas no change was seen in the hippocampal subfields CA1-CA3 or in the entorhinal cortex 6 h after kainic acid injections. This significant increase supports the concept that histaminergic transmission, through H1-receptor, is involved in the regulation of seizure activity in the brain. PMID:9749757

  7. Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A Decarboxylase Gene from Bifidobacterium lactis

    Federici, Federica; Vitali, Beatrice; Gotti, Roberto; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Gobbi, Silvia; Peck, Ammon B; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Oxalyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (Oxc) is a key enzyme in the catabolism of the highly toxic compound oxalate, catalyzing the decarboxylation of oxalyl-CoA to formyl-CoA. The gene encoding a novel oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase from Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 (oxc) was identified and characterized. This strain, isolated from yogurt, showed the highest oxalate-degrading activity in a preliminary screening with 12 strains belonging to Bifidobacterium, an anaerobic intestinal bacterial grou...

  8. EFFECT OF AERO-/ANAEROBIOSIS ON DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Stanislav Kráčmar; Vladimír Dráb; Tereza Podešvová; Eva Pollaková; Leona Buňková; František Buňka

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines are undesirable compounds produced in foods mainly through bacterial decarboxylase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate some environmental conditions (particularly aero/anaerobiosis, sodium chloride concentration (0–2% w/w), and amount of lactose (0–1% w/w)) on the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase enzymes of selected six technological important Lactococcus lactis strains. The levels of parameters tested were chosen according to real situation in fer...

  9. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency diagnosed by clinical metabolomic profiling of plasma.

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Cardon, Aaron L; Bacino, C A; Sun, Qin; Emrick, L; Reid Sutton, V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting the biosynthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and catecholamines. We report a case of AADC deficiency that was detected using the Global MAPS platform. This is a novel platform that allows for parallel clinical testing of hundreds of metabolites in a single plasma specimen. It uses a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platform, and the resulting spectra are compared against a library of ~2500 metabolites. Our patient is now a 4 year old boy initially seen at 11 months of age for developmental delay and hypotonia. Multiple tests had not yielded a diagnosis until exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants of uncertain significance (VUS), c.286G>A (p.G96R) and c.260C>T (p.P87L) in the DDC gene, causal for AADC deficiency. CSF neurotransmitter analysis confirmed the diagnosis with elevated 3-methoxytyrosine (3-O-methyldopa). Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma and revealed marked elevation in 3-methoxytyrosine (Z-score +6.1) consistent with the diagnosis of AADC deficiency. These results demonstrate that the Global MAPS platform is able to diagnose AADC deficiency from plasma. In summary, we report a novel and less invasive approach to diagnose AADC deficiency using plasma metabolomic profiling. PMID:25956449

  10. Developmental changes of glutamate acid decarboxylase 67 in mouse brain after hypoxia ischemia

    Fa-Lin XU; Chang-Lian ZHU; Xiao-Yang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the developmental changes of glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 ( GAD-67, a GABA synthetic enzyme) in normal and hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain. Methods C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day (P) 5, 9, 21and 60, corresponding developmentally to premature, term, juvenile and adult human brain were investigated by using both Western blot and immunohistochemistry methods either in normal condition or after hypoxic ischemic insult. Results The immunoreactivity of GAD67 was up regulated with brain development and significant difference was seen between mature (P21, P60) and immature (P5, P9) brain. GAD67 immunoreactivity decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere in all the ages after hypoxia ischemia (HI) insult, but, significant decrease was only seen in the immature brain. Double labeling of GAD67 and cell death marker, TUNEL, in the cortex at 8h post-HI in the P9 mice showed that (15.6 ±7.0)%TUNEL positive cells were GAD67 positive which was higher than that of P60 mice. Conclusion These data suggest that GABAergic neurons in immature brain were more vulnerable to HI insult than that of mature brain.

  11. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells.

    Nagashima, Yusuke; Kako, Koichiro; Kim, Jun-Dal; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-11-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced production of HA by HDC. The present study quantified the trace amounts of intracellular HA using ultra-high liquid chromatography in combination with the 6-aminoquinoline carbamate-derivatization technique. To test whether the cellular level of HA is elevated by the induction of HDC in Jurkat cells treated with TPA, the peak corresponding to authentic HA in the cell lysate was fractioned and its molecular weight determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results of this study show that the HA level is increased by the induction of HDC expression by TPA in Jurkat cells. Therefore, this method is useful in elucidating the physiological significance of HA production. PMID:22940786

  12. Pancreatic beta cells express two autoantigenic forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, a 65-kDa hydrophilic form and a 64-kDa amphiphilic form which can be both membrane-bound and soluble

    Christgau, S; Schierbeck, H; Aanstoot, H J;

    1991-01-01

    The 64-kDa pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen, which is a target of autoantibodies associated with early as well as progressive stages of beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) in humans, has been identified as the gamma-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic...... compartment and hydrophobicity. A major portion of GAD64 is hydrophobic and firmly membrane-anchored and can only be released from membrane fractions by detergent. A second portion is hydrophobic but soluble or of a low membrane avidity, and a third minor portion is soluble and hydrophilic. All the GAD64...

  13. Investigation of a substrate-specifying residue within Papaver somniferum and Catharanthus roseus aromatic amino acid decarboxylases.

    Torrens-Spence, Michael P; Lazear, Michael; von Guggenberg, Renee; Ding, Haizhen; Li, Jianyong

    2014-10-01

    Plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs) catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids with either benzene or indole rings. Because the substrate selectivity of AAADs is intimately related to their physiological functions, primary sequence data and their differentiation could provide significant physiological insights. However, due to general high sequence identity, plant AAAD substrate specificities have been difficult to identify through primary sequence comparison. In this study, bioinformatic approaches were utilized to identify several active site residues within plant AAAD enzymes that may impact substrate specificity. Next a Papaver somniferum tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) was selected as a model to verify our putative substrate-dictating residues through mutation. Results indicated that mutagenesis of serine 372 to glycine enables the P. somniferum TyDC to use 5-hydroxytryptophan as a substrate, and reduces the enzyme activity toward 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa). Additionally, the reverse mutation in a Catharanthus roseus tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) enables the mutant enzyme to utilize tyrosine and dopa as substrates with a reduced affinity toward tryptophan. Molecular modeling and molecular docking of the P. somniferum TyDC and the C. roseus TDC enzymes provided a structural basis to explain alterations in substrate specificity. Identification of an active site residue that impacts substrate selectivity produces a primary sequence identifier that may help differentiate the indolic and phenolic substrate specificities of individual plant AAADs. PMID:25107664

  14. Mesomere-derived glutamate decarboxylase-expressing blastocoelar mesenchyme cells of sea urchin larvae

    Hideki Katow

    2013-12-01

    The ontogenetic origin of blastocoelar glutamate decarboxylase (GAD-expressing cells (GADCs in larvae of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was elucidated. Whole-mount in situ hybridisation (WISH detected transcription of the gene that encodes GAD in H. pulcherrimus (Hp-gad in unfertilised eggs and all blastomeres in morulae. However, at and after the swimming blastula stage, the transcript accumulation was particularly prominent in clumps of ectodermal cells throughout the embryonic surface. During the gastrula stage, the transcripts also accumulated in the endomesoderm and certain blastocoelar cells. Consistent with the increasing number of Hp-gad transcribing cells, immunoblot analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Hp-Gad increased considerably from the early gastrula stage until the prism stage. The expression pattern of GADCs determined by immunohistochemistry was identical to the pattern of Hp-gad transcript accumulation determined using WISH. In early gastrulae, GADCs formed blastocoelar cell aggregates around the blastopore with primary mesenchyme cells. The increase in the number of blastocoelar GADCs was inversely proportional to the number of ectodermal GADCs ranging from a few percent of total GADCs in early gastrulae to 80% in late prism larvae; this depended on ingression of ectodermal GADCs into the blastocoel. Some of the blastocoelar GADCs were fluorescein-positive in the larvae that developed from the 16-cell stage chimeric embryos; these comprised fluorescein-labeled mesomeres and unlabelled macromeres and micromeres. Our finding indicates that some of the blastocoelar GADCs are derived from the mesomeres and thus they are the new group of mesenchyme cells, the tertiary mesenchyme cells.

  15. Arginine Decarboxylase expression, polyamines biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species during organogenic nodule formation in hop.

    Fortes, Ana M; Costa, Joana; Santos, Filipa; Seguí-Simarro, José M; Palme, Klaus; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Pais, Maria S

    2011-02-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an economically important plant species used in beer production and as a health-promoting medicine. Hop internodes develop upon stress treatments organogenic nodules which can be used for genetic transformation and micropropagation. Polyamines are involved in plant development and stress responses. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4·1.1·19) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of putrescine in plants. Here we show that ADC protein was increasingly expressed at early stages of hop internode culture (12h). Protein continued accumulating until organogenic nodule formation after 28 days, decreasing thereafter. The same profile was observed for ADC transcript suggesting transcriptional regulation of ADC gene expression during morphogenesis. The highest transcript and protein levels observed after 28 days of culture were accompanied by a peak in putrescine levels. Reactive oxygen species accumulate in nodular tissues probably due to stress inherent to in vitro conditions and enhanced polyamine catabolism. Conjugated polyamines increased during plantlet regeneration from nodules suggesting their involvement in plantlet formation and/or in the control of free polyamine levels. Immunogold labeling revealed that ADC is located in plastids, nucleus and cytoplasm of nodular cells. In vacuolated cells, ADC immunolabelling in plastids doubled the signal of proplastids in meristematic cells. Location of ADC in different subcellular compartments may indicate its role in metabolic pathways taking place in these compartments. Altogether these data suggest that polyamines play an important role in organogenic nodule formation and represent a progress towards understanding the role played by these growth regulators in plant morphogenesis. PMID:21415599

  16. Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes.

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Vines, Brannon L; Miller, David W; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Amara, Amy W

    2016-03-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. Case series with retrospective chart and literature review. Three patients without pre-existing epilepsy who presented to our institution with generalized seizures between 2013 and 2014 were identified. Seizures proved refractory to first and second-line therapies and persisted beyond 24 hours. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old female who had elevated serum GAD-Ab titres at 0.49 mmol/l (normal: partial seizure control. Patient 2 was a 61-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l. EEG showed persistent generalized periodic discharges despite maximized therapy with anticonvulsants but no immunotherapy, resulting in withdrawal of care and discharge to nursing home. Patient 3 was a 50-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l, and was discovered to have pulmonary sarcoidosis. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in seizure resolution. Due to the responsiveness to immunotherapy, there may be an association between GAD-Abs and refractory seizures, including refractory status epilepticus. Causation cannot be established since GAD-Abs may be elevated secondary to concurrent autoimmune diseases or formed de novo in response to GAD antigen exposure by neuronal injury. Based on this report and available literature, there may be a role for immuno- and chemotherapy in the management of refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. PMID:26878120

  17. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody levels discriminate two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    李霞; 杨琳; 周智广; 黄干; 颜湘

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) with different titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) and to define the two distinct subtypes of LADA.Methods Sera of 750 patients with an initial diagnosis of T2DM from central south of China were screened for GADA using a radioligand assay. The distribution and frequency of GADA levels were described. Two hundred and ninety-five patients were divided into the T2DM group (n=233) and the LADA group (n=62) to compare the age of onset, body mass index, HbA1c, C-peptide, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic diabetic complications. Furthermore, LADA patients with different GADA titers were subdivided to analyze the same indexes as the above. Results The prevalence of LADA (defined as GADA≥0.05, namely GADA positive) was 9.7% in the 750 initially diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Compared with T2DM, LADA patients were younger at their ages of onset, had lower C-peptide and body mass index, and also had less cases with hypertension and with dyslipidemia. However, only patients with high titer of GADA had poorer beta cell functions and less diabetic complications compared to T2DM and low GADA titer of LADA patients. Patients with low GADA titer were similar to T2DM patients, except that they were prone to develop ketosis more frequently.Conclusions Two clinically distinct subtypes of LADA can be identified by GADA levels in patients initially-diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Patients with high titer of GADA (GADA≥0.5) subsequently develop more insulin dependency, which are classified as LADA-type 1; while those with lower GADA titer (0.05≤GADA<0.5) and having clinical and metabolic phenotypes of type 2 diabetes are classified as LADA-type 2.

  18. Characterization of phenolic acid reductase and decarboxylase activities of lactic acid bateria

    Soares, Ana de Seabra Leão Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are natural constituents of grape juice and wine, and are precursors of volatile phenols produced by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The organoleptic defects due to the presence of this volatile phenols are usually associated with “animal”, “horsey”, “leather”, “phenolic” or “spicy” aromatic notes. The most common pathway for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic acids involves two enzymes. In first place, it occurs a decarboxylation by the phenolic acid decarboxylas...

  19. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    Wen Gu

    Full Text Available Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer.

  20. IGF2BP2 Alternative Variants Associated with Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies Negative Diabetes in Malaysian Subjects

    Salem, Sameer D.; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Ismail, Ikram S.; Al-Hamodi, Zaid; Poh, Rozaida; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) common variants (rs4402960 and rs1470579) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been performed in different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of alternative variants of IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) negative diabetes in Malaysian Subjects. Methods/Principal Findings IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 s...

  1. Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis

    Hare Emily E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typically perform important functions in both the nervous system and other tissues, as illustrated by the debilitating conditions that arise from their deficiency. Studying the regulation and evolution of AADC genes is therefore desirable to further our understanding of how nervous systems function and evolve. Results In the nematode C. elegans, the bas-1 gene is required for both serotonin and dopamine synthesis, and maps genetically near two AADC-homologous sequences. We show by transformation rescue and sequencing of mutant alleles that bas-1 encodes an AADC enzyme. Expression of a reporter construct in transgenics suggests that the bas-1 gene is expressed, as expected, in identified serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. The bas-1 gene is one of six AADC-like sequences in the C. elegans genome, including a duplicate that is immediately downstream of the bas-1 gene. Some of the six AADC genes are quite similar to known serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC's from other organisms whereas others are divergent, suggesting previously unidentified functions. In comparing the AADC genes of C. elegans with those of the congeneric C. briggsae, we find only four orthologous AADC genes in C. briggsae. Two C. elegans AADC genes – those most similar to bas-1 – are missing from C. briggsae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one or both of these bas-1-like genes were present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae, and were retained in the C. elegans line, but lost in the C. briggsae line. Further analysis of the two bas-1-like genes in C. elegans suggests that they are unlikely to encode functional enzymes, and may be expressed pseudogenes. Conclusions The bas-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a serotonin- and dopamine

  2. Enhanced histamine production through the induction of histidine decarboxylase expression by phorbol ester in Jurkat cells

    NAGASHIMA, YUSUKE; Kako, Koichiro; KIM, JUN-DAL; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a mediator of inflammation, type I allergic responses and neurotransmission, is synthesized from L-histidine, the reaction of which is catalyzed by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). HDC has been reported to be induced by various stimuli, not only in mast cells and basophils, but also in T lymphocytes and macrophages. Although its mRNA has been shown to be increased in Jurkat cells when treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), little is known concerning the induced prod...

  3. Structure of PA4019, a putative aromatic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    The crystal structure of recombinant UbiX has been determined to 1.5 Å resolution. The ubiX gene (PA4019) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been annotated as encoding a putative 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase from the ubiquinone-biosynthesis pathway. Based on a transposon mutagenesis screen, this gene was also implicated as being essential for the survival of this organism. The crystal structure of recombinant UbiX determined to 1.5 Å resolution showed that the protein belongs to the superfamily of homo-oligomeric flavine-containing cysteine decarboxylases. The enzyme assembles into a dodecamer with 23 point symmetry. The subunit displays a typical Rossmann fold and contains one FMN molecule bound at the interface between two subunits

  4. EFFECT OF AERO-/ANAEROBIOSIS ON DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are undesirable compounds produced in foods mainly through bacterial decarboxylase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate some environmental conditions (particularly aero/anaerobiosis, sodium chloride concentration (0–2% w/w, and amount of lactose (0–1% w/w on the activity of tyrosine decarboxylase enzymes of selected six technological important Lactococcus lactis strains. The levels of parameters tested were chosen according to real situation in fermented dairy products technology (especially cheese-making. Tyramine was determined by the ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrine derivatization and spectrophotometric detection. Tyrosine decarboxylation occurred during the active growth phase. Under the model conditions used, oxygen availability had influence on tyramine production, anaerobiosis seemed to favour the enzyme activity because all L. lactis strains produced higher tyramine amount. doi:10.5219/43

  5. Improvement of ethanol production by recombinant expression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Wang, Jianqiao; Hirabayashi, Sho; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    To improve ethanol production by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene was cloned from and reintroduced into this hyper lignin-degrading fungus; the gene encodes a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation. We screened 16 transformant P. sordida YK-624 strains that each expressed a second, recombinant PDC gene (pdc) and then identified the transformant strain (designated GP7) with the highest ethanol production. Direct ethanol production from hardwood was 1.41 higher with GP7 than with wild-type P. sordida YK-624. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased PDC activity was caused by elevated recombinant pdc expression. Taken together, these results suggested that ethanol production by P. sordida YK-624 can be improved by the stable expression of an additional, recombinant pdc. PMID:26766784

  6. Significant enhancement of methionol production by co-expression of the aminotransferase gene ARO8 and the decarboxylase gene ARO10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Yin, Sheng; Lang, Tiandan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2015-03-01

    Methionol is an important volatile sulfur flavor compound, which can be produced via the Ehrlich pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aminotransferase and decarboxylase are essential enzymes catalyzing methionol biosynthesis. In this work, two aminotransferase genes ARO8 and ARO9 and one decarboxylase gene ARO10 were introduced into S. cerevisiae S288c, respectively, via an expression vector. Over-expression of ARO8 resulted in higher aminotransferase activity than that of ARO9. And the cellular decarboxylase activity was remarkably increased by over-expression of ARO10. A co-expression vector carrying both ARO8 and ARO10 was further constructed to generate the recombinant strain S810. Shaking flask experiments showed that the methionol yield from S810 reached 1.27 g L(-1), which was increased by 51.8 and 68.8% compared to that from the wild-type strain and the control strain harboring the empty vector. The fed-batch fermentation by strain S810 produced 3.24 g L(-1) of methionol after 72 h of cultivation in a bioreactor. These results demonstrated that co-expression of ARO8 and ARO10 significantly boosted the methionol production. It is the first time that more than 3.0 g L(-1) of methionol produced by genetically engineered yeast strain was reported by co-expression of the aminotransferase and decarboxylase via the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:25743068

  7. Spinal cord hemisection facilitates aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase cells to produce serotonin in the subchronic but not the chronic phase

    Azam, Bushra; Wienecke, Jacob; Jensen, Dennis Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulators, such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and noradrenalin, play an essential role in regulating the motor and sensory functions in the spinal cord. We have previously shown that in the rat spinal cord the activity of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) cells to produce...

  8. High-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid by a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase two-stage process.

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-25

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor and fragrance compounds in foods and cosmetics. Recently, we demonstrated that vanillin could be produced from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol in a coenzyme-independent manner using the decarboxylase Fdc and the oxygenase Cso2. In this study, we investigated a new two-pot bioprocess for vanillin production using the whole-cell catalyst of Escherichia coli expressing Fdc in the first stage and that of E. coli expressing Cso2 in the second stage. We first optimized the second-step Cso2 reaction from 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin, a rate-determining step for the production of vanillin. Addition of FeCl2 to the cultivation medium enhanced the activity of the resulting E. coli cells expressing Cso2, an iron protein belonging to the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family. Furthermore, a butyl acetate-water biphasic system was effective in improving the production of vanillin. Under the optimized conditions, we attempted to produce vanillin from ferulic acid by a two-pot bioprocess on a flask scale. In the first stage, E. coli cells expressing Fdc rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid and completely converted 75 mM of this substrate to 4-vinylguaiacol within 2 h at pH 9.0. After the first-stage reaction, cells were removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, and the pH of the resulting supernatant was adjusted to 10.5, the optimal pH for Cso2. This solution was subjected to the second-stage reaction. In the second stage, E. coli cells expressing Cso2 efficiently oxidized 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The concentration of vanillin reached 52 mM (7.8 g L(-1)) in 24 h, which is the highest level attained to date for the biotechnological production of vanillin using recombinant cells. PMID:25765579

  9. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  10. Characterization of the Intracellular Glutamate Decarboxylase System: Analysis of Its Function, Transcription, and Role in the Acid Resistance of Various Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G.; Suur, Laura; O'Byrne, Conor P.

    2012-01-01

    The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system is important for the acid resistance of Listeria monocytogenes. We previously showed that under acidic conditions, glutamate (Glt)/γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) antiport is impaired in minimal media but not in rich ones, like brain heart infusion. Here we demonstrate that this behavior is more complex and it is subject to strain and medium variation. Despite the impaired Glt/GABA antiport, cells accumulate intracellular GABA (GABAi) as a standard response aga...

  11. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in regulation of estrogen receptor alpha expression and growth in human breast cancer cells.

    Zhu, Qingsong; Jin, Lihua; Casero, Robert A; Davidson, Nancy E; Huang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that specific polyamine analogues, oligoamines, down-regulated the activity of a key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and suppressed expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in human breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying the potential regulation of ERα expression by polyamine metabolism has not been explored. Here, we demonstrated that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ODC (ODC KD) down-regulated the polyamine pool, and hindered growth in ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. ODC KD significantly induced the expression and activity of the key polyamine catabolism enzymes, spermine oxidase (SMO) and spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT). However, ODC KD-induced growth inhibition could not be reversed by exogenous spermidine or overexpression of antizyme inhibitor (AZI), suggesting that regulation of ODC on cell proliferation may involve the signaling pathways independent of polyamine metabolism. In MCF7 and T47D cells, ODC KD, but not DFMO treatment, diminished the mRNA and protein expression of ERα. Overexpression of antizyme (AZ), an ODC inhibitory protein, suppressed ERα expression, suggesting that ODC plays an important role in regulation of ERα expression. Decrease of ERα expression by ODC siRNA altered the mRNA expression of a subset of ERα response genes. Our previous analysis showed that oligoamines disrupt the binding of Sp1 family members to an ERα minimal promoter element containing GC/CA-rich boxes. By using DNA affinity precipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified ZBTB7A, MeCP2, PARP-1, AP2, and MAZ as co-factors of Sp1 family members that are associated with the ERα minimal promoter element. Taken together, these data provide insight into a novel antiestrogenic mechanism for polyamine biosynthesis enzymes in breast cancer. PMID:22976807

  12. Enhanced production of butanol and acetoin by heterologous expression of an acetolactate decarboxylase in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Shen, Xiaoning; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yanyan; Xu, Jiahui; Yang, Zhengjiao; Guo, Ting; Niu, Huanqing; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-09-01

    Butanol is an important industrial chemical and an attractive transportation fuel. However, the deficiency of reducing equivalents NAD(P)H in butanol fermentation results in a large quantity of oxidation products, which is a major problem limiting the atom economy and economic viability of bio-butanol processes. Here, we integrated the butanol fermentation process with a NADH-generating, acetoin biosynthesis process to improve the butanol production. By overexpressing the α-acetolactate decarboxylase gene alsD from Bacillus subtilis in Clostridium acetobutylicum, acetoin yield was significantly increased at the cost of acetone. After optimization of fermentation conditions, butanol (12.9g/L), acetoin (6.5g/L), and ethanol (1.9g/L) were generated by the recombinant strain, with acetone no more than 1.8g/L. Thus, both mass yield and product value were greatly improved. This study demonstrates that reducing power compensation is effective to improve the atom economy of butanol fermentation, and provides a novel approach to improve the economic viability of bio-butanol production. PMID:27285575

  13. Current concepts on the physiology and genetics of neurotransmitters-mediating enzyme-aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase

    Two most important neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin are mediated by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Because of their importance in the regulation of neuronal functions, behaviour and emotion of higher animals, many researchers are working on this enzyme to elucidate its physiological properties, structure and genetic aspects. We have discovered this enzyme in the mammalian blood, we established sensitive assay methods for the assay of the activities of this enzyme. We have made systematic studies on this enzyme in the tissues and brains of rats, and human subjects. We have found an endogenous inhibitor of this enzyme in the monkey's blood. The amino acid sequences of human AADC has been compared to rat or bovine. A full-length cDNA clone encoding human AADC has been isolated. Very recently the structure of human AADC gene including 5'-flaking region has been characterized and the transcriptional starting point has been determined. The human AADC gene assigned to chromosome 7. Up-to-date research data have shown that AADC is encoded by a single gene. Recently two patients with AADC deficiency were reported. This paper describes the systematic up-to-date review studies on AADC. (author). 62 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Similar peptides from two beta cell autoantigens, proinsulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase, stimulate T cells of individuals at risk for insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Rudy, G; N. Stone; Harrison, L C; Colman, P. G.; McNair, P; Brusic, V.; French, M. B.; Honeyman, M. C.; Tait, B.; Lew, A M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin (1) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) (2) are both autoantigens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but no molecular mechanism has been proposed for their association. We have identified a 13 amino acid peptide of proinsulin (amino acids 24-36) that bears marked similarity to a peptide of GAD65 (amino acids 506-518) (G. Rudy, unpublished). In order to test the hypothesis that this region of similarity is implicated in the pathogenesis of IDDM, we assayed T c...

  15. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene.

    Alcázar, Rubén; Planas, Joan; Saxena, Triambak; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Cuevas, Juan; Bitrián, Marta; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, a model genus missing a functional ornithine decarboxylase pathway, most of the key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis are duplicated. This gene redundancy has been related to the involvement of certain gene isoforms in the response to specific environmental stimuli. We have previously shown that drought stress induces Arginine decarboxlase 2 expression, while transcript levels for Arginine decarboxlase 1 remain constant. Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1.19) levels in response to different abiotic stresses have been reported in many different plant systems, but the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To get a new insight into these questions, we have studied the response to drought of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines constitutively expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxlase 2 gene. These lines contain high levels of putrescine with no changes in spermidine and spermine content even under drought stress. Drought tolerance experiments indicate that the different degree of resistance to dehydration correlates with Put content. Although no significant differences were observed in the number of stomata between wild-type and transgenic plants, a reduction in transpiration rate and stomata conductance was observed in the ADC2 over-expressor lines. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of transgenic plants over-producing Put is related to a reduction of water loss by transpiration. PMID:20206537

  16. Expression of an aromatic-dependent decarboxylase which provides growth-essential CO2 equivalents for the acetogenic (Wood) pathway of Clostridium thermoaceticum.

    Hsu, T D; Lux, M F; Drake, H L

    1990-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium thermoaceticum generates growth-essential CO2 equivalents from carboxylated aromatic compounds (e.g., 4-hydroxybenzoate), and these CO2 equivalents are likely integrated into the acetogenic pathway (T. Hsu, S. L. Daniel, M. F. Lux, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 172:212-217, 1990). By using 4-hydroxybenzoate as a model substrate, an assay was developed to study the expression and activity of the decarboxylase involved in the activation of aromatic carboxyl groups. The...

  17. Removal kinetics of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase by various plasmapheresis modalities in the treatment of neurological disorders.

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Okado, Tomokazu; Kurashima, Naoki; Maeda, Takuma; Miyamoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Ayako; Seshima, Hiroshi; Iimori, Soichiro; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2014-06-01

    Plasmapheresis is one of the acute treatment modalities for neurological disorders associated with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD). However, there is little information about the removal kinetics of anti-GAD by various plasmapheresis modalities. Here, we investigated the removal rate of anti-GAD and fibrinogen (Fib) by immunoadsorption (IA), plasma exchange using a conventional plasma separator (OP-PE), and plasma exchange using a high cut-off selective membrane plasma separator (EC-PE) in two cases of anti-GAD-associated neurological diseases. In case 1, IA and OP-PE were used, and the percent reductions were as follows: anti-GAD: 38.2% and 69.1% and Fib: 67.7% and 68.2%, respectively. In case 2, OP-PE and EC-PE were used, and the percent reductions were as follows: anti-GAD: 65.8% and 48.5% and Fib: 68.5% and 19.8%, respectively. OP-PE could remove anti-GAD more efficiently than IA. Further, EC-PE could maintain coagulation factors such as Fib better than IA and OP-PE. It is important to select the appropriate plasmapheresis modality on the basis of the removal kinetics. PMID:24965288

  18. IGF2BP2 alternative variants associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies negative diabetes in Malaysian subjects.

    Sameer D Salem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2 common variants (rs4402960 and rs1470579 with type 2 diabetes (T2D has been performed in different populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of alternative variants of IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA negative diabetes in Malaysian Subjects. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IGF2BP2; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 1107 GADA negative diabetic patients and 620 control subjects of Asian from Malaysia. The additive genetic model adjusted for age, race, gender and BMI showed that alternative variants; rs6777038, rs16860234 and rs7651090 of IGF2BP2 associated with GADA negative diabetes (OR = 1.21; 1.36; 1.35, P = 0.03; 0.0004; 0.0002, respectively. In addition, the CCG haplotype and diplotype CCG-TCG increased the risk of diabetes (OR = 1.51, P = 0.01; OR = 2.36, P = 0.009, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: IGF2BP2 alternative variants were associated with GADA negative diabetes. The IGF2BP2 haplotypes and diplotypes increased the risk of diabetes in Malaysian subject.

  19. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  20. Blue- and red-light regulation and circadian control of gene expression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Pharbitis nil

    The abundance of mRNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) (EC 4.1.1.50) in leaves of Pharbitis nil is regulated by light. The level of this mRNA fluctuated dramatically, peaking 45 min after light exposure and then decreasing rapidly to a very low level. The half-life of the SAMDC mRNA was estimated by using actinomycin D to be approximately 30 min, which partly accounts for the rapid decline in the mRNA level after the peak of light induction is reached. The mRNA level for the SAMDC gene increased after light exposure from red, green, blue or UV light, but not after far-red light exposure. The short irradiation of red light increased the expression of the SAMDC gene and this induction was reverted by subsequent far-red light irradiation. The immediate blue light illumination after the initial red light exposure resulted in a further increase in the SAMDC mRNA level. These results indicate that both the blue light photoreceptor- and phytochrome-mediated pathways are involved in the light regulation of the SAMDC gene. The transcription of the SAMDC gene was also shown to be under circadian control. (author)

  1. Gene expression of ornithine decarboxylase, cyclooxygenase-2, and gastrin in atrophic gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori before and after eradication therapy.

    Konturek, Peter C; Rembiasz, Kazimierz; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Stachura, Jerzy; Bielanski, Wladyslaw; Galuschka, K; Karcz, Danuta; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2003-01-01

    H. pylori (Hp) -induced atrophic gastritis is a well-known risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Whether Hp eradication can prevent or retard the progress of atrophy and metaplasia has been the topic of numerous studies but the subject remains controversial. Recently, the increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), gastrin and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been shown to be increased in premalignant lesions in gastric mucosa and to play an essential role in the malignant transformation. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of eradication therapy on atrophic gastritis and analyze the gene expression for ODC, COX-2 and gastrin in gastric mucosa after succesful eradication in patients with atrophic gastritis. Twenty patients with chronic atrophic gastritis including both corpus and antrum of the stomach were included in this study. Four antral mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from antrum and four from corpus. The histopathologic evaluation of gastritis was based on Sydney classification of gastritis. All patients were Hp positive based on the [13C] urea breath test (UBT) and the presence of anti-Hp IgG and anti-CagA-antibodies detected by ELISA. The patients were then eradicated with triple therapy consiting of omeprazol (2 x 20 mg), amoxycillin (2 x 1 g) and clarithromycin (2 x 500 mg) for seven days and vitamin C 1 g/day for three months. In gastric mucosal samples obtained from the antrum and corpus before and after eradication, the mRNA expression for ODC, COX-2, and gastrin was assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all patients the gastric secretory analysis was performed by measuring gastric acid output and serum gastrin levels. After triple therapy the successful eradication assessed by UBT was observed in 95% of patients. In 45% of patients the infection with CagA-positive Hp strain was observed. Three months after eradication a significant reduction in the gastric activity (neutrophilic

  2. Cloning and expression of ornithine decarboxylase gene from human colorectal carcinoma

    Hai-Yan Hu; Xiao-Ming Wang; Wei Wang; Xian-Xi Liu; Chun-Ying Jiang; Yan Zhang; Ji-Feng Bian; Yi Lu; Zhao Geng; Shi-Lian Liu; Chuan-Hua Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To construct and express ODC recombinant gene for further exploring its potential use in early diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from colon cancer tissues and amplified by reverse-transcription PCR with two primers, which span the whole coding region of ODC. The synthesized ODC cDNA was cloned into vector pQE-30 at restriction sites BamH I and Sal I which constituted recombinant expression plasmid pQE30-ODC. The sequence of inserted fragment was confirmed by DNA sequencing,the fusion protein including 6His-tag was facilitated for purification by Ni-NTA chromatographic column.RESULTS: ODC expression vector was constructed and confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion and subsequent DNA sequencing. The DNA sequence matching on NCBI Blast showed 99 % affinity. The vector was transformed into E.coli M15 and expressed. The expressed ODC protein was verified with Western blotting.CONCLUSION: The ODC prokaryote expression vector is constructed and thus greatly facilitates to study the role of ODC in colorectal carcinoma.

  3. The use of L-lysine decarboxylase as a means to separate amino acids by electrodialysis

    Teng, Y.; Scott, E.L.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acids (AA's) are interesting materials as feedstocks for the chemical industry as they contain chemical functionalities similar to conventional petrochemicals. This offers the possibility to circumvent process steps, energy and reagents. AA's can be obtained by the hydrolysis of potentially in

  4. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  5. A unique insertion of low complexity amino acid sequence underlies protein-protein interaction in human malaria parasite orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Waranya Imprasittichai; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Sudaratana R Krungkrai; Jerapan Krungkrai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multienzyme complex formation of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum(P. falciparum) orotate phosphoribosyltransferase(OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase(OMPDC), the fifth and sixth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.Previously, we have clearly established that the two enzymes in the malaria parasite exist physically as a heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 complex containing two subunits each ofOPRT andOMPDC, and that the complex have catalytic kinetic advantages over the monofunctional enzyme.Methods:Both enzymes were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins.The protein-protein interaction in the enzyme complex was identified using bifunctional chemical cross-linker, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and homology modeling.Results:The unique insertions of low complexity region at the α2 and α5 helices of the parasiteOMPDC, characterized by single amino acid repeat sequence which was not found in homologous proteins from other organisms, was located on theOPRT-OMPDC interface.The structural models for the protein-protein interaction of the heterotetrameric(OPRT)2(OMPDC)2 multienzyme complex were proposed.Conclusions:Based on the proteomic data and structural modeling, it is surmised that the human malaria parasite low complexity region is responsible for theOPRT-OMPDC interaction.The structural complex of the parasite enzymes, thus, represents an efficient functional kinetic advantage, which in line with co-localization principles of evolutional origin, and allosteric control in protein-protein-interactions.

  6. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    Ota, Mitsuhiro; Ota, Kiyoe; Nishimura, Masataka; Ma Jie; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Saida, Takahiko [Utano National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from {sup 14}C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to

  7. Development of diagnostic RI test method for antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in SMS and IDDM patients

    Western blotting with antigens purified using its specific antibody bound column has demonstrated that patients with Stiff-man syndrome (SMS) and insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) were both positive for anti-GAD antibody. Further, anti-GAD antibodies from various animal brains were characterized using GAD 65 and GAD 67 peptide antibody. The antibody against the anti-N-terminal peptide inhibited the enzyme activity of GAD, suggesting that the active site of GAD might exist in the N-terminal region. Development of a new detection method for anti-GAD antibody was attempted and the amount of GAD protein bound to protein G resin was determined based on the activity to release 14CO2 from 14C glutamic acid. In addition, solid-phase RIA method was developed using GAD purified by the anti-peptide antibody affinity column. The positive detection rate for GAD antibody was 39% for the enzymatic method and 56% for the solid-phase RIA method. To develop a further sensitive detection method for GAD antibody, construction of recombinant GAD was attempted and two GAD65s different in molecular size were constructed using pMal-c vector. Thus obtained antibodies against anti-N-terminal peptides were separately responded to GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms in the rat, mouse and bovine brains, whereas the carboxy-terminal antibodies were reactive to both isoforms together. Therefore, it became possible to make purification of GAD65 and GAD67 by the use of the two N-terminal peptide antibodies. Further, it became possible to purify GAD as a mixture of both isoforms. However, the yield of purification using anti-affinity column was still unsatisfactory ( several percent) and the GAD preparation obtained had little activity. The positive detection by the solid-phase RIA method was 50% for SMS patients and 56% for IDDM ones, indicating that this method was superior to the previous enzyme method. The protein A method in which labeled human recombinant GAD65 was used to precipitate 125-I GAD

  8. Anti-Yo and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies presenting in carcinoma of the uterus with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: a case report

    Panegyres Peter K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare non-metastatic manifestation of malignancy. In this report, to the best of our knowledge we describe for the first time a diagnosis of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration several months prior to the diagnosis of clear carcinoma of the uterus. Case presentation A 75-year-old Caucasian woman manifested a rapidly progressive cerebellar syndrome with nystagmus, past-pointing, dysdiadochokinesis, dysarthria, truncal ataxia and titubation. The paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration was associated with anti-Yo and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin prior to laparotomy, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophorectomy. Our patient has survived for three years following diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of an association of clear cell carcinoma of the uterus and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with both anti-Yo and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. The findings imply that both antibodies contributed to the fulminating paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration observed in our patient, and this was of such severity it resulted in the release of 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, a marker of neuronal death.

  9. Hemin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-kappa B activation and ornithine decarboxylase expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin

    Inflammation induced by various stimuli has been found to be associated with increased risk for most types of human cancer. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells, as well as the growth of initiated cells and their progression to malignancy through production of proinflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. These also activate the signaling molecules that are involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hemin inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced bacterial mutagenesis and oxidative DNA damage, reduced the level of DNA-DMBA adduct and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor formation in DMBA-initiated ICR mouse skin, and inhibited myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and H2O2 formation in TPA-treated mouse skin. In the present study, to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activity of hemin, its effect on the expression of ODC and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulating these proteins were explored in mouse skin with TPA-induced inflammation. Topically applied hemin inhibited ear edema and epidermal thickness in mice treated with TPA. Pretreatment with hemin reduced the expression of ODC and COX-2, and also reduced NF-κB activation in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. In addition, hemin suppressed the TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, hemin inhibited TPA-induced COX-2 expression by altering NF-κB signaling pathway via ERK and p38 MAPK, as well as TPA-induced ODC expression in mouse skin. Thereby, hemin may be an attractive candidate for a chemopreventive agent

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Cg1458: a novel oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 has been purified and crystallized. Oxaloacetate decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to pyruvate and CO2. Recently, the Corynebacterium glutamicum gene product Cg1458 was determined to be a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 was purified and crystallized. The best crystal was grown from 0.2 M MgCl2, 0.1 M Bis-Tris pH 6.0, 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop method. The crystals belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.1, c = 73.6 Å. The crystals are most likely to contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 2.27 Å3 Da−1. A full data set was collected at 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline BL17U of SSRF, Shanghai, China. Structure-solution attempts by molecular replacement were successful with PDB entries 3qdf or 2dfu as the template

  11. Rapid Normalization of High Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibody Titers and Preserved Endogenous Insulin Secretion in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Furukawa, Tatsuo; Koike, Tadashi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old Japanese woman developed diabetes mellitus without ketoacidosis in the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) (24.7 U/mL). After the amelioration of her hyperglycemia, the patient had a relatively preserved serum C-peptide level. Her endogenous insulin secretion capacity remained almost unchanged during 5 years of insulin therapy. The patient's GADA titers normalized within 15 months. The islet-related autoantibodies, including GADA, are believed to be produced following the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells and are predictive markers of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the transient appearance of GADA in our patient may have reflected pancreatic autoimmune processes that terminated without progression to insulin deficiency. PMID:26935368

  12. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies are indicators of the course, but not of the onset, of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    A. Vigo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently examine the association of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA positivity with the onset and progression of diabetes in middle-aged adults, we performed a case-cohort study representing the ~9-year experience of 10,275 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants, initially aged 45-64 years. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 were measured by radioimmunoassay in 580 incident diabetes cases and 544 non-cases. The overall weighted prevalence of GADA positivity (³1 U/mL was 7.3%. Baseline risk factors, with the exception of smoking and interleukin-6 (P £ 0.02, were generally similar between GADA-positive and -negative individuals. GADA positivity did not predict incident diabetes in multiply adjusted (HR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.55, 1.96 proportional hazard analyses. However, a small non-significant adjusted risk (HR = 1.29; 95%CI = 0.58, 2.88 was seen for those in the highest tertile (³2.38 U/mL of positivity. GADA-positive and GADA-negative non-diabetic individuals had similar risk profiles for diabetes, with central obesity and elevated inflammation markers, aside from glucose, being the main predictors. Among diabetes cases at study's end, progression to insulin treatment increased monotonically as a function of baseline GADA level. Overall, being GADA positive increased risk of progression to insulin use almost 10 times (HR = 9.9; 95%CI = 3.4, 28.5. In conclusion, in initially non-diabetic middle-aged adults, GADA positivity did not increase diabetes risk, and the overall baseline profile of risk factors was similar for positive and negative individuals. Among middle-aged adults, with the possible exception of those with the highest GADA levels, autoimmune pathophysiology reflected by GADA may become clinically relevant only after diabetes onset.

  13. Cell-specific expression of tryptophan decarboxylase and 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, key genes involved in camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Nyssaceae

    Santamaria Anna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camptotheca acuminata is a major natural source of the terpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT. At present, little is known about the cellular distribution of the biosynthesis of CPT, which would be useful knowledge for developing new strategies and technologies for improving alkaloid production. Results The pattern of CPT accumulation was compared with the expression pattern of some genes involved in CPT biosynthesis in C. acuminata [i.e., Ca-TDC1 and Ca-TDC2 (encoding for tryptophan decarboxylase and Ca-HGO (encoding for 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase]. Both CPT accumulation and gene expression were investigated in plants at different degrees of development and in plantlets subjected to drought-stress. In all organs, CPT accumulation was detected in epidermal idioblasts, in some glandular trichomes, and in groups of idioblast cells localized in parenchyma tissues. Drought-stress caused an increase in CPT accumulation and in the number of glandular trichomes containing CPT, whereas no increase in epidermal or parenchymatous idioblasts was observed. In the leaf, Ca-TDC1 expression was detected in some epidermal cells and in groups of mesophyll cells but not in glandular trichomes; in the stem, it was observed in parenchyma cells of the vascular tissue; in the root, no expression was detected. Ca-TDC2 expression was observed exclusively in leaves of plantlets subjected to drought-stress, in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1. In the leaf, Ca-HGO was detected in all chlorenchyma cells; in the stem, it was observed in the same sites described for Ca-TDC1; in the root, no expression was detected. Conclusions The finding that the sites of CPT accumulation are not consistently the same as those in which the studied genes are expressed demonstrates an organ-to-organ and cell-to-cell translocation of CPT or its precursors.

  14. Mechanism of the Novel Prenylated Flavin-Containing Enzyme Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase Probed by Isotope Effects and Linear Free-Energy Relationships.

    Ferguson, Kyle L; Arunrattanamook, Nattapol; Marsh, E Neil G

    2016-05-24

    Ferulic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acid to form styrene using a newly described prenylated flavin mononucleotide cofactor. A mechanism has been proposed, involving an unprecedented 1,3-dipolar cyclo-addition of the prenylated flavin with the α═β bond of the substrate that serves to activate the substrate toward decarboxylation. We measured a combination of secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) at the α- and β-positions of phenylacrylic acid together with solvent deuterium KIEs. The solvent KIE is 3.3 on Vmax/KM but is close to unity on Vmax, indicating that proton transfer to the product occurs before the rate-determining step. The secondary KIEs are normal at both the α- and β-positions but vary in magnitude depending on whether the reaction is performed in H2O or D2O. In D2O, the enzyme catalyzed the exchange of deuterium into styrene; this reaction was dependent on the presence of bicarbonate. This observation implies that CO2 release must occur after protonation of the product. Further information was obtained from a linear free-energy analysis of the reaction through the use of a range of para- and meta-substituted phenylacrylic acids. Log(kcat/KM) for the reaction correlated well with the Hammett σ(-) parameter with ρ = -0.39 ± 0.03; r(2) = 0.93. The negative ρ value and secondary isotope effects are consistent with the rate-determining step being the formation of styrene from the prenylated flavin-product adduct through a cyclo-elimination reaction. PMID:27119435

  15. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%. PMID:15120115

  16. L-DOPA decarboxylase mRNA expression is associated with tumor stage and size in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. The DDC gene encodes L-DOPA decarboxylase, an enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of L-DOPA to dopamine. We have recently shown that DDC mRNA is a significant predictor of patients’ prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma and prostate cancer. The aim of the current study was to analyze the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC patients. 53 malignant tumors were resected from the larynx, pharynx, tongue, buccal mucosa, parotid glands, and nasal cavity, as well as from 34 adjacent non-cancerous tissues of HNSCC patients, and were homogenized. Total RNA was isolated and converted into first-strand cDNA. An ultrasensitive real-time PCR method based on the SYBR Green chemistry was used for DDC mRNA quantification in head and neck tissue specimens. Relative quantification was performed using the comparative Ct (2-ddCt) method. DDC mRNA levels were lower in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the larynx and tongue than in adjacent non-cancerous tissue specimens. Furthermore, low DDC mRNA expression was noticed in laryngeal and tongue tumors of advanced TNM stage or bigger size, compared to early-stage or smaller tumors, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between SCCs resected from pharynx, buccal mucosa, or nasal cavity, and their normal counterparts. This is the first study examining the DDC mRNA expression in HNSCC. According to our results, DDC mRNA expression may constitute a potential prognostic biomarker in tongue and/or larynx SCCs, which principally represent the overwhelming majority of HNSCC cases

  17. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody-positivity post-partum is associated with impaired β-cell function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Lundberg, T. P.; Højlund, K.; Snogdal, L. S.;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether the presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibodies post-partum in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with changes in metabolic characteristics, including β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. METHODS: During 1997-2010, 407...... women with gestational diabetes mellitus were offered a 3-month post-partum follow-up including anthropometrics, serum lipid profile, HbA1c and GAD autoantibodies, as well as a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide at 0, 30 and 120 min. Indices of insulin...... similar age and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Women who were GAD+ve had significantly higher 2-h OGTT glucose concentrations during their index-pregnancy (10.5 vs. 9.8 mmol/l, P = 0.001), higher fasting glucose (5.2 vs. 5.0 mmol/l, P = 0.02) and higher 2-h glucose (7.8 vs. 7.1 mmol/l, P = 0.05) post...

  18. Positron emission tomographic studies on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in vivo for L-dopa and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in the monkey brain

    The regional brain kinetics following 5-hydroxy-L-(β-11 C)tryptophan and L-(β-11 C)DOPA intravenous injection was measured in twelve Rhesus monkeys using positron emission tomography (PET). The radiolabelled compounds were also injected together with various doses of unlabelled 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or L-DOPA. The radioactivity accumulated in the striatal region and the rate of increased utilization with time was calculated using a graphical method with back of the brain as a reference region. The rate constants for decarboxylation were 0.0070 ± 0.0007 (S. D) and 0.0121 ± 0.0010 min-1 for 5-hydroxy-L-(β-11 C)tryptophan and L-(β-11 C)DOPA, respectively. After concomitant injection with unlabelled 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, the rate constant of 5-hydroxy-L-(β-11 C)tryptophan decreased dose-dependently and a 50 percent reduction was seen with a dose of about 4 mg/kg of unlabelled compound. A decreased utilization rate of L-(β-11 C)DOPA was seen only after simultaneous injection of 30 mg/kg of either L-DOPA or 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan. This capacity limitation was most likely interpreted as different affinity of the striatal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase for L-DOPA and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, respectively

  19. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity

    Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

  20. Over-expression of Catharanthus roseus tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase in rol gene integrated transgenic cell suspensions of Vinca minor.

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Shanker, Karuna; Mathur, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR) genes from Catharanthus roseus have been successfully over-expressed in the rol gene integrated cell suspensions of V. minor. Thirty seconds SAAT (sonication-assisted Agrobacterium transformation) treatment of plant cell suspension with LBA1119 having construct () generated three stable TDC + STR over-expressing cell lines--PVG1, PVG2, and PVG3. The transgenes were confirmed by β-glucuronidase GUS histochemical assay and PCR amplification of rol genes/GUS gene. All the three cell suspension lines were found to be slow growing. In comparison to the control cell suspensions (GI = 241.0 ± 5.8), PVG3 cell line registered a growth index (GI) of 208.0 ± 10.0 followed by PVG1 (GI = 140.0 ± 14.2) and PVG2 (GI = 85.0 ± 9.6). The PVG3 cell line was also up-scaled in the 5-l stirred tank bioreactor with GI of 745.6 ± 35.3 under optimized parameters. Only PVG3 line registered a twofold increase in total alkaloid content (2.1 ± 0.1% dry wt.) and showed vincamine presence (0.003 ± 0.001% dry wt.) which was further enhanced at the bioreactor level (2.7 ± 0.3 and 0.005 ± 0.001% dry wt., respectively). Real-time (RT) qPCR analysis of PVG3 showed more than sevenfold to eightfold increase in TDC and STR expression [relative quantity value (RQ) = 7.6 ± 0.8 (TDC); RQ = 8.5 ± 0.9 (STR)]. PMID:25106473

  1. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and identification of GABAergic cells in the ischemic rat dentate gyrus

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Finsen, Bente; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2006-01-01

    parallel, we investigated the colocalization of the cell death marker Fluorojade B (FJB) with somatostatin- or GAD67-immunoreactivity in hilus of control and ischemic rats. Although the majority of FJB positive cells also contained somatostatin, a small number of GAD67 immunoreactive neurons contained FJB...

  2. The influence of the cell free solution of lactic acid bacteria on tyramine production by food borne-pathogens in tyrosine decarboxylase broth.

    Toy, Nurten; Özogul, Fatih; Özogul, Yesim

    2015-04-15

    The function of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on tyramine and other biogenic amine production by different food borne-pathogens (FBPs) was investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth (TDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from four LAB strains. Two different concentrations which were 50% (5 ml CFS+5 ml medium/1:1) and 25% (2.5 ml CFS+7.5 ml medium/1:3) CFS and the control without CFS were prepared. Both concentration of CFS of Streptococcus thermophilus and 50% CFS of Pediococcus acidophilus inhibited tyramine production up to 98% by Salmonella paratyphi A. Tyramine production by Escherichia coli was also inhibited by 50% CFS of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and 25% CFS of Leuconostoc lactis. subsp. cremoris. The inhibitor effect of 50% CFS of P. acidophilus was the highest on tyramine production (55%) by Listeria monocytogenes, following Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (20%) whilst 25% CFS of Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis showed stimulator effects (160%). The stimulation effects of 50% CFS of S. thermophilus and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis were more than 70% by Staphylococcus aureus comparing to the control. CFS of LAB strains showed statistically inhibitor effect since lactic acid inhibited microbial growth, decreased pH quickly and reduced the formation of AMN and BAs. Consequently, in order to avoid the formation of high concentrations of biogenic amines in fermented food by bacteria, it is advisable to use CFS for food and food products. PMID:25465993

  3. RAPID DETERMINA TION OF L—GLUTAMIC ACID WITH AN ENZYME REACTOR OFL—GLUTAMIC DECARBOXYLASE IMMOBILIZED ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    WUGuoqi; LINGDaren; 等

    2001-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of an immobilized L-glutamic decarboxylase(GDC) were studied.This work is to develop a sensitive method for the determination of L-glutamate using a new biosensor,which consists of an enzyme column reactor of GDC immobilized on a novel ion exchange resin(carboxymethyl-copolymer of allyl dextran and N.N'-methylene-bisacrylamide CM-CADB) and ion analyzer coupled with a CO2 electrode.The conditions for the enzyme immobilization were optimized by the parameters:buffer composition and concentration,adsorption equilibration time,amount of enzyme,temperature,ionic strength and pH.The properties of the immobilized enzyme on CM-CADB were studied by investigating the initial ate of the enzyme reaction,the effect of various parameters on the immobilized GDC activity and its stability.An immobilized GDC enzyme column reactor matched with a flow injection system-ion analyzer coupled with CO2 electrode-data collection system made up the original form of the apparatus of biosensor for determining of L-glutamate acid.The limit of detection is 1.0×10-5M.The linearity response is in the range of 5×10-2-5×10-5M.The equation of linear regression of the calibration curve is y=43.3x+181.6(y is the milli-volt of electrical potential response,x is the logarithm of the concentration of the substrate of L-glutamate acid).The correlation coefficient equals 0.99.The coefficient of varioation equals 2.7%.

  4. C3–C4 intermediacy in grasses: organelle enrichment and distribution, glycine decarboxylase expression, and the rise of C2 photosynthesis

    Khoshravesh, Roxana; Stinson, Corey R.; Stata, Matt; Busch, Florian A.; Sage, Rowan F.; Ludwig, Martha; Sage, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Photorespiratory glycine shuttling and decarboxylation in bundle sheath (BS) cells exhibited by C2 species is proposed to be the evolutionary bridge to C4 photosynthesis in eudicots. To evaluate this in grasses, we compare anatomy, cellular localization of glycine decarboxylase (GDC), and photosynthetic physiology of a suspected C2 grass, Homolepis aturensis, with these traits in known C2 grasses, Neurachne minor and Steinchisma hians, and C3 S. laxum that is sister to S. hians. We also use publicly available genome and RNA-sequencing data to examine the evolution of GDC subunits and enhance our understanding of the evolution of BS-specific GDC expression in C2 and C4 grasses. Our results confirm the identity of H. aturensis as a C2 species; GDC is confined predominantly to the organelle-enriched BS cells in H. aturensis and S. hians and to mestome sheath cells of N. minor. Phylogenetic analyses and data obtained from immunodetection of the P-subunit of GDC are consistent with the hypothesis that the BS dominant levels of GDC in C2 and C4 species are due to changes in expression of a single GLDP gene in M and BS cells. All BS mitochondria and peroxisomes and most chloroplasts in H. aturensis and S. hians are situated centripetally in a pattern identical to C2 eudicots. In S. laxum, which has C3-like gas exchange patterns, mitochondria and peroxisomes are positioned centripetally as they are in S. hians. This subcellular phenotype, also present in eudicots, is posited to initiate a facilitation cascade leading to C2 and C4 photosynthesis. PMID:27073202

  5. Tolerogenic dendritic cells induce antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in insulin- and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-autoreactive T lymphocytes from type 1 diabetic patients.

    Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Rangel-Cruz, Rafael; Sánchez-Díaz, Moisés; Ramírez-Reyes, Julio César; Faradji, Raquel; González-Domínguez, Érika; Sánchez-Torres, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDC) constitute a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, since they can anergize T lymphocytes recognizing self-antigens. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) have autoreactive T cells against pancreatic islet antigens (insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 -GAD65-). We aimed to determine the ability of tDC derived from T1D patients to inactivate their insulin- and GAD65-reactive T cells. CD14+ monocytes and CD4+CD45RA- effector/memory lymphocytes were isolated from 25 patients. Monocyte-derived DC were generated in the absence (control, cDC) or presence of IL-10 and TGF-β1 (tDC), and loaded with insulin or GAD65. DC were cultured with T lymphocytes (primary culture), and cell proliferation and cytokine secretion were determined. These lymphocytes were rechallenged with insulin-, GAD65- or candidin-pulsed cDC (secondary culture) to assess whether tDC rendered T cells hyporesponsive to further stimulation. In the primary cultures, tDC induced significant lower lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion than cDC; in contrast, tDC induced higher IL-10 production. Lymphocytes from 60% of patients proliferated specifically against insulin or GAD65 (group 1), whereas 40% did not (group 2). Most patients from group 1 had controlled glycemia. The secondary cultures showed tolerance induction to insulin or GAD65 in 14 and 10 patients, respectively. A high percentage of these patients (70-80%) belonged to group 1. Importantly, tDC induced antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness, since the responses against unrelated antigens were unaffected. These results suggest that tDC therapy against multiple antigens might be useful in a subset of T1D patients. PMID:24993292

  6. The novel R347g pathogenic mutation of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase provides additional molecular insights into enzyme catalysis and deficiency.

    Montioli, Riccardo; Paiardini, Alessandro; Kurian, Manju A; Dindo, Mirco; Rossignoli, Giada; Heales, Simon J R; Pope, Simon; Voltattorni, Carla Borri; Bertoldi, Mariarita

    2016-06-01

    We report here a clinical case of a patient with a novel mutation (Arg347→Gly) in the gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) that is associated with AADC deficiency. The variant R347G in the purified recombinant form exhibits, similarly to the pathogenic mutation R347Q previously studied, a 475-fold drop of kcat compared to the wild-type enzyme. In attempting to unravel the reason(s) for this catalytic defect, we have carried out bioinformatics analyses of the crystal structure of AADC-carbidopa complex with the modelled catalytic loop (residues 328-339). Arg347 appears to interact with Phe103, as well as with both Leu333 and Asp345. We have then prepared and characterized the artificial F103L, R347K and D345A mutants. F103L, D345A and R347K exhibit about 13-, 97-, and 345-fold kcat decrease compared to the wild-type AADC, respectively. However, unlike F103L, the R347G, R347K and R347Q mutants as well as the D345A variant appear to be more defective in catalysis than in protein folding. Moreover, the latter mutants, unlike the wild-type protein and the F103L variant, share a peculiar binding mode of dopa methyl ester consisting of formation of a quinonoid intermediate. This finding strongly suggests that their catalytic defects are mainly due to a misplacement of the substrate at the active site. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of the Arg347-Leu333-Asp345 hydrogen-bonds network in the catalysis of AADC and reveal the molecular basis for the pathogenicity of the variants R347. Following the above results, a therapeutic treatment for patients bearing the mutation R347G is proposed. PMID:26994895

  7. The preparation and characterization of an immobilized l-glutamic decarboxylase and its application for determination of l-glutamic acid.

    Ling; Wu; Wang; Wang; Song

    2000-10-01

    This paper is to study the preparation and characterization of an immobilized L-glutamic decarboxylase (GDC) and develop a sensitive method for the determination of L-glutamate using a new biosensor, which consists of an enzyme column reactor of GDC immobilized on a novel ion exchange resin (carboxymethyl-copolymer of allyl dextran and N.N'-methylene-bisacrylamide CM-CADB) and ion analyzer coupled with a CO(2) electrode. The conditions for the enzyme immobilization were optimized by the parameters: buffer composition and concentration, adsorption equilibration time, amount of enzyme, temperature, ionic strength and pH. The dynamic response of Na(2)HPO(4)-citric acid buffer system selected is much better than that of the others, 0.10 M HAc-0.10 M NaAc and 0.10 M sodium citrate-0.10 M citric acid. The initial rate of the enzyme reaction v(0) in this buffer system is 1.76 mol. l(-1) min(-1), moreover, the rate of the enzyme reaction appears linear in the first 4 min. The optimum adsorption equilibrium time is around 6 h. The amount of enzyme adsorbed on CM-CADB resin affects the response to substrate L-glutamic acid, the widest range of linearity is obtained with over 30 mg (GDC)/g(resin). The GDC activity immobilized on CM-CADB reaches a maximum when the immobilization temperature was kept around 40 degrees C. pH was kept at 4.4 when measuring the activity of the immobilized GDC. No variation of the activity of immobilized GDC is observed when the capacity is over 2.5 meq/g.(CM-CADB resin). The properties of the immobilized enzyme on CM-CADB were characterized. No significant improvement can be achieved when the substrate concentration exceeds 12.00 mmol/l, where the activity of immobilized GDC is equal to 1.58 mmol/l.min.g. The optimum pH is found to be 5.2, which changes 0.2 unit, comparing with that of the free GDC (5.0). The optimum temperature is found to be around 48 degrees C, which is lower than that of free GDC (55 degrees C). The critical temperature of the

  8. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  9. Characterization and crystallization of human uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase.

    Phillips, J. D.; Whitby, F. G.; Kushner, J. P.; Hill, C. P.

    1997-01-01

    The cytosolic enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) catalyzes the fifth step in the heme biosynthetic pathway, converting uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen by decarboxylating the four acetate side chains of the substrate. Recombinant human URO-D has been expressed in Escherichia coli with a histidine tag and has been purified to homogeneity. Purified protein was determined to be a monodisperse dimer by dynamic light scattering. Equilibrium sedimentation analysis confirmed that th...

  10. Change of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody and protein tyrosine phosphatase antibody in Chinese patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus

    CHAO Chen; HUANG Gan; LI Xia; YANG Lin; LIN Jian; JIN Ping; LUO Shuo-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) and protein tyrosine phosphatase antibody (IA-2A) are two major autoantibodies,which exert important roles in the process of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D).Our study aimed to investigate the changes in positivity and titers of GADA and IA-2A during the course of Chinese acute-onset T1D patients and their relationships with clinical features.Methods Two hundreds and forty-seven Chinese newly diagnosed acute-onset T1D patients were consecutively recruited.GADA and IA-2A were detected at the time of diagnosis,one year later,3-5 years later after diagnosis during the follow-up; all the clinical data were recorded and analyzed as well.Results During the course of acute-onset T1D,the majority of patients remained stable for GADA or IA-2A,however,a few patients changed from positivity to negativity and fewer patients converted from negativity to positivity.The prevalence of GADA was 56.3% at diagnosis,decreasing to 50.5% one year later,and 43.3% 3-5 years later while the corresponding prevalence of IA-2A were 32.8%,31.0% and 23.3%,respectively.The median GADA titers were 0.0825 at diagnosis,declining to 0.0585 one year later and 0.0383 3-5 years later (P <0.001),while the corresponding median titers were 0.0016,0.0010,0.0014 for IA-2A,respectively.Fasting C-peptide (FCP) and postprandial C-peptide 2 hours (PCP2h)levels of GADA or IA-2A negativity persistence patients were higher than those of positivity persistence and negativity conversion patients (P <0.05) which indicated GADA or IA-2A negativity persistence T1D patients had a less loss of β cell function.Conclusion Our data suggest that repeated detection of GADA and IA-2A are necessary for differential diagnosis of autoimmune diabetes and the indirect prediction of the β cell function in Chinese patients.

  11. Identification and characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Vuralhan, Zeynep; Morais, Marcos A; Tai, Siew-Leng; Piper, Matthew D W; Pronk, Jack T

    2003-08-01

    Catabolism of amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway involves transamination to the corresponding alpha-keto acids, followed by decarboxylation to an aldehyde and then reduction to an alcohol. Alternatively, the aldehyde may be oxidized to an acid. This pathway is functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since during growth in glucose-limited chemostat cultures with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source, phenylethanol and phenylacetate were produced in quantities that accounted for all of the phenylalanine consumed. Our objective was to identify the structural gene(s) required for the decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, the first specific step in the Ehrlich pathway. S. cerevisiae possesses five candidate genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases that could encode this activity: YDR380w/ARO10, YDL080C/THI3, PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6. Phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity was present in cultures grown with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source but was absent from ammonia-grown cultures. Furthermore, the transcript level of one candidate gene (ARO10) increased 30-fold when phenylalanine replaced ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Analyses of phenylalanine catabolite production and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase enzyme assays indicated that ARO10 was sufficient to encode phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity in the absence of the four other candidate genes. There was also an alternative activity with a higher capacity but lower affinity for phenylpyruvate. The candidate gene THI3 did not itself encode an active phenylpyruvate decarboxylase but was required along with one or more pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6) for the alternative activity. The K(m) and V(max) values of the two activities differed, showing that Aro10p is the physiologically relevant phenylpyruvate decarboxylase in wild-type cells. Modifications to this gene could therefore be important for metabolic engineering

  12. Histidine Decarboxylase in Enterobacteriaceae Revisited

    Wauters, Georges; Avesani, Véronique; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    With a modification of Taylor's decarboxylation broth, histidine decarboxylase was detected in Enterobacter aerogenes, Morganella morganii, Raoultella ornithinolytica, and some strains of Citrobacter youngae and Raoultella planticola. This method provides a useful confirmatory test for identification of E. aerogenes strains.

  13. Effects of down-regulating ornithine decarboxylase upon putrescine-associated metabolism and growth in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Dalton, Heidi L; Blomstedt, Cecilia K; Neale, Alan D; Gleadow, Ros; DeBoer, Kathleen D; Hamill, John D

    2016-05-01

    Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. homozygous for an RNAi construct designed to silence ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) had significantly lower concentrations of nicotine and nornicotine, but significantly higher concentrations of anatabine, compared with vector-only controls. Silencing of ODC also led to significantly reduced concentrations of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine), tyramine and phenolamides (caffeoylputrescine and dicaffeoylspermidine) with concomitant increases in concentrations of amino acids ornithine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate and glutamine. Root transcript levels of S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase, S-adenosyl methionine synthase and spermidine synthase (polyamine synthesis enzymes) were reduced compared with vector controls, whilst transcript levels of arginine decarboxylase (putrescine synthesis), putrescine methyltransferase (nicotine production) and multi-drug and toxic compound extrusion (alkaloid transport) proteins were elevated. In contrast, expression of two other key proteins required for alkaloid synthesis, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (nicotinic acid production) and a PIP-family oxidoreductase (nicotinic acid condensation reactions), were diminished in roots of odc-RNAi plants relative to vector-only controls. Transcriptional and biochemical differences associated with polyamine and alkaloid metabolism were exacerbated in odc-RNAi plants in response to different forms of shoot damage. In general, apex removal had a greater effect than leaf wounding alone, with a combination of these injury treatments producing synergistic responses in some cases. Reduced expression of ODC appeared to have negative effects upon plant growth and vigour with some leaves of odc-RNAi lines being brittle and bleached compared with vector-only controls. Together, results of this study demonstrate that ornithine decarboxylase has important roles in facilitating both primary and secondary metabolism in Nicotiana. PMID

  14. Arabidopsis Serine Decarboxylase Mutants Implicate the Roles of Ethanolamine in Plant Growth and Development

    Byeong-ha Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolamine is important for synthesis of choline, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC in plants. The latter two phospholipids are the major phospholipids in eukaryotic membranes. In plants, ethanolamine is mainly synthesized directly from serine by serine decarboxylase. Serine decarboxylase is unique to plants and was previously shown to have highly specific activity to L-serine. While serine decarboxylase was biochemically characterized, its functions and importance in plants were not biologically elucidated due to the lack of serine decarboxylase mutants. Here we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant defective in serine decarboxylase, named atsdc-1 (Arabidopsis thaliana serine decarboxylase-1. The atsdc-1 mutants showed necrotic lesions in leaves, multiple inflorescences, sterility in flower, and early flowering in short day conditions. These defects were rescued by ethanolamine application to atsdc-1, suggesting the roles of ethanolamine as well as serine decarboxylase in plant development. In addition, molecular analysis of serine decarboxylase suggests that Arabidopsis serine decarboxylase is cytosol-localized and expressed in all tissue.

  15. Effect of Lathyrus sativus and vitamin C on the status of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of guinea pigs

    Studies on the effect of Lathyrus Sativus seeds (LLS) on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and on dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV (DAP-IV) were carried out in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of LSS-treated and LSS plus vitamin C-treated guinea pigs. The feeding of LSS for 35 days decreased the AADC activity significantly in the brain and peripheral tissues, but the activity was recovered to normal level in the most tissues when vitamin C was added with the LSS. DAP-IV activity decreased in the peripheral tissues when treated with LSS, but the vitamin C administration with LSS did not recover the enzyme activity. The DAP-IV activity did not decrease significantly in any of the brain tissues of the LSS-treated group. (author). 18 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Substrate Binding Induces Domain Movements in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    Harris, Pernille Hanne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Larsen, Sine

    2002-01-01

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyses the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP). We have earlier determined the structure of ODCase from Escherichia coli complexed with the inhibitor 1-(5'-phospho-ß- -ribofuranosyl)barbituric acid (BMP...

  17. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  18. Altered subcellular localization of ornithine decarboxylase in Alzheimer's disease brain

    Nilsson, Tatjana; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Volkman, Inga;

    2006-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein can through ligand-mimicking induce expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We report here the regional distribution and cellular localization of ODC immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD...

  19. Antihistamines suppress upregulation of histidine decarboxylase gene expression with potencies different from their binding affinities for histamine H1 receptor in toluene 2,4-diisocyanate-sensitized rats.

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Das, Asish K; Maeyama, Kazutaka; Dev, Shrabanti; Shahriar, Masum; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Antihistamines inhibit histamine signaling by blocking histamine H1 receptor (H1R) or suppressing H1R signaling as inverse agonists. The H1R gene is upregulated in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level is correlated with the severity of nasal symptoms. Here, we show that antihistamine suppressed upregulation of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA expression in patients with pollinosis, and its expression level was correlated with that of H1R mRNA. Certain antihistamines, including mepyramine and diphenhydramine, suppress toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-induced upregulation of HDC gene expression and increase HDC activity in TDI-sensitized rats. However, d-chlorpheniramine did not demonstrate any effect. The potencies of antihistamine suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation were different from their H1R receptor binding affinities. In TDI-sensitized rats, the potencies of antihistamine inhibitory effects on sneezing in the early phase were related to H1R binding. In contrast, the potencies of their inhibitory effects on sneezing in the late phase were correlated with those of suppressive effects on HDC mRNA elevation. Data suggest that in addition to the antihistaminic and inverse agonistic activities, certain antihistamines possess additional properties unrelated to receptor binding and alleviate nasal symptoms in the late phase by inhibiting synthesis and release of histamine by suppressing HDC gene transcription. PMID:26980430

  20. Microdialysis with radiometric monitoring of L-[β-11C]DOPA to assess dopaminergic metabolism: effect of inhibitors of L-amino acid decarboxylase, monoamine oxidase, and catechol-O-methyltransferase on rat striatal dialysate.

    Okada, Maki; Nakao, Ryuji; Hosoi, Rie; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The catecholamine, dopamine (DA), is synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Dopamine metabolism is regulated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). To measure dopaminergic metabolism, we used microdialysis with radiometric detection to monitor L-[β-(11)C]DOPA metabolites in the extracellular space of the rat striatum. We also evaluated the effects of AADC, MAO, and COMT inhibitors on metabolite profiles. The major early species measured after administration of L-[β-(11)C]DOPA were [(11)C]3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ([(11)C]DOPAC) and [(11)C]homovanillic acid ([(11)C]HVA) in a 1:1 ratio, which shifted toward [(11)C]HVA with time. An AADC inhibitor increased the uptake of L-[β-(11)C]DOPA and L-3-O-methyl-[(11)C]DOPA and delayed the accumulation of [(11)C]DOPAC and [(11)C]HVA. The MAO and COMT inhibitors increased the production of [(11)C]3-methoxytyramine and [(11)C]DOPAC, respectively. These results reflect the L-DOPA metabolic pathway, suggesting that this method may be useful for assessing dopaminergic metabolism. PMID:20407462

  1. Differential Regulation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Gene Expression after Extinction of a Recent Memory vs. Intermediate Memory

    Sangha, Susan; Ilenseer, Jasmin; Sosulina, Ludmila; Lesting, Jorg; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Extinction reduces fear to stimuli that were once associated with an aversive event by no longer coupling the stimulus with the aversive event. Extinction learning is supported by a network comprising the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Previous studies implicate a critical role of GABA in extinction learning, specifically the GAD65…

  2. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  3. Comparison of Measurements of Autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Islet Antigen-2 in Whole Blood Eluates from Dried Blood Spots Using the RSR-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kits and In-House Radioimmunoassays

    Anders Persson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of dried blood spots (DBSs with subsequent analyses of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A with the RSR-ELISAs, we selected 80 children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 120 healthy women. DBSs from patients and controls were used for RSR-ELISAs while patients samples were analysed also with in-house RIAs. The RSR-ELISA-GADA performed well with a specificity of 100%, albeit sensitivity (46% was lower compared to in RIA (56%; P=.008. No prozone effect was observed after dilution of discrepant samples. RSR-ELISA-IA-2A achieved specificity of 69% and sensitivity was lower (59% compared with RIA (66%; P<.001. Negative or low positive patients and control samples in the RSR-ELISA-IA-2A increased after dilution. Eluates from DBS can readily be used to analyse GADA with the RSR-ELISA, even if low levels of autoantibodies were not detected. Some factor could disturb RSR-ELISA-IA-2A analyses.

  4. Detection and transfer of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus

    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermen...

  5. Assessment of CD4+ T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 using DQ8 tetramers reveals a pathogenic role of GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 in T1D development.

    I-Ting Chow

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D is strongly associated with MHC class II molecules, particularly HLA-DQ8 (DQ8: DQA1*03:01/DQB1*03:02. Monitoring T1D-specific T cell responses to DQ8-restricted epitopes may be key to understanding the immunopathology of the disease. In this study, we examined DQ8-restricted T cell responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65 using DQ8 tetramers. We demonstrated that GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 elicited responses from DQ8+ subjects. Circulating CD4+ T cells specific for these epitopes were detected significantly more often in T1D patients than in healthy individuals after in vitro expansion. T cell clones specific for GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 carried a Th1-dominant phenotype, with some of the GAD65 121-140-specific T cell clones producing IL-17. GAD65 250-266-specific CD4+ T cells could also be detected by direct ex vivo staining. Analysis of unmanipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs revealed that GAD65 250-266-specific T cells could be found in both healthy and diabetic individuals but the frequencies of specific T cells were higher in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Taken together, our results suggest a proinflammatory role for T cells specific for DQ8-restricted GAD65 121-140 and GAD65 250-266 epitopes and implicate their possible contribution to the progression of T1D.

  6. 谷氨酸脱羧酶抗体微量平板放射结合检测法的建立与初步应用%Micro-plate radiobinding assay of autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase

    黄干; 金河来; 王霞; 李卉; 张松; 周智广

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a high-throughput micro-plate radiobinding assay (RBA) of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GAD-Ab) and to evaluate its clinical application. Methods 35labeled GAD65 antigen was incubated with sera for 24 h on a 96-well plate, and then transferred to the Millipore plate coated with protein A, which was washed with 4℃ PBS buffer, and then counted by a liquid scintillation counter. The GAD-Ab results were expressed by WHO standard unit (U/ml). A total of 224 healthy controls, 162 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) and 210 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were recruited. A total of 119 TI DM and healthy cases with gradually changing GAD-Ab levels were selected to compare the consistency of micro-plate RBA with conventional radioligand assay (RLA). Blood samples were obtained from the peripheral vein and finger tip in 32 healthy controls, 35 T1DM and 24 T2DM patients, and tested with micro-plate RBA and then compared with the conventional RLA to investigate the reliability of finger tip sampling. Linear correlation,student's t-test, variance analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were performed using SPSS 11.5. Results (1) The optimized conditions of micro-plate RBA included 2 μl serum incubated with3 ×104 counts/min 35S-GAD for 24 h under slow vibration, antigen-antibody compounds washed 10 times by 4℃ PBS buffer, and radioactivity counted with Optiphase Supermix scintillation liquid. (2)The intra-batch CV of the micro-plate RBA was 3.8%- 10.2%, and the inter-batch CV was 5.6%- 11.9%. The linearity analysis showed a good correlation when the GAD-Ab in serum samples ranged from 40.3 to 664 U/ml and the detection limit of measurement was 3.6 U/ml. The results from Diabetes Autoantibody Standardization Program (DASP) 2005 showed that the sensitivity and specificity for GAD-Ab were 78% (39 positive among 50 new-onset T1DM) and 98% (2 positive among 100 healthy

  7. A radiometric microassay for ornithine decarboxylase

    A simple method for purifying [3H]L-ornithine and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-ornithine decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycle cation exchange procedures for separating putrescine from ornithine are outlined. Blanks using the routine cation exchange method average approx. 0.04% of the radioactivity contained in the substrate; product recovery is approx. 94%. The L-ornithine decarboxylase assay is proportional to time for at least 8 h. The relationship between substrate purity and the sensitivity of the cation exchange procedures is assessed. Radiochemical purity is the critical determinant of sensitivity for recycled assays. The cation exchange method is compared with the commonly used CO2-trapping method. The cation exchange method is more specific and approximately three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the CO2-trapping method. L-ornithine decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissues having wet-weights of approx. 1 μg. L-ornithine decarboxylase activity in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo decreases 25-30 fold from day 5 to day 18 of embryonic development. A cation exchange procedure for estimating L-lysine decarboxylase activity is also described. Failure to detect L-lysine decarboxylase activity in the chick embryo lumbar spinal cord is contrasted with the previous report of high cadaverine levels in chick embryos. (author)

  8. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and islet cell antigen 512/IA-2 autoantibodies in relation to human leukocyte antigen class II DR and DQ alleles and haplotypes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Stayoussef, Mouna; Benmansour, Jihen; Al-Jenaidi, Fayza A; Said, Hichem B; Rayana, Chiheb B; Mahjoub, Touhami; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2011-06-01

    The frequencies of autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet cell antigen (ICA) 512/IA-2 (512/IA-2) are functions of the specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We investigated the association of HLA class II (DR and DQ) alleles and haplotypes with the presence of GAD and IA-2 autoantibodies in T1D. Autoantibodies were tested in 88 Tunisian T1D patients and 112 age- and gender-matched normoglycemic control subjects by enzyme immunoassay. Among T1D patients, mean anti-GAD antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*030101 allele (P < 0.001), together with the DRB1*030101/DQB1*0201 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.002) haplotypes, while lower anti-GAD titers were associated with the DRB1*070101 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) alleles and DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.001) haplotypes. Mean anti-IA-2 antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*040101 allele (P = 0.007) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.001) haplotypes but were lower in the DRB1*110101 allele (P = 0.010) and the DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.025) haplotypes. Multinomial regression analysis confirmed the positive association of DRB1*030101 and the negative association of DRB1*110101 and DQB1*030101, along with the DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 haplotypes, with anti-GAD levels. In contrast, only the DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 haplotype was positively associated with altered anti-IA-2 titers. Increased GAD65 and IA-2 antibody positivity is differentially associated with select HLA class II alleles and haplotypes, confirming the heterogeneous nature of T1D. PMID:21490167

  9. Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 and Islet Cell Antigen 512/IA-2 Autoantibodies in Relation to Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II DR and DQ Alleles and Haplotypes in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ▿

    Stayoussef, Mouna; Benmansour, Jihen; Al-Jenaidi, Fayza A.; Said, Hichem B.; Rayana, Chiheb B.; Mahjoub, Touhami; Almawi, Wassim Y.

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet cell antigen (ICA) 512/IA-2 (512/IA-2) are functions of the specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We investigated the association of HLA class II (DR and DQ) alleles and haplotypes with the presence of GAD and IA-2 autoantibodies in T1D. Autoantibodies were tested in 88 Tunisian T1D patients and 112 age- and gender-matched normoglycemic control subjects by enzyme immunoassay. Among T1D patients, mean anti-GAD antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*030101 allele (P < 0.001), together with the DRB1*030101/DQB1*0201 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.002) haplotypes, while lower anti-GAD titers were associated with the DRB1*070101 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) alleles and DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 (P = 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.001) haplotypes. Mean anti-IA-2 antibody titers were higher in the DRB1*040101 allele (P = 0.007) and DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 (P = 0.001) haplotypes but were lower in the DRB1*110101 allele (P = 0.010) and the DRB1*110101 (P < 0.001) and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 (P = 0.025) haplotypes. Multinomial regression analysis confirmed the positive association of DRB1*030101 and the negative association of DRB1*110101 and DQB1*030101, along with the DRB1*070101/DQB1*0201 and DRB1*110101/DQB1*030101 haplotypes, with anti-GAD levels. In contrast, only the DRB1*040101/DQB1*0302 haplotype was positively associated with altered anti-IA-2 titers. Increased GAD65 and IA-2 antibody positivity is differentially associated with select HLA class II alleles and haplotypes, confirming the heterogeneous nature of T1D. PMID:21490167

  10. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of ornithine decarboxylases in the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus.

    Umair, Saleh; Knight, Jacqueline S; Simpson, Heather V

    2013-06-01

    Full length cDNA encoding ornithine decarboxylases (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) were cloned from the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta (TcODC) and Haemonchus contortus (HcODC). The TcODC (1272 bp) and HcODC cDNA (1266 bp) encoded 424 and 422 amino acid proteins respectively. The predicted TcODC amino acid sequence showed 87% identity with HcODC and 65% and 64% with Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae ODC respectively. All binding sites and active regions were completely conserved in both proteins. Soluble N-terminal His-tagged ODC proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, purified and characterised. The recombinant TcODC and HcODC had very similar kinetic properties: K(m) ornithine was 0.2-0.25 mM, optimum [PLP] was 0.3 mM and the pH optima were pH 8. No enzyme activity was detected when arginine was used as substrate. One millimolar difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) completely inhibited TcODC and HcODC activity, whereas 2 mM agmatine did not inhibit activity. The present study showed that ODC is a separate enzyme from arginine decarboxylase and strictly uses ornithine as substrate. PMID:23499950

  11. Role of ornithine decarboxylase in breast cancer

    Wensheng Deng; Xian Jiang; Yu Mei; Jingzhong Sun; Rong Ma; Xianxi Liu; Hui Sun; Hui Tian; Xueying Sun

    2008-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to putrescine, has become a promising target for cancer research. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of ODC in breast cancer. We detected expression of ODC in breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines, and transfected breast cancer cells with an adenoviral vector carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) and examined their growth and migration.ODC was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with non-tumor tissues and normal breast epithelial celis,and there was a positive correlation between the level of ODC mRNA and the staging of tumors.The expression of ODC correlated with cyclin D1,a cell cycle protein,in synchronized breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.Gene transfection of rAd-ODC/Ex3as markedly down-regulated expression Of ODC and cyclin D1,resulting in suppression of proliferation and cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase,and the inhibifion of colony formation,an anchorage-independent growth pattern,and the migratory ability of MDA-MB-231 cells.rAd-ODC/Ex3as also markedly reduced the concentration of putrescine,but not spermidine or spermine,in MDA-MB-231 cells.The results suggested that the ODC gene might act as aprognostic factor for breast cancer and it could be a promising therapeutic target.

  12. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human histidine decarboxylase

    Human histidine decarboxylase was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution. The core domain of a human histidine decarboxylase mutant was purified and cocrystallized with the inhibitor l-histidine methyl ester. Using synchrotron radiation, a data set was collected from a single crystal at 100 K to 1.8 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 215.16, b = 112.72, c = 171.39 Å, β = 110.3°. Molecular replacement was carried out using the structure of aromatic l-amino-acid decarboxylase as a search model. The crystal contained three dimers per asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 3.01 Å3 Da−1 and an estimated solvent content of 59.1%

  14. Characterization of Type I and Type II nNOS-Expressing Interneurons in the Barrel Cortex of Mouse

    Quentin ePerrenoud; Hélène eGeoffroy; Benjamin eGautier; Armelle eRancillac; Fabienne eAlfonsi; Nicoletta eKessaris; Jean eRossier; Tania eVitalis; Thierry eGallopin

    2012-01-01

    In the neocortex, neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (nNOS) is essentially expressed in two classes of GABAergic neurons: type I neurons displaying high levels of expression and type II neurons displaying weaker expression. Using immunocytochemistry in mice expressing GFP under the control of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67k (GAD67) promoter, we studied the distribution of type I and type II neurons in the barrel cortex and their expression of parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vas...

  15. Cloning and Expression of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Gene and Study on Biotransformation of Ethyl Vanillin by Resting Cell%苯乙酮酸脱羧酶基因的克隆与表达及静息细胞生物转化乙基香兰素的研究

    潘晓霞; 李静静; 何文森; 李大力; 贾承胜; 张晓鸣; 冯骉

    2013-01-01

    对恶臭假单胞杆菌(Pseudomonas putida ATCC12633)中的苯乙酮酸脱羧酶基因mdlC进行克隆,导入质粒载体pET28a中,将构建得到的重组质粒pET28a-mdlC转化于宿主细胞E.coliBL21 (DE3),重组大肠杆菌E.coli BL21 (DE3) (pET28a-mdlC)经IPTG诱导,SDS-PAGE分析得到相对分子质量约为57 000的蛋白质条带.将E.coli BL21 (DE3)(pET28a-mdlC)和E.coli BL21(DE3) (pET30a-mdlB)两株重组菌以混合静息细胞的形式作为生物催化剂,利用各自胞内的重组酶对3-乙氧基-4-羟基苯乙醇酸(乙基扁桃酸)脱氢氧化、脱羧合成乙基香兰素.未经优化,催化24 h后反应液中乙基香兰素的质量浓度可达1.94 g/L,且没有副产物产生.同时研究表明,该混合静息细胞重复使用3次能保持90%以上的催化活力,还有效缩短了反应时间.%Benzoylformate decarboxylase gene (mdlC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC12633 was inverted into Escherichia coli (E.coli) strain BL21 (DE3) and was efficiently expressed after induction with IPTG. The recombinant strain together with E.coli/pET30a -mdlB converted successfully (S)-4-hydroxy-3-ethoxymandelic acid (EMA) to ethyl vanillin in the forms of mixed resting cells. Without optimization,all the (S)-EMA was consumed to form ethyl vanillin (1.94 g/ L) and no by product was obtained with the initial substrate concentration 5 g/L by after 24 h. The cells could maintain their enzyme activity in repeated utilization at least three times and shortened bioconversion time efficiently.

  16. Overexpression of Actinidia deliciosa pyruvate decarboxylase 1 gene enhances waterlogging stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Zhang, Ji-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Gang; Xuan, Ji-Ping; Guo, Zhong-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with waterlogging tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we cloned a full-length PDC cDNA sequence from kiwifruit, named AdPDC1. We determined the expression of the AdPDC1 gene in kiwifruit under different environmental stresses using qRT-PCR, and the results showed that the increase of AdPDC1 expression during waterlogging stress was much higher than that during salt, cold, heat and drought stresses. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to waterlogging stress but could not enhance resistance to cold stress at five weeks old seedlings. Overexpression of kiwifruit AdPDC1 in transgenic Arabidopsis could not enhance resistance to NaCl and mannitol stresses at the stage of seed germination and in early seedlings. These results suggested that the kiwifruit AdPDC1 gene is required during waterlogging but might not be required during other environmental stresses. Expression of the AdPDC1 gene was down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in kiwifruit, and overexpression of the AdPDC1 gene in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and root length under ABA treatment, indicating that ABA might negatively regulate the AdPDC1 gene under waterlogging stress. PMID:27191596

  17. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria.

    Marte S Dragset

    Full Text Available Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance.

  18. Improved acid stress survival of Lactococcus lactis expressing the histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524.

    Trip, Hein; Mulder, Niels L; Lolkema, Juke S

    2012-03-30

    Degradative amino acid decarboxylation pathways in bacteria generate secondary metabolic energy and provide resistance against acid stress. The histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524 was functionally expressed in the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, and the benefits of the newly acquired pathway for the host were analyzed. During growth in M17 medium in the pH range of 5-6.5, a small positive effect was observed on the biomass yield in batch culture, whereas no growth rate enhancement was evident. In contrast, a strong benefit for the engineered L. lactis strain was observed in acid stress survival. In the presence of histidine, the pathway enabled cells to survive at pH values as low as 3 for at least 2 h, conditions under which the host cells were rapidly dying. The flux through the histidine decarboxylation pathway in cells grown at physiological pH was under strict control of the electrochemical proton gradient (pmf) across the membrane. Ionophores that dissipated the membrane potential (ΔΨ) and/or the pH gradient (ΔpH) strongly increased the flux, whereas the presence of glucose almost completely inhibited the flux. Control of the pmf over the flux was exerted by both ΔΨ and ΔpH and was distributed over the transporter HdcP and the decarboxylase HdcA. The control allowed for a synergistic effect between the histidine decarboxylation and glycolytic pathways in acid stress survival. In a narrow pH range around 2.5 the synergism resulted in a 10-fold higher survival rate. PMID:22351775

  19. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S.; Zimmer, J. Paul; Butt, C. M.; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early postnatal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human b...

  20. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell)

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  1. Immobilization by Polyurethane of Pseudomonas dacunhae Cells Containing l-Aspartate β-Decarboxylase Activity and Application to l-Alanine Production

    Fusee, Murray C.; Weber, Jennifer E.

    1984-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas dacunhae containing l-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were immobilized by mixing a cell suspension with a liquid isocyanate-capped polyurethane prepolymer (Hypol; W. R. Grace & Co., Lexington, Mass.). The immobilized cell preparation was used to convert l-aspartic acid to l-alanine. Properties of the immobilized P. dacunhae cells containing aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were investigated with batch reactors. Retention of enzyme activity was observed to be as...

  2. An autocrine γ-aminobutyric acid signaling system exists in pancreatic β-cell progenitors of fetal and postnatal mice

    Feng, Mary M; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Wang, Shuanglian; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced and secreted by adult pancreatic β-cells, which also express GABA receptors mediating autocrine signaling and regulating β-cell proliferation. However, whether the autocrine GABA signaling involves in β-cell progenitor development or maturation remains uncertain. By means of immunohistochemistry we analyzed the expression profiles of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the α1-subunit of type-A GABA receptor (GABAARα1) i...

  3. Structures of Bacterial Biosynthetic Arginine Decarboxylases

    F Forouhar; S Lew; J Seetharaman; R Xiao; T Acton; G Montelione; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC; also known as SpeA) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of polyamines from arginine in bacteria and plants. SpeA is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and shares weak sequence homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases. Here, the crystal structure of PLP-bound SpeA from Campylobacter jejuni is reported at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution and that of Escherichia coli SpeA in complex with a sulfate ion is reported at 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the SpeA monomer contains two large domains, an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain followed by a {beta}-sandwich domain, as well as two smaller helical domains. The TIM-barrel and {beta}-sandwich domains share structural homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases, even though the sequence conservation among these enzymes is less than 25%. A similar tetramer is observed for both C. jejuni and E. coli SpeA, composed of two dimers of tightly associated monomers. The active site of SpeA is located at the interface of this dimer and is formed by residues from the TIM-barrel domain of one monomer and a highly conserved loop in the {beta}-sandwich domain of the other monomer. The PLP cofactor is recognized by hydrogen-bonding, {pi}-stacking and van der Waals interactions.

  4. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD. PMID:20606731

  5. An endosymbiont positively modulates ornithine decarboxylase in host trypanosomatids

    Summary: Some trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia deanei, are endosymbiont-containing species. Aposymbiotic strains are obtained after antibiotic treatment, revealing interesting aspects of this symbiotic association. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promotes polyamine biosynthesis and contributes to cell proliferation. Here, we show that ODC activity is higher in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids than in aposymbiotic cells, but isolated endosymbionts did not display this enzyme activity. Intriguingly, expressed levels of ODC were similar in both strains, suggesting that ODC is positively modulated in endosymbiont-bearing cells. When the aposymbiotic strain was grown in conditioned medium, obtained after cultivation of the endosymbiont-bearing strain, cellular proliferation as well as ODC activity and localization were similar to that observed in the endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids. Furthermore, dialyzed-heated medium and trypsin treatment reduced ODC activity of the aposymbiont strain. Taken together, these data indicate that the endosymbiont can enhance the protozoan ODC activity by providing factors of protein nature, which increase the host polyamine metabolism

  6. Ascorbic Acid and Gene Expression: Another Example of Regulation of Gene Expression by Small Molecules?

    Belin, Sophie; Kaya, Ferdinand; Burtey, Stéphane; Fontes, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, AA) has long been considered a food supplement necessary for life and for preventing scurvy. However, it has been reported that other small molecules such as retinoic acid (vitamin A) and different forms of calciferol (vitamin D) are directly involved in regulating the expression of numerous genes. These molecules bind to receptors that are differentially expressed in the embryo and are therefore crucial signalling molecules in vertebrate development. The question is...

  7. Molecular gene cloning and sequencing of glutamate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus reuteri

    Mahsa Taherzadeh; Abolghasem Esmaeili; Mohammad Rabbani

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase enzyme produces γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in a non-reversible decarboxylation reaction of glutamate. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain and it is also present at high concentration in other organs such as pancreatic islets. GABA has effects on blood pressure, diabetes, inflammation, sleeplessness and depression. Some bacteria such as Lactobacillus strains are capable of GABA production. Identification of these bacteria is important both for resea...

  8. Cloning, Sequencing, and Disruption of the Bacillus subtilis psd Gene Coding for Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase

    Matsumoto, Kouji; Okada, Masahiro; Horikoshi, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kishi, Tsutomu; Itaya, Mitsuhiro; Shibuya, Isao

    1998-01-01

    The psd gene of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, encoding phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, has been cloned and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 263 amino acid residues (deduced molecular weight of 29,689) and is located just downstream of pss, the structural gene for phosphatidylserine synthase that catalyzes the preceding reaction in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis (M. Okada, H. Matsuzaki, I. Shibuya, and K. Matsumoto, J. Bacteriol. 176:7456–7461, 1994). Introduction of a plasmid contain...

  9. Inducible gene expression system by 3-hydroxypropionic acid

    Zhou, Shengfang; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Seol, Eunhee; Nguyen, Trinh Thi; Park, Sunghoon

    2015-01-01

    Background 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical that boasts a variety of industrial applications. Gene expression systems inducible by 3-HP, if available, are of great utility for optimization of the pathways of 3-HP production and excretion. Results Here we report the presence of unique inducible gene expression systems in Pseudomonas denitrificans and other microorganisms. In P. denitrificans, transcription of three genes (hpdH, mmsA and hbdH-4) involved in 3-HP ...

  10. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression ...

  11. Sleep-Waking Discharge of Ventral Tuberomammillary Neurons in Wild-Type and Histidine Decarboxylase Knock-Out Mice

    Sakai, Kazuya; Takahashi, Kazumi; Anaclet, Christelle; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Using extracellular single-unit recordings, we have determined the characteristics of neurons in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (VTM) of wild-type (WT) and histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice during the sleep-waking cycle. The VTM neurons of HDC-KO mice showed no histamine immunoreactivity, but were immunoreactive for the histaminergic (HA) neuron markers adenosine deaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. In the VTM of WT mice, we found waking (W)-specific, non-W-specif...

  12. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  13. Arginase and Arginine Decarboxylase - Where Do the Putative Gate Keepers of Polyamine Synthesis Reside in Rat Brain?

    Daniela Peters

    Full Text Available Polyamines are important regulators of basal cellular functions but also subserve highly specific tasks in the mammalian brain. With this respect, polyamines and the synthesizing and degrading enzymes are clearly differentially distributed in neurons versus glial cells and also in different brain areas. The synthesis of the diamine putrescine may be driven via two different pathways. In the "classical" pathway urea and carbon dioxide are removed from arginine by arginase and ornithine decarboxylase. The alternative pathway, first removing carbon dioxide by arginine decarboxlyase and then urea by agmatinase, may serve the same purpose. Furthermore, the intermediate product of the alternative pathway, agmatine, is an endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors and may serve as a neurotransmitter. In order to evaluate and compare the expression patterns of the two gate keeper enzymes arginase and arginine decarboxylase, we generated polyclonal, monospecific antibodies against arginase-1 and arginine decarboxylase. Using these tools, we immunocytochemically screened the rat brain and compared the expression patterns of both enzymes in several brain areas on the regional, cellular and subcellular level. In contrast to other enzymes of the polyamine pathway, arginine decarboxylase and arginase are both constitutively and widely expressed in rat brain neurons. In cerebral cortex and hippocampus, principal neurons and putative interneurons were clearly labeled for both enzymes. Labeling, however, was strikingly different in these neurons with respect to the subcellular localization of the enzymes. While with antibodies against arginine decarboxylase the immunosignal was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, arginase-like immunoreactivity was preferentially localized to Golgi stacks. Given the apparent congruence of arginase and arginine decarboxylase distribution with respect to certain cell populations, it seems likely that the synthesis of agmatine

  14. Ornithine decarboxylase gene is overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma

    Hai-Yan Hu; Bing Zhang; Xian-Xi Liu; Chun-Ying Jiang; Yi Lu; Shi-Lian Liu; Ji-Feng Bian; Xiao-Ming Wang; Zhao Geng; Yan Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)gene expression in colorectal carcinoma, ODC mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR and ODC protein was detected by a monoclonal antibody against fusion of human colon ODC prepared by hybridoma technology.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from human colorectal cancer tissues and their normal counterpart tissues. ODC mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR.ODC genes amplified from RT-PCR were cloned into a prokaryotic vector pQE-30. The expressed proteins were purified by chromatography. Anti-ODC mAb was prepared with classical hybridoma techniques and used to determine the ODC expression in colon cancer tissues by immunohistochemical and Western blotting assay.RESULTS: A cell line, which could steadily secrete antiODC mAb, was selected through subcloning four times.Western blotting reconfirmed the mAb and ELISA showed that its subtype was IgG2a. RT-PCR showed that the ODC mRNA level increased greatly in colon cancer tissues (P<0.01). Immunohistochemical staining showed that colorectal carcinoma cells expressed a significantly higher level of ODC than normal colorectal mucosa (98.6±1.03%vs 5.26±5%, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: ODC gene overexpression is significantly related to human colorectal carcinoma. ODC gene expression may be a marker for the gene diagnosis and therapy of colorectal carcinoma.

  15. Differential expression of cholangiocyte and ileal bile acid transporters following bile acid supplementation and depletion

    N. Sertac Kip; Konstantinos N. Lazaridis; Anatoliy I. Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Robert C. Huebert; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2004-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that cholangiocytes,the epithelial cells lining intrahepatic bile ducts, encode two functional bile acid transporters via alternative splicing of a single gene to facilitate bile acid vectorial transport.Cholangiocytes possess ASBT, an apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter to take up bile acids, and t-ASBT, a basolateral alternatively spliced and truncated form of ASBT to efflux bile acids. Though hepatocyte and ileal bile acid transporters are in part regulated by the flux of bile acids,the effect of alterations in bile acid flux on the expression of t-ASBT in terminal ileocytes remains unclear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that expression of ASBT and t-ASBT in cholangiocytes and ileocytes was regulated by bile acid flux. METHODS: Expression of ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein in cholangiocytes and ileocytes isolated from pairfed rats given control (C) and 1% taurocholate (TCA) or 5% cholestyramine (CY) enriched diets, were assessed by both quantitative RNase protection assays and quantitative immunoblotting. The data obtained from each of the control groups were pooled to reflect the changes observed following TCA and CY treatments with respect to the control diets.Cholangiocyte taurocholate uptake was determined using a novel microperfusion technique on intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs) derived from C, TCA and CY fed rats.RESULTS: In cholangiocytes, both ASBT and t-ASBT message RNA and protein were significantly decreased in response to TCA feeding compared to C diet. In contrast,message and protein of both bile acid transporters significantly increased following CY feeding compared to C diet. In the ileum, TCA feeding significantly up-regulated both ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein compared to C diet, while CY feeding significantly down-regulated message and protein of both bile acid transporters compared to C diet. As anticipated from alterations in cholangiocyte ASBT expression, the uptake of

  16. Cloning and characterization of indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1.

    Fedorov, D N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2010-12-01

    For the first time for methylotrophic bacteria an enzyme of phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.74), has been found. An open reading frame (ORF) was identified in the genome of facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 using BLAST. This ORF encodes thiamine diphosphate-dependent 2-keto acid decarboxylase and has similarity with indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylases, which are key enzymes of IAA biosynthesis. The ORF of the gene, named ipdC, was cloned into overexpression vector pET-22b(+). Recombinant enzyme IpdC was purified from Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and characterized. The enzyme showed the highest k(cat) value for benzoylformate, albeit the indolepyruvate was decarboxylated with the highest catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)). The molecular mass of the holoenzyme determined using gel-permeation chromatography corresponds to a 245-kDa homotetramer. An ipdC-knockout mutant of M. extorquens grown in the presence of tryptophan had decreased IAA level (46% of wild type strain). Complementation of the mutation resulted in 6.3-fold increase of IAA concentration in the culture medium compared to that of the mutant strain. Thus involvement of IpdC in IAA biosynthesis in M. extorquens was shown. PMID:21314613

  17. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    Qiong N. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats. Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND 1, 7, 14 and 21. Total bile acids were determined by the enzymatic method, total RNA was isolated and subjected to real time RT-PCR analysis. Liver protein was extracted for western-blot analysis. Results. Under physiological conditions hepatic bile acids were not elevated during pregnancy but increased during lactation in rats. Bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme Cyp7a1 was unchanged on gestational days, but increased on PND14 and 21 at mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1 and Cyp7b1 was also higher during lactation. The mRNA levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP and protein levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR were increased during pregnancy and lactation. Bile acid transporters Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4 were lower at gestation, but increased during lactation. Hepatic Oatp transporters were decreased during pregnancy and lactation. Conclusion. Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is maintained during normal pregnancy in rats, probably through the FXR-SHP regulation. The expression of bile acid synthesis genes and liver bile acid accumulation were increased during lactation, together with increased expression of bile acid efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4.

  18. A novel regulatory mechanism for whey acidic protein gene expression.

    Chen, L.H.; Bissell, M J

    1989-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (PMME) are cultured on a basement membrane type matrix, they undergo extensive morphogenesis leading to the formation of 3-dimensional alveoli-like spherical structures surrounding a closed lumen. We show for the first time that cells cultured on basement membrane-type matrix express high levels of whey acidic protein (WAP) mRNA and secrete the protein into the lumen. The expression of WAP appears to be dependent upon the formation of the alveoli-li...

  19. Localization of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in rat brain.

    Bayliss, D A; Wang, Y M; Zahnow, C A; Joseph, D R; Millhorn, D E

    1990-08-01

    The recent cloning of a cDNA encoding fetal rat liver histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the synthesizing enzyme for histamine, allows the study of the central histaminergic system at the molecular level. To this end, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses were used to determine the regional and cellular distribution of neurons which express HDC mRNA in rat brain. Three hybridizing species which migrate as 1.6-, 2.6-, and 3.5-kb RNA were identified with Northern blots. The major (2.6 kb) and minor (3.5 kb) species, characteristic of HDC mRNA in fetal liver, were expressed at high levels in diencephalon and at just detectable levels in hippocampus, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, the 1.6-kb species was present in all brain regions examined except the olfactory bulb. Cells which contain HDC mRNA were found by in situ hybridization in the hypothalamus; HDC mRNA-containing cells were not detected in other areas, including the hippocampus. Hypothalamic neurons which express HDC mRNA were localized to all aspects of the tuberomammillary nucleus, a result consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings. PMID:19912749

  20. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the meso-Diaminopimelate Decarboxylase Gene from Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 and Comparison to Other Decarboxylase Genes

    Mills, D. A.; Flickinger, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The lysA gene of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 was cloned by complementation of an auxotrophic Escherichia coli lysA22 mutant with a genomic library of B. methanolicus MGA3 chromosomal DNA. Subcloning localized the B. methanolicus MGA3 lysA gene into a 2.3-kb SmaI-SstI fragment. Sequence analysis of the 2.3-kb fragment indicated an open reading frame encoding a protein of 48,223 Da, which was similar to the meso-diaminopimelate (DAP) decarboxylase amino acid sequences of Bacillus subtilis (62%) ...

  1. Expression and purification of integral membrane fatty acid desaturases.

    Haiqin Chen

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturase enzymes perform dehydrogenation reactions leading to the insertion of double bonds in fatty acids, and are divided into soluble and integral membrane classes. Crystal structures of soluble desaturases are available; however, membrane desaturases have defied decades of efforts due largely to the difficulty of generating recombinant desaturase proteins for crystallographic analysis. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which possesses eight membrane desaturases involved in the synthesis of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we describe the successful expression, purification and enzymatic assay of three M. alpina desaturases (FADS15, FADS12, and FADS9-I. Estimated yields of desaturases with purity >95% are approximately 3.5% (Ca. 4.6 mg/L of culture for FADS15, 2.3% (Ca. 2.5 mg/L of culture for FADS12 and 10.7% (Ca. 37.5 mg/L of culture for FADS9-I. Successful expression of high amounts of recombinant proteins represents a critical step towards the structural elucidation of membrane fatty acid desaturases.

  2. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate liver fatty acid desaturase (FADS) alternative transcript expression in suckling piglets.

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Downs, Ian; Srigley, Cynthia Tyburczy; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Zimmer, J Paul; Butt, C M; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Molecular regulation of fatty acid desaturase (Fads) gene expression by dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during early post-natal period, when the demand for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is very high, has not been well defined. The objective of the current study was to determine regulation of liver Fads1, Fads2 and Fads3 classical (CS) and alternative transcripts (AT) expression by dietary ARA and DHA, within the physiological range present in human breast milk, in suckling piglets. Piglets were fed one of six milk replacer formula diets (formula-reared groups, FR) with varying ARA and DHA content from days 3-28 of age. The ARA/DHA levels of the six formula diets were as follows (% total fatty acid, FA/FA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D2) 0.67/0.62; and (D1) 0.66/0.33. The control maternal-reared (MR) group remained with the dam. Fads1 expression was not significantly different between FR and MR groups. Fads2 expression was down-regulated significantly in diets with 1:1 ratio of ARA:DHA, compared to MR. Fads2 AT1 expression was highly correlated to Fads2 expression. Fads3 AT7 was the only Fads3 transcript sensitive to dietary LC-PUFA intake and was up-regulated in the formula diets with lowest ARA and DHA contents compared to MR. Thus, the present study provides evidence that the proportion of dietary ARA:DHA is a significant determinant of Fads2 expression and LC-PUFA metabolism during the early postnatal period. Further, the data suggest that Fads3 AT7 may have functional significance when dietary supply of ARA and DHA are low during early development. PMID:24075244

  3. Perturbation of the Monomer-Monomer Interfaces of the Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Tetramer

    Andrews, Forest H.; Rogers, Megan P.; Paul, Lake N.; McLeish, Michael J. [IUPUI; (Purdue)

    2014-08-14

    The X-ray structure of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 shows it to be a tetramer. This was believed to be typical of all thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases until recently when the structure of KdcA, a branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis, showed it to be a homodimer. This lent credence to earlier unfolding experiments on pyruvate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that indicated that it might be active as a dimer. To investigate this possibility in BFDC, we sought to shift the equilibrium toward dimer formation. Point mutations were made in the noncatalytic monomer–monomer interfaces, but these had a minimal effect on both tetramer formation and catalytic activity. Subsequently, the R141E/Y288A/A306F variant was shown by analytical ultracentrifugation to be partially dimeric. It was also found to be catalytically inactive. Further experiments revealed that just two mutations, R141E and A306F, were sufficient to markedly alter the dimer–tetramer equilibrium and to provide an ~450-fold decrease in kcat. Equilibrium denaturation studies suggested that the residual activity was possibly due to the presence of residual tetramer. The structures of the R141E and A306F variants, determined to <1.5 Å resolution, hinted that disruption of the monomer interfaces will be accompanied by movement of a loop containing Leu109 and Leu110. As these residues contribute to the hydrophobicity of the active site and the correct positioning of the substrate, it seems that tetramer formation may well be critical to the catalytic activity of BFDC.

  4. Keto-isovalerate decarboxylase enzymes and methods of use thereof

    McElvain, Jessica; O' Keefe, Daniel P.; Paul, Brian James; Payne, Mark S.; Rothman, Steven Cary; He, Hongxian

    2016-01-19

    Provided herein are polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides which have ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity. Also provided are recombinant host cells comprising such polypeptides and polynucleotides and methods of use thereof.

  5. Inhibitory Activity of the Flower Buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against Histamine Production and L-Histidine Decarboxylase in Human Keratinocytes

    Yoshihiro Inami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies we found that anionic surfactants such as sodium laurate (SL and/or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS exert actions on epidermal keratinocytes rather than mast cells to give rise of histamine production and skin itching through increasing the expression of the 53-kDa active form of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC. In addition, with treatment of SL in a three-dimensional human keratinocyte culture, increases in both the 53-kDa HDC and histamine production are detected and thus this culture assay is applied to screen anti-itching materials from natural resources. In this study, the inhibitory activity of “Kin-gin-ka” (flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., FLJ against histamine production and expression of the active form of HDC were examined in this culture assay. FLJ is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, being used to treat fevers, coughs and some infectious diseases. The result showed both FLJ and chlorogenic acid had inhibitory activities against the expression of 53-kDa HDC and histamine production. However, chlorogenic acid showed a weaker effect on histamine production than that of FLJ, suggesting that other chemical constituents besides chlorogenic acid could contribute to the inhibitory activities. Thus, a further chemical study of FLJ is now under investigation.

  6. Protein-DNA interactions in the cAMP responsive promoter region of the murine ornithine decarboxylase gene.

    Palvimo, J J; Eisenberg, L M; Jänne, O A

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the function of the murine ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene promoter, expression of chimeric ODC-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmids (pODCcat) containing 1,658 nt of the ODC promoter sequence and its various 5'-deletions was analyzed. In transient expression assays with NIH/3T3 mouse cells, pODCcat constructs exhibited fairly strong promoter activity yielding CAT values up to 40% of those obtained with the viral promoter RSV. Interestingly, 5'-deletions of the pODCc...

  7. Influence of 17β-estradiol and progesterone on GABAergic gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, amygdala and hippocampus of the rhesus macaque

    Noriega, Nigel C.; Eghlidi, Dominique H.; Garyfallou, Vasilios T.; Kohama, Steven G.; Kryger, Sharon G.; Urbanski, Henryk F.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the responsiveness of neurons to GABA can be modulated by sex steroids. To better understand how ovarian steroids influence GABAergic system in the primate brain, we evaluated the expression of genes encoding GABA receptor subunits, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and a GABA transporter in the brains of female rhesus macaques. Ovariectomized adults were subjected to a hormone replacement paradigm invol...

  8. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T. [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Baeck, Nils [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Andersson, Leif C., E-mail: leif.andersson@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  9. [Neurochemical study of effects of the new anxiolytic drugs afobazol and ladasten on the synthesis and metabolism of monoamines and their metabolites in the brain structures of Wistar rat on the model of monoamine synthesis blockade induced by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor NSD-1015].

    Davydova, A I; Klodt, P M; Kudrin, V S; Kuznetsova, E A; Narkevich, V B

    2010-03-01

    Results of a neurochemical study of the effects of the new anxiolytic drugs afobazole and ladasten on the synthesis and metabolism of monoamines and their metabolites determined by HPLC on the model of monoamine synthesis blockade induced by NSD-1015 (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) in the brain structures of Wistar rats are reported. A decrease in the levels of DOPAC in hypothalamus and HVA in striatum after afobazole injection may be evidence of an inhibitory action of this drug on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), which is the main enzyme involved in dopamine biodegradation. Afobazole was also found to increase the content of serotonin (5-HT) as well as its precursor (5-OTP) and its main metabolite (5-HIAA) in hypothalamus by up to 50, 60 and 50%, respectively, which confirms a hypothesis that this anxiolytic drug can modulate the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (5-OTP synthesis enzyme). In contrast to afobazole, ladasten demonstrated the ability to increase the level of L-DOPA (a dopamine precursor) in virtually all functional structures of the brain (except for hippocamp), which may support the hypothesis suggestion concerning a predominant action of this drug on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. Ladasten exhibited selectivity with respect to the dopaminergic system and affected only parameters of the dopamine metabolism, in particular, by increasing the HVA content in nucleus accumbens and decreasing it in the hypothalamus. The drug also affected the dopamine turnover parameters, producing an increase in both HVA/dopamine ratio in nucleus accumbens and DOPAC/dopamine ratio in hippocamp. PMID:20408420

  10. Studies of the mechanism of benzoylformate decarboxylase

    pH profiles and 13C and D2O solvent isotope effects have been used to study the mechanism of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD), which catalyzes the thiamine-PP (TPP) dependent decarboxylation of benzoylformate (BF) to benzaldehyde and CO2. V/K profiles for BF are bell-shaped with pK's of 5.2 and 8.5 in H2O and 6.2 and 9.1 in D2O, with a D2O solvent isotope effect of 6. The pK/sub i/ profile for the competitive inhibitor R-mandelate is also bell-shaped with pK's of 5.3 and 8.2. BF thus appears not to be sticky and to bind only to enzyme in the correct protonation state for reaction (pK's in the V profile are displaced outwards by at least a pH unit and the D2O solvent isotope effect is 2.5). 13C isotope effects were 1.0080 in H2O and 1.0054 in D2O and pH(D) independent. These data suggest that at low BF, formation of the initial tetrahedral intermediate between TPP and BF, and decarboxylation are both partly rate limiting, while at saturating BF, protonation of the enolamine formed after decarboxylation is rate limiting

  11. Oxalate-Degrading Activity in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis: Impact of Acidic Conditions on the Transcriptional Levels of the Oxalyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Decarboxylase and Formyl-CoA Transferase Genes ▿

    Turroni, Silvia; Bendazzoli, Claudia; Dipalo, Samuele C. F.; Candela, Marco; Vitali, Beatrice; Gotti, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Oxalic acid occurs extensively in nature and plays diverse roles, especially in pathological processes. Due to its highly oxidizing effects, hyperabsorption or abnormal synthesis of oxalate can cause serious acute disorders in mammals and can be lethal in extreme cases. Intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria could therefore be pivotal in maintaining oxalate homeostasis and reducing the risk of kidney stone development. In this study, the oxalate-degrading activities of 14 bifidobacterial strai...

  12. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by β-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-[1-14C]cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, β-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-[1-14C]cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-[1-14C]cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours

  13. 半胱亚磺酸脱羧酶在成年小鼠副性腺器官中的表达%Expression of Cysteine Sulfinate Decarboxylase in Male Accessory Organs of Adult Mice

    范晶晶; 庞立义

    2012-01-01

    We conducted semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR),western blott and immunohistochemical analysis in order to examine CSD mRNA and protein expression in the accessory organs of male mice.The results show that CSD is expressed both at the mRNA and protein levels in the organs.Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that CSD is expressed in the tall columnar cells of the seminal vesicle,the glandular epithelium of the bulbourethral gland,and the epithelial cells of the prostate gland.These results suggest that male accessory organs have the function to produce taurine through the CSD pathway.%采用RT-PCR、Western blot、免疫组织化学方法检测了CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。结果显示,CSD在小鼠副性腺器官中都有mRNA和蛋白水平的表达。CSD主要定位于精囊腺的高柱状上皮细胞、前列腺的腺上皮细胞和尿道球腺的腺上皮细胞中。结果表明雄性副性腺器官可以通过CSD合成通路参与牛磺酸的合成。

  14. A coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade for the efficient synthesis of vanillin.

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-10-13

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavor compounds in the world as well as a promising versatile building block. The biotechnological production of vanillin from plant-derived ferulic acid has attracted much attention as a new alternative to chemical synthesis. One limitation of the known metabolic pathway to vanillin is its requirement for expensive coenzymes. Here, we developed a novel route to vanillin from ferulic acid that does not require any coenzymes. This artificial pathway consists of a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase and a coenzyme-independent oxygenase. When Escherichia coli cells harboring the decarboxylase/oxygenase cascade were incubated with ferulic acid, the cells efficiently synthesized vanillin (8.0 mM, 1.2 g L(-1) ) via 4-vinylguaiacol in one pot, without the generation of any detectable aromatic by-products. The efficient method described here might be applicable to the synthesis of other high-value chemicals from plant-derived aromatics. PMID:25164030

  15. Heterologous Expression of Two Ferulic Acid Esterases from Penicillium funiculosum

    Knoshaug, Eric P.; Selig, Michael J.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.

    Two recombinant ferulic acid esterases from Penicillium funiculosum produced in Aspergillus awamori were evaluated for their ability to improve the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The genes, faeA and faeB, were cloned from P. funiculosum and expressed in A. awamori using their native signal sequences. Both enzymes contain a catalytic domain connected to a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module by a threonine-rich linker peptide. Interestingly, the carbohydrate binding-module is N-terminal in FaeA and C-terminal in FaeB. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, and their thermal stability was characterized by differential scanning microcalorimetry. We evaluated both enzymes for their potential to enhance the cellulolytic activity of purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A on pretreated corn stover.

  16. Ornithine Decarboxylase, Polyamines, and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Senecio and Crotalaria

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Cohen, Eric J.; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here—using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors—endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence—with relatively very high levels of these compounds—in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence. PMID:16665870

  17. Pronounced reduction in adenoma recurrence associated with aspirin use and a polymorphism in the ornithine decarboxylase gene

    Martínez, María Elena; O'Brien, Thomas G.; Fultz, Kimberly E.; Babbar, Naveen; Yerushalmi, Hagit; Qu, Ning; Guo, Yongjun; Boorman, David; Einspahr, Janine; Alberts, David S.; Gerner, Eugene W.

    2003-01-01

    Most sporadic colon adenomas acquire mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) and show defects in APC-dependent signaling. APC influences the expression of several genes, including the c-myc oncogene and its antagonist Mad1. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is a transcriptional target of c-myc and a modifier of APC-dependent tumorigenesis. A single-nucleotide polymorphism exists in intron 1 of the human ODC gene, which lies between t...

  18. Complex modulation of androgen responsive gene expression by methoxyacetic acid

    Stanley Kerri A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal androgen signaling is critical for testicular development and spermatogenesis. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA, the primary active metabolite of the industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, disrupts spermatogenesis and causes testicular atrophy. Transcriptional trans-activation studies have indicated that MAA can enhance androgen receptor activity, however, whether MAA actually impacts the expression of androgen-responsive genes in vivo, and which genes might be affected is not known. Methods A mouse TM3 Leydig cell line that stably expresses androgen receptor (TM3-AR was prepared and analyzed by transcriptional profiling to identify target gene interactions between MAA and testosterone on a global scale. Results MAA is shown to have widespread effects on androgen-responsive genes, affecting processes ranging from apoptosis to ion transport, cell adhesion, phosphorylation and transcription, with MAA able to enhance, as well as antagonize, androgenic responses. Moreover, testosterone is shown to exert both positive and negative effects on MAA gene responses. Motif analysis indicated that binding sites for FOX, HOX, LEF/TCF, STAT5 and MEF2 family transcription factors are among the most highly enriched in genes regulated by testosterone and MAA. Notably, 65 FOXO targets were repressed by testosterone or showed repression enhanced by MAA with testosterone; these include 16 genes associated with developmental processes, six of which are Hox genes. Conclusions These findings highlight the complex interactions between testosterone and MAA, and provide insight into the effects of MAA exposure on androgen-dependent processes in a Leydig cell model.

  19. Fucose and Sialic Acid Expressions in Human Seminal Fibronectin and α1-Acid Glycoprotein Associated with Leukocytospermia of Infertile Men

    Kratz, Ewa M.; Ricardo Faundez; Iwona Kątnik-Prastowska

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare fucose and sialic acid residue expression on fibronectin and α 1-acid glycoprotein in the seminal plasma of men suspected of infertility and suffering from leukocytospermia. Subjects and methods: Seminal ejaculates were collected from 27 leukocytospermic and 18 healthy, normozoospermic men. The relative degree of fucosylation and sialylation of fibronectin and α 1-acid glycoprotein was estimated by ELISA using fucose and sialic acid specific ...

  20. Pyruvate decarboxylases from the petite-negative yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    Møller, Kasper; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Nielsen, Jens; Piskur, Jure; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces kluyveri is a petite-negative yeast, which is less prone to form ethanol under aerobic conditions than is S. cerevisiae. The first reaction on the route from pyruvate to ethanol is catalysed by pyruvate decarboxylase, and the differences observed between S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae...... with respect to ethanol formation under aerobic conditions could be caused by differences in the regulation of this enzyme activity. We have identified and cloned three genes encoding functional pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes ( PDC genes) from the type strain of S. kluyveri (Sk-PDC11, Sk-PDC12 and Sk...... activity was controlled by variations in the amount of mRNA. The mRNA level and the pyruvate decarboxylase activity responded to anaerobiosis and growth on different carbon sources in essentially the same fashion as in S. cerevisiae. This indicates that the difference in ethanol formation between these two...

  1. Impact of methoxyacetic acid on mouse Leydig cell gene expression

    Waxman David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methoxyacetic acid (MAA is the active metabolite of the widely used industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is associated with various developmental and reproductive toxicities, including neural toxicity, blood and immune disorders, limb degeneration and testicular toxicity. Testicular toxicity is caused by degeneration of germ cells in association with changes in gene expression in both germ cells and Sertoli cells of the testis. This study investigates the impact of MAA on gene expression in testicular Leydig cells, which play a critical role in germ cell survival and male reproductive function. Methods Cultured mouse TM3 Leydig cells were treated with MAA for 3, 8, and 24 h and changes in gene expression were monitored by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results A total of 3,912 MAA-responsive genes were identified. Ingenuity Pathway analysis identified reproductive system disease, inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorder as the top biological functions affected by MAA. The MAA-responsive genes were classified into 1,366 early responders, 1,387 mid-responders, and 1,138 late responders, based on the time required for MAA to elicit a response. Analysis of enriched functional clusters for each subgroup identified 106 MAA early response genes involved in transcription regulation, including 32 genes associated with developmental processes. 60 DNA-binding proteins responded to MAA rapidly but transiently, and may contribute to the downstream effects of MAA seen for many mid and late response genes. Genes within the phosphatidylinositol/phospholipase C/calcium signaling pathway, whose activity is required for potentiation of nuclear receptor signaling by MAA, were also enriched in the set of early MAA response genes. In contrast, many of the genes responding to MAA at later time points encode membrane proteins that contribute to cell adhesion and membrane signaling. Conclusions These findings

  2. Enhancement of protocatechuate decarboxylase activity for the effective production of muconate from lignin-related aromatic compounds.

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Morooka, Miyuki; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Jellison, Jody; Goodell, Barry

    2014-12-20

    The decarboxylation reaction of protocatechuate has been described as a bottleneck and a rate-limiting step in cis,cis-muconate (ccMA) bioproduction from renewable feedstocks such as sugar. Because sugars are already in high demand in the development of many bio-based products, our work focuses on improving protocatechuate decarboxylase (Pdc) activity and ccMA production in particular, from lignin-related aromatic compounds. We previously had transformed an Escherichia coli strain using aroY, which had been used as a protocatechuate decarboxylase encoding gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae A170-40, and inserted other required genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, to allow the production of ccMA from vanillin. This recombinant strain produced ccMA from vanillin, however the Pdc reaction step remained a bottleneck during incubation. In the current study, we identify a way to increase protocatechuate decarboxylase activity in E. coli through enzyme production involving both aroY and kpdB; the latter which encodes for the B subunit of 4-hydroxybenzoate decarboxylase. This permits expression of Pdc activity at a level approximately 14-fold greater than the strain with aroY only. The expression level of AroY increased, apparently as a function of the co-expression of AroY and KpdB. Our results also imply that ccMA may inhibit vanillate demethylation, a reaction step that is rate limiting for efficient ccMA production from lignin-related aromatic compounds, so even though ccMA production may be enhanced, other challenges to overcome vanilate demethylation inhibition still remain. PMID:25449108

  3. Influence of acid and bile acid on ERK activity, PPARY expression and cell proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells

    Zhi-Ru Jiang; Jun Gong; Zhen-Ni Zhang; Zhe Qiao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of acid and bile acid exposure on cell proliferation and the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Y (PPARy) in normal human esophageal epithelial cells in vitro.METHODS: In vitro cultured normal human esophageal epithelial cells were exposed to acidic media (pH 4.0-6.5), media containing different bile acid (250 μmol/L), media containing acid and bile acid, respectively.Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT and flow cytometry. The expressions of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and PPARy protein were determined by the immunoblotting technique.RESULTS: Acid-exposed (3 min) esophageal cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation ratio,S phase of the cell cycle (P<0.05) and the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein. When the acid-exposure period exceeded 6 min, we observed a decrease in proliferation ratio and S phase of the cell cycle, with an increased apoptosis ratio (P<0.05). Bile acid exposure (3-12 min) also produced an increase in proliferation ratio, S phase of the cell cycle (P<0.05)and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression. On the contrary,deoxycholic acid (DCA) exposure (>20 min) decreased proliferation ratio. Compared with bile acid exposure (pH 7.4), bile acid exposure (pH 6.5, 4) significantly decreased proliferation ratio (P<0.05). There was no expression of PPARY in normal human esophageal epithelial cells.CONCLUSION: The rapid stimuli of acid or bile acid increase proliferation in normal human esophageal epithelial cells by activating the ERK pathway.

  4. Expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Cho, Soo-Jin; Ferrell, Linda D; Gill, Ryan M

    2016-04-01

    Loss of expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) by immunohistochemistry has been shown to be characteristic of a subset of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) in which HNF1A is inactivated. Transformation to hepatocellular carcinoma is thought to be a very rare phenomenon in the HNF1A-inactivated variant of HCA. However, we recently observed 2 cases at our institution, 1 definite hepatocellular carcinoma and 1 possible hepatocellular carcinoma, with loss of LFABP staining, raising the possibility that LFABP down-regulation may be associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate hepatocellular carcinomas arising in various backgrounds and with varying degrees of differentiation for loss of LFABP staining. Twenty total cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were examined. Thirteen cases arose in a background of cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (n = 8) or steatohepatitis (n = 5); 7 cases arose in a noncirrhotic background, with 2 cases arising within HNF1A-inactivated variant HCA and 2 cases arising within inflammatory variant HCA. Complete loss of expression of LFABP was seen in 6 of 20 cases, including 2 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising within HNF1A-inactivated variant HCA. Thus, loss of staining for LFABP appears to be common in hepatocellular carcinoma and may be seen in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, LFABP loss should not be interpreted as evidence for hepatocellular adenoma over carcinoma, when other features support a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The findings raise consideration for a role of HNF1A inactivation in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, particularly in less differentiated tumors. PMID:26997447

  5. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  6. Induction of amino acid transporters expression by endurance exercise in rat skeletal muscle

    Murakami, Taro, E-mail: tamuraka@sgk.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Mariko

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Regulation of amino acid transporter expression in working muscle remains unclear. •Expression of amino acid transporters for leucine were induced by a bout of exercise. •Requirement of leucine in muscle cells might regulate expression of its transporters. •This information is beneficial for understanding the muscle remodeling by exercise. -- Abstract: We here investigated whether an acute bout of endurance exercise would induce the expression of amino acid transporters that regulate leucine transport across plasma and lysosomal membranes in rat skeletal muscle. Rats ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 90 min. Immediately after the exercise, we observed that expression of mRNAs encoding L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and CD98 was induced in the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2) mRNA was also induced by the exercise in those three muscles. Expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) mRNA was slightly but not significantly induced by a single bout of exercise in soleus and EDL muscles. Exercise-induced mRNA expression of these amino acid transporters appeared to be attenuated by repeated bouts of the exercise. These results suggested that the expression of amino acid transporters for leucine may be induced in response to an increase in the requirement for this amino acid in the cells of working skeletal muscles.

  7. Effect of retinoic acid on cell proliferation kinetics and retinoic acid receptor expression of colorectal mucosa

    Hong-Bo Wei; Xiao-Yan Han; Wei Fan; Gui-Hua Chen; Ji-Fu Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on cell proliferation kinetics and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)expression of colorectal mucosa.METHODS:One hundred sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Rats in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ were subcutaneously injected with dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg, once a week,) for 7 to 13 weeks, while groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were injected with normal saline. Rats in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ were also treated with RA (50 mg/kg,every day, orally) from 7th to 15th week, thus group Ⅳ was used as a control. The rats were killed in different batches.The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA),nucleolar organizer region-associated protein (AgNOR) and RAR were detected.RESULTS: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma was different between groupsⅠ(100 %) and Ⅱ (15 %) (P<0.01).The PCNA indices and mean AgNOR count in group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those in group Ⅰ(F=5.418 and 4.243,P<0.01). The PCNA indices and mean AgNOR count in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ were significantly higher than those in the groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ (in which carcinogen was not used) (F=5.927and 4.348, P<0.01). There was a tendency in group Ⅰ that the longer the induction with DMH the higher PCNA index and AgNOR count expressed (F=7.634 and 6.826, P<0.05).However, there was no such tendency in groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ(F=1.662 and 1.984, P>0.05). The levels of RAR in normal and cancerous tissues in groups treated with RA were significantly higher than those in groups not treated with RA (F=6.343 and 6.024, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: RA decreases the incidence of colorectal carcinoma induced by DMH. Coiorectal cancer tissue is associated with abnormal expression of PCNA, AgNOR and RAR. RA inhibits the expression of PCNA and AgNOR, and increases RAR concentration in colorectal tissues.

  8. Monitoring Gene Expression In Vivo with Nucleic Acid Molecular Switches

    David C. Ward; Patricia Bray-Ward

    2005-01-26

    The overall objectives of this project were (1) to develop allosteric ribozymes capable of acting as molecular switches for monitoring the levels of both wild-type and mutant mRNA species in living cells and whole animals and (2) to develop highly efficient reagents to deliver nucleic acid molecular switches into living cells, tissues and animals with the ultimate goal of expression profiling specific mRNAs of diagnostic or prognostic value within tumors in animals. During the past year, we have moved our laboratory to Nevada and in the moving process we have lost electronic and paper copies of prior progress reports concerning the construction and biological properties of the molecular switches. Since there was minimal progress during the last year on molecular switches, we are relying on past project reports to provide a summary of our data on this facet of the grant. Here we are summarizing the work done on the delivery reagents and their application to inducing mutations in living cells, which will include work done during the no cost extension.

  9. Thyroid hormone requirement for retinoic acid induction of mouse mammary tumor virus expression.

    Bolander, F F; Blackstone, M E

    1990-01-01

    In normal mouse mammary epithelium, insulin, cortisol, and prolactin are absolute requirements for mouse mammary tumor virus expression. Retinoic acid further increased mouse mammary tumor virus expression two- to threefold but only when triiodothyronine was also present; neither retinoic acid nor triiodothyronine alone had any effect.

  10. Immobilization by Polyurethane of Pseudomonas dacunhae Cells Containing l-Aspartate β-Decarboxylase Activity and Application to l-Alanine Production

    Fusee, Murray C.; Weber, Jennifer E.

    1984-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas dacunhae containing l-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were immobilized by mixing a cell suspension with a liquid isocyanate-capped polyurethane prepolymer (Hypol; W. R. Grace & Co., Lexington, Mass.). The immobilized cell preparation was used to convert l-aspartic acid to l-alanine. Properties of the immobilized P. dacunhae cells containing aspartate β-decarboxylase activity were investigated with batch reactors. Retention of enzyme activity was observed to be as much as 100% when cell lysis was allowed to occur before immobilization. The pH and temperature optima were determined to be 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. Immobilized P. dacunhael-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity was stabilized by the addition of 0.1 mM pyridoxal-5-phosphate and 0.1 mM α-ketoglutaric acid to a 1.7 M ammonium aspartate (pH 5.5) substrate solution. Under conditions of semicontinuous use in a batch reactor, a 2.5% loss in immobilized l-aspartate β-decarboxylase activity was observed over a 31-day period. PMID:16346636

  11. Identification and molecular cloning of glutamate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus casei

    Yasaman Tavakoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA possesses several physiological functions such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic and tranquilizer effects. Production of GABA-enriched products by lactic acid bacteria has been a focus of different researches in recent years because of their safety and health-promoting specifities. In this study, glutamate decarboxylase (gad gene of a local strains Lactobacillus casei was identified and cloned. In order to clone the gad gene from this strain, the PCR was carried out using primers designed based on conserved regions. The PCR product was purified and ligated into PGEM-T vector. Comparison of obtained sequences shows that this fragment codes the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate binding region. This strain could possibly be used for the industrial GABA production and also for development of functional fermented foods. Gad gene manipulation can also either decrease or increase the activity of enzyme in bacteria.

  12. Expression of the CD36 homolog (FAT) in fibroblast cells: effects on fatty acid transport.

    Ibrahimi, A.; Sfeir, Z; Magharaie, H; Amri, E Z; Grimaldi, P.; Abumrad, N A

    1996-01-01

    An adipocyte membrane glycoprotein, (FAT), homologous to human CD36, has been previously implicated in the binding/transport of long-chain fatty acids. It bound reactive derivatives of long-chain fatty acids and binding was specific and associated with significant inhibition of fatty acid uptake. Tissue distribution of the protein and regulation of its expression were also consistent with its postulated role. In this report, we have examined the effects of FAT expression on rates and properti...

  13. Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

    Lei Anping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty acid (FA biosynthesis pathway genes have been all cloned and biosynthesis pathway was built up in some higher plants, the molecular mechanism for its regulation in microalgae is far away from elucidation. Results We cloned main key genes for FA biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga as a potential biodiesel feedstock, and investigated the correlations between their expression alternation and FA composition and content detected by GC-MS under different stress treatments, such as nitrogen depletion, salinity, high or low temperature. Our results showed that high temperature, high salinity, and nitrogen depletion treatments played significant roles in promoting microalgal FA synthesis, while FA qualities were not changed much. Correlation analysis showed that acyl carrier protein (ACP, 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase (KAS, and acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATA gene expression had significant correlations with monounsaturated FA (MUFA synthesis and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA synthesis. Conclusions We proposed that ACP, KAS, and FATA in H. pluvialis may play an important role in FA synthesis and may be rate limiting genes, which probably could be modified for the further study of metabolic engineering to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

  14. Bacterial Lysine Decarboxylase Influences Human Dental Biofilm Lysine Content, Biofilm Accumulation and Sub-Clinical Gingival Inflammation

    Lohinai, Z.; Keremi, B.; Szoko, E.; Tabi, T.; Szabo, C.; Tulassay, Z.; Levine, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study were to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR), and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for a week. Methods Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Results Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After a week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine post-OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. Conclusions After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Clinical Relevance Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. PMID:22141361

  15. Sbi00515, a Protein of Unknown Function from Streptomyces bingchenggensis, Highlights the Functional Versatility of the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase Scaffold.

    Mueller, Lisa S; Hoppe, Robert W; Ochsenwald, Jenna M; Berndt, Robert T; Severin, Geoffrey B; Schwabacher, Alan W; Silvaggi, Nicholas R

    2015-06-30

    The acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) is a group of ~4000 enzymes that, until recently, was thought to be homogeneous in terms of the reaction catalyzed. Bioinformatic analysis shows that the ADCSF consists of up to seven families that differ primarily in their active site architectures. The soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCW-1 produces an ADCSF enzyme of unknown function that shares a low level of sequence identity (~20%) with known acetoacetate decarboxylases (ADCs). This enzyme, Sbi00515, belongs to the MppR-like family of the ADCSF because of its similarity to the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic protein MppR from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Herein, we present steady state kinetic data that show Sbi00515 does not catalyze the decarboxylation of any α- or β-keto acid tested. Rather, we show that Sbi00515 catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate with a number of aldehydes, followed by dehydration of the presumed aldol intermediate. Thus, Sbi00515 is a pyruvate aldolase-dehydratase and not an acetoacetate decarboxylase. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structures of Sbi00515 in complexes with formate and pyruvate. The structures show that the overall fold of Sbi00515 is nearly identical to those of both ADC and MppR. The pyruvate complex is trapped as the Schiff base, providing evidence that the Schiff base chemistry that drives the acetoacetate decarboxylases has been co-opted to perform a new function, and that this core chemistry may be conserved across the superfamily. The structures also suggest possible catalytic roles for several active site residues. PMID:26039798

  16. Retinoic acid-induced gene expression in normal and leukemic myeloid cells

    1986-01-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to induce large accumulations of tissue transglutaminase in cultured myeloid cells. Addition of retinoic acid to mouse resident peritoneal macrophages increased the level of tissue transglutaminase mRNA within 30-60 min. Retinoic acid also increased tissue transglutaminase mRNA levels in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL- 60) cells. These studies show that retinoic acid can induce acute alterations in specific gene expression in both normal and leukemic myeloid cells.

  17. Genetic improvement of Escherichia coli for ethanol production: chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase II.

    Ohta, K.; Beall, D S; Mejia, J P; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L O

    1991-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis genes for pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) were integrated into the Escherichia coli chromosome within or near the pyruvate formate-lyase gene (pfl). Integration improved the stability of the Z. mobilis genes in E. coli, but further selection was required to increase expression. Spontaneous mutants were selected for resistance to high level of chloramphenicol that also expressed high levels of the Z. mobilis genes. Analogous mutants were selec...

  18. Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Ulven, Stine Marie

    2014-01-01

    Intake of marine n-3 fatty acids has been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Gene expression analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are used to understand the underlying mechanisms of action of marine n-3 fatty acids. The aim of this review was to summarize the effects mediated by marine n-3 fatty acids on gene expression in PBMCs. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed in May 2014 and 14 papers were included. Targeted gene expression s...

  19. Chloroform induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in rats.

    Savage, R E; Westrich, C; Guion, C; M. A. PEREIRA

    1982-01-01

    Chloroform is a drinking water contaminant that has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic to mice and rats resulting in an increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors, respectively. The mechanism of chloroform carcinogenicity might be by tumor initiation and/or promotion. Since induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has been proposed as a molecular marker for tumor promoters, we have investigated the effect of chloroform on ODC activity in rats. Chloroform induced a dose-depend...

  20. Adaptive mutations in sugar metabolism restore growth on glucose in a pyruvate decarboxylase negative yeast strain

    Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Guodong; Engqvist, Martin K. M.;

    2015-01-01

    carbon source, and requires supplementation of C2 compounds to the medium in order to meet the requirement for cytosolic acetyl-CoA for biosynthesis of fatty acids and ergosterol. Results: In this study, a Pdc negative strain was adaptively evolved for improved growth in glucose medium via serial......Background: A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying deletions in all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes (also called Pdc negative yeast) represents a non-ethanol producing platform strain for the production of pyruvate derived biochemicals. However, it cannot grow on glucose as the sole...... transfer, resulting in three independently evolved strains, which were able to grow in minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source at the maximum specific rates of 0.138, 0.148, 0.141 h-1, respectively. Several genetic changes were identified in the evolved Pdc negative strains by genomic...

  1. Arabidopsis Serine Decarboxylase Mutants Implicate the Roles of Ethanolamine in Plant Growth and Development

    Byeong-ha Lee; Hyoungseok Lee; Joung Han Yim; Jian-Kang Zhu; Si-in Yu; Yerim Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Ethanolamine is important for synthesis of choline, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in plants. The latter two phospholipids are the major phospholipids in eukaryotic membranes. In plants, ethanolamine is mainly synthesized directly from serine by serine decarboxylase. Serine decarboxylase is unique to plants and was previously shown to have highly specific activity to l-serine. While serine decarboxylase was biochemically characterized, its functions and importance ...

  2. Expression of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in Pichia pastoris

    YU Ying; CAI Shaoxi; Harald G. WERIRICH; XIA Yuxian

    2003-01-01

    Pichia pastoris expression system is similar to that of the mammal cell in modification of expressed protein, including refolding and glycosylation. A human aFGF gene was cloned into the intracellular expression vector pPIC9K. The Pichia pastoriS KM71 strain was transformed with the recombined expression plasmid. Transgenic expression was observed after screening the transformants with G418. The expression and secretion of recombinant human aFGF (rhaFGF) into the culture medium were testified by ELISA assay. The yield peaked after two days of induction and was approximately 10 mg.L-1 in shake-flask fermentation medium. The recombinant proteins were purified by the combination of heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Two proteins with relative molecular masses (Mr) of 17 000 and 35 000 were purified as a single band in SDS-PAGE, whose biological activities were determined by MTT assay. It is found that the protein with Mr of 1 7 000 is nonglycosylated haFGF, and that with Mr of 35 000 is glycosylated haFGF; and the latter has a lower biological activity than the former.

  3. Glycine decarboxylase in C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

    Schulze, Stefanie; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo

    2016-06-01

    The glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) plays a central role in photorespiration. GDC is localized in the mitochondria and together with serine hydroxymethyltransferase it converts two molecules of glycine to one molecule of serine, CO2 and NH3. Overexpression of GDC subunits in the C3 species Arabidopsis thaliana can increase the metabolic flux through the photorespiratory pathway leading to enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and consequently to an enhanced biomass production of the transgenic plants. Changing the spatial expression patterns of GDC subunits was an important step during the evolution of C3-C4 intermediate and likely also C4 plants. Restriction of the GDC activity to the bundle sheath cells led to the establishment of a photorespiratory CO2 pump. PMID:27038285

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent openers of human M-channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Liin, Sara I; Karlsson, Urban; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth;

    2016-01-01

    threshold current to evoke action potentials in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid facilitated opening of the human M-channel, comprised of the heteromeric human KV 7.2/3 channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes, by...... shifting the conductance-versus-voltage curve towards more negative voltages (by -7.4 to -11.3 mV by 70 μM). Uncharged docosahexaenoic acid methyl ester and monounsaturated oleic acid did not facilitate opening of the human KV 7.2/3 channel. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that circulating...... polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a minimum requirement of multiple double bonds and a charged carboxyl group, dampen excitability by opening neuronal M-channels. Collectively, our data bring light to the molecular targets of polyunsaturated fatty acids and thus a possible mechanism by which polyunsaturated fatty...

  5. Integrative food grade expression system for lactic acid bacteria.

    Douglas, Grace L; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic microbe with the ability to survive passage to the -gastrointestinal tract, interact intimately with the host and induce immune responses. The genome of NCFM has been determined and the bacterium is genetically accessible. Therefore, L. acidophilus has excellent potential for use as a vaccine delivery vehicle to express antigens at mucosal surfaces. Plasmids, commonly used to carry antigen encoding genes, are inherently unstable and require constant selection by antibiotics, which can be problematic for in vivo studies and clinical trials. Chromosomal expression of gene cassettes encoding antigens offers enhanced genetic stability by eliminating requirements for marker selection. This work illustrates the integration and inducible expression of the reporter gene gusA3, -encoding a β-glucuronidase (GusA3), in the L. acidophilus chromosome. A previously described upp-counterselectable gene replacement system was used to direct insertion of the gusA3 gene into an intergenic chromosomal location downstream of lacZ (LBA1462), encoding a β-galactosidase. The transcriptional activity of integrated gusA3 was evaluated by GUS activity assays using 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-β-D: -glucuronide (MUG) and was determined to be one to two orders of magnitude higher than the GusA3-negative parent, NCK1909. The successful chromosomal integration and expression of GusA3 demonstrate the potential of this method for higher levels of inducible gene expression in L. acidophilus. PMID:21815104

  6. γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit and transporter expression in the gonad and liver of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Biggs, Katie; Seidel, Jason S; Wilson, Alex; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-09-01

    γ-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. GABA receptors and synthesizing enzymes have also been localized to peripheral tissues including the liver, oviduct, uterus and ovary of mammals but the distribution and role of GABA in peripheral tissues of fish has not been fully investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if mRNA encoding GABA synthesizing enzymes (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67; gad65 and gad67), GABA transporters, and GABAA receptor subunits are localized to liver and gonad of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) (FHM) (2) investigate the effects of GABA on ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and (3) measure transcript responses in the ovary after in vitro incubation to GABA. Real-time PCR assays were developed for gad65, gad67, vesicular GABA transporter (vgat) and GABA transporter 1 (gat1), and select GABAA receptor subunits (gabra1, gabra5, gabrb1, gabrb2, gabrg1, gabrg2). All transcripts were localized to the brain as expected; however transcripts were also detected in the liver, ovary, and testis of FHMs. In the female liver, gad65 mRNA was significantly higher in expression compared to the male liver. Transcripts for gad67 were the highest in the brain>gonad>liver and in the gonads, gad67 was significantly higher in expression than gad65 mRNA. In the liver and gonad, the relative abundance of the subunits followed a general trend of gabrb1>gabrb2=gabrg1=gabrg2>gabra1=gabra5. To explore the effects of GABA in the ovary, tissue explants from reproductive female FHMs were treated with GABA (10(-10), 10(-8) and 10(-6)M) for 12h. GABA had no significant effect on 17β-estradiol production or on mRNA abundance for genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis (e.g., 11βhsd, cyp17, cyp19a). There was a significant decrease in estrogen receptor 2a (esr2a) mRNA with 10(-10)M GABA. This study begins to investigate the GABA system in non-neural tissues of

  7. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on the expression of inflammatory genes in THP-1 macrophages

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Barbier, Olivier; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncontrolled inflammation participates in the development of inflammatory diseases. Beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids belonging to the n-3 family such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on inflammation have been reported. The present study investigates the basal effects of EPA, DHA and a mixture EPA + DHA on the expression of 10 genes (AKT1, MAPK, NFKB, TNFA, IL1Β, MCP1, ALOX5, PTGS2, MGST1and NOS2) related to inflammation in unstimulated ...

  8. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta

    Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I.; Gaccioli, Francesca; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR...

  9. Expression of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in simian virus 40 vectors.

    Subramani, S.; Mulligan, R.; Berg, P

    1981-01-01

    A mouse complementary deoxyribonucleic acid segment coding for the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase has been cloned in two general classes of vectors containing simian virus 40 deoxyribonucleic acid: (i) those that can be propagated as virions in permissive cells and (ii) those that can be introduced into and maintained stably in various mammalian cells. Both types of vectors express the mouse dihydrofolate reductase by using signals supplied by simian virus 40 deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. ...

  10. Stable siRNA-mediated silencing of antizyme inhibitor: regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines essential for cell growth and differentiation. Aberrant upregulation of ODC, however, is widely believed to be a contributing factor in tumorigenesis. Antizyme is a major regulator of ODC, inhibiting ODC activity through the formation of complexes and facilitating degradation of ODC by the 26S proteasome. Moreover, the antizyme inhibitor (AZI) serves as another factor in regulating ODC, by binding to antizyme and releasing ODC from ODC-antizyme complexes. In our previous report, we observed elevated AZI expression in tumor specimens. Therefore, to evaluate the role of AZI in regulating ODC activity in tumors, we successfully down-regulated AZI expression using RNA interference technology in A549 lung cancer cells expressing high levels of AZI. Two AZI siRNAs, which were capable to generate a hairpin dsRNA loop targeting AZI, could successively decrease the expression of AZI. Using biological assays, antizyme activity increased in AZI-siRNA-transfected cells, and ODC levels and activity were reduced as well. Moreover, silencing AZI expression decreased intracellular polyamine levels, reduced cell proliferation, and prolonged population doubling time. Our results directly demonstrate that downregulation of AZI regulates ODC activity, intracellular polyamine levels, and cell growth through regulating antizyme activity. This study also suggests that highly expressed AZI may be partly responsible for increased ODC activity and cellular transformation

  11. Inhibition of gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and heart fatty acid binding protein in cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide-induced acute cardiotoxic rat models.

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Aldelemy, Meshan L; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Sharary, Shakir D; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated whether cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IFO) therapy alters the expression of the key genes engaged in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria, and if so, whether these alterations should be viewed as a mechanism during CP- and IFO-induced cardiotoxicity. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of the six treatment groups: Rats in group 1 (control) and group 2 (L-carnitine) were injected intraperitoneal (i.p.) with normal saline and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days. Animals in group 3 (CP group) were injected i.p. with normal saline for 5 days before and 5 days after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats in group 4 (IFO group) received normal saline for 5 successive days followed by IFO (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 successive days. Rats in group 5 (CP-carnitine supplemented) were given the same doses of L-carnitine as group 2 for 5 days before and 5 days after a single dose of CP as group 3. Rats in group 6 (IFO-carnitine supplemented) were given the same doses of L-carnitine as group 2 for 5 days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO as group 4. Immediately, after the last dose of the treatment protocol, blood samples were withdrawn and animals were killed for biochemical, histopathological and gene expression studies. Treatment with CP and IFO significantly decreased expression of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) genes in cardiac tissues. Moreover, CP but not IFO significantly increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase2 mRNA expression. Conversely, IFO but not CP significantly decreased mRNA expression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Both CP and IFO significantly increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and malonyl-CoA content and histopathological lesions in cardiac tissues. Interestingly, carnitine supplementation completely reversed all the biochemical, histopathological and

  12. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    T. Catalina Adarme-Vega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4, but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt.

  13. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Gu Keyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L., a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been systemically investigated. Results Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that the oil body formation in developing endosperm of jatropha seeds initially appeared at 28 days after fertilization (DAF, was actively developed at 42 DAF and reached to the maximum number and size at 56 DAF. Sixty-eight genes that encode enzymes, proteins or their subunits involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were identified from a normalized cDNA library of jatropha developing endosperm. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the 68 genes could be collectively grouped into five categories based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during endosperm development. Category I has 47 genes and they displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern with the peak expression at 28 or 42 DAF, but low expression at 14 and 56 DAF. Category II contains 8 genes and expression of the 8 genes was constantly increased from 14 to 56 DAF. Category III comprises of 2 genes and both genes were constitutively expressed throughout endosperm development. Category IV has 9 genes and they showed a high expression at 14 and 28 DAF, but a decreased expression from 42 to 56 DAF. Category V consists of 2 genes and both genes showed a medium expression at 14 DAF, the lowest expression at 28 or 42 DAF, and the highest expression at 56 DAF. In addition, genes encoding enzymes or proteins with similar function were

  14. Modulation of keratinocyte gene expression and differentiation by PPAR-selective ligands and tetradecylthioacetic acid

    Westergaard, M; Henningsen, J; Svendsen, M L; Johansen, C; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Schrøder, H D; Kratchmarova - Blagoeva, Irina H; Berge, R K; Iversen, L; Bolund, L; Kragballe, K; Kristiansen, K

    2001-01-01

    nuclear receptor corepressor and silence mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors. We critically evaluated the effects of selective PPAR ligands and a synthetic fatty acid analog, tetradecylthioacetic acid. Tetradecylthioacetic acid activated all human PPAR subtypes in the ranking order...... PPARdelta >> PPARalpha > PPARgamma. All selective PPAR ligands marginally induced transglutaminase-1 expression with the PPARdelta-selective ligand L165041 being the most potent. The PPARalpha- and PPARgamma-selective ligands Wy14643 and BRL49653 had negligible effect on involucrin expression, whereas a...

  15. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  16. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  17. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. eleg...

  18. Potent stimulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression in the human ileum by bile acids

    Zhang, Justine H.; Nolan, Jonathan D.; Kennie, Sarah L.; Johnston, Ian M.; Dew, Tracy; Dixon, Peter H.; Williamson, Catherine; Walters, Julian R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is proposed to be a negative feedback regulator of hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. We aimed to clarify the distribution of FGF19 expression in human intestine and to investigate induction in a novel explant system. Ileal and colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at endoscopy and analyzed for FGF19 transcript expression. Primary explants were incubated with physiological concentrations of various BA for up to 6 h, and expression of FGF19 and other genes w...

  19. Diurnal changes in polyamine content, arginine and ornithine decarboxylase, and diamine oxidase in tobacco leaves

    Gemperlová, Lenka; Nováková, Marie; Vaňková, Radomíra; Eder, Josef; Cvikrová, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2006), s. 1413-1421. ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arginine decarboxylase * diamine oxidase * ornithine decarboxylase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2006

  20. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    Zhu, Qiong N.; Xie, Hong M.; Dan Zhang; Jie Liu; Yuan F. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats. Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD) 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 7, 14 and 21. T...

  1. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate-Product Transition in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F; (TGRI); (Toronto); (Kyoto)

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  2. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain: Modulation of rat brain gene expression by dietary n-3 fatty acids

    Kitajka, Klára; László G Puskás; Zvara, Ágnes; Hackler, László; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Yeo, Young K.; Farkas, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    Rats were fed either a high linolenic acid (perilla oil) or high eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acid (fish oil) diet (8%), and the fatty acid and molecular species composition of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides was determined. Gene expression pattern resulting from the feeding of n-3 fatty acids also was studied. Perilla oil feeding, in contrast to fish oil feeding, was not reflected in total fatty acid composition of ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Levels of the alkenylacyl subclass of et...

  3. WRINKLED1 Rescues Feedback Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Hydroxylase-Expressing Seeds.

    Adhikari, Neil D; Bates, Philip D; Browse, John

    2016-05-01

    Previous attempts at engineering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to produce seed oils containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have resulted in low yields of HFA compared with the native castor (Ricinus communis) plant and caused undesirable effects, including reduced total oil content. Recent studies have led to an understanding of problems involved in the accumulation of HFA in oils of transgenic plants, which include metabolic bottlenecks and a decrease in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. Focusing on engineering the triacylglycerol assembly mechanisms led to modest increases in the HFA content of seed oil, but much room for improvement still remains. We hypothesized that engineering fatty acid synthesis in the plastids to increase flux would facilitate enhanced total incorporation of fatty acids, including HFA, into seed oil. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) positively regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and controls seed oil levels. We overexpressed Arabidopsis WRI1 in seeds of a transgenic line expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase. The proportion of HFA in the oil, the total HFA per seed, and the total oil content of seeds increased to an average of 20.9%, 1.26 µg, and 32.2%, respectively, across five independent lines, compared with 17.6%, 0.83 µg, and 27.9%, respectively, for isogenic segregants. WRI1 and WRI1-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated, providing for a corresponding increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. PMID:27208047

  4. WRINKLED1 Rescues Feedback Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Hydroxylase-Expressing Seeds1[OPEN

    Browse, John

    2016-01-01

    Previous attempts at engineering Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to produce seed oils containing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) have resulted in low yields of HFA compared with the native castor (Ricinus communis) plant and caused undesirable effects, including reduced total oil content. Recent studies have led to an understanding of problems involved in the accumulation of HFA in oils of transgenic plants, which include metabolic bottlenecks and a decrease in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. Focusing on engineering the triacylglycerol assembly mechanisms led to modest increases in the HFA content of seed oil, but much room for improvement still remains. We hypothesized that engineering fatty acid synthesis in the plastids to increase flux would facilitate enhanced total incorporation of fatty acids, including HFA, into seed oil. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) positively regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and controls seed oil levels. We overexpressed Arabidopsis WRI1 in seeds of a transgenic line expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase. The proportion of HFA in the oil, the total HFA per seed, and the total oil content of seeds increased to an average of 20.9%, 1.26 µg, and 32.2%, respectively, across five independent lines, compared with 17.6%, 0.83 µg, and 27.9%, respectively, for isogenic segregants. WRI1 and WRI1-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated, providing for a corresponding increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis. PMID:27208047

  5. Crystal structure of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae.

    Buddrus, Lisa; Andrews, Emma S V; Leak, David J; Danson, Michael J; Arcus, Vickery L; Crennell, Susan J

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) is a thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg(2+) ion-dependent enzyme that catalyses the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. It is rare in bacteria, but is a key enzyme in homofermentative metabolism, where ethanol is the major product. Here, the previously unreported crystal structure of the bacterial pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae is presented. The crystals were shown to diffract to 2.15 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 204.56, b = 177.39, c = 244.55 Å and Rr.i.m. = 0.175 (0.714 in the highest resolution bin). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using PDB entry 2vbi as a model and the final R values were Rwork = 0.186 (0.271 in the highest resolution bin) and Rfree = 0.220 (0.300 in the highest resolution bin). Each of the six tetramers is a dimer of dimers, with each monomer sharing its thiamine pyrophosphate across the dimer interface, and some contain ethylene glycol mimicking the substrate pyruvate in the active site. Comparison with other bacterial PDCs shows a correlation of higher thermostability with greater tetramer interface area and number of interactions. PMID:27599861

  6. Interpreting expression data with metabolic flux models: predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid production.

    Caroline Colijn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is central to cell physiology, and metabolic disturbances play a role in numerous disease states. Despite its importance, the ability to study metabolism at a global scale using genomic technologies is limited. In principle, complete genome sequences describe the range of metabolic reactions that are possible for an organism, but cannot quantitatively describe the behaviour of these reactions. We present a novel method for modeling metabolic states using whole cell measurements of gene expression. Our method, which we call E-Flux (as a combination of flux and expression, extends the technique of Flux Balance Analysis by modeling maximum flux constraints as a function of measured gene expression. In contrast to previous methods for metabolically interpreting gene expression data, E-Flux utilizes a model of the underlying metabolic network to directly predict changes in metabolic flux capacity. We applied E-Flux to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB. Key components of mycobacterial cell walls are mycolic acids which are targets for several first-line TB drugs. We used E-Flux to predict the impact of 75 different drugs, drug combinations, and nutrient conditions on mycolic acid biosynthesis capacity in M. tuberculosis, using a public compendium of over 400 expression arrays. We tested our method using a model of mycolic acid biosynthesis as well as on a genome-scale model of M. tuberculosis metabolism. Our method correctly predicts seven of the eight known fatty acid inhibitors in this compendium and makes accurate predictions regarding the specificity of these compounds for fatty acid biosynthesis. Our method also predicts a number of additional potential modulators of TB mycolic acid biosynthesis. E-Flux thus provides a promising new approach for algorithmically predicting metabolic state from gene expression data.

  7. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26724425

  8. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Is Expressed in Peptidergic and Nonpeptidergic Nociceptive Neurons of Mice and Rats

    Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Zylka, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, also known as Fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase or FRAP) is a classic histochemical marker of small- to medium-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and has primarily been studied in the rat. Previously, we found that TMPase was molecularly identical to Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) using mice. In addition, PAP was expressed in a majority of nonpeptidergic, isolectin B4-binding (IB4+) nociceptive neurons and a subset of peptidergic, calcitonin gene-...

  9. Increased Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase Expression in Osteoblasts and Osteocytes in Experimental Osteoporosis in Rats

    Solberg, Lene B.; Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Stordalen, Gunhild A.; Bækkevold, Espen S; Andersson, Göran; Reinholt, Finn P.

    2014-01-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is known as an osteoclast marker, but osteoblasts and osteocytes in the vicinity of bone remodeling sites also express TRAP. Cell culture studies suggest that osteoblasts endocytose osteoclastic TRAP for inactivation. To evaluate whether changes in osteoclast activity could alter TRAP expression in osteoblasts and/or osteocytes in vivo, we studied the ovariectomized and vitamin D-deficient rat (Ovx-D) and rats healing from rickets. Bone sections were...

  10. Antitumor Effect of Antisense Ornithine Decarboxylase Adenovirus on Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Hui TIAN; Lin LI; Xian-Xi LIU; Yan ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, was found to increase in cancer cells, especially lung cancer cells. Some chemotherapeutic agents aimed at decreasing ODC gene expression showed inhibitory effects on cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effects of adenoviral transduced antisense ODC on lung cancer cells. An adenovirus carrying antisense ODC (rAd-ODC/Ex3as) was used to infect lung cancer cell line A-549. The 3-(4,5-me thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to analyze the effect on cell growth. Expression of ODC and concentration of polyamines in cells were determined by Western blot analysis and high performance liquid chromatography. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling was used to analyze cell apoptosis. The expression of ODC in A-549 cells was reduced to 54%, and that of three polyamines was also decreased through the rAd-ODC/Ex3as treatment. Consequently, cell growth was substantially inhibited and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling showed that rAd-ODC/Ex3as could lead to cell apoptosis, with apoptosis index of 46%. This study suggests that rAd-ODC/Ex3as has an antitumor effect on the human lung cancer cells.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes’ expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.  

  12. Inhibition of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons results in complex behavioral changes

    Brown, Jacquelyn A.; Ramikie, Teniel S.; Schmidt, Martin J.; Báldi, Rita; Garbett, Krassimira; Everheart, Monika G.; Warren, Lambert E.; Gellért, Levente; Horváth, Szatmár; Patel, Sachin; Mirnics, Károly

    2015-01-01

    Reduced expression of the GAD1 gene-encoded 67-kD protein isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is a hallmark of the schizophrenia. GAD67 downregulation occurs in multiple interneuronal subpopulations, including the parvalbumin positive (PVALB+) cells. To investigate the role of the PV-positive GABA-ergic interneurons in behavioral and molecular processes, we knocked down the Gad1 transcript using a miRNA engineered to specifically target Gad1 mRNA under the control of Pvalb bacteria...

  13. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F;

    2007-01-01

    development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p <0.05) and 16 that are up-regulated...... (>twofold, p <0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved...

  14. Molecular cloning and ontogenesis expression of fatty acid transport protein-1 in yellow-feathered broilers

    Yuzhen Song; Jiaying Feng; Lihua Zhou; Gang Shu; Xiaotong Zhu; Ping Gao; Yongliang Zhang; Qingyan Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) is one of the important transporter proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. To study the relationship between FATP-1 mRNA expression and fat deposition, chicken (Gallus gallus) FATP-1 sequence was first cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Tissue samples of chest muscle, leg muscle, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat were collected from six male and six female broilers each, at 22 days, 29 days, and 42 days, respectively. The tissue specificity and ontogenesis expression pattern of the FATP-1 mRNA of yellow-feathered broilers was studied by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the fat deposition laws in different tissues were also compared. A 2,488 bp cDNA sequence of chicken FATP-1 was cloned by RACE (GenBank accession no. DQ352834), including 547 bp 3' end untranslated region (URT) and 1,941 bp open reading frame (ORF). Chicken FATP-1 encoded 646 amino acid residues, which shared 83.9% and 83.0% identity with those of human and rat, respectively. The results of quantitative PCR demonstrated a constant FATP-1 mRNA expression level in the chest muscle and subcutaneous fat of both male and female broilers at three stages, whereas the expression level of the FATP-1 mRNA in the leg muscle at 42 days was significantly higher than that at 22 days or 29 days. In the abdominal fat of male broilers, the gene expression significantly increased with age, whereas the female broilers showed a dramatic downregulation of FATP-1 expression in abdominal fat at 42 days. This suggested a typical tissue-and gender-specific expression pattern of chicken FATP-1, mediating the specific process of fatty acid transport or utilization in muscle and adipose tissues.

  15. Auxins Induce Tryptophan Decarboxylase Activity in Radicles of Catharanthus Seedlings 1

    Aerts, Rob J.; Alarco, Anne-Marie; De Luca, Vincenzo

    1992-01-01

    Germinating seedlings of Catharanthus roseus produce monoterpenoid indole alkaloids as a result of a transient increase of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) activity. The influence of auxins on this transient rise of TDC activity was studied. External application of indolebutyric acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a concentration of 20 to 40 μm enhanced and prolonged the rise in TDC activity in developing seedlings. Auxin treatment also influenced the morphology of the seedlings; it induced a shortening and thickening of the hypocotyl and the radicle and promoted the initiation of lateral roots in the radicle. During development, the radicles of auxin-treated seedlings displayed a gradual increase in TDC activity that was absent in the radicles of untreated controls. Examination of immunoblots revealed anti-TDC reactive proteins in extracts from radicles of auxin-treated seedlings, but none in extracts from radicles of control seedlings. In contrast, TDC activity and immunoreactive protein levels in the aerial parts of controls and auxin-treated seedlings were comparable. Our results indicate that externally applied auxins induce both abnormal development and TDC activity in the radicles of Catharanthus seedlings. Although auxins slightly delayed the light-mediated induction of the cotyledon-specific last step in vindoline biosynthesis (i.e. acetylcoenzyme A: deacetylvindolin-O-acetyltransferase activity), seedlings still synthesized vindoline, one of the major alkaloid end products. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653009

  16. Expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human malignant lymphomas

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Hastrup, Nina; Sehested, Maxwell

    The purpose of the study was to determine in human malignant lymphomas the expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), the primary, rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of NAD+. NAMPT is a potential biomarker for...... sensitivity to NAMPT inhibitors and NAPRT is a biomarker for the use of nicotinic acid as a chemoprotectant in treatment with NAMPT inhibitors. The NAMPT inhibitor, APO866, is currently in clinical phase II trials in lymphomas. The expression of NAMPT and NAPRT was investigated in 53 samples of malignant.......0024). In conclusion, FL are a promising target for NAMPT inhibitors whereas substantial subsets of malignant lymphomas especially in Hodgkin lymphoma may be suitable for a combination treatment with nicotinic acid and NAMPT inhibitors....

  17. Activation of Hepatic Lipase Expression by Oleic Acid: Possible Involvement of USF1

    Adrie J. M. Verhoeven

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression mainly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, but how monounsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression is poorly understood. In HepG2 cells, oleate supplementation has been shown to increase secretion of hepatic lipase (HL. We hypothesized that oleate affects HL gene expression at the transcriptional level. To test this, we studied the effect of oleate on HL promoter activity using HepG2 cells and the proximal HL promoter region (700 bp. Oleate increased HL expression and promoter activity 1.3–2.1 fold and reduced SREBP activity by 50%. Downregulation of SREBP activity by incubation with cholesterol+25-hydroxycholesterol had no effect on HL promoter activity. Overexpression of SREBP2, but not SREBP1, reduced HL promoter activity, which was effected mainly through the USF1 binding site at -307/-312. Oleate increased the nuclear abundance of USF1 protein 2.7 ± 0.6 fold, while USF1 levels were reduced by SREBP2 overexpression. We conclude that oleate increases HL gene expression via USF1. USF1 may be an additional fatty acid sensor in liver cells.

  18. The effects of supplementing specific amino acids on the expression of elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs).

    Chu, Hun-Su; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Won, Jong-In

    2010-12-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) made from the repeating pentapeptides (Val-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly) are protein based biopolymers that contain useful properties, including the ability to self-assemble, biocompatibility, and stimuli sensitivity. However, due to the repeated consumption of specific amino acids, long ELPs generally have low expression yields in in vitro and in vivo systems. This is because of the lack of specific amino acids during the translation process. In this study, ELP fusion proteins of various lengths were prepared by recursive directional ligation (RDL) and expressed in a cell-free protein synthesis system. By measuring TCA-precipitated radioactivity with a liquid scintillation counter, their expression profiles were investigated. The expression levels of an ELP fusion protein were improved by almost 2-fold by adding specific amino acids. Additionally, we determined that the amount of increase in expression levels depends on the length of the ELPs. This study suggests a useful strategy to improve the yield of longer repetitive polypeptides such as ELPs or silk-like polypeptides (SLPs). PMID:20667475

  19. Cloning and Analyzing of Xenopus Mespo Promoter in Retinoic Acid Regulated Mespo Expression

    Jin-Hu WANG; Xiao-Yan DING

    2006-01-01

    Juring vertebrate embryogenesis, presomitic mesoderm cells enter a segmental program to generate somite, a process termed somitogenesis. Mespo, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family,plays important roles in this process. However, how Mespo expression is regulated remains unclear. To address this question, we isolated a genomic DNA sequence containing 4317 bp of Mespo 5' flanking region in Xenopus. Luciferase assays show that this upstream sequence has transcription activity. Transgenic assay shows that this genomic contig is sufficient to recapitulate the dynamic stage- and tissue-specific expression pattern of endogenous Mespo from the gastrula to the tailbud stage. We further mapped a 326 bp DNA sequence responding to retinoic acid signaling. These results shed light on how Mespo expression is regulated,and suggest that retinoic acid signaling pathways play roles in somitogenesis through regulating Mespo.

  20. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  1. Co-expression Analysis Identifies CRC and AP1 the Regulator of Arabidopsis Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Xinxin Han; Linlin Yin; Hongwei Xue

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) play crucial rules in signal transduction and plant development,however,the regulation of FA metabolism is still poorly understood.To study the relevant regulatory network,fifty-eight FA biosynthesis genes including de novo synthases,desaturases and elongases were selected as "guide genes" to construct the co-expression network.Calculation of the correlation between all Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) genes with each guide gene by Arabidopsis co-expression dating mining tools (ACT)identifies 797 candidate FA-correlated genes.Gene ontology (GO) analysis of these co-expressed genes showed they are tightly correlated to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism,and function in many processes.Interestingly,63 transcription factors (TFs) were identified as candidate FA biosynthesis regulators and 8 TF families are enriched.Two TF genes,CRC and AP1,both correlating with 8 FA guide genes,were further characterized.Analyses of the ap1 and crc mutant showed the altered total FA composition of mature seeds.The contents of palmitoleic acid,stearic acid,arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid are decreased,whereas that of oleic acid is increased in ap1 and crc seeds,which is consistent with the qRT-PCR analysis revealing the suppressed expression of the corresponding guide genes.In addition,yeast one-hybrid analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that CRC can bind to the promoter regions of KCS7 and KCS15,indicating that CRC may directly regulate FA biosynthesis.

  2. MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A JUVENILE HORMONE ACID METHYLTRANSFERASE EXPRESSED IN THE CORPORA ALLATA OF MOSQUITOES

    Mayoral, Jaime G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Yoshiyama, Michiyo; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Hernandez-Martinez, Salvador; Dolghih, Elena; Turjanski, Adrian G; Roitberg, Adrian E.; Priestap, Horacio; Perez, Mario; Mackenzie, Lucy; Li, Yiping; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2008-01-01

    A juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) was isolated as an abundant EST in a library of the corpora allata of the adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 278-aa protein that has 43 % amino acid identity with BmJHAMT, a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase previously cloned from Bombyx mori. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolizes farnesoic acid (FA) into methyl farnesoate, as well as juvenile hormone acid into juvenile h...

  3. Myristic Acid (MA) Promotes Adipogenic Gene Expression and the Differentiation of Porcine Intramuscular Adipocyte Precursor Cells

    LU Nai-sheng; ZHANG Yong-liang; JIANG Qing-yan; SHU Gang; XIE Qiu-ping; ZHU Xiao-tong; GAO Ping; ZHOU Gui-xuan; WANG Song-bo; WANG Li-na; XI Qian-yun

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is considered to be a key factor that affects the marbling, tenderness, juiciness and lfavor of pork. To investigate the effects of myristic acid (MA) on the differentiation of porcine intramuscular adipocytes, cells were isolated from longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and treated with 0, 10, 50 or 100μmol L-1 MA. The results showed that MA signiifcantly promotes the differentiation of intramuscular adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. MA also led to a parallel increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ(PPARγ) and adipose-related genes, such as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), fatty acid translocase (FAT), acetyl-CoA carboxylaseα(ACCα), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). However, no signiifcant effects of MA were observed on the expression of CAAT enhancer binding protein-α(C/EBPα) or hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) was increased by MA during the early stages of differentiation (day 1-3). In addition, MA also increased the absolute content of C14 (P<0.001) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P<0.05) to varying degrees, but no effects were observed on other fatty acids. These results suggest that MA might be able to enhance the IMF content of pork and increase the accumulation of myristic and myristoleic acid in muscle, which might have beneifcial implications for human health.

  4. Glucocorticoid hormones downregulate histidine decarboxylase mRNA and enzyme activity in rat lung.

    Zahnow, C A; Panula, P; Yamatodani, A; Millhorn, D E

    1998-08-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is the primary enzyme regulating histamine biosynthesis. Histamine contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. Because glucocorticoids are effective in the treatment of asthma, we examined the effects of 6 h of exogenously administered dexamethasone (0.5-3,000 microg/kg ip), corticosterone (0.2-200 mg/kg ip), or endogenously elevated corticosterone (via exposure of rats to 10% oxygen) on HDC expression in the rat lung. HDC transcripts were decreased approximately 73% with dexamethasone treatment, 57% with corticosterone treatment, and 50% with exposure to 10% oxygen. Likewise, HDC enzyme activity was decreased 80% by treatment with dexamethasone and corticosterone and 60% by exposure to 10% oxygen. Adrenalectomy prevented the decreases in HDC mRNA and enzyme activity observed in rats exposed to 10% oxygen, suggesting that the adrenal gland is necessary for the mediation of hypoxic effects on HDC gene expression. These results demonstrate that corticosteroids initiate a process that leads to the decrease of HDC mRNA levels and enzyme activity in rat lung. PMID:9700103

  5. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for quantitative gene expression analysis of acid responses in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Rode, Tone Mari; Berget, Ingunn; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Holck, Askild

    2009-07-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to new and altered growth conditions, and respond by changing gene expression patterns. Several methods for studying gene expression exist. During the last decade, the analysis of microarrays has been one of the most common approaches applied for large scale gene expression studies. A relatively new method for gene expression analysis is MassARRAY, which combines real competitive-PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry. In contrast to microarray methods, MassARRAY technology is suitable for analysing a larger number of samples, though for a smaller set of genes. In this study we compare the results from MassARRAY with microarrays on gene expression responses of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to acid stress at pH 4.5. RNA isolated from the same stress experiments was analysed using both the MassARRAY and the microarray methods. The MassARRAY and microarray methods showed good correlation. Both MassARRAY and microarray estimated somewhat lower fold changes compared with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results confirmed the up-regulation of the urease genes in acidic environments, and also indicated the importance of metal ion regulation. This study shows that the MassARRAY technology is suitable for gene expression analysis in prokaryotes, and has advantages when a set of genes is being analysed for an organism exposed to many different environmental conditions. PMID:19445975

  7. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme finder (OAF: Fast and reliable detection of antizymes with frameshifts in mRNAs

    Atkins John F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ornithine decarboxylase antizymes are proteins which negatively regulate cellular polyamine levels via their affects on polyamine synthesis and cellular uptake. In virtually all organisms from yeast to mammals, antizymes are encoded by two partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs. A +1 frameshift between frames is required for the synthesis of antizyme. Ribosomes change translation phase at the end of the first ORF in response to stimulatory signals embedded in mRNA. Since standard sequence analysis pipelines are currently unable to recognise sites of programmed ribosomal frameshifting, proper detection of full length antizyme coding sequences (CDS requires conscientious manual evaluation by a human expert. The rapid growth of sequence information demands less laborious and more cost efficient solutions for this problem. This manuscript describes a rapid and accurate computer tool for antizyme CDS detection that requires minimal human involvement. Results We have developed a computer tool, OAF (ODC antizyme finder for identifying antizyme encoding sequences in spliced or intronless nucleic acid sequenes. OAF utilizes a combination of profile hidden Markov models (HMM built separately for the products of each open reading frame constituting the entire antizyme coding sequence. Profile HMMs are based on a set of 218 manually assembled antizyme sequences. To distinguish between antizyme paralogs and orthologs from major phyla, antizyme sequences were clustered into twelve groups and specific combinations of profile HMMs were designed for each group. OAF has been tested on the current version of dbEST, where it identified over six thousand Expressed Sequence Tags (EST sequences encoding antizyme proteins (over two thousand antizyme CDS in these ESTs are non redundant. Conclusion OAF performs well on raw EST sequences and mRNA sequences derived from genomic annotations. OAF will be used for the future updates of the RECODE

  8. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  9. A Role of AREB in the Regulation of PACC-Dependent Acid-Expressed-Genes and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Ment, Dana; Alkan, Noam; Luria, Neta; Bi, Fang-Cheng; Reuveni, Eli; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression regulation by pH in filamentous fungi and yeasts is controlled by the PACC/RIM101 transcription factor. In Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, PACC is known to act as positive regulator of alkaline-expressed genes, and this regulation was shown to contribute to fungal pathogenicity. PACC is also a negative regulator of acid-expressed genes, however; the mechanism of downregulation of acid-expressed genes by PACC and their contribution to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity is not well understood. RNA sequencing data analysis was employed to demonstrate that PACC transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are significantly overrepresented in the promoter of PACC-upregulated, alkaline-expressed genes. In contrast, they are not overrepresented in the PACC-downregulated, acid-expressed genes. Instead, acid-expressed genes showed overrepresentation of AREB GATA TFBS in C. gloeosporioides and in homologs of five other ascomycetes genomes. The areB promoter contains PACC TFBS; its transcript was upregulated at pH 7 and repressed in ΔpacC. Furthermore, acid-expressed genes were found to be constitutively upregulated in ΔareB during alkalizing conditions. The areB mutants showed significantly reduced ammonia secretion and pathogenicity on tomato fruit. Present results indicate that PACC activates areB expression, thereby conditionally repressing acid-expressed genes and contributing critically to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity. PMID:25317668

  10. Enzymatic and immunological studies of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in familial porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria.

    De Verneuil, H.; Beaumont, C; Deybach, J C; Nordmann, Y; Sfar, Z; Kastally, R

    1984-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity was measured in hemoglobin-free lysates from two patients with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) and from 12 unrelated patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). In HEP patients, enzyme activities were 5% of normal, and familial studies clearly confirmed that patients with HEP are cases of homozygous PCT. Immunoreactive uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase was measured by developing a direct and noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). For the 1...

  11. Expression cloning of a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter from rat kidney.

    Tate, S S; Yan, N; Udenfriend, S

    1992-01-01

    Uptake of long-chain and aromatic neutral amino acids into cells is known to be catalyzed by the Na(+)-independent system L transporter, which is ubiquitous in animal cells and tissues. We have used a Xenopus oocyte expression system to clone the cDNA of a system L transporter from a rat kidney cDNA library. The 2.3-kilobase cDNA codes for a protein of 683 amino acids. The transporter has four putative membrane-spanning domains and bears no sequence or structural homology to any known animal ...

  12. Lactobionic acid production by glucose–fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis expressed in Escherichia coli

    Goderska, Kamila; Juzwa, Wojciech; Szwengiel, Artur; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use the glucose–fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) from Zymomonas mobilis and expressed in Escherichia coli for lactobionic acid production by conversion of lactose from whey. Results The highest concentrations of lactobionic acid (3.2 mg ml−1) during oxidation of whey-derived lactose by E. coli was at 24 h. Introduction of GFOR gene from Z. mobilis, into E. coli improved enzyme yields compared to what is obtainable by fermentation of the donor strain. The production of lactobionic ...

  13. Cloning and expression of a deoxyribonucleic acid fragment that encodes for the adhesive antigen K99.

    Van Embden, J D; de Graaf, F K; Schouls, L M; Teppema, J S

    1980-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments of the naturally occurring conjugative K99 plasmid were cloned into vectors pBR322 and pBR325. The smallest deoxyribonucleic acid segment obtained that still expressed K99 was 4.5 megadaltons in size. With regard to the serological, adhesive, and morphological properties, no differences in the nature of the K99 antigen was observed between Escherichia coli strains carrying recombinant plasmids and those carrying pRI9901. Furthermore, the regulation of K99 expre...

  14. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  15. Expression of PPARα modifies fatty acid effects on insulin secretion in uncoupling protein-2 knockout mice

    Chan Catherine B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims/hypothesis In uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 knockout (KO mice, protection of beta cells from fatty acid exposure is dependent upon transcriptional events mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα. Methods PPARα expression was reduced in isolated islets from UCP2KO and wild-type (WT mice with siRNA for PPARα (siPPARα overnight. Some islets were also cultured with oleic or palmitic acid, then glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS was measured. Expression of genes was examined by quantitative RT-PCR or immunoblotting. PPARα activation was assessed by oligonucleotide consensus sequence binding. Results siPPARα treatment reduced PPARα protein expression in KO and WT islets by >85%. In siPPARα-treated UCP2KO islets, PA but not OA treatment significantly decreased the insulin response to 16.5 mM glucose. In WT islets, siPPARα treatment did not modify GSIS in PA and OA exposed groups. In WT islets, PA treatment significantly increased UCP2 mRNA and protein expression. Both PA and OA treatment significantly increased PPARα expression in UCP2KO and WT islets but OA treatment augmented PPARα protein expression only in UCP2KO islets (p Conclusion These data show that the negative effect of saturated fatty acid on GSIS is mediated by PPARα/UCP2. Knockout of UCP2 protects beta-cells from PA exposure. However, in the absence of both UCP2 and PPARα even a short exposure (24 h to PA significantly impairs GSIS.

  16. ASIC3, an acid-sensing ion channel, is expressed in metaboreceptive sensory neurons

    Fierro Leonardo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ASIC3, the most sensitive of the acid-sensing ion channels, depolarizes certain rat sensory neurons when lactic acid appears in the extracellular medium. Two functions have been proposed for it: 1 ASIC3 might trigger ischemic pain in heart and muscle; 2 it might contribute to some forms of touch mechanosensation. Here, we used immunocytochemistry, retrograde labelling, and electrophysiology to ask whether the distribution of ASIC3 in rat sensory neurons is consistent with either of these hypotheses. Results Less than half (40% of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons react with anti-ASIC3, and the population is heterogeneous. They vary widely in cell diameter and express different growth factor receptors: 68% express TrkA, the receptor for nerve growth factor, and 25% express TrkC, the NT3 growth factor receptor. Consistent with a role in muscle nociception, small ( Conclusion Our data indicates that: 1 ASIC3 is expressed in a restricted population of nociceptors and probably in some non-nociceptors; 2 co-expression of ASIC3 and CGRP, and the absence of P2X3, are distinguishing properties of a class of sensory neurons, some of which innervate blood vessels. We suggest that these latter afferents may be muscle metaboreceptors, neurons that sense the metabolic state of muscle and can trigger pain when there is insufficient oxygen.

  17. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy

    Natalia M. Bottasso Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs: intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs’ expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa.

  18. Expression Pattern of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Celiac Disease Enteropathy.

    Bottasso Arias, Natalia M; García, Marina; Bondar, Constanza; Guzman, Luciana; Redondo, Agustina; Chopita, Nestor; Córsico, Betina; Chirdo, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that develops in genetically susceptible individuals following exposure to dietary gluten. Severe changes at the intestinal mucosa observed in untreated CD patients are linked to changes in the level and in the pattern of expression of different genes. Fully differentiated epithelial cells express two isoforms of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs): intestinal and liver, IFABP and LFABP, respectively. These proteins bind and transport long chain fatty acids and also have other important biological roles in signaling pathways, particularly those related to PPARγ and inflammatory processes. Herein, we analyze the serum levels of IFABP and characterize the expression of both FABPs at protein and mRNA level in small intestinal mucosa in severe enteropathy and normal tissue. As a result, we observed higher levels of circulating IFABP in untreated CD patients compared with controls and patients on gluten-free diet. In duodenal mucosa a differential FABPs expression pattern was observed with a reduction in mRNA levels compared to controls explained by the epithelium loss in severe enteropathy. In conclusion, we report changes in FABPs' expression pattern in severe enteropathy. Consequently, there might be alterations in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory process in the small intestinal mucosa. PMID:26346822

  19. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  20. Structure and Function of 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate Decarboxylase and Its Cognate Activating Enzyme.

    Selvaraj, Brinda; Buckel, Wolfgang; Golding, Bernard T; Ullmann, G Matthias; Martins, Berta M

    2016-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (4Hpad) is the prototype of a new class of Fe-S cluster-dependent glycyl radical enzymes (Fe-S GREs) acting on aromatic compounds. The two-enzyme component system comprises a decarboxylase responsible for substrate conversion and a dedicated activating enzyme (4Hpad-AE). The decarboxylase uses a glycyl/thiyl radical dyad to convert 4-hydroxyphenylacetate into p-cresol (4-methylphenol) by a biologically unprecedented Kolbe-type decarboxylation. In addition to the radical dyad prosthetic group, the decarboxylase unit contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters coordinated by an extra small subunit of unknown function. 4Hpad-AE reductively cleaves S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or AdoMet) at a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster (RS cluster) generating a transient 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical that produces a stable glycyl radical in the decarboxylase by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom. 4Hpad-AE binds up to two auxiliary [4Fe-4S] clusters coordinated by a ferredoxin-like insert that is C-terminal to the RS cluster-binding motif. The ferredoxin-like domain with its two auxiliary clusters is not vital for SAM-dependent glycyl radical formation in the decarboxylase, but facilitates a longer lifetime for the radical. This review describes the 4Hpad and cognate AE families and focuses on the recent advances and open questions concerning the structure, function and mechanism of this novel Fe-S-dependent class of GREs. PMID:26959876

  1. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    Daniel Mihálik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v and 0%–1.53% (v/v from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat.

  2. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    The authors have measured the 13C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D2O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D2O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The 13C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the 13C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier

  3. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    Rosenberg, R.M.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1985-03-26

    The authors have measured the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier.

  4. Nucleotide variation at the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    Andrey Tatarenkov; Francisco J. Ayala

    2007-08-01

    We studied nucleotide sequence variation at the gene coding for dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) in seven populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Strength and pattern of linkage disequilibrium are somewhat distinct in the extensively sampled Spanish and Raleigh populations. In the Spanish population, a few sites are in strong positive association, whereas a large number of sites in the Raleigh population are associated nonrandomly but the association is not strong. Linkage disequilibrium analysis shows presence of two groups of haplotypes in the populations, each of which is fairly diverged, suggesting epistasis or inversion polymorphism. There is evidence of two forms of natural selection acting on Ddc. The McDonald–Kreitman test indicates a deficit of fixed amino acid differences between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, which may be due to negative selection. An excess of derived alleles at high frequency, significant according to the -test, is consistent with the effect of hitchhiking. The hitchhiking may have been caused by directional selection downstream of the locus studied, as suggested by a gradual decrease of the polymorphism-to-divergence ratio. Altogether, the Ddc locus exhibits a complicated pattern of variation apparently due to several evolutionary forces. Such a complex pattern may be a result of an unusually high density of functionally important genes.

  5. Oleic acid enhances G protein coupled receptor 43 expression in bovine intramuscular adipocytes but not in subcutaneous adipocytes.

    Chung, K Y; Smith, S B; Choi, S H; Johnson, B J

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that fatty acids would differentially affect G protein coupled receptor (GPR) 43 mRNA expression and GPR43 protein concentrations in bovine intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes. The GPR43 protein was detected in bovine liver, pancreas, and semimembranosus (MUS) muscle in samples taken at slaughter. Similarly, GPR43 protein levels were similar in IM adipose tissue and SM muscle but was barely detectable in SC adipose tissue. Primary cultures of IM and SC stromal vascular cells were isolated from bovine adipose tissues. Oleic acid (100 μ) stimulated PPARγ gene expression and decreased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression but had no effect on GPR43 gene expression, which was readily detectable in both IM and SC adipocytes. Differentiation cocktail (Diff; 10 μ insulin, 4 μ dexamethasone, and 10 μ ciglitizone) stimulated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and PPARγ gene expression in SC but not IM adipocytes, but Diff increased SCD gene expression in both cell types. Linoleic acid (10 µ) increased PPARγ gene expression relative to Diff cocktail in SC adipocytes, whereas linoleic acid and α-linolenic decreased SCD gene expression relative to control adipocytes and adipocytes incubated with Diff ( < 0.05). Increasing concentrations of oleic acid (1, 10, 100, and 500 μM) increased GPR43 protein and mRNA expression in IM but not SC adipocytes. These data indicated that oleic acid alters mRNA and protein concentrations of GPR43 in bovine IM adipocytes. PMID:27285685

  6. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  7. FGFR-4, a novel acidic fibroblast growth factor receptor with a distinct expression pattern.

    Partanen, J. (Joni); Mäkelä, T P; Eerola, E.; Korhonen, J; Hirvonen, H; Claesson-Welsh, L; Alitalo, K

    1991-01-01

    We have previously identified two novel members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene family expressed in K562 erythroleukemia cells. Here we report cDNA cloning and analysis of one of these genes, named FGFR-4. The deduced amino acid sequence of FGFR-4 is 55% identical with both previously characterized FGFRs, flg and bek, and has the structural characteristics of a FGFR family member including three immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular part. Antibodies raised agai...

  8. Bile Acids Induce Cdx2 Expression Through the Farnesoid X Receptor in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Xu, Yingji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies showed that the reflux of bile into the stomach contributes to the induction of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and gastric carcinogenesis. Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) plays a key role in the exhibition of intestinal phenotypes by regulating the expression of intestine-specific genes such as goblet-specific gene mucin 2 (MUC2). We investigated the involvement of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, in the chenodeoxycholic ...

  9. Curcumin alters expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin following chronic cerebral ischemia

    Peng Zhang; Tianping Yu; Xiong Zhang; Yu Li

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes can alter their appearance and become reactive following chronic cerebral ischemia. In the present study, a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia was treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg curcumin. Results showed that pathological changes of neuronal injury in hippocampal CA1 area of rats induced by chronic cerebral ischemia were attenuated, as well as upregulated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin, in a dose-dependent manner.

  10. Hepatic and renal Bcrp transporter expression in mice treated with perfluorooctanoic acid

    Eldasher, Lobna M.; Wen, Xia; Little, Michael S.; Bircsak, Kristin M.; Yacovino, Lindsay L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is an efflux transporter that participates in the biliary and renal excretion of drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent evidence suggests that pharmacological activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) can up-regulate the hepatic expression of Bcrp. The current study investigated the regulation of hepatic and renal Bcrp mRNA and protein in mice treated with the PPARα agonist perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the ab...

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) inhibits expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and fatty acid synthase genes and impairs the growth of human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells

    Donnelly, Christina; Olsen, Arne M.; Lewis, Lionel D; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Eastman, Alan; Kinlaw, William B

    2009-01-01

    Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Havartine and Bauman reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues, and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells, and that this will retard their growth. Ex...

  12. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress. PMID:25893616

  13. Gene Expression Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum Subjected to Long-Term Lactic Acid Adaptation▿ ¶

    Jakob, Kinga; Satorhelyi, Peter; Lange, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F.; Silakowski, Barbara; Scherer, Siegfried; Neuhaus, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacteria form an important part of the red smear cheese microbial surface consortium. To gain a better understanding of molecular adaptation due to low pH induced by lactose fermentation, the global gene expression profile of Corynebacterium glutamicum adapted to pH 5.7 with lactic acid under continuous growth in a chemostat was characterized by DNA microarray analysis. Expression of a total of 116 genes was increased and that of 90 genes was decreased compared to pH 7.5 without lactic acid, representing 7% of the genes in the genome. The up-regulated genes encode mainly transcriptional regulators, proteins responsible for export, import, and metabolism, and several proteins of unknown function. As much as 45% of the up-regulated open reading frames code for hypothetical proteins. These results were validated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To characterize the functions of 38 up-regulated genes, 36 single-crossover disruption mutants were generated and analyzed for their lactic acid sensitivities. However, only a sigB knockout mutant showed a highly significant negative effect on growth at low pH, suggesting a function in organic-acid adaptation. A sigE mutant already displayed growth retardation at neutral pH but grew better at acidic pH than the sigB mutant. The lack of acid-sensitive phenotypes in 34 out of 36 disrupted genes suggests either a considerable redundancy in acid adaptation response or coincidental effects. Other up-regulated genes included genes for ion transporters and metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate and respiratory metabolism. The enhanced expression of the nrd (ribonucleotide reductase) operon and a DNA ATPase repair protein implies a cellular response to combat acid-induced DNA damage. Surprisingly, multiple iron uptake systems (totaling 15% of the genes induced ≥2-fold) were induced at low pH. This induction was shown to be coincidental and could be attributed to iron-sequestering effects in complex media at low p

  14. Quinic acids from Aster caucasicus and from transgenic callus expressing a beta-amyrin synthase.

    Pecchia, Paola; Cammareri, Maria; Malafronte, Nicola; Consiglio, M Federica; Gualtieri, Maria Josefina; Conicella, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as the absence of triterpene saponins. To combine in one species the production of different phytochemicals, including triterpenes, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. caucasicus was set up to introduce A. sedifolius beta-amyrin synthase (AsOXA1)-encoding gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S. The quali-quantitative analysis of transgenic calli with ectopic expression of AsOXA1 showed, in one sample, a negligible amount of triterpene saponins combined with higher amount of quinic acid derivatives as compared with the wild type callus. PMID:22224284

  15. Genomewide expression analysis in amino acid-producing bacteria using DNA microarrays.

    Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an important research tool for biotechnology and microbiology. It is now possible to characterize genetic diversity and gene expression in a genomewide manner. DNA microarrays have been applied extensively to study the biology of many bacteria including Escherichia coli, but only recently have they been developed for the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. Both bacteria are widely used for biotechnological amino acid production. In this article, in addition to the design and generation of microarrays as well as their use in hybridization experiments and subsequent data analysis, we describe recent applications of DNA microarray technology regarding amino acid production in C. glutamicum and E. coli. We also discuss the impact of functional genomics studies on fundamental as well as applied aspects of amino acid production with C. glutamicum and E. coli. PMID:15304751

  16. Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase: genetic polymorphism and functional expression in vitro of amino acid variants

    Hassett, Christopher; Aicher, Lauri; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.

    2016-01-01

    Human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a biotransformation enzyme that metabolizes reactive epoxide intermediates to more water-soluble trans-dihydrodiol derivatives. We compared protein-coding sequences from six full-length human mEH DNA clones and assessed potential amino acid variation at seven positions. The prevalence of these variants was assessed in at least 37 unrelated individuals using polymerase chain reaction experiments. Only Tyr/His 113 (exon 3) and His/Arg 139 (exon 4) variants were observed. The genotype frequencies determined for residue 113 alleles indicate that this locus may not be in Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium, whereas frequencies observed for residue 139 alleles were similar to expected values. Nucleotide sequences coding for the variant amino acids were constructed in an mEH cDNA using site-directed mutagenesis, and each was expressed in vitro by transient transfection of COS-1 cells. Epoxide hydrolase mRNA level, catalytic activity, and immunoreactive protein were evaluated for each construct. The results of these analyses demonstrated relatively uniform levels of mEH RNA expression between the constructs. mEH enzymatic activity and immunoreactive protein were strongly correlated, indicating that mEH specific activity was similar for each variant. However, marked differences were noted in the relative amounts of immunoreactive protein and enzymatic activity resulting from the amino acid substitutions. These data suggest that common human mEH amino acid polymorphisms may alter enzymatic function, possibly by modifying protein stability. PMID:7516776

  17. Expression of Castor LPAT2 Enhances Ricinoleic Acid Content at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lesquerella Seed

    Grace Q. Chen; Harrie van Erp; Jose Martin-Moreno; Kumiko Johnson; Eva Morales; John Browse; Peter J. Eastmond; Jiann-Tsyh Lin

    2016-01-01

    Lesquerella is a potential industrial oilseed crop that makes hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). Unlike castor its seeds are not poisonous but accumulate lesquerolic acid mostly at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas castor contains ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) at all three positions. To investigate whether lesquerella can be engineered to accumulate HFAs in the sn-2 position, multiple transgenic lines were made that express castor lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 2 (RcLPAT2...

  18. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects can be induced by abnormal factors in vivo or in vitro during development. However, the molecular mechanisms of neural tube defect induction, and the related gene expression and regulation are still unknown.OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in gene expression between normal embryos and those with neural tube defects.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A neural development study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2006 and October 2007.MATERIALS: Among 120 adult Kunming mice, 60 pregnant mice were randomly and evenly divided into a retinoic acid group (n = 30) and a normal control group (n =30). The retinoic acid was produced by Sigma, USA, the gene microarray by the Amersham Pharmacia Company, Hong Kong, and the gene sequence was provided by the Incyte database, USA.METHODS: Retinoic acid was administered to prepare models of neural tube defects, and corn oil was similady administered to the normal control group. Total RNA was extracted from embryonic tissue of the two groups using a Trizol kit, and a cDNA microarray containing 1 100 known genes was used to compare differences in gene expression between the normal control group and the retinoic acid group on embryonic (E) clay 10.5 and 11.5. Several differentially expressed genes were randomly selected from the two groups for Northern blotting, to verify the results of the cDNA microarray.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Morphological changes and differential gene expression between the normal control group and the retinoic acid group.RESULTS: Anatomical microscopy demonstrated that an intact closure of the brain was formed in the normal mouse embryos by days E10.5 and E11.5. The cerebral appearance was full and smooth, and the surface of the spine was intact. However, in the retinoic acid group on days E10.5 and E11.5, there were more dead embryos. Morphological malformations typically included non-closure at the top of

  19. Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes

    2007-01-01

    Expression, protein stability and transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptors are affected by microtubules interfering agents and all-trans retinoic acid in primary rat hepatocytes CZECH REPUBLIC (Dvorak, Zdenek) CZECH REPUBLIC Received: 2006-08-22 Revised: 2006-11-16 Accepted: 2007-01-02

  20. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on gene expression of the critical enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism

    Huang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was negatively associated with plasma homocysteine (Hcy. Objective We investigated the regulatory effect of n-3 PUFA on mRNA expression of the critical genes encoding the enzymes involved in Hcy metabolism. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA respectively for 48 h. The cells were collected and total RNA was isolated. The mRNA expression levels of the genes were determined by using Real Time-PCR. Results Compared with controls, the mRNA expression levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR were significantly increased in the DHA group (p Conclusions Our results suggest that DHA up-regulates CSE and MTHFR mRNA expression and down-regulates MAT mRNA expression involved in Hcy metabolism.

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  2. Comparison of gene expression methods to identify genes responsive to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    Hu, Wenyue; Jones, Paul D; Decoen, Wim; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2005-01-01

    Genome-wide expression techniques are being increasingly used to assess the effects of environmental contaminants. Oligonucleotide or cDNA microarray methods make possible the screening of large numbers of known sequences for a given model species, while differential display analysis makes possible analysis of the expression of all the genes from any species. We report a comparison of two currently popular methods for genome-wide expression analysis in rat hepatoma cells treated with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. The two analyses provided 'complimentary' information. Approximately 5% of the 8000 genes analyzed by the GeneChip array, were altered by a factor of three or greater. Differential display results were more difficult to interpret, since multiple gene products were present in most gel bands so a probabilistic approach was used to determine which pathways were affected. The mechanistic interpretation derived from these two methods was in agreement, both showing similar alterations in a specific set of genes. PMID:21783471

  3. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment.

    Okito, Asuka; Nakahama, Ken-Ichi; Akiyama, Masako; Ono, Takashi; Morita, Ikuo

    2015-03-01

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. PMID:25668130

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

  5. The molecular mechanism of leptin secretion and expression induced by aristolochic acid in kidney fibroblast.

    Tsung-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin is a peptide hormone playing pivotal role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Growing evidence has suggested the pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of leptin. In addition, patients with renal fibrosis have higher level of plasma leptin, which was due to the increased leptin production. Aristolochic acid (AA is a botanical toxin characterized to associate with the development of renal fibrosis including tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, whether leptin is upregulated to participate in AA-induced kidney fibrosis remain completely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, leptin expression was increased by sublethal dose of AA in kidney fibroblast NRK49f determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Data from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that leptin was upregulated by AA at transcriptional level. DNA binding activity of CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP α, one of the transcription factors for leptin gene, was enhanced in DNA affinity precipitation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Knockdown of C/EBP α expression by small interfering RNA markedly reduced AA-induced leptin expression. Moreover, AA promoted Akt interaction with p-PDK1, and increased phosphorylated activation of Akt. Akt knockdown, and inhibition of Akt signaling by LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced leptin expression. Furthermore, treatment of LY294002 or rapamycin significantly suppressed AA-induced C/EBP α DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that Akt and C/EBP α activation were involved in AA-regulated leptin expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the first that AA could induce secretion and expression of fibrogenic leptin in kidney fibroblasts, which reveal potential involvement of leptin in the progression of kidney fibrosis in aristolochic acid nephropathy.

  6. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPARβ/δ antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway

  7. Uric acid stimulates endothelin-1 gene expression associated with NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Hung-hsing CHAO; Ju-chi LIU; Jia-wei LIN; Cheng-hsien CHEN; Chieh-hsi WU; Tzu-hurng CHENG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Recent experimental and human studies have shown that hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Elevated levels of endotheliu-1 (ET-1) has been regarded as one of the most powerful indepen-dent predictors of cardiovascular diseases. For investigating whether uric acidinduced vascular diseases are related to ET-1, the uric acid-induced ET-1 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) was examined. Methods: Cultured HASMC treated with uric acid, cell proliferation and ET-1 expression were examined. Antioxidant pretreatments on uric acid-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation were carried out to elucidate the redox-sensitive pathway in proliferation and ET-1 gene expression. Results: Uric acid was found to increase HASMC proliferation, ET-1 expression and reactive oxygen species production. The ability of both N-acetylcysteine and apocynin (1-[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]ethanone, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor) to inhibit uric acid-induced ET-1 secretion and cell proliferation suggested the involvement of intracellular redox pathways. Furthermore, apocynin, and p47phox small interfering RNA knockdown inhibited ET-1 secretion and cell proliferation induced by uric acid. Inhibition of ERK by U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene) significantly suppressed uric acid-induced ET-I expression, implicating this pathway in the response to uric acid. In addition, uric acid increased the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) medi-ated reporter activity, as well as the ERK phosphorylation. Mutational analysis of the ET-1 gene promoter showed that the AP-1 binding site was an important cis-element in uric acid-induced ET-1 gene expression. Conclusion: This is the first observation of ET-1 regulation by uric acid in HASMC, which implicates the important role of uric acid in the vascular changes associated with hypertension and vascular diseases.

  8. Aminoaciduria and altered renal expression of luminal amino acid transporters in mice lacking novel gene collectrin.

    Malakauskas, Sandra M; Quan, Hui; Fields, Timothy A; McCall, Shannon J; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Kourany, Wissam M; Frey, Campbell W; Le, Thu H

    2007-02-01

    Defects in renal proximal tubule transport manifest in a number of human diseases. Although variable in clinical presentation, disorders such as Hartnup disease, Dent's disease, and Fanconi syndrome are characterized by wasting of solutes commonly recovered by the proximal tubule. One common feature of these disorders is aminoaciduria. There are distinct classes of amino acid transporters located in the apical and basal membranes of the proximal tubules that reabsorb >95% of filtered amino acids, yet few details are known about their regulation. We present our physiological characterization of a mouse line with targeted deletion of the gene collectrin that is highly expressed in the kidney. Collectrin-deficient mice display a reduced urinary concentrating capacity due to enhanced solute clearance resulting from profound aminoaciduria. The aminoaciduria is generalized, characterized by loss of nearly every amino acid, and results in marked crystalluria. Furthermore, in the kidney, collectrin-deficient mice have decreased plasma membrane populations of amino acid transporter subtypes B(0)AT1, rBAT, and b(0,+)AT, as well as altered cellular distribution of EAAC1. Our data suggest that collectrin is a novel mediator of renal amino acid transport and may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of a number of human disease correlates. PMID:16985211

  9. Amiloride inhibits rat mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis

    Refeeding fasted rats induces a dramatic trophic response in gastrointestinal mucosa and is associated with elevations in both rate of DNA synthesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The signal for these increases is unknown. Amiloride prevents cell alkalinization by blocking Na+-H+ exchange at apical epithelial cell membranes. In study 1, rats were fasted 48 h, treated with amiloride (0.5 to 500 mg/kg), and refed for 4 h. Refeeding increased ODC activities in the jejunal mucosa (X8) and liver (X19) but not in the oxyntic gland mucosa. In the jejunum, but not the liver, the activation of ODC was completely abolished by 100 mg/kg amiloride. In study 2, the rate of DNA synthesis was determine by measuring the rate of [3H]thymidine incorporation 16 h after refeeding. Refeeding resulted in significantly increased rates of DNA synthesis over fasted levels, and amiloride at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevations in the jejenum and liver. In conclusion, amiloride inhibits the postprandial increases in jejunal ODC activity and DNA synthesis in the jejunum and liver. The results indicate that (1) the Na+-H+ antiport is essential to the increased ODC activity in the jejunum and liver after a meal and (2) increases in DNA synthesis and their suppression by amiloride are not necessary linked to ODC activity

  10. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition

  11. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    Okito, Asuka [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Masako [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Takashi [Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  12. Effects of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Phytanic Acid and the Combination of Various Fatty Acids on Proliferation and Cytokine Expression of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids may have an impact on immune functions, which is important in times of increased mobilization of body fat, e.g., around parturition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the CLA isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, phytanic acid (PA, linoleic acid (LA and a fatty acid (FA mixture (containing 29.8% palmitic acid, 6.7% palmitoleic acid, 17.4% stearic acid and 46.1% oleic acid on the proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in vitro using alamar blue (AB and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ in response to cis-9,trans-11 and LA. The IC50 values did not differ between the investigated FA, but there were differences within the proliferation in the response of these FA in a concentration range between 20 and 148 µM (e.g., increased proliferation after treatment with lower concentrations of LA. No differences occurred when different FA combinations were tested. ConA stimulation increased the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ, whereas IL-10 decreased. In general, neither the baseline expression nor the ConA-stimulated mRNA expression of cytokines and PPAR-γ were affected by the FA. In conclusion, all FA inhibit the proliferation of PBMC dose dependently without significantly altering the induced cytokine spectrum of activated bovine PBMC.

  13. Effect of estrogen on gene expression of fatty acid synthase in periosteum

    ZHENG Rui-min; LIN Shou-qing; LIU Yong; HUANG Man-ting; GONG Wei-yan; WU Zhi-hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Estrogen deficiency contributes to postmenopausal osteoporosis.Periosteum might be a potential target of estrogen,but the underlying mechanism at gene level is far from being elucidated.The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between estrogen and fatty acid synthase(FAS)expression in periosteum.Methods Human periosteum cells were cultured in vitro.Expressed genes in the substrated cDNA library were verified using semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR.The expression of FAS in periosteum of ovarectomized(OVX)SD rats was investigated.Results FAS gene was most significantly expressed in the subtracted cDNA library of periosteal cells screened by semi-quantitative PCR.Low FAS expression was verified by real-time PCR in the estrogen exposed human periosteum rather than in the control.The estradiol levels were(20.81±12.62)pg/ml,(19.64±4.35)pg/ml and(13.47+1.84)pg/ml in the sham group,the control,and the OVX group,respectively.The estradiol levels in the OVX group was significantly lower(P=0.0386).The FAS gene expression in periosteum in the OVX group,sham group,and control group was 3.09±1.97,1.33±0.47 and 1.51±1.32,respectively.The gene expression in the OVX group was significantly higher (P=0.0372).Conclusion Estrogen modulates FAS gene expression in in vitro human perisoteum as well as in in vivo rat periosteum.

  14. Spinal afferent neurons projecting to the rat lung and pleura express acid sensitive channels

    Kummer Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid sensitive ion channels TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 and ASIC3 (acid sensing ion channel-3 respond to tissue acidification in the range that occurs during painful conditions such as inflammation and ischemia. Here, we investigated to which extent they are expressed by rat dorsal root ganglion neurons projecting to lung and pleura, respectively. Methods The tracer DiI was either injected into the left lung or applied to the costal pleura. Retrogradely labelled dorsal root ganglion neurons were subjected to triple-labelling immunohistochemistry using antisera against TRPV1, ASIC3 and neurofilament 68 (marker for myelinated neurons, and their soma diameter was measured. Results Whereas 22% of pulmonary spinal afferents contained neither channel-immunoreactivity, at least one is expressed by 97% of pleural afferents. TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons with probably slow conduction velocity (small soma, neurofilament 68-negative were significantly more frequent among pleural (35% than pulmonary afferents (20%. TRPV1+/ASIC3+ neurons amounted to 14 and 10% respectively. TRPV1-/ASIC3+ neurons made up between 44% (lung and 48% (pleura of neurons, and half of them presumably conducted in the A-fibre range (larger soma, neurofilament 68-positive. Conclusion Rat pleural and pulmonary spinal afferents express at least two different acid-sensitive channels that make them suitable to monitor tissue acidification. Patterns of co-expression and structural markers define neuronal subgroups that can be inferred to subserve different functions and may initiate specific reflex responses. The higher prevalence of TRPV1+/ASIC3- neurons among pleural afferents probably reflects the high sensitivity of the parietal pleura to painful stimuli.

  15. Expression of genes controlling unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis and oil deposition in developing seeds of Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.).

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-10-01

    Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L., Euphorbiaceae) seed oil is rich in α-linolenic acid, a kind of n-3 fatty acids with many health benefits. To discover the mechanism underlying α-linolenic acid accumulation in sacha inchi seeds, preliminary research on sacha inchi seed development was carried out from one week after fertilization until maturity, focusing on phenology, oil content, and lipid profiles. The results suggested that the development of sacha inchi seeds from pollination to mature seed could be divided into three periods. In addition, investigations on the effect of temperature on sacha inchi seeds showed that total oil content decreased in the cool season, while unsaturated fatty acid and linolenic acid concentrations increased. In parallel, expression profiles of 17 unsaturated fatty acid related genes were characterized during seed development and the relationships between gene expression and lipid/unsaturated fatty acid accumulation were discussed. PMID:25119487

  16. A polymorphic (GA/CT)n- SSR influences promoter activity of Tryptophan decarboxylase gene in Catharanthus roseus L. Don.

    Kumar, Santosh; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) of polypurine-polypyrimidine type motifs occur very frequently in the 5' flanks of genes in plants and have recently been implicated to have a role in regulation of gene expression. In this study, 2 accessions of Catharanthus roseus having (CT)8 and (CT)21 varying motifs in the 5'UTR of Tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) gene, were investigated for its role in regulation of gene expression. Extensive Tdc gene expression analysis in the 2 accessions was carried out both at the level of transcription and translation. Transcript abundance was estimated using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR, whereas the rate of Tdc gene transcription was assessed using in-situ nuclear run-on transcription assay. Translation status of Tdc gene was monitored by quantification of polysome associated Tdc mRNA using qRT-PCR. These observations were validated through transient expression analysis using the fusion construct [CaM35S:(CT)8-21:GUS]. Our study demonstrated that not only does the length of (CT)n -SSRs influences the promoter activity, but the presence of SSRs per se in the 5'-UTR significantly enhances the level of gene expression. We termed this phenomenon as "microsatellite mediated enhancement" (MME) of gene expression. Results presented here will provide leads for engineering plants with enhanced amounts of medicinally important alkaloids. PMID:27623355

  17. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids upregulate expression of FADS3 transcripts.

    Reardon, Holly T; Hsieh, Andrea T; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Anthony, Joshua C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family at 11q12-13.1 includes FADS1 and FADS2, both known to mediate biosynthesis of omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). FADS3 is a putative desaturase due to its sequence similarity with FADS1 and FADS2, but its function is unknown. We have previously described 7 FADS3 alternative transcripts (AT) and 1 FADS2 AT conserved across multiple species. This study examined the effect of dietary LCPUFA levels on liver FADS gene expression in vivo and in vitro, evaluated by qRT-PCR. Fourteen baboon neonates were randomized to three diet groups for their first 12 weeks of life, C: Control, no LCPUFA, L: 0.33% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/0.67% arachidonic acid (ARA) (w/w); and L3: 1.00% DHA/0.67% ARA (w/w). Liver FADS1 and both FADS2 transcripts were downregulated by at least 50% in the L3 group compared to controls. In contrast, FADS3 AT were upregulated (L3 > C), with four transcripts significantly upregulated by 40% or more. However, there was no evidence for a shift in liver fatty acids to coincide with increased FADS3 expression. Significant upregulation of FADS3 AT was also observed in human liver-derived HepG2 cells after DHA or ARA treatment. The PPARγ antagonist GW9662 prevented FADS3 upregulation, while downregulation of FADS1 and FADS2 was unaffected. Thus, FADS3 AT were directly upregulated by LCPUFA by a PPARγ-dependent mechanism unrelated to regulation of other desaturases. This opposing pattern and mechanism of regulation suggests a dissimilar function for FADS3 AT compared to other FADS gene products. PMID:22398025

  18. Role of miR-511 in the Regulation of OATP1B1 Expression by Free Fatty Acid

    Peng, Jin Fu; Liu, Li; Guo, Cheng Xian; Liu, Shi Kun; Chen, Xiao Ping; Huang, Li Hua; Xiang, Hong; Huang, Zhi Jun; Yuan, Hong; Yang, Guo Ping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNA that are able to adjust the expression of many proteins, including ATP-binding cassette transporter and organic cation transporter. We sought to evaluate the effect of miR-511 on the regulation of OATP1B1 expression by free fatty acids. When using free fatty acids to stimulate Chang liver cells, we found that the expression of miR-511 increased significantly while the expression of OATP1B1 decreased. We also proved that SLCO1B1 is the target g...

  19. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (−1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease

    ÇOKER-GÜRKAN, AJDA; Arisan, Serdar; ARISAN, ELIF DAMLA; ÜNSAL, NARÇIN PALAVAN

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ...

  20. Enhancement of ganoderic acid production by constitutively expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Li, Huan-Jun; He, Yi-Long; Zhang, De-Huai; Yue, Tong-Hui; Jiang, Lu-Xi; Li, Na; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-06-10

    The Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene was expressed in Ganoderma lucidum to enhance antitumor ganoderic acid (GA) production. The effects of VHb expression on the accumulation of GAs and lanosterol (intermediate) and the transcription of GA biosynthesis genes were also investigated. In VHb-expressing G. lucidum, the maximum concentrations of four individual GAs (GA-S, GA-T, GA-Mk and GA-Me) were 19.1±1.8, 34.6±2.1, 191.5±13.1 and 45.2±2.8μg/100mg dry weight, respectively, which were 1.4-, 2.2, 1.9- and 2.0-fold higher than those obtained in the wild-type strain. Moreover, the maximum lanosterol concentration in the strain expressing VHb was 1.28-fold lower than that in the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, squalene synthase, and lanosterol synthase genes were up-regulated by 1.6-, 1.5-, and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the strain expressing VHb. This work is beneficial in developing an efficient fermentation process for the hyperproduction of GAs. PMID:27080449

  1. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    Chun-Juan Dong

    Full Text Available Fatty acid desaturases (FADs introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber.

  2. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  3. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  4. Transport of D-serine via the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) expressed in the colon.

    Hatanaka, Takahiro; Huang, Wei; Nakanishi, Takeo; Bridges, Christy C; Smith, Sylvia B; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Malliga E; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2002-02-22

    D-Serine, synthesized endogenously in the brain, is an important modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Since colonic bacteria produce D-serine, we asked the question whether there are transport mechanisms in the colon that might make this exogenously produced D-serine available to the host. Here we identify for the first time an amino acid transporter in the intestine for high-affinity active transport of D-serine. This transporter, called ATB(0,+), is a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transporter for L-enantiomers of neutral and cationic amino acids. Here we demonstrate that ATB(0,+) is also capable of mediating the Na(+)- and Cl(-)-coupled transport of D-serine. The affinity of ATB(0,+) for L-serine and D-serine is similar, the K(t) value for the two enantiomers being approximately 150 microM. In addition to D-serine, ATB(0,+) transports D-alanine, D-methionine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan. However, several other neutral and cationic amino acids that are transportable substrates for ATB(0,+) as L-enantiomers are not transported when presented as D-enantiomers. ATB(0,+) is expressed in the intestinal tract, interestingly not in the proximal intestine but in the distal intestine. Expression is most predominant in the colon where the transporter is localized to the luminal membrane of colonocytes, making this transporter uniquely suitable for absorption of bacteria-derived D-serine. PMID:11846403

  5. Expression, purification and crystallization of an atypical class C acid phosphatase from Mycoplasma bovis

    Methods for the expression, purification and crystallization of the class C acid phosphatase from M. bovis are reported. This enzyme is atypical in that it is nearly 20 kDa larger than other known class C acid phosphatases. Class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs) are 25–30 kDa bacterial surface proteins that are thought to function as broad-specificity 5′,3′-nucleotidases. Analysis of the newly published complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma bovis PG45 revealed a putative CCAP with a molecular weight of 49.9 kDa. The expression, purification and crystallization of this new family member are described here. Standard purification procedures involving immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography yielded highly pure and crystallizable protein. Crystals were grown in sitting drops at room temperature in the presence of PEG 3350 and HEPES buffer pH 7.5 and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Analysis of diffraction data suggested a primitive monoclinic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 101, c = 180 Å, β = 92°. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain six molecules, which are likely to be arranged as three dimers

  6. Inhibitory Activity of the Flower Buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against Histamine Production and L-Histidine Decarboxylase in Human Keratinocytes

    Yoshihiro Inami; Yuko Matsui; Tomoko Hoshino; Chiaki Murayama; Hisayoshi Norimoto

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies we found that anionic surfactants such as sodium laurate (SL) and/or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) exert actions on epidermal keratinocytes rather than mast cells to give rise of histamine production and skin itching through increasing the expression of the 53-kDa active form of l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC). In addition, with treatment of SL in a three-dimensional human keratinocyte culture, increases in both the 53-kDa HDC and histamine production are detected and thus t...

  7. Glutamine, glutamate, and arginine-based acid resistance in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Teixeira, Januana S; Seeras, Arisha; Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Zhang, Chonggang; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine whether glutamine deamidation improves acid resistance of Lactobacillus reuteri, and to assess whether arginine, glutamine, and glutamate-mediated acid resistance are redundant or complementary mechanisms of acid resistance. Three putative glutaminase genes, gls1, gls2, and gls3, were identified in L. reuteri 100-23. All three genes were expressed during growth in mMRS and wheat sourdough. L. reuteri consistently over-expressed gls3 and the glutamate decarboxylase gadB. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB over-expressed gls3 and the arginine deiminase gene adi. Analysis of the survival of L. reuteri in acidic conditions revealed that arginine conversion is effective at pH of 3.5 while glutamine or glutamate conversion were effective at pH of 2.5. Arginine conversion increased the pHin but not ΔΨ; glutamate decarboxylation had only a minor effect on the pHin but increased the ΔΨ. This study demonstrates that glutamine deamidation increases the acid resistance of L. reuteri independent of glutamate decarboxylase activity. Arginine and glutamine/glutamate conversions confer resistance to lactate at pH of 3.5 and phosphate at pH of 2.5, respectively. Knowledge of L. reuteri's acid resistance improves the understanding of the adaptation of L. reuteri to intestinal ecosystems, and facilitates the selection of probiotic and starter cultures. PMID:24929734

  8. Inhibitory effect of synthetic small interfering RNAs on glial fibrillary acidic expression in astrocytes

    Mingzhu Zhang; Qing Zhao; Xin Tang; Guangrong Yu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression highly correlates with spinal glial scar formation, and is regarded as an important target for scar therapy. Efficient inhibition of expression could benefit recovery from spinal cord injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effects of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) on astrocytie GFAP expression in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment at the cellular and molecular level was performed at the First Hospital of Dalian Medical University between June 2005 and February 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 100 seven-day-old, Sprague Dawley rats were selected. GAPDH siRNA was purchased from Ambion, USA, And TransMessengerTM Transfection Reagent from DAKO, Carpinteria, CA. METHODS: Rat astrocytes were isolated and cultured. Three pairs of 21-nucleotide (nt) siRNAs specific to rats GFAP mRNA, 401,404 and 854, were synthesized and transfected in primary astrocytes at 1, 2, 3, and 4 g/L using TransMessengerTM Transfection Reagent. Non-transfected astrocytes served as the blank group. Cells transfected with siRNA were regarded as the negative control group, with GAPDH siRNA as the positive control group, and 401 siRNA, 404 siRNA, and 854 siRNA as experimental groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GFAP mRNA and protein expression were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, at 24, 48, and 72 hours of culture. RESULTS: GFAP mRNA expression in the positive control group was significantly less than the negative control group (P0.05). GFAP protein expression was remarkably less in siRNA-transfected astroeytes compared to the blank control (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Transfected siRNAs could significantly inhibit GFAP gene expression in astrocytes after 72 hours in culture.

  9. Ornithine decarboxylase as an early indicator of in vitro hepatocyte DNA synthesis

    The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, one of the key enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis, catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to give putrescine. The activity of this enzyme in an in vitro hepatocyte culture assay system was measured because it is known that ornithine decarboxylase levels increase in instances where active protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, and cell growth is initiated. A good correlation was found between ornithine decarboxylase activity and the rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatocyte DNA. The increase in enzyme activity precedes the incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA (enzyme activity increases 2-3 hr following stimulation of cell growth; whereas the tritiated thymidine uptake increases at about 14-18 hr). Experimental results obtained with this assay system, suggest that hepatocytes from the regenerating liver remnant, grown in vitro, secrete a factor(s) into the culture medium which stimulates DNA synthesis of normal hepatocytes. Use of the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity in this hepatocyte monolayer culture system confirmed the observation made by several investigators: that the serum of rats which underwent partial hepatectomy contains a factor(s) which stimulates hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vitro. In conclusion, these results suggest that ornithine decarboxylase activity can be used as a sensitive, early indicator of the degree of stimulation of hepatocyte DNA synthesis and thus be of use in determining the effect of various trophic factors on hepatocyte DNA synthesis in vitro

  10. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  11. Retinoic acid reduces human neuroblastoma cell migration and invasiveness: effects on DCX, LIS1, neurofilaments-68 and vimentin expression

    Neuroblastoma is a severe pediatric tumor, histologically characterised by a variety of cellular phenotypes. One of the pharmacological approaches to neuroblastoma is the treatment with retinoic acid. The mechanism of action of retinoic acid is still unclear, and the development of resistance to this differentiating agent is a great therapy problem. Doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a molecular marker for the detection of minimal residual disease in human neuroblastoma. Nevertheless, no information is available on the expression of doublecortin in the different cell-types composing human neuroblastoma, its correlation with neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, and the possible modulations exerted by retinoic acid treatment. We analysed by immunofluorescence and by Western blot analysis the presence of doublecortin, lissencephaly-1 (another protein involved in neuronal migration) and of two intermediate filaments proteins, vimentin and neurofilament-68, in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cell line both in control conditions and under retinoic acid treatment. Migration and cell invasiveness studies were performed by wound scratch test and a modified microchemotaxis assay, respectively. Doublecortin is expressed in two cell subtypes considered to be the more aggressive and that show high migration capability and invasiveness. Vimentin expression is excluded by these cells, while lissencephaly-1 and neurofilaments-68 are immunodetected in all the cell subtypes of the SK-N-SH cell line. Treatment with retinoic acid reduces cell migration and invasiveness, down regulates doublecortin and lissencephaly-1 expression and up regulates neurofilament-68 expression. However, some cells that escape from retinoic acid action maintain migration capability and invasiveness and express doublecortin. a) Doublecortin is expressed in human neuroblastoma cells that show high motility and invasiveness; b

  12. Expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in developing endosperm of Jatropha curcas

    Gu Keyu; Yi Chengxin; Tian Dongsheng; Sangha Jatinder; Hong Yan; Yin Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Temporal and spatial expression of fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes are associated with the accumulation of storage lipids in the seeds of oil plants. In jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a potential biofuel plant, the storage lipids are mainly synthesized and accumulated in the endosperm of seeds. Although the fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic genes in jatropha have been identified, the expression of these genes at different developing stages of endosperm has not been...

  13. Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis

    Ikuo Morita

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, are known to protect against inflammation-induced bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis. We previously reported that DHA, not EPA, inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL in vitro. In this study, we performed gene expression analysis using microarrays to identify genes affected by the DHA treatment during osteoclastogenesis. DHA strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at the late stage. Among the genes upregulated by the sRANKL treatment, 4779 genes were downregulated by DHA and upregulated by the EPA treatment. Gene ontology analysis identified sets of genes related to cell motility, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling and cell morphogenesis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that DC-STAMP, an essential gene for the cell fusion process in osteoclastogenesis, and other osteoclast-related genes, such as Siglec-15, Tspan7 and Mst1r, were inhibited by DHA.

  14. Expression of Vibrio harveyi Acyl-ACP Synthetase Allows Efficient Entry of Exogenous Fatty Acids into the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid and Lipid A Synthetic Pathways

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Campbell, John W.; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously-supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function. PMID:20028080

  15. Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.

    Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-09-15

    The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3μM while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

  16. Are Gene Expression Microarray Analyses Reliable? A Review of Studies of Retinoic Acid Responsive Genes

    Peter J. van der Spek; Andreas Kremer; Lynn Murry; Michael G. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Microarray analyses of gene expression are widely used, but reports of the same analyses by different groups give widely divergent results, and raise questions regarding reproducibility and reliability. We take as an example recent published reports on microarray experiments that were designed to identify retinoic acid responsive genes. These reports show substantial differences in their results. In this article, we review the methodology, results, and potential causes of differences in these applications of microarrays. Finally, we suggest practices to improve the reliability and reproducibility of microarray experiments.

  17. Are Gene Expression Microarray Analyses Reliable? A Review of Studies of Retinoic Acid Responsive Genes

    PeterJ.vanderSpek; AndreasKremer; LynnMurry; MichaelG.Walker

    2003-01-01

    Microarray analyses of gene expression are widely used,but reports of the same analyses by different groups give widely divergent results,and raise questions regarding reproducibility and reliability.We take as an example recent published reports on microarray experiments that were designed to identify retinoic acid responsive genes.These reports show substantial differences in their results.In this article,we review the methodology,results,and potential causes of differences in these applications of microarrays.Finally,we suggest practices to improve the reliability and reproducibility of microarray experiments.

  18. Induction of liver alpha-1 acid glycoprotein gene expression involves both positive and negative transcription factors.

    Y. M. Lee; Tsai, W H; Lai, M Y; Chen, D S; Lee, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene is liver specific and acute phase responsive. Within the 180-bp region of the AGP promoter, at least five cis elements have been found to interact with trans-acting factors. Four of these elements (A, C, D, and E) interacted with AGP/EBP, a liver-enriched transcription factor, as shown by footprinting analysis and by an anti-AGP/EBP antibody-induced supershift in a gel retardation assay. Modification of these sites by site-directed mutage...

  19. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'. PMID:25576355

  20. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  1. Analysis of a 30 kbp plasmid encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus halophilus isolated from fish sauce.

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Takahashi, Miwako; Yano, Yutaka

    2008-08-15

    In order to analyze the genes related to the histamine production, a strain of histamine producing halophilic bacteria, referred to as strain H, was isolated using enrichment culture and dilution-to-extinction methods with histidine broth inoculated from the fish sauce mashes. The two Japanese fish sauce mashes used, accumulate over 1000 mg/l of histamine. Phenotypic and 16 S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified strain H as Tetragenococcus halophilus, the predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR and Southern blot) of the histamine producing strain confirmed that the strain harbored a 30 kbp plasmid (pHDC) encoding a single copy of the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc). A comparison of hdcA that is a structural gene of histidine decarboxylase among strain H, Lactobacillus hilgardii 0006, L. sakei LTH2076, Oenococcus oeni 9204, T. halophilus and T. muriaticus JCM10006 (T) indicated >99% sequence similarity. The hdc gene cluster consisted of 4 ORFs, hdcP, hdcA, hdcB, and hdcRS, and were almost identical to that of L. hilgardii 0006 with 99% sequence similarity including the structural hdc spacer region. However, the approximately 500 bp regions upstream and downstream of the hdc gene were different between that of strain H and L. hilgardii 0006. The complete sequence of pHDC revealed 29,924 nucleotides including 28 ORFs, two pairs of IR (inverted repeat), similar sequence of plasmid conjugative elements, and a theta-type replicon. These results suggested that hdc could be encoded on transformable elements among lactic acid bacteria. PMID:18573560

  2. Expression of tropodithietic acid biosynthesis is controlled by a novel autoinducer.

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2010-09-01

    The interactions between marine prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are crucial to many biological and biogeochemical processes in the oceans. Often the interactions are mutualistic, as in the symbiosis between phytoplankton, e.g., the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the Roseobacter taxonomic lineage. It is hypothesized that an important component of this symbiosis is bacterial production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), a biologically active tropolone compound whose synthesis requires the expression of tdaABCDEF (tdaA-F), as well as six additional genes (cysI, malY, paaIJK, and tdaH). The factors controlling tda gene expression are not known, although growth in laboratory standing liquid cultures drastically increases TDA levels. In this report, we measured the transcription of tda genes to gain a greater understanding of the factors controlling their expression. While the expression of tdaAB was constitutive, tdaCDE and tdaF mRNA increased significantly (3.7- and 17.4-fold, respectively) when cells were grown in standing liquid broth compared to their levels with shaking liquid culturing. No transcription of tdaC was detected when a tdaCp::lacZ transcriptional fusion was placed in 11 of the 12 Tda(-) mutant backgrounds, with cysI being the sole exception. The expression of tdaC could be restored to 9 of the remaining 11 Tda(-) mutants-tdaA and tdaH failed to respond-by placing wild-type (Tda(+)) strains in close proximity or by supplying exogenous TDA to the mutant, suggesting that TDA induces tda gene expression. These results indicate that TDA acts as an autoinducer of its own synthesis and suggest that roseobacters may use TDA as a quorum signal. PMID:20601479

  3. Expression of Tropodithietic Acid Biosynthesis Is Controlled by a Novel Autoinducer▿ †

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The interactions between marine prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are crucial to many biological and biogeochemical processes in the oceans. Often the interactions are mutualistic, as in the symbiosis between phytoplankton, e.g., the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the Roseobacter taxonomic lineage. It is hypothesized that an important component of this symbiosis is bacterial production of tropodithietic acid (TDA), a biologically active tropolone compound whose synthesis requires the expression of tdaABCDEF (tdaA-F), as well as six additional genes (cysI, malY, paaIJK, and tdaH). The factors controlling tda gene expression are not known, although growth in laboratory standing liquid cultures drastically increases TDA levels. In this report, we measured the transcription of tda genes to gain a greater understanding of the factors controlling their expression. While the expression of tdaAB was constitutive, tdaCDE and tdaF mRNA increased significantly (3.7- and 17.4-fold, respectively) when cells were grown in standing liquid broth compared to their levels with shaking liquid culturing. No transcription of tdaC was detected when a tdaCp::lacZ transcriptional fusion was placed in 11 of the 12 Tda− mutant backgrounds, with cysI being the sole exception. The expression of tdaC could be restored to 9 of the remaining 11 Tda− mutants—tdaA and tdaH failed to respond—by placing wild-type (Tda+) strains in close proximity or by supplying exogenous TDA to the mutant, suggesting that TDA induces tda gene expression. These results indicate that TDA acts as an autoinducer of its own synthesis and suggest that roseobacters may use TDA as a quorum signal. PMID:20601479

  4. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Restores Estrogen Reduced-cTnI Expression in Neonatal Hearts of Mice.

    Peng, Chang; Luo, Xiaomei; Xing, Qianlu; Sun, Huichao; Huang, Xupei

    2016-10-01

    Diastolic cardiac dysfunction can be caused by abnormality in cTnI expression during cardiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen on the abnormal expression of cTnI in the hearts of neonatal mice and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. We then evaluated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a HDAC inhibitor, as a new target treatment of diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Postnatal day 0.5 C57BL/6 mice were injected with estrogen for 1 week, then the hearts of 7-day-old neonatal mice were retrieved for examination. The activities of HDAC and HAT were assayed by colorimetry, and the interaction of cTnI with HDAC5 in mice hearts were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of cTnI was tested by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Estrogen treated groups displayed a significantly increased HDAC activity in the hearts of neonatal mice while HAT activity remained unchanged. Additionally, HDAC5 was higher at the cTnI promoter, as compared to the saline treated control groups. The acetylation of histone H3K9ac on cTnI promoter significantly decreased in the hearts of neonatal mice treated with estrogen, and the expression of cTnI at transcriptional and protein levels also decreased. SAHA was shown to increase the acetylation of histone H3K9ac and upregulate the expression of cTnI. The data demonstrated that SAHA can correct cTnI expression abnormality caused by estrogen through inhibiting the binding of HDAC5 to the promoter of cTnI. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2377-2384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27379430

  5. Differential microRNA expression in aristolochic acid-induced upper urothelial tract cancers ex vivo.

    Tao, Le; Zeng, Yigang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zhihong; Shen, Bing; Ge, Jifu; Liu, Yong; Guo, Yifeng; Qiu, Jianxin

    2015-11-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic and nephrotoxic compound commonly isolated from members of the plant family of Aristolochiaceae (such as Aristolochia and Asarum) and used in Chinese herbal medicine. Use of AA and AA‑containing plants causes chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urinary tract carcinoma (UUC); however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. miRNAs regulate a number of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. This study explored differentially expressed miRNAs between AA‑induced upper urothelial tract cancer (AAN‑UUC) and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues. Patients with AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC (n=20/group) were recruited in the present study. Five tissue samples from each group were used for miRNA microarray profiling and the rest of the tissue samples were subjected to reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis including seven selected miRNAs for confirmation. A total of 29 miRNAs were differentially expressed between AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues (Pontology analyses predicted the functions and targeted genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs, i.e. Akt3, FGFR3, PSEN1, VEGFa and AR. Subsequently, expression of the selected differentially expressed miRNAs (Hsa‑miR‑4795‑5p, Hsa‑miR‑488, Hsa‑miR‑4784, Hsa‑miR‑330, Hsa‑miR‑3916, Hsa‑miR‑4274 and Hsa‑miR‑181c) was validated in another set of tissue samples. A total of 29 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed between AAN‑UUC and non‑AAN‑UUC tissues and these miRNA target genes in FGFR3 and Akt pathways, which regulate cell growth and tumor progression, respectively. PMID:26397152

  6. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Yung-Ray Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  7. Gene expression profiles of murine fatty liver induced by the administration of valproic acid

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as anticonvulsants, however, it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis and necrosis in the liver. To explore the mechanisms of VPA-induced steatosis, we profiled the gene expression patterns of the mouse liver that were altered by treatment with VPA using microarray analysis. VPA was orally administered as a single dose of 100 mg/kg (low-dose) or 1000 mg/kg (high-dose) to ICR mice and the animals were killed at 6, 24, or 72 h after treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not significantly altered in the experimental animals. However, symptoms of steatosis were observed at 72 h with low-dose and at 24 h and 72 h with high-dose. After microarray data analysis, 1910 genes were selected by two-way ANOVA (P 1.5-fold) revealed that 60 genes were involved in lipid metabolism that was interconnected with biological pathways for biosynthesis of triglyceride and cholesterol, catabolism of fatty acid, and lipid transport. This gene expression profile may be associated with the known steatogenic hepatotoxicity of VPA and it may provide useful information for prediction of hepatotoxicity of unknown chemicals or new drug candidates through pattern recognition

  8. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  9. Differential Display of Cotton cDNAs Expressed by Salicylic Acid Induction

    李骥; 赵广荣; 刘进元

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is very important in systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive response in plant defense, and yet its role is not fully understood.This study seeks to clarify the mechanism of SA induced resistance in cotton.Total RNA was extracted from low-gossypol cultivated cotton seedlings treated with exogenous SA and subjected to fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR).Seven cDNA fragments were selected from the total ten differential bands.Comparison with Genbank database shows that all seven cDNA sequences are newly discovered in cotton.However, they share high amino acid identity to some registered cDNAs.Among them, three of the cDNAs could be predicted to encode basic chitinase, penicillin-binding 6 b precursor and ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecG, while the functions of the other four cDNAs are undetermined.Dot blot analysis demonstrates that the expression of five cDNAs in cotton seedlings is induced by SA, while SA induction has a negative effect on the transcript accumulation of the other two cDNAs (E13 and E14).Since SA was previously shown to enhance the resistance to cotton wilt disease, the finding of a basic chitinase gene in cotton expressed by SA induction will provide a new insight into induced disease resistance in cotton.

  10. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Binding and Reaction Catalysis in Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase

    Barta, Michael L.; McWhorter, William J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC)

    2012-09-17

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes the final step of the mevalonate pathway, the Mg{sup 2+}-ATP dependent decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP), producing isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Synthesis of IPP, an isoprenoid precursor molecule that is a critical intermediate in peptidoglycan and polyisoprenoid biosynthesis, is essential in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp.), and thus the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are ideal antimicrobial targets. MDD belongs to the GHMP superfamily of metabolite kinases that have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, yet the crystallization of GHMP kinase ternary complexes has proven to be difficult. To further our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GHMP kinases with the purpose of developing broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that target the substrate and nucleotide binding sites, we report the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant (S192A and D283A) ternary complexes of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD. Comparison of apo, MVAPP-bound, and ternary complex wild-type MDD provides structural information about the mode of substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. Structural characterization of ternary complexes of catalytically deficient MDD S192A and D283A (k{sub cat} decreased 10{sup 3}- and 10{sup 5}-fold, respectively) provides insight into MDD function. The carboxylate side chain of invariant Asp{sup 283} functions as a catalytic base and is essential for the proper orientation of the MVAPP C3-hydroxyl group within the active site funnel. Several MDD amino acids within the conserved phosphate binding loop ('P-loop') provide key interactions, stabilizing the nucleotide triphosphoryl moiety. The crystal structures presented here provide a useful foundation for structure-based drug design.

  11. Retinoic acid promotes the development of Arg1-expressing dendritic cells for the regulation of T-cell differentiation

    Chang, Jinsam; Thangamani, Shankar; Kim, Myung H.; Ulrich, Benjamin; Morris, Sidney M.; Chang H Kim

    2013-01-01

    Arginase I (Arg1), an enzyme expressed by many cell types including myeloid cells, can regulate immune responses. Expression of Arg1 in myeloid cells is regulated by a number of cytokines and tissue factors that influence cell development and activation. Retinoic acid, produced from vitamin A, regulates the homing and differentiation of lymphocytes and plays important roles in the regulation of immunity and immune tolerance. We report here that optimal expression of Arg1 in dendritic cells re...

  12. The regulation of the intestinal mucin MUC2 expression by short chain fatty acids: implications for epithelial protection

    Burger-van Paassen, Nanda; Vincent, Audrey; Puiman, Patrycja J; van der Sluis, Maria; Bouma, Janneke; Boehm, Günther; Van Goudoever, Johannes B; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Ingrid B Renes

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), fermentation products of bacteria, influence epithelial-specific gene expression. We hypothesize that SCFAs affect goblet cell-specific mucin MUC2 expression and thereby alter epithelial protection. Our aim was to study the mechanisms that regulate butyrate-mediated effects on MUC2 synthesis. Human goblet cell-like LS174T cells were treated with SCFAs, after which MUC2 mRNA levels and stability and MUC2 protein expression were analyzed. SCF...

  13. Enhanced Yield of Recombinant Proteins with Site-specifically Incorporated Unnatural Amino Acids Using a Cell-Free Expression System

    Smolskaya, Sviatlana; Zhang, Zhiwen Jonathan; Alfonta, Lital

    2013-01-01

    Using a commercial protein expression system, we sought the crucial elements and conditions for the expression of proteins with genetically encoded unnatural amino acids. By identifying the most important translational components, we were able to increase suppression efficiency to 55% and to increase mutant protein yields to levels higher than achieved with wild type expression (120%), reaching over 500 µg/mL of translated protein (comprising 25 µg in 50 µL of reaction mixture). To our knowle...

  14. Fluorescent n-3 and n-6 Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: THREE-PHOTON IMAGING IN LIVING CELLS EXPRESSING LIVER FATTY ACID-BINDING PROTEIN*

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kuklev, Dmitry V.; Smith, William L.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Despite the considerable beneficial effects of n-3 and n-6 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), very little is known about the factors that regulate their uptake and intracellular distribution in living cells. This issue was addressed in cells expressing liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) by real time multiphoton laser scanning microscopy of novel fluorescent VLC-PUFAs containing a conjugated tetraene fluorophore near the carboxyl group and natural methylene-in...

  15. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  16. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... significantly among strains of brown rot fungi and within strains in response to differing environmental conditions (Green and Clausen; Hastrup et al., 2006).  This variation is in part believed to be due to the level of oxalate decarboxylase (ODC). The enzyme breaks down oxalate into stoichiometric quantities...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in...

  17. Abscisic acid and stress signals induce Viviparous1 expression in seed and vegetative tissues of maize.

    Cao, Xueyuan; Costa, Liliana M; Biderre-Petit, Corinne; Kbhaya, Bouchab; Dey, Nrisingha; Perez, Pascual; McCarty, Donald R; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F; Becraft, Philip W

    2007-02-01

    Viviparous1 (Vp1) encodes a B3 domain-containing transcription factor that is a key regulator of seed maturation in maize (Zea mays). However, the mechanisms of Vp1 regulation are not well understood. To examine physiological factors that may regulate Vp1 expression, transcript levels were monitored in maturing embryos placed in culture under different conditions. Expression of Vp1 decreased after culture in hormone-free medium, but was induced by salinity or osmotic stress. Application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) also induced transcript levels within 1 h in a dose-dependent manner. The Vp1 promoter fused to beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein reproduced the endogenous Vp1 expression patterns in transgenic maize plants and also revealed previously unknown expression domains of Vp1. The Vp1 promoter is active in the embryo and aleurone cells of developing seeds and, upon drought stress, was also found in phloem cells of vegetative tissues, including cobs, leaves, and stems. Sequence analysis of the Vp1 promoter identified a potential ABA-responsive complex, consisting of an ACGT-containing ABA response element (ABRE) and a coupling element 1-like motif. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that the ABRE and putative coupling element 1 components specifically bound proteins in embryo nuclear protein extracts. Treatment of embryos in hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium blocked the ABRE-protein interaction, whereas exogenous ABA or mannitol treatment restored this interaction. Our data support a model for a VP1-dependent positive feedback mechanism regulating Vp1 expression during seed maturation. PMID:17208960

  18. Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wildung, Mark Raymond (Colfax, WA); Lange, Bernd Markus (Pullman, WA); McCaskill, David G. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7) are provided which code for the expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase from plants. In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, or its derivatives such as isopentenyl diphosphate (BP), or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase, or the production of its products.

  19. Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster shells

    We report identification and characterization of the unusually acidic molluscan shell matrix protein Aspein, which may have important roles in calcium carbonate biomineralization. The Aspein gene (aspein) encodes a sequence of 413 amino acids, including a high proportion of Asp (60.4%), Gly (16.0%), and Ser (13.2%), and the predicted isoelectric point is 1.45; this is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix proteins sequenced so far, or probably even of all known proteins on earth. The main body of Aspein is occupied by (Asp)2-10 sequences punctuated with Ser-Gly dipeptides. RT-PCR demonstrated that the transcript of aspein is expressed at the outer edge of the mantle, corresponding to the calcitic prismatic layer, but not at the inner part of the mantle, corresponding to the aragonitic nacreous layer. Our findings and previous in vitro experiments taken together suggest that Aspein is responsible for directed formation of calcite in the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

  20. Fatty acid esters of phloridzin induce apoptosis of human liver cancer cells through altered gene expression.

    Sandhya V G Nair

    Full Text Available Phloridzin (phlorizin or phloretin 2'-O-glucoside is known for blocking intestinal glucose absorption. We have investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of phloridzin and its novel derivatives using human cancer cell lines. We have synthesised novel acylated derivatives of phloridzin with six different long chain fatty acids by regioselective enzymatic acylation using Candida Antarctica lipase B. The antiproliferative effects of the new compounds were investigated in comparison with the parent compounds, phloridzin, aglycone phloretin, the six free fatty acids and chemotherapeutic drugs (sorafenib, doxorubicin and daunorubicin using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells along with normal human and rat hepatocytes. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited significantly the growth of the two carcinoma and leukemia cells while similar treatment doses were not toxic to normal human or rat hepatocytes. The antiproliferative potency of fatty esters of phloridzin was comparable to the potency of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited DNA topoisomerases IIα activity that might induce G0/G1 phase arrest, induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, and decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Based on the high selectivity on cancer cells, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA ester of phloridzin was selected for gene expression analysis using RT2PCR human cancer drug target array. Antiproliferative effect of DHA ester of phloridzin could be related to the down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2, growth factor receptors (EBFR family, IGF1R/IGF2, PDGFR and its downstream signalling partners (PI3k/AKT/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK, cell cycle machinery (CDKs, TERT, TOP2A, TOP2B as well as epigenetics regulators (HDACs. These results suggest that fatty esters of phloridzin have potential chemotherapeutic effects

  1. Production of protocatechuic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing chorismate-pyruvate lyase from Escherichia coli.

    Okai, Naoko; Miyoshi, Takanori; Takeshima, Yasunobu; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; PCA) serves as a building block for polymers and pharmaceuticals. In this study, the biosynthetic pathway for PCA from glucose was engineered in Corynebacterium glutamicum. The pathway to PCA-employed elements of the chorismate pathway by using chorismate-pyruvate lyase (CPL) and 4-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (4-HBA hydroxylase). As C. glutamicum has the potential to synthesize the aromatic amino acid intermediate chorismate and possesses 4-HBA hydroxylase, we focused on expressing Escherichia coli CPL in a phenylalanine-producing strain of C. glutamicum ATCC21420. To secrete PCA, the gene (ubiC) encoding CPL from E. coli was expressed in C. glutamicum ATCC 21420 (strain F(UbiC)). The formation of 28.8 mg/L of extracellular 4-HBA (36 h) and 213 ± 29 mg/L of extracellular PCA (80 h) was obtained by the C. glutamicum strain F(UbiC) from glucose. The strain ATCC21420 was also found to produce extracellular PCA. PCA fermentation was performed using C. glutamicum strain F(UbiC) in a bioreactor at the optimized pH of 7.5. C. glutamicum F(UbiC) produced 615 ± 2.1 mg/L of PCA from 50 g/L of glucose after 72 h. Further, fed-batch fermentation of PCA by C. glutamicum F(UbiC) was performed with feedings of glucose every 24 h. The maximum production of PCA (1140.0 ± 11.6 mg/L) was achieved when 117.0 g/L of glucose was added over 96 h of fed-batch fermentation. PMID:26392137

  2. Expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is regulated by gastric acid in rats-Correlation of HSP72 expression with mucosal protection

    Background and aim: The real mechanism of adaptive cytoprotection in the gastric mucosa is not well established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acid suppressing agents on a 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) expression, which is known as endogenous cytoprotective factor, in the gastric mucosa. Also, the association of gastric mucosal protective function against HCl-challenge was compared between HSP72-induced and -reduced group. Materials and methods: Expression of HSP72 was measured by Western blotting in the gastric mucosa before and after administration of famotidine or omeprazole. The gastric mucosal protective function against 0.6 N HCl was compared between control group and HSP72-reduced group. Also, the effect of increased expression of gastric HSP72 by additional administration of zinc sulfate or zinc L-carnosine, which is known as HSP72-inducer, on mucosal protective function was studied. Results: HSP72 expression in the gastric mucosa was reduced by acid suppressing agents. The lowest expression level of HSP72 was observed 12 h (famotidine, H2-receptor antagonist) or 48 h (omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor) after administration. The gastric mucosal protective ability against 0.6 N HCl was also reduced when HSP72 expression was decreased by famotidine or omeprazole. This phenomenon was reversed by HSP72 induction by additional administration of zinc derivatives. Conclusion: Our results might indicate that the expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is physiologically regulated by gastric acid, and that HSP72 induction could be important in view of mucosal protection especially when HSP72 expression is reduced by administration of acid suppressing agents such as proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist

  3. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion.

    Turner, Timothy L; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kim, Soo Rin; Subramaniam, Vijay; Steffen, David; Skory, Christopher D; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-10-01

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite that cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose. Microbial strains capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose into lactic acid are needed for sustainable and economic lactic acid production. In this study, we introduced a lactic acid-producing pathway into an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose. Specifically, ldhA from the fungi Rhizopus oryzae was overexpressed under the control of the PGK1 promoter through integration of the expression cassette in the chromosome. The resulting strain exhibited a high lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced lactic acid from glucose or xylose. Interestingly, we observed that the engineered strain exhibited substrate-dependent product formation. When the engineered yeast was cultured on glucose, the major fermentation product was ethanol while lactic acid was a minor product. In contrast, the engineered yeast produced lactic acid almost exclusively when cultured on xylose under oxygen-limited conditions. The yields of ethanol and lactic acid from glucose were 0.31 g ethanol/g glucose and 0.22 g lactic acid/g glucose, respectively. On xylose, the yields of ethanol and lactic acid were S. cerevisiae without deleting pyruvate decarboxylase, and the formation patterns of fermentations can be altered by substrates. PMID:26043971

  4. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  5. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  6. LITHOCHOLIC ACID DECREASES EXPRESSION OF UGT2B7 IN CACO-2 CELLS: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR A NEGATIVE FARNESOID X RECEPTOR RESPONSE ELEMENT

    Lu, Yuan; Heydel, Jean-Marie; LI, XIN; Bratton, Stacie; Lindblom, Tim; Radominska-Pandya, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 is the major isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of a variety of endogenous compounds including bile acids. To determine the role of bile acids in the regulation of UGT2B7 expression, Caco-2 cells were incubated with the natural human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, as well as the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid, derived from chenodeoxycholic acid. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with lithocholic acid in the absence of...

  7. Global gene expression changes in human urothelial cells exposed to low-level monomethylarsonous acid

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid in UROtsa was investigated. ► At 3 months of exposure substantial changes were observed in gene expression. ► Notable changes occurred in mitogenic signaling, stress, immune and inflammatory responses. ► Gene expression changes correlate with phenotypic changes from previous studies. -- Abstract: Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa) at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III) was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A microarray analysis was performed to assess the transcriptional changes in UROtsa during the critical window of chronic 50 nM MMA(III) exposure that leads to transformation at 3 months of exposure. The analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of exposure, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. The gene expression changes at 3 months were analyzed showing distinct alterations in biological processes and pathways such as a response to oxidative stress, enhanced cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, MAPK signaling, as well as inflammation. Twelve genes selected as markers of these particular biological processes were used to validate the microarray and these genes showed a time-dependent changes at 1 and 2 months of exposure, with the most substantial changes occurring at 3 months of exposure. These results indicate that there is a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occur with chronic MMA(III) exposure and the observed gene expression patterns that are indicative of a malignant transformation. Although the substantial changes that occur at 3 months of exposure may be a consequence of transformation, there are common occurrences of altered

  8. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    Jin Man Kim; Sang Wook Kang; Su-Mi Shin; Duck Su Kim; Kyong-Kyu Choi; Eun-Cheol Kim; Sun-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and-9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and-9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 mmol?L21 ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.

  9. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone could...... directly stimulate functional MICA/B surface expression and MICA promoter activity by a mechanism dependent on intracellular calcium. Deletion and point mutations further demonstrated that a GC-box motif around -110 from the MICA transcription start site is essential for propionate-mediated MICA promoter...... activity. Other short-chain fatty acids such as lactate, acetate, and butyrate could also induce MICA/B expression. We observed a striking difference in the molecular signaling pathways that regulate MICA/B. A functional glycolytic pathway was essential for MICA/B expression after exposure to propionate...

  10. Primary structure of a sperm cell anion exchanger and its messenger ribonucleic acid expression during spermatogenesis.

    Holappa, K; Mustonen, M; Parvinen, M; Vihko, P; Rajaniemi, H; Kellokumpu, S

    1999-10-01

    Chloride/bicarbonate (Cl-/HCO(3)-) exchangers are a family of proteins (anion exchanger [AE] gene family) that regulate many vital cellular processes such as intracellular pH, cell volume, and Cl- concentration. They may also be involved in the regulation of sperm cell motility and acrosome reaction during fertilization, as these two phenomena are bicarbonate dependent, and we have previously shown that a polypeptide immunologically related to erythrocyte band 3 is expressed in mammalian sperm cells. We have now identified this putative sperm cell anion exchanger as the AE2 isoform of this gene family. First, we determined its complete primary structure from the human testis lambda gt 11 cDNA library. The cloned sequence was found to consist of 3896 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 3726 bp, and to be almost identical to the previously published human genomic AE2 sequence. Only four amino acid disparities were found between these two sequences. Second, our in situ hybridization analyses showed that AE2 mRNA is expressed in developing sperm cells, indicating that the cloned sequence corresponds to the sperm cell AE. Our reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested further that the expression of AE2 mRNA was variable to some extent during the epithelial cell cycle. Strongest expression was observed at stages VII-XIV except for stage X, i.e., when major structural and morphological changes take place. These results suggest that the full-length AE2 isoform regulates HCO(3)- transport in mature sperm cells and thus their motility in vivo. PMID:10491633

  11. Direct production of cadaverine from soluble starch using Corynebacterium glutamicum coexpressing alpha-amylase and lysine decarboxylase.

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Okada, Yusuke; Tsuchidate, Takeyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    Here, we demonstrated the one-step production of cadaverine from starch using a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain coexpressing Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA) and Escherichia coli K-12 lysine decarboxylase (CadA). We constructed the E. coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vector, which produces CadA under the control of the high constitutive expression (HCE) promoter, and transformed this vector into C. glutamicum CSS secreting AmyA. The engineered C. glutamicum expressed both CadA and AmyA, which retained their activity. We performed cadaverine fermentation using 50 g/l soluble starch as the sole carbon source without pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which is the coenzyme for CadA. C. glutamicum coexpressing AmyA and CadA successfully produced cadaverine from soluble starch and the yield of cadaverine was 23.4 mM after 21 h. CadA expression levels under the control of the HCE promoter were assumed to be sufficient to convert L-lysine to cadaverine, as there was no accumulation of L-lysine in the culture medium during fermentation. Thus, we demonstrated that C. glutamicum has great potential to produce cadaverine from biomass resources. PMID:18989633

  12. Hepatic and renal Bcrp transporter expression in mice treated with perfluorooctanoic acid

    Highlights: ► PFOA increased liver weight and Cyp4a14 mRNA and protein expression in mice. ► PFOA increased kidney Cyp4a14 mRNA in mice. ► PFOA increased Bcrp mRNA and protein in livers, but not kidneys, of mice. ► PFOA inhibited activation of human BCRP ATPase activity in vitro. ► PFOA inhibited human BCRP transport in inverted membrane vesicles. - Abstract: The breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) is an efflux transporter that participates in the biliary and renal excretion of drugs and environmental chemicals. Recent evidence suggests that pharmacological activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) can up-regulate the hepatic expression of Bcrp. The current study investigated the regulation of hepatic and renal Bcrp mRNA and protein in mice treated with the PPARα agonist perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the ability of PFOA to alter human BCRP function in vitro. Bcrp mRNA and protein expression were quantified in the livers and kidneys of male C57BL/6 mice treated with vehicle or PFOA (1 or 3 mg/kg/day oral gavage) for 7 days. PFOA treatment increased liver weights as well as the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the PPARα target gene, cytochrome P450 4a14. Compared to vehicle-treated control mice, PFOA increased hepatic Bcrp mRNA and protein between 1.5- and 3-fold. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed enhanced canalicular Bcrp staining in liver sections from PFOA-treated mice. The kidney expression of cytochrome P450 4a14 mRNA, but not Bcrp, was increased in mice treated with PFOA. Micromolar concentrations of PFOA decreased human BCRP ATPase activity and inhibited BCRP-mediated transport in inverted membrane vesicles. Together, these studies demonstrate that PFOA induces hepatic Bcrp expression in mice and may inhibit human BCRP transporter function at concentrations that exceed levels observed in humans

  13. Expression of human dopamine receptor in potato (Solanum tuberosum results in altered tuber carbon metabolism

    Świędrych Anna

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine have been detected in plants their role is poorly documented. Correlations between norepinephrine, soluble sugars and starch concentration have been recently reported for potato plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase, the enzyme mediating the first step of catecholamine synthesis. More recently norepinephrine level was shown to significantly increase after osmotic stress, abscisic acid treatment and wounding. Therefore, it is possible that catecholamines might play a role in plant stress responses by modulating primary carbon metabolism, possibly by a mechanism similar to that in animal cells. Since to date no catecholamine receptor has been identified in plants we transformed potato plants with a cDNA encoding human dopamine receptor (HD1. Results Tuber analysis of transgenic plants revealed changes in the activities of key enzymes mediating sucrose to starch conversion (ADP-glucose phosphorylase and sucrose synthase and sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase leading to altered content of both soluble sugars and starch. Surprisingly the catecholamine level measured in transgenic plants was significantly increased; the reason for this is as yet unknown. However the presence of the receptor affected a broader range of enzyme activities than those affected by the massive accumulation of norepinephrine reported for plants over-expressing tyrosine decarboxylase. Therefore, it is suggested that the presence of the exogenous receptor activates catecholamine cAMP signalling in plants. Conclusions Our data support the possible involvement of catecholamines in regulating plant carbon metabolism via cAMP signalling pathway.

  14. Transcriptional expression of selected genes associated with excretion of carboxylic acids from aci mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Ewa Boniewska-Bernacka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism for studies of transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes in other eukaryotic cells including human cells. Cellular acid-base balance can be disturbed in pathologic situations such as renal acidosis or cancer. The extracellular pH of malignant solid tumors is acidic in the range of 6.5-6.9. EG07 and EG37 aci mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae excessively excrete carboxylic acids to glucose-containing media or distilled water. The excreted acids are Krebs and/or glyoxylate cycle intermediates. The genes restoring the wild-type phenotype have function that does not easily explain theAci phenotype.Material/Methods: In this study, using real-time PCR we measured relative mRNA expression, in the mutants compared to the wild-type strain, of selected genes associated with both carboxylic acid cycles and two cell transporters, Pma1 and Pdr12, of organic acids. Results: Unexpectedly, we found that the relative expression of the selected Krebs cycle and glyoxylate cycle genes did not change significantly. However, the expression of the two transporter genes was strongly elevated in EG37 and moderately increased in EG07.Conclusion: These results indicate that the induction of the two cell transporterg enes plays an important role in acid excretion by the aci mutants.

  15. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene mutations in Danish patients with porphyria cutanea tarda

    Christiansen, L; Bygum, A; Jensen, A; Brandrup, F; Thomsen, K; Hørder, Mogens; Petersen, N E

    2000-01-01

    Decreased uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) activity is a characteristic feature of the most common of the porphyrias, porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). A subgroup of the clinically overt PCT cases is associated with mutations in the gene encoding UROD and inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait...

  16. Screening for mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Christiansen, L; Ged, C; Hombrados, I; Brons-Poulsen, J; Fontanellas, A; de Verneuil, H; Hørder, M; Petersen, N E

    1999-01-01

    The two porphyrias, familial porphyria cutanea tarda (fPCT) and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP), are associated with mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD). Several mutations, most of which are private, have been identified in HEP and fPCT patients...

  17. Lipoprotein Lipase, Tissue Expression and Effects on Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Wang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC, the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis.

  18. Linoleic acid-induced expression of defense genes and enzymes in tobacco.

    Sumayo, Marilyn S; Kwon, Duck-Kee; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2014-11-15

    Linoleic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid (FA) found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) of tobacco against the bacterial soft rot pathogen, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (PCC). In this study, we examined effects of six doses of exogenous LA on the induction of defense genes and enzymes. The optimum ISR activity was observed in plants treated with 0.1mM LA where the effect of LA on membrane permeability was minimal. The application of LA as a root drench enhanced the activity of defense enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and induced the expression of β-glucuronidase (GUS). PAL and POD activities were increased in a concentration dependent manner while the maximum PPO activity was observed after treatment with 0.01mM LA. An RT-PCR analysis of the defense-related genes, Coi1, NPR1, PR-1a and PR-1b, of tobacco plants treated with 0.1mM LA revealed an association of LA with elicitation of ISR in tobacco. PMID:25238656

  19. Regulation of vitamin D receptor expression by retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Marchwicka, Aleksandra; Cebrat, Małgorzata; Łaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Śnieżewski, Łukasz; Brown, Geoffrey; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid precursors. A very promising way to treat AML is differentiation therapy using either all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), or the use of both these differentiation-inducing agents. However, the effect of combination treatment varies in different AML cell lines, and this is due to ATRA either down- or up-regulating transcription of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells examined. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of VDR in response to ATRA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is responsible for regulating VDR transcription in AML cells. We have shown that a VDR transcriptional variant, originating in exon 1a, is regulated by RARα agonists in AML cells. Moreover, in cells with a high basal level of RARα protein, the VDR gene is transcriptionally repressed as long as RARα agonist is absent. In these cells down-regulation of the level of RARα leads to increased expression of VDR. We consider that our findings provide a mechanistic background to explain the different outcomes from treating AML cell lines with a combination of ATRA and 1,25D. PMID:26969398

  20. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid β-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity

  1. Enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus by artemisinic acid elicitation.

    Liu, Jinwei; Zhu, Jianhua; Tang, Le; Wen, Wei; Lv, Shuangshuang; Yu, Rongmin

    2014-01-01

    Elicitation is an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites in vitro. Artemisinic acid was studied as a novel elicitor to enhance the yield of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the present paper. Our results demonstrated that the concentrations of vindoline and vinblastine were increased by sixfold and twofold, respectively, compared to those of the control group after treatment with artemisinic acid. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the gene expression of four enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of vinblastine in the suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthu sroseus. RT-PCR experiment showed that artemisinic acid was able to up-regulate the transcriptions of tryptophan decarboxylase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase, tabersonine 16-hydroxylase and deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase. PMID:23864440

  2. Effects of dietary tannic acid on the growth, hepatic gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity in Brandt's voles (Microtus brandti).

    Ye, Man-Hong; Nan, Yan-Lei; Ding, Meng-Meng; Hu, Jun-Bang; Liu, Qian; Wei, Wan-Hong; Yang, Sheng-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of Brandt's voles to the persistent presence of dietary tannic acid. The diet for animals in the experimental group was supplemented with 3% dietary tannic acid for 5weeks. The control group received a commercial lab chow. No significant differences were detected in body weight, organ (heart, kidney, and liver) weights, and organ parameters between animals from two groups. However, voles in the experimental group had significantly higher daily food intake, increased contents of proline and histidine in saliva and feces after protein hydrolysis, and elevated hepatic expression of transferrin than the control. Our results suggested the existence of adaptive strategies developed in Brandt's voles to overcome the adverse effects of dietary tannic acid. (1) Food consumption was increased to satisfy their nutritional demands. (2) The secretion of tannic-acid-binding salivary proteins was promoted. (3) The absorption of iron was enhanced. These alterations contributed to neutralize the negative effects of tannic acid and maintain body mass in animals supplemented with tannic acid. As the result of the consumption of tannic acid, hepatic expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly decreased, while the overall potential of the antioxidant system, characterized by increased hepatic enzymatic activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, was enhanced. Our results also implied the involvement of tannic acid in the regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in voles. PMID:26850644

  3. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  4. Effects of Salvianolic Acid B on Protein Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Tsong-Min Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acid B (Sal B, a pure water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, has been reported to possess potential cardioprotective efficacy. To identify proteins or pathways by which Sal B might exert its protective activities on the cardiovascular system, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based comparative proteomics was performed, and proteins altered in their expression level after Sal B treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were incubated at Sal B concentrations that can be reached in human plasma by pharmacological intervention. Results indicated that caldesmon, an actin-stabilizing protein, was downregulated in Sal B-exposed HUVECs. Proteins that showed increased expression levels upon Sal B treatment were vimentin, T-complex protein 1, protein disulfide isomerase, tropomyosin alpha, heat shock protein beta-1, UBX domain-containing protein 1, alpha enolase, and peroxiredoxin-2. Additionally, Sal B leads to increased phosphorylation of nucleophosmin in a dose-dependent manner and promotes proliferation of HUVECs. We found that Sal B exhibited a coordinated regulation of enzymes and proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, oxidative stress, and cell growth. Our investigation would provide understanding to the endothelium protection information of Sal B.

  5. New enzymatic methods for selective assay of L-lysine using an L-lysine specific decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.

    Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-03-01

    We developed new enzymatic methods for the selective assay of L-lysine by utilizing an oxidase reaction and a decarboxylation reaction by the L-lysine-specific decarboxylase/oxidase (L-Lys-DC/OD) from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395. The method utilizing the oxidase reaction of this enzyme was useful for determination of high concentrations of L-lysine. The method utilizing the decarboxylase reaction, which proceeded via the combination of the L-Lys-DC/OD and putrescine oxidase (PUO) from Micrococcus rubens, was effective for determination of low concentrations of L-lysine. Both methods showed good linearity, and neither was affected by other amino acids or amines. In addition, the within-assay and between-assay precisions of both methods were within the allowable range. The coupling of L-Lys-DC/OD with PUO was also useful for the differential assay of L-lysine and cadaverine. These newly developed methods were applied to the assay of L-lysine in biological samples and found to be effective. PMID:25282636

  6. Determining Effects of Elaidic Acid on PPAR- Gamma Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line

    M Doosti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several dietary factors are involved in cardiovascular coronary heart diseases, including trans fatty acids, which are generally formed during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that causes conversion of liquid oils into semisolid fats. Nowadays, it is well-known that trans fatty acids form a major risk factor in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been identified that some nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, are involved and play important roles in lipid homeostasis and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the effect of elaidic acid on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ.Methods: Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated by 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid for 6 h. The control group was treated by 50% ethanol (as solvent, equivalent to the amount of ethanol used in 2 mM concentration of elaidic acid. Later, the total RNA was extracted and its cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the quantity of PPARγ gene expression was measured by real-time PCR.Results: Overall, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid decreased PPARγ gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line by -1.36, -1.68, and -3.24 folds compared with the control group, respectively.Conclusion: By decreasing the expression of nuclear receptor PPARγ, elaidic acid causes, intensifies or accelerates the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. This finding shows the importance of reducing the consumption of elaidic acid containing foods.

  7. Human L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): characterization of function and expression in tumor cell lines.

    Yanagida, O; Kanai, Y; Chairoungdua, A; Kim, D K; Segawa, H; Nii, T; Cha, S H; Matsuo, H; Fukushima, J; Fukasawa, Y; Tani, Y; Taketani, Y; Uchino, H; Kim, J Y; Inatomi, J; Okayasu, I; Miyamoto, K; Takeda, E; Goya, T; Endou, H

    2001-10-01

    System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. We previously identified a transporter (L-type amino acid transporter 1: LAT1) subserving system L in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated that LAT1 requires 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) for its functional expression. Since its oncofetal expression was suggested in the rat liver, it has been proposed that LAT1 plays a critical role in cell growth and proliferation. In the present study, we have examined the function of human LAT1 (hLAT1) and its expression in human tissues and tumor cell lines. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes with human 4F2hc (h4F2hc), hLAT1 transports large neutral amino acids with high affinity (K(m)= approximately 15- approximately 50 microM) and L-glutamine and L-asparagine with low affinity (K(m)= approximately 1.5- approximately 2 mM). hLAT1 also transports D-amino acids such as D-leucine and D-phenylalanine. In addition, we show that hLAT1 accepts an amino acid-related anti-cancer agent melphalan. When loaded intracellularly, L-leucine and L-glutamine but not L-alanine are effluxed by extracellular substrates, confirming that hLAT1 mediates an amino acid exchange. hLAT1 mRNA is highly expressed in the human fetal liver, bone marrow, placenta, testis and brain. We have found that, while all the tumor cell lines examined express hLAT1 messages, the expression of h4F2hc is varied particularly in leukemia cell lines. In Western blot analysis, hLAT1 and h4F2hc have been confirmed to be linked to each other via a disulfide bond in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. Finally, in in vitro translation, we show that hLAT1 is not a glycosylated protein even though an N-glycosylation site has been predicted in its extracellular loop, consistent with the property of the classical 4F2 light chain. The properties of the hLAT1/h4F2hc complex would support the roles of this transporter in providing cells with essential

  8. Uncovering co-expression gene network regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples

    Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that encodes an Aluminum-activated Malate Transporter1 (...

  9. Effects of fatty acid regulation on visfatin gene expression in adipocytes

    WEN Yu; WANG Hong-wei; WU Jing; LU Hui-ling; HU Xiu-fen; Katherine Cianflone

    2006-01-01

    Background The levels of long-term elevated serum or intracellular free fatty acid (FFA) induce insulin resistance associated with central obesity. The insulin-mimetic protein visfatin is preferentially produced by visceral adipose tissues and has been implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. To identify that FFA is capable of inducing insulin resistance and to clarify the role of FFA on visfatin, we examined the effect of monounsaturated FFA oleate (C18:1) and saturated FFA palmitate (C16:0) on glucose transport and visfatin gene expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes or preadipocytes.Methods FFA-free DMEM/F12, 0.125 mmol/L, 0.5 mmol/1 and 1.0 mmol/L oleate or palmitate was added to cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes or preadipocytes and incubated overnight. Glucose transport was assessed as 3H-2-deoxy-glucose uptake. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to RT-PCR for the measurement of visfatin mRNA levels. Statistical comparisons between control group and other groups were performed with the two-tailed paired t test, and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean values among the groups.Results Insulin increased specific membrane glucose transport in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Upregulation was evident from 15 minutes to 1 hour exposure to insulin. However, after 6-hour exposure to insulin, there was a downregulation in the response to insulin. Dose response studies demonstrated that 2-deoxy glucose transport was increased by 336% at 50 nmol/L insulin (P<0.01), and reached a maximal effect at 100 nmol/L insulin(P<0.01). Oleate and palmitate treatment did not influence basal glucose transport (without insulin stimulation),whereas insulin-stimulated glucose transport was inhibited after overnight oleate and palmitate treatment in preadipocytes and adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, insulin resistance could be achieved at 0.125 mmol/L oleate or palmitate (P<0.05, respectively), and the inhibition was dose dependent. In adipocytes, the inhibition was noted at 0

  10. Global gene expression profiling of the polyamine system in suicide completers.

    Fiori, Laura M; Bureau, Alexandre; Labbe, Aurélie; Croteau, Jordie; Noël, Simon; Mérette, Chantal; Turecki, Gustavo

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, gene expression, genetic association, and metabolic studies have implicated the polyamine system in psychiatric conditions, including suicide. Given the extensive regulation of genes involved in polyamine metabolism, as well as their interconnections with the metabolism of other amino acids, we were interested in further investigating the expression of polyamine-related genes across the brain in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the dysregulation of this system in suicide. To this end, we examined the expression of genes related to polyamine metabolism across 22 brain regions in a sample of 29 mood-disordered suicide completers and 16 controls, and identified 14 genes displaying differential expression. Among these, altered expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, spermine oxidase, and spermine synthase, has previously been observed in brains of suicide completers, while the remainder of the genes represent novel findings. In addition to genes with direct involvement in polyamine metabolism, including S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase antizymes 1 and 2, and arginase II, we identified altered expression of several more distally related genes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A2, brain creatine kinase, mitochondrial creatine kinase 1, glycine amidinotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, and arginyl-tRNA synthetase-like. Many of these genes displayed altered expression across several brain regions, strongly implying that dysregulated polyamine metabolism is a widespread phenomenon in the brains of suicide completers. This study provides a broader view of the nature and extent of the dysregulation of the polyamine system in suicide, and highlights the importance of this system in the neurobiology of suicide. PMID:21208503

  11. THE CORRELATIONS OF RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR-α AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINES AND TUMORS

    余黎明; 邵志敏; 蔡三军; 韩企夏; 沈镇宙

    1998-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-α(RAR α) plays a major role in the growth inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on human breast cancer ceils, may be it could serve as an indicator to guide the treatment and prevent of breast cancer with retinoic acid in ciiinc. All previous researchs were based on observing the changes ofRAR a mRAN expression. In this study, the expression of RAR a in human breast cell lines was studied by Northern Blot, Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry in mRNA level and protein level. Results showed that RAR a protein expression was correlated with RAR a mRNA expression. RAR α mRNA expression was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell lines than in ER-negative ones. So was RAR α protein expression. Both RAR α mRNA amd RAR α protein expression were associated with ER status. The expression of RAR α and the relationship between RAR α and ER status were also determined by immunohistochemistry in 58 human primary breast cancer tumors. 37 (63.8%) tumors were ER-positive and of these 28 (75. 7%) were also RAR α -positive. The coexpression of ER and RAR α was statistleally significant (P<0. 01, by X2 contingency analysis), It was reported that RAR α expression in cultured breast cancer ceils was regulated by estrogen acting via the ER. Our study demonstrated that RAR α expression may be modulated in breast cancer in vivo by estrogen via ER.

  12. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth.

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is the most common cause of egg borne salmonellosis in many parts of the world. This study analyzed gene expression of this bacterium during growth in whole egg, and whether highly expressed genes were essential for the growth. High quality RNA was extracted from S. Enteritidis using a modified RNA-extraction protocol. Global gene expression during growth in whole egg was compared to growth in LB-medium using DNA array method. Twenty-six genes were significantly upregulated during growth in egg; these belonged to amino acid biosynthesis, di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis using the enzymes encoded from these genes may represent the first choice for S. Enteritidis when growing in egg, but when absent, the bacterium could use alternative ways to obtain the amino acids. PMID:26945769

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  14. Enhanced expression of polysialic acid correlates with malignant phenotype in breast cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples.

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xiang; Zeng, Ying-Nan; He, Fa; Yang, Xiao-Min; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is highly expressed during embryonic development, but barely expressed during postnatal development, and may be 're-expressed' in cancer tissues. In this study, motility and migration assays were performed to compare the changes in cell behavior between non-malignant and maligant cells. Next, the expression levels of PSA were evaluated in 4 human and mouse normal breast or breast cancer (BC) cell lines using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene-labeling HPLC technology, as well as in human clinical BC tissue samples. PSA expression was significantly higher in malignant cells (where it appeared to facilitate cell migration and motility) than in non-malignant cells. Enhanced PSA expression levels were also observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a leading cause of cancer cell metastasis, which was induced in the NMuMG and MCF10A cells by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). An increased PSA expression also correlated with the disease stage in the patients with BC (PPST) and polysialyltransferase ST8SiaII (STX), which are responsible for PSA synthesis, were differently expressed in the tested BC samples. However, PST, but not STX, was re-expressed in 14 out of 20 clinical BC samples. The findings of the present study indicate that the pathophysiology of BC involves the aberrant regulation of PSA expression and PST gene expression. PMID:26530860

  15. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in the valproic acid model of autism

    Chen, Jianling; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Zhao, Min; Du, Yasong; Li, Jijun; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in enzymes associated with fatty acid synthesis, namely fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model of autism. In this model, pregnant rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of VPA, and prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples from their pups were analyzed. The results of western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FASN, ACC and phospho-ACC (pACC) were increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism, AMPK expression is increased, whereas PI3K and Akt expression are unchanged. This suggests that disorder of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FASN and/or adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/ACC pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. It is hypothesized that fatty acid synthesis participates in autism through PI3K/Akt/FASN and AMPK/ACC pathways. PMID:27602061

  16. High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas

    Yanagisawa, Nobuyuki; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Endou, Hitoshi; Okayasu, Isao; Murakumo, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangi...

  17. Retinoic acid influences anteroposterior positioning of epidermal sensory neurons and their gene expression in a developing chordate (amphioxus)

    Schubert, Michael; Holland, Nicholas D; Escriva, Hector; Holland, Linda Z; Laudet, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    In developing chordates, retinoic acid (RA) signaling patterns the rostrocaudal body axis globally and affects gene expression locally in some differentiating cell populations. Here we focus on development of epidermal sensory neurons in an invertebrate chordate (amphioxus) to determine how RA signaling influences their rostrocaudal distribution and gene expression (for AmphiCoe, a neural precursor gene; for amphioxus islet and AmphiERR, two neural differentiation genes; and for AmphiHox1, -3...

  18. Increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression in malignant breast, ovarian and melanoma tissue: an investigational study

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a metalloprotein enzyme that belongs to the acid phosphatases and is known to be expressed by osteoclasts. It has already been investigated as a marker of bone metastases in cancer patients. In this study, which examined the value of serum TRAP concentrations as a marker of bone disease in breast cancer patients, we observed high concentrations of TRAP even in patients without bone metastases. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined the expression of TRAP in breast cancer cells and the cells of several other malignancies. TRAP concentrations in the serum of tumor patients were determined by ELISA. The expression of TRAP in breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunocytology were used to evaluate TRAP expression in cultured tumor cells. A marked increase in serum TRAP concentrations was observed in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, regardless of the presence or absence of bone disease. TRAP expression was found in breast and ovarian cancers and malignant melanoma, while cervical cancer showed only minimal expression of TRAP. Expression of TRAP was absent in benign tissue or was much less marked than in the corresponding malignant tissue. TRAP expression was also demonstrated in cultured primary cancer cells and in commercially available cell lines. Overexpression of TRAP was detected in the cells of various different tumors. TRAP might be useful as a marker of progression of malignant disease. It could also be a potential target for future cancer therapies

  19. Effects of growth phase and nitrogen starvation on expression of fatty acid desaturases and fatty acid composition of Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO).

    Huerlimann, Roger; Steinig, Eike J; Loxton, Heather; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-07-15

    Very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) are important dietary requirements for maintaining human health. Many marine microalgae are naturally high in ω-3 VLC-PUFAs, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning fatty acid (FA) desaturation and elongation in algae are poorly understood. An advanced molecular understanding would facilitate improvements of this nascent industry. We aimed to investigate expression responses of four front-end fatty acid desaturase genes and downstream effects on FA profiles to nitrogen limitation and cultivation growth stage in Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO). Cultures were grown in nitrogen-replete and -deplete medium; samples were harvested during logarithmic, late logarithmic and stationary growth phases to analyse FA content/composition and gene expression of ∆(6)-, ∆(8)-, ∆(5)- and ∆(4)-desaturases (d6FAD (putative), d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD, respectively). d6FAD (putative) exhibited no differential expression, while d8FAD, d5FAD and d4FAD were significantly upregulated during logarithmic growth of nutrient-replete cultures, coinciding with rapid cell division. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that expression of some FADs in I. aff. galbana varies with culture age and nitrogen status which has downstream consequences on FA desaturation levels. This has implications for the commercial production of VLC-PUFAs where a trade-off between total lipid yield and VLC-PUFAs has to be made. PMID:24802118

  20. Postnatal pattern of ornithine decarboxylase activity reveals a disparity of rat brain regeneration capacity after prenatal X-ray or 5-azacytidine treatment

    Pregnant Wistar rats were treated on the 15th day of gestation either with 1.4 Gy X-radiation, or with 2 X 2.5 mg 5-azacytidine per kg body weight. X-irradiation caused negligible mortality among the offspring, despite of a 35% reduction of brain weights. The course of brain ornithine decarboxylase activity exhibited two breaches within 5 days after birth, each followed by recovery to control levels. After 5-azacytidine treatment brain weights were reduced by 16% only, but two thirds of the young died within a short time after birth. During three days following birth, the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in the brains of the young animals split into two ranges, a high one at control level and a low one at about one fifth of control level. As the ratio of brains with low to those with high enzyme activities correlated with the rate of postnatal mortality, the splitting of early postnatal enzyme activities was interpreted in terms of a nothing-or-all-law: beyond a certain amount of 5-azacytidine incorporated into brain DNA, gene expression was impaired to an extent not compatible with the survival of the animals

  1. Postnatal pattern of ornithine decarboxylase activity reveals a disparity of rat brain regeneration capacity after prenatal X-ray or 5-azacytidine treatment

    Weber, L.W.; Schmahl, W.G.

    1987-05-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats were treated on the 15th day of gestation either with 1.4 Gy X-radiation, or with 2 X 2.5 mg 5-azacytidine per kg body weight. X-irradiation caused negligible mortality among the offspring, despite of a 35% reduction of brain weights. The course of brain ornithine decarboxylase activity exhibited two breaches within 5 days after birth, each followed by recovery to control levels. After 5-azacytidine treatment brain weights were reduced by 16% only, but two thirds of the young died within a short time after birth. During three days following birth, the activity of ornithine decarboxylase in the brains of the young animals split into two ranges, a high one at control level and a low one at about one fifth of control level. As the ratio of brains with low to those with high enzyme activities correlated with the rate of postnatal mortality, the splitting of early postnatal enzyme activities was interpreted in terms of a nothing-or-all-law: beyond a certain amount of 5-azacytidine incorporated into brain DNA, gene expression was impaired to an extent not compatible with the survival of the animals.

  2. Identification and expression of a stearoyl-ACP desaturase gene responsible for oleic acid accumulation in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seeds.

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Qiuqi; Li, Rufang; Xia, Xinli; Qin, Xiaowei; Guo, Huihong

    2015-02-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an oilseed tree that grows well on barren lands in dry climate. Its seeds contain a large amount of oil rich in oleic acid (18:1(Δ9)) and linoleic acid (18:2(Δ9, 12)). However, the molecular regulation of oil biosynthesis in X. sorbifolia seeds is poorly understood. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD, EC 1.14.99.6) is a plastid-localized soluble desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid, which plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, a full-length cDNA of XsSAD was isolated from developing X. sorbifolia embryos. The XsSAD open reading frame had 1194-bp, encoding a polypeptide of 397 amino acids. XsSAD expression in Escherichia coli cells resulted in increased 18:1(Δ9) level, confirming the biological activity of the enzyme encoded by XsSAD. XsSAD expression in Arabidopsis ssi2 mutants partially restored the morphological phenotype and effectively increased the 18:1(Δ9) level. The levels of other unsaturated fatty acids synthesized with 18:1(Δ9) as the substrate also increased to some degree. XsSAD in X. sorbifolia had a much higher expression in embryos than in leaves and petals. XsSAD expression also correlated well with the oleic acid, unsaturated fatty acid, and total fatty acid levels in developing embryos. These data suggested that XsSAD determined the synthesis of oleic acid and contributed to the accumulation of unsaturated fatty acid and total oil in X. sorbifolia seeds. A preliminary tobacco rattle virus-based virus-induced gene silencing system established in X. sorbifolia can also be helpful for further analyzing the functions of XsSAD and other oil synthesis-related genes in woody plants. PMID:25528221

  3. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Rivero, Montserrat; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Castellote, Cristina; Noé, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done ...

  4. Secretion of Biologically Active Heterologous Oxalate Decarboxylase (OxdC in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Using Homologous Signal Peptides

    Ponnusamy Sasikumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for patients with hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate stone diseases are limited and do not always lead to sufficient reduction in urinary oxalate excretion. Oxalate degrading bacteria have been suggested for degrading intestinal oxalate for the prevention of calcium oxalate stone. Here, we reported a recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 (L. plantarum secreting heterologous oxalate decarboxylase (OxdC that may provide possible therapeutic approach by degrading intestinal oxalate. The results showed secretion and functional expression of OxdC protein in L. plantarum driven by signal peptides Lp_0373 and Lp_3050. Supernatant of the recombinant strain containing pLp_0373sOxdC and pLp_3050sOxdC showed OxdC activity of 0.05 U/mg and 0.02 U/mg protein, while the purified OxdC from the supernatant showed specific activity of 18.3 U/mg and 17.5 U/mg protein, respectively. The concentration of OxdC protein in the supernatant was 8–12 μg/mL. The recombinant strain showed up to 50% oxalate reduction in medium containing 10 mM oxalate. In conclusion, the recombinant L. plantarum harboring pLp_0373sOxdC and pLp_3050sOxdC can express and secrete functional OxdC and degrade oxalate up to 50% and 30%, respectively.

  5. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase.

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-06-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 (-), was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  6. Zebrafish gene expression, histology, blood domoic acid level, and behavioral data (Effects of Chronic Domoic Acid Exposure on Gene Expression in the Vertebrate CNS.)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The potential impacts of chronic algal toxin exposure have long been a concern. One HAB toxin, domoic acid (DA), is a potent neurotoxin that interacts with the...

  7. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  8. Boronic acid recognition based-gold nanoparticle-labeling strategy for the assay of sialic acid expression on cancer cell surface by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yuan; Peng, Lu; Hu, Bin

    2016-02-01

    Sialic acids are special sugars widely expressed at the termini of glycan chains on the cell surface, and their expression level on the cancer cell surface is much higher than on the normal cell surface. Herein, we reported an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) based method with elemental tags for the analysis of sialic acids on the cancer cell surface. The method is based on the selective recognition of sialic acids by biotinylated phenylboronic acid (biotin-APBA) at physiological pH and signal enhancement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in ICP-MS when AuNPs were used as elemental tags labeled on biotin-APBA. A specificity test reveals that the proposed method has high specificity towards cancer cells. Taking HepG2 and MCF-7 cells as two model cancer cells, competitive experiments were performed to estimate the expression level of sialic acids on the cancer cell surface, and it was found that the average numbers of sialic acids expressed on the single MCF-7 and HepG2 cell surface were 7.0 × 10(9) and 5.4 × 10(9), respectively. With sialic acid as the biomarker for cancer cells, the method was further used for cell detection. The limits of detection in terms of cell number for HepG2 and MCF-7 cells were 120 and 64, respectively. And the relative standard deviations for nine replicate determinations of ca. 1000 HepG2 and MCF-7 cells were 9.6% and 8.9%, respectively. The linear ranges for HepG2 cells and MCF-7 cells were 300-10 000 and 170-11 000, respectively. The proposed approach is sensitive as well as selective for the analysis of sialic acids on the cancer cell surface, and is potentially applicable for the study of tumor malignancy and metastasis, which is helpful for biological research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:26811850

  9. Effect of short chain fatty acids on the expression of free fatty acid receptor 2 (Ffar2), Ffar3 and early-stage adipogenesis

    Frost, G; Cai, Z.; Raven, M; Otway, DT; Mushtaq, R; Johnston, JD

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue has a major influence on insulin sensitivity. Stimulation of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) has been proposed to influence adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesised that exposing preadipocytes to short chain fatty acids would induce earlier expression of nuclear receptors that co-ordinate adipogenesis, triglyceride accumulation and leptin secretion. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in the presence of 1 μM acetate, 0.1–10 μM propionate or vehicle control. In experim...

  10. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos

    Subrat K. Bhanja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10 expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2 expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4 expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken.

  11. In Ovo Administration of Silver Nanoparticles and/or Amino Acids Influence Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression in Chicken Embryos.

    Bhanja, Subrat K; Hotowy, Anna; Mehra, Manish; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    Due to their physicochemical and biological properties, silver nanoparticles (NanoAg) have a wide range of applications. In the present study, their roles as a carrier of nutrients and an immunomodulator were tested in chicken embryos. Cysteine (Cys)+NanoAg injected embryos had smaller livers but heavier breasts on the 19th day of embryogenesis. Cys injected embryos had lower oxygen consumption compared to threonine (Thr) or NanoAg injected embryos. The energy expenditure in Thr+NanoAg, or NanoAg injected embryos was higher than Cys or Cys+NanoAg but was not different from uninjected control embryos. Relative expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene was higher in Cys or NanoAg injected embryos after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The gene expression of hepatic tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ among amino acids, NanoAg and uninjected controls in the non-LPS groups, but increased by many folds in the LPS treated NanoAg, Cys and Cys+NanoAg groups. In LPS treated spleens, TNF-α expression was also up-regulated by NanoAg, amino acids and their combinations, but interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was down-regulated in Thr, Cys or Thr+NanoAg injected embryos. Toll like receptor-2 (TLR2) expression did not differ in NanoAg or amino acids injected embryos; however, toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) expression was higher in all treated embryos, except for Cys+NanoAg, than in uninjected control embryos. We concluded that NanoAg either alone or in combination with amino acids did not affect embryonic growth but improved immunocompetence, indicating that NanoAg and amino acid complexes can act as potential agents for the enhancement of innate and adaptive immunity in chicken. PMID:25923079

  12. AXIAL SKELETAL AND HOX EXPRESSION DOMAIN ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID, VALPROIC ACID AND BROMOXYNIL DURING MURINE DEVELOPMENT

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) alters the developmental fate of the axial skeletal anlage. "Anteriorizations" or "posteriorizations", the assumption of characteristics of embryonic areas normally anterior or posterior to the affected tissues, are correlated with altered emb...

  13. Plasmid virulence gene expression induced by short-chain fatty acids in Salmonella dublin: identification of rpoS-dependent and rpo-S-independent mechanisms.

    El-Gedaily, A; Paesold, G; Chen, C Y; Guiney, D G; Krause, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Salmonella plasmid virulence spvABCD genes are growth phase regulated and require RpoS for maximal expression in stationary phase. We identified a growth phase-independent expression of spv which is mediated by short-chain fatty acids. During this fatty acid-mediated expression of spv, RpoS is required for induction only during exponential phase. In stationary phase, an rpoS-independent mechanism is responsible for expression of spv.

  14. 9-CIS-RETINOIC ACID REPRESSES ESTROGEN-INDUCED EXPRESSION OF THE VERY-LOW-DENSITY APOLIPOPROTEIN-II GENE

    SCHIPPERS, IJ; KLOPPENBURG, M; SNIPPE, L; AB, G

    1994-01-01

    The chicken very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene is estrogen-inducible and specifically expressed in liver. We examined the possible involvement of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) in the activation of the apoVLDLII promoter. We first concent

  15. Myocardial hypertrophy and the maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn human heart.

    Yatscoff, Michael A; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Grant, Meghan R; Greenwood, Rachel; Lukat, Trish; Beker, Donna L; Rebeyka, Ivan M; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2008-12-01

    After birth dramatic decreases in cardiac malonyl CoA levels result in the rapid maturation of fatty acid oxidation. We have previously demonstrated that the decrease in malonyl CoA is due to increased activity of malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), and decreased activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), enzymes which degrade and synthesize malonyl CoA, respectively. Decreased ACC activity corresponds to an increase in the activity of 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which phosphorylates and inhibits ACC. These alterations are delayed by myocardial hypertrophy. As rates of fatty acid oxidation can influence the ability of the heart to withstand an ischemic insult, we examined the expression of MCD, ACC, and AMPK in the newborn human heart. Ventricular biopsies were obtained from infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Immunoblot analysis showed a positive correlation between MCD expression and age. In contrast, a negative correlation in both ACC and AMPK expression and age was observed. All ventricular samples displayed some degree of hypertrophy, however, no differences in enzyme expression were found between moderate and severe hypertrophy. This indicates that increased expression of MCD, and the decreased expression of ACC and AMPK are important regulators of the maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn human heart. PMID:18614968

  16. Effects of Mycophenolic Acid on High Glucose-induced Expression of TGF-β and CTGF in Mesangial Cells

    L(U) Yongman; CHEN Junying; SHAO Jufang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on high glucose-induced expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in mesangial cells (MC) were investigated. Rat MC were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of MPA (1.0 and 10.0 μmol/L) or MPA plus high glucose for 72 h. The expression of TGF-β and CTGF was detected by Western blot. The results showed that high glucose could induce the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in MC, but MPA could inhibit this effects. MPA did not influence the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in normal glucose. It was concluded that MPA might prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in MC.

  17. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  18. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation. PMID:27148345

  19. Effect of α-linolenic acid and DHA intake on lipogenesis and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism in growing-finishing pigs.

    De Tonnac, A; Labussière, E; Vincent, A; Mourot, J

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3. Results were analysed for linear and quadratic effects of DHA intake. The results showed that activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased linearly in the liver with dietary DHA. Although the expression of the genes of these enzymes and their activities were poorly correlated, ME and FAS expressions also decreased linearly with DHA intake. The intake of DHA down-regulates the expressions of other genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in some tissues of pigs, such as fatty acid desaturase 2 and sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 in the liver and 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 in the LD muscle. FA oxidation in the LD muscle and FA synthesis decreased in the liver with increasing amount of dietary DHA, whereas a retroconversion of DHA into EPA seems to be set up in this last tissue. PMID:27181335

  20. Bile acids via FXR initiate the expression of major transporters involved in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in newborn mice

    Cui, Julia Yue; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Tanaka, Yuji; Fu, Zidong Donna; Guo, Ying; Guo, Grace Liejun; Lu, Hong; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile acids (BAs) plays a pivotal role in facilitating lipid absorption. Therefore, initiation of the EHC in newborns is of crucial importance for lipid absorption from milk. The purpose of this study was to determine at what age BA transporters in liver are expressed, and the mechanism for their initiation. Serum and liver samples were collected from C57BL/6 mice at 2 days before birth and various postnatal ages. Messenger RNA assays revealed a dramatic ...

  1. Highly expressed amino acid biosynthesis genes revealed by global gene expression analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis during growth in whole egg are not essential for this growth

    Jakočiūnė, Dzuiga; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Jelsbak, Lotte;

    2016-01-01

    RNA was extracted from S. Enteritidis using a modified RNA-extraction protocol. Global gene expression during growth in whole egg was compared to growth in LB-medium using DNA array method. Twenty-six genes were significantly upregulated during growth in egg; these belonged to amino acid biosynthesis......, di/oligopeptide transport system, biotin synthesis, ferrous iron transport system, and type III secretion system. Significant downregulation of 15 genes related to formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) and trehalose metabolism was observed. The results suggested that S. Enteritidis is starved for amino......-acids, biotin and iron when growing in egg. However, site specific mutation of amino acid biosynthesis genes asnA (17.3 fold upregulated), asnB (18.6 fold upregulated), asnA/asnB and, serA (12.0 fold upregulated) and gdhA (3.7 fold upregulated), did not result in growth attenuation, suggesting that biosynthesis...

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of recombinant Siganus oramin L-amino acid oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Li, Ruijun; Li, Anxing

    2014-12-01

    Siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (S. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites Cryptocaryon irritans, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. In order to test whether recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast Pichia pastoris was used as the expression host to obtain rSR-LAAO in vitro. Crude rSR-LAAO produced by P. pastoris integrated with the SR-LAAO gene had antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as shown by inhibition zone assay of the antibacterial spectrum on agar plates. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude rSR-LAAO against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1.040 ± 0.045 cm and 1.209 ± 0.085 cm, respectively. For the Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas sobria, Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the average diameter of inhibition zone was 1.291 ± 0.089 cm, 0.943 ± 0.061 cm, 0.756 ± 0.057 cm, 0.834 ± 0.023 cm and 1.211 ± 0.026 cm, respectively. These results were obtained at the logarithmic growth phase of S. agalactiae and A. sobria cell suspensions after incubation with 0.5 mg/mL crude rSR-LAAO for 24 h. The final bacterial growth rate was decreased significantly. The relative inhibition rate can reach 50% compared to crude products from P. pastoris integrated with an empty vector at the same concentration of protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude rSR-LAAO was likely associated with H2O2 formation, because its inhibition zones were disturbed significantly by catalase. Scanning electron microscopy results showed crude rSR-LAAO-treated bacterial surfaces became rough and particles were attached, cell walls were

  3. Over-expression of VvWRKY1 in grapevines induces expression of jasmonic acid pathway-related genes and confers higher tolerance to the downy mildew.

    Chloé Marchive

    Full Text Available Most WRKY transcription factors activate expression of defence genes in a salicylic acid- and/or jasmonic acid-dependent signalling pathway. We previously identified a WRKY gene, VvWRKY1, which is able to enhance tolerance to fungal pathogens when it is overexpressed in tobacco. The present work analyzes the effects of VvWRKY1 overexpression in grapevine. Microarray analysis showed that genes encoding defence-related proteins were up-regulated in the leaves of transgenic 35S::VvWRKY1 grapevines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that three genes putatively involved in jasmonic acid signalling pathway were overexpressed in the transgenic grapes. The ability of VvWRKY1 to trans-activate the promoters of these genes was demonstrated by transient expression in grape protoplasts. The resistance to the causal agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, was enhanced in the transgenic plants. These results show that VvWRKY1 can increase resistance of grapevine against the downy mildew through transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  4. Over-expression of VvWRKY1 in grapevines induces expression of jasmonic acid pathway-related genes and confers higher tolerance to the downy mildew.

    Marchive, Chloé; Léon, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Delrot, Serge; Lauvergeat, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Most WRKY transcription factors activate expression of defence genes in a salicylic acid- and/or jasmonic acid-dependent signalling pathway. We previously identified a WRKY gene, VvWRKY1, which is able to enhance tolerance to fungal pathogens when it is overexpressed in tobacco. The present work analyzes the effects of VvWRKY1 overexpression in grapevine. Microarray analysis showed that genes encoding defence-related proteins were up-regulated in the leaves of transgenic 35S::VvWRKY1 grapevines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that three genes putatively involved in jasmonic acid signalling pathway were overexpressed in the transgenic grapes. The ability of VvWRKY1 to trans-activate the promoters of these genes was demonstrated by transient expression in grape protoplasts. The resistance to the causal agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, was enhanced in the transgenic plants. These results show that VvWRKY1 can increase resistance of grapevine against the downy mildew through transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the jasmonic acid signalling pathway. PMID:23342101

  5. [Effects of combination of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin on LPS-induced cytokines expression in macrophage].

    Liu, Zhao; Zhong, Ju-ying; Gao, Er-ning; Yang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    To study the anti-inflammatory activity of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin. In the study, the liquichip-based high-throughput synchronous detection technique for 23 inflammatory factors, uniform design, comprehensive weight method were adopted to study the effect of different combined administration of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin in inhibiting the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264. 7 cells and multiple inflammatory cytokines. In the study, the uniform design table U₉ (9³) was adopted to design doses of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin. The liquichip technique was used to detect the effect of different combined administration of glycyrrhizin acid, ligustrazine and puerarin on the 23 cytokines expressed in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW264. 7 inflammation model. The traditional Chinese medicine component optimization software and the improved least angle regression algorithm were used to analyze the dose-effect relationship among the three components and the cytokine inhibition rate and produce the regression equation. The comprehensive weight method was applied to get the optimal dose ratio of glycyrrhizic acid, ligustrazine and puerarin with highest efficacy of 25:2:13 and verify the optimal dose ratio. The verification results were consistent with the prediction trend, indicating the accuracy of the mathematical model for predicting the experiment. The experimental results showed the multi-target and multi-level efficacies of glycyrrhizic acid, ligustrazine and puerarin and the high anti-inflammatory activity of their combined administration, which provides powerful basis for subsequent drug development. PMID:27062829

  6. Effect of Diet Supplementation on the Expression of Bovine Genes Associated with Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

    Sandeep J. Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are of important nutritional and health benefit to human. Food products of animal origin are their major dietary source and their concentration increases with high concentrate diets fed to animals. To examine the effects of diet supplementation on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, 28 Angus steers were fed either pasture only, pasture with soybean hulls and corn oil, pasture with corn grain, or high concentrate diet. At slaughter, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected, from which RNA was extracted. Relative abundance of gene expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array. An ANOVA model nested within gene was used to analyze the background adjusted, normalized average difference of probe-level intensities. To control experiment wise error, a false discovery rate of 0.01 was imposed on all contrasts. Expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and lipogenesis such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, fatty acid synthetase (FASN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty-acyl elongase (LCE along with several trancription factors and co-activators involved in lipogenesis were found to be differentially expressed. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was done to validate the microarray results, which showed satisfactory correspondence between the two platforms. Results show that changes in diet by increasing dietary energy intake by supplementing high concentrate diet have effects on the transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in fat metabolism which in turn has effects on fatty acid content in the carcass tissue as well as carcass quality. Corn supplementation either as oil or grain appeared to significantly alter the expression of genes directly associated with fatty acid synthesis.

  7. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia

    Nøhr, Mark Klitgaard; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H;

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a Gαi-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed...... in enteroendocrine cells, but has recently also been shown to be present in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFAR3 is present in other autonomic and sensory ganglia possibly influencing gut physiology. Cryostat sections were...... ganglia such as the vagal ganglion, the spinal dorsal root ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion. No expression was observed in the brain or spinal cord. By use of radioactive-labeled antisense DNA probes, mRNA encoding the FFAR3 was found to be present in cells of the same ganglia. Further, the expression...

  8. Coordination of gene expression of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascade enzymes during human brain development and aging.

    Veronica H Ryan

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades.AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging.The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism.Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years and Aging (21 to 78 years intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA and PTGS2 (COX-2 genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci.Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Involvement of aberrant DNA methylation on reduced expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene in rat tumor cell lines

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, it has been reported that alterations of LPA receptor expression might be important in the malignant transformation of tumor cells. Therefore, to assess an involvement of DNA methylation in reduced expression of the LPA receptor-1 (lpa1) gene, we investigated the expression of the lpa1 gene and its DNA methylation patterns in rat tumor cell lines. Both rat brain-derived neuroblastoma B103 and liver-derived hepatoma RH7777 cells used in this study indicated no expression of lpa1. For the analysis of methylation status, bisulfite sequencing was performed with B103 and RH7777 cells, comparing with other lpa1 expressed cells and normal tissues of brain and liver. The lpa1 expressed cells and tissues were all unmethylated in this region of lpa1. In contrast, both B103 and RH7777 cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expression of the lpa1. Treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine induced expression of lpa1 gene in B103 and RH7777 cells after 24 h. In RH7777 cells treated with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine, stress fiber formation was also observed in response to LPA in RH7777 cells, but not in untreated RH7777 cells. These results suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of the lpa1 gene may be involved in its reduced expression in rat tumor cells

  10. Valproic Acid Downregulates the Expression of MGMT and Sensitizes Temozolomide-Resistant Glioma Cells

    Chung Heon Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ has become a key therapeutic agent in patients with malignant gliomas; however, its survival benefit remains unsatisfactory. Valproic acid (VPA has emerged as an anticancer drug via inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs, but the therapeutic advantages of a combination with VPA and TMZ remain poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to determine whether an antitumor effect could be potentiated by a combination of VPA and TMZ, especially in TMZ-resistant cell lines. A combination of VPA and TMZ had a significantly enhanced antitumor effect in TMZ-resistant malignant glioma cells (T98 and U138. This enhanced antitumor effect correlated with VPA-mediated reduced O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT expression, which plays an important role in cellular resistance to alkylating agents. In vitro, the combination of these drugs enhanced the apoptotic and autophagic cell death, as well as suppressed the migratory activities in TMZ-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy experiment showed that treatment of combination of VPA and TMZ significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with the monotherapy groups of mice. These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of TMZ chemotherapy in TMZ-resistant malignant glioma may be improved by combination with VPA.

  11. Influence of ω-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid on IGF-1 and COX-2 gene expression in granulosa cells of PCOS women

    Shahnazi, Vahideh; Zaree, Mina; Nouri, Mohammad; Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Fayezi, Shabnam; Darabi, Maryam; Khani, Sajjad; Darabi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: The omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement to improve infertility, particularly in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression in primary cultured granulosa cells from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare this effect with those in granulosa cells of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human granulosa cells were isolated from follicular fluid of normal and PCOS women undergoing IVF by hyaluronidase digestions, followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Cells were cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA (25-100 µM) for 24 hr, and investigated with respect to COX-2 and IGF-1 gene expression by real time-PCR. Results: In both groups, all doses of the EPA significantly induced IGF-1 mRNA gene expression compared to the untreated control. High doses of EPA in the presence of recombinant (r) FSH produced a stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and a suppressive effect (p=0.01) on the COX-2 gene expression, which were more pronounced in granulosa cells from PCOS patients. Conclusion: EPA affect diversely the gene expression of IGF-1 and COX-2 in granulosa cells, which were more pronounced in PCOS compared to control. These findings represent the possible underlying molecular mechanisms for the positive impact of the ω-3 fatty acids on reproduction, especially in patients with PCOS. PMID:25999995

  12. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs. PMID:25867302

  13. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat,...

  14. High-performance liquid chromatography method with radiochemical detection for measurement of nitric oxide synthase, arginase, and arginine decarboxylase activities.

    Volke, A; Wegener, G; Vasar, E; Volke, V

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been shown to be involved in numerous biological processes, and many studies have aimed to measure nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that arginase and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two enzymes that also employ arginine as a substrate, may regulate NOS activity. We aimed to develop a HPLC-based method to measure simultaneously the products of these three enzymes. Traditionally, the separation of amino acids and related compounds with HPLC has been carried out with precolumn derivatization and reverse phase chromatography. We describe here a simple and fast HPLC method with radiochemical detection to separate radiolabeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, and agmatine. 3H-labeled L-arginine, L-citrulline, agmatine, and 14C-labeled L-citrulline were used as standards. These compounds were separated in the normal phase column (Allure Acidix 250 x 4.6 mm i.d.) under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min with good sensitivity. Using the current method, we have shown the formation of L-citrulline and L-ornithine in vitro using brain tissue homogenate of rats and that of agmatine by Escherichia coli ADC. PMID:16541190

  15. Accumulation of uroporphyrin does not provoke further inhibition of liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria.

    Adjarov, D G; Elder, G H

    1986-01-01

    The inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Uro-D) is the basic pathogenetic mechanism in porphyria caused by hexachlorobenzene (HCB). This study aimed to establish whether hepatic accumulation of uroporphyrin in this porphyria could provoke a further decrease of Uro-D activity. Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated for 8 weeks with a diet containing 0.02% HCB. In some of them the deposition of liver porphyrins was additionally increased by intraperitoneal application of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Uro-D activity was determined by measuring unconverted substrate uroporphyrinogen after its oxidation to uroporphyrin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The value of endogenously formed uroporphyrin was also obtained from the sample by subtraction, using a blank assay. HCB treatment resulted in reduced activity of hepatic Uro-D, but this activity was not significantly less in animals loaded with ALA than in non-loaded mice. Uroporphyrin deposition tended to decrease 6 weeks after withdrawal of HCB, but the activity of Uro-D was still markedly inhibited. There was no evidence that the accumulation of uroporphyrin promoted a supplementary decrease of Uro-D activity in HCB porphyria. PMID:3596742

  16. Real-Time kinetic studies of Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora oxalate oxidase using a luminescent oxygen sensor

    Laura Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC, an enzyme of the bicupinsuperfamily, catalyzes the decomposition of oxalate into carbondioxide and formate at an optimal pH of 4.3 in the presence ofoxygen. However, about 0.2% of all reactions occur through anoxidase mechanism that consumes oxygen while producing twoequivalents of carbon dioxide and one equivalent of hydrogenperoxide. The kinetics of oxidase activity were studied bymeasuring the consumption of dissolved oxygen over time using a luminescent oxygen sensor. We describe the implementation of and improvements to the oxygen consumption assay. The oxidase activity of wild type OxDC was compared to that of the T165V OxDC mutant, which contains an impaired flexible loop covering the active site. The effects of various carboxylic acid-based buffers on the rate of oxidase activity were also studied. These results were compared to the oxidase activity of oxalate oxidase (OxOx, a similar bicupin enzyme that only carries out oxalate oxidation. Thetemperature dependence of oxidase activity was analyzed, andpreliminary results offer an estimate for the overall activationenergy of the oxidase reaction within OxDC. The data reported here thus provide insights into the mechanism of the oxidase activity of OxDC.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    The structure of the decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase from E. coli was determined by SIRAS using a hexatantalum dodecabromide (Ta6Br122+) derivative. Model building and refinement are under way. The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C2221; the Ta6Br122+ cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals. The method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) as implemented in SHELXD was used to solve the Ta6Br122+-derivatized structure to 5 Å resolution. Many of the Ta6Br122+-binding sites had twofold and fivefold noncrystallographic symmetry. Taking advantage of this feature, phase modification was performed in DM. The electron-density map of LdcI displays many features in agreement with the low-resolution negative-stain electron-density map [Snider et al. (2006 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.281, 1532–1546

  18. Uncovering co-expression gene network modules regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Xu, Kenong

    2015-01-01

    Background Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that putatively encodes a vacuolar aluminum-activated malate transporter1 (ALMT1)-like protein is a strong candidate gene. We hypothesize that fruit acidity is governed by a gene network in which Ma1 is key member. The goal of this study is t...

  19. Host cell reactivation by human cells of DNA expression vectors damaged by ultraviolet radiation or by acid-heat treatment

    We utilized a plasmid vector host cell reactivation assay to probe the biological functioning of DNA expression vectors and their encoded genes. We studied the effect of ultraviolet radiation or acid-heat treatment on the transient expression of genes transfected into normal human cells and into DNA repair deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum) cells and modification of gene expression by sodium butyrate. The results showed that u.v. damage of DNA expression vectors was subject to repair by the normal host cells, but acid-heat treatment resulted in damage (apurinic sites) that was handled in a similar manner by excision repair deficient and excision repair proficient human cells. In both normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells sodium butyrate treatment of cells resulted in a greater stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression with u.v. damaged than with undamaged plasmid. This assay thus permits examination of the effects of defined types of DNA damage on plasmid expression and study of its modulation by cellular repair activities. (author)

  20. Meat consumption, ornithine decarboxylase gene polymorphism, and outcomes after colorectal cancer diagnosis

    Zell, Jason A.; Lin, Bruce S.; Argyrios Ziogas; Hoda Anton-Culver

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary arginine and meat consumption are implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression via polyamine-dependent processes. Polymorphism in the polyamine-regulatory gene, ornithine decarboxylase 1 (Odc1, rs2302615) is prognostic for CRC-specific mortality. Here, we examined joint effects of meat consumption and Odc1 polymorphism on CRC-specific mortality. Materials and Methods: The analytic cohort was comprised of 329 incident stage I-III CRC cases diagnosed 1994-1996 with foll...

  1. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is a marker of premalignancy in longstanding Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Patchett, S E; Katelaris, P H; Zhang, Z. W.; Alstead, E M; Domizio, P; Farthing, M J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longstanding Helicobacter pylori infection may increase the risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma. The sequence of chronic active gastritis leading to gastritis with atrophy and subsequent intestinal metaplasia is thought to be a key step in gastric carcinogenesis. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is increased in some pre-malignant gastrointestinal conditions and is essential for malignant transformation in vitro. AIMS: To measure ODC activity in the antrum of H pylori i...

  2. Genetic and Functional Analysis of the Soluble Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    Klaffl, Simon; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble, divalent cation-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylases (ODx) catalyze the irreversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to pyruvate and CO2. Although these enzymes have been characterized in different microorganisms, the genes that encode them have not been identified, and their functions have been only poorly analyzed so far. In this study, we purified a soluble ODx from wild-type C. glutamicum about 65-fold and used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TO...

  3. Deletion of glycine decarboxylase in arabidopsis is lethal under nonphotorespiratory conditions

    Engel, N.; van den Daele, K.; Kolukisaoglu, U.; Morgenthal, K.; Weckwerth, W.; Parnik, T.; Keerberg, O.; Bauwe, H.

    2007-01-01

    The mitochondrial multienzyme glycine decarboxylase (GDC) catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-dependent catabolism of glycine to 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate and the side products NADH, CO 2, and NH3. This reaction forms part of the photorespiratory cycle and contributes to one-carbon metabolism. While the important role of GDC for these two metabolic pathways is well established, the existence of bypassing reactions has also been suggested. Therefore, it is not clear to what extent GDC is obli...

  4. Ornithine Decarboxylase-1 Polymorphism, Chemoprevention With Eflornithine and Sulindac, and Outcomes Among Colorectal Adenoma Patients

    Zell, Jason A.; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Gerner, Eugene W.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2010-01-01

    The ornithine decarboxylase-1 (ODC1) polymorphism at position +316 affects binding by transcriptional activators and repressors and modulates the risk of metachronous colorectal adenomas, particularly in association with aspirin use. We investigated the effects of ODC1 after treatment with difluoromethylornithine (eflornithine)/sulindac or placebo. Two hundred twenty-eight colorectal adenoma patients in a randomized phase III trial were genotyped for ODC1. We used Wilcoxon rank sums tests on ...

  5. The influence of hyaluronic acid on vascular endothelial cell proliferation and the relationship with ezrin/merlin expression

    Wei Mo; Cuixia Yang; Yiwen Liu; Yiqing He; Yingzhi Wang; Feng Gao

    2011-01-01

    It has been established that hyaluronic acid (HA) glycans (nHA) and oligosaccharide (oHA) exert different effects on the biological function of the vascular endothelial cell (EC),resulting in altered regulation of angiogenesis.However,the specific mechanism is still unclear.Our study focused on the effects of nHA and oHA on the ezrin and merlin proteins in EC.The expression of ezrin and merlin was silenced by siRNA,and the regulation on EC growth as well as the mRNA expression and activation (phosphorylation) of ezrin and merlin stimulated by oHA and nHA was investigated.The results revealed that when treated with nHA,there was no significant change in ezrin expression or activation.After being treated with oHA,the expression and activation of ezrin were definitively increased whereas there were no obvious changes in merlin expression (including its phosphorylation).With ezrin expression silenced,the expression of merlin as well as its phosphorylation levels in nHA-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells were notably elevated,while there was no significant change induced by oHA. With merlin expression silenced,no obvious change was found in the expression of ezrin (including its phosphorylation)induced by nHA.Conversely,the expression of ezrin and its activation was significantly improved after being treated with oHA.The results suggest that the mechanism for the promotion of EC proliferation by oHA is likely related to the expression and activation of ezrin,and the inhibition of EC proliferation by nHA is likely related to the expression and activation of merlin.

  6. The Modulatory Effect of Ellagic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on Ultraviolet-B-Induced Cytokine/Chemokine Gene Expression in Skin Keratinocyte (HaCaT Cells

    Serena Lembo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV induces an increase in multiple cutaneous inflammatory mediators. Ellagic acid (EA and rosmarinic acid (RA are natural anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds found in many plants, fruits, and nuts. We assessed the ability of EA and RA to modulate IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP-1, and TNF-α gene expression in HaCaT cells after UVB irradiation. Cells were treated with UVB (100 mJ/cm2 and simultaneously with EA (5 μM in 0.1% DMSO or RA (2.7 μM in 0.5% DMSO. Moreover, these substances were added to the UVB-irradiated cells 1 h or 6 h before harvesting, depending on the established UVB-induced cytokine expression peak. Cytokine gene expression was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. RA produced a significant reduction in UVB-induced expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α when applied at the same time as irradiation. EA showed milder effects compared with RA, except for TNF-α. Both substances decreased IL-6 expression, also when applied 5 h after irradiation, and always produced a significant increase in UVB-induced IL-10 expression. Our findings suggest that EA and RA are able to prevent and/or limit the UVB-induced inflammatory cascade, through a reduction in proinflammatory mediators and the enhancement of IL-10, with its protective function.

  7. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional characterization of candidate AAT genes in future studies. PMID:27092815

  8. Novel protein–protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani

    Mishra, Arjun K.; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J. Venkatesh, E-mail: jvpratap@cdri.res.in

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • L. donovani spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase have been cloned and purified. • S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has autocatalytic property. • GST pull down assay shows the two proteins to form a metabolon. • Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that binding was exothermic having K{sub d} value of 0.4 μM. • Interaction confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. - Abstract: Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein–protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein–protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes.

  9. Evaluation of Brachypodium distachyon L-Tyrosine Decarboxylase Using L-Tyrosine Over-Producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Shuhei Noda

    Full Text Available To demonstrate that herbaceous biomass is a versatile gene resource, we focused on the model plant Brachypodium distachyon, and screened the B. distachyon for homologs of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC, which is involved in the modification of aromatic compounds. A total of 5 candidate genes were identified in cDNA libraries of B. distachyon and were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate TDC expression and tyramine production. It is suggested that two TDCs encoded in the transcripts Bradi2g51120.1 and Bradi2g51170.1 have L-tyrosine decarboxylation activity. Bradi2g51170.1 was introduced into the L-tyrosine over-producing strain of S. cerevisiae that was constructed by the introduction of mutant genes that promote deregulated feedback inhibition. The amount of tyramine produced by the resulting transformant was 6.6-fold higher (approximately 200 mg/L than the control strain, indicating that B. distachyon TDC effectively converts L-tyrosine to tyramine. Our results suggest that B. distachyon possesses enzymes that are capable of modifying aromatic residues, and that S. cerevisiae is a suitable host for the production of L-tyrosine derivatives.

  10. In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Young, Travis [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of an active fused Zea mays L. D-amino acid oxidase.

    Gholizadeh, A; Kohnehrouz, B B

    2009-02-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is an FAD-dependent enzyme that metabolizes D-amino acids in microbes and animals. However, such ability has not been identified in plants so far. We predicted a complete DAAO coding sequence consisting of 1158 bp and encoding a protein of 386 amino acids. We cloned this sequence from the leaf cDNA population of maize plants that could utilize D-alanine as a nitrogen source and grow normally on media containing D-Ala at the concentrations of 100 and 1000 ppm. For more understanding of DAAO ability in maize plant, we produced a recombinant plasmid by the insertion of isolated cDNA into the pMALc2X Escherichia coli expression vector, downstream of the maltose-binding protein coding sequence. The pMALc2X-DAAO vector was used to transform the TB1 strain of E. coli cells. Under normal growth conditions, fused DAAO (with molecular weight of about 78 kDa) was expressed up to 5 mg/liter of bacterial cells. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography and subjected to in vitro DAAO activity assay in the presence of five different D-amino acids. Fused DAAO could oxidize D-alanine and D-aspartate, but not D-leucine, D-isoleucine, and D-serine. The cDNA sequence reported in this paper has been submitted to EMBL databases under accession number AM407717. PMID:19267668

  12. Myocardial Lipid Profiling During Time Course of High Fat Diet and its Relationship to the Expression of Fatty Acid Transporters

    Ewa Harasim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that increased fatty acids (FA supply causes lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Whether the same mechanism is present in the heart is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the content of specific myocardial lipid fractions during feeding rats a high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks. Moreover, the relation between changes in myocardial lipid content, whole body insulin resistance and the expression of fatty acid transporters in each week of HFD was established. Methods: Gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the content of lipid fractions in the left ventricle. Expression of selected proteins was estimated by Western blot technique. All measurements were made after each week of HFD. Results: As expected, lipid profile in myocardium was altered by HFD in different weeks of the study with the most intense changes in triacylglycerols, long chain fatty acid-CoA and ceramide. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of plasmalemmal (the 4th and the 5th week and mitochondrial expression (from the 3rd to the 5th week of fatty acid translocase. Conclusion: High fat diet affects myocardial lipid profile in each week of its duration and causes alternations in FA metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  13. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease.

    Coker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Serdar; Arisan, Elif Damla; Unsal, Narçin Palavan

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intron region of ODC (+316 G>A) and promoter region of SSAT (-1415 T>C) genes have been found to be associated with the polyamines expression levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether the ODC (+316 G>A) intron 1 region gene polymorphism and SAT-1 promoter region (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers for susceptibility to urolithiasis. A control group of 104 healthy subjects and a group of 65 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease were enrolled into this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction analysis was performed for the ODC intron 1 (+316 G>A) region and SAT-1 (-1415 T>C) promoter gene polymorphisms by PstI and MspI restriction enzyme digestion, respectively. The genotype distribution of polymorphisms studied in the ODC intron 1 region (+316 G>A) and SAT-1 -1415 T>C promoter region did not reveal a significant difference between urolithiasis and the control groups (P=0.713 and 0.853), respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the control and patient groups for ODC +316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C allele frequencies (P=0.877 and 0.644), respectively. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that ODC + 316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C gene polymorphisms might not be a risk factor for urolithiasis. PMID:24649071

  14. The expression of the Cuphea palustris thioesterase CpFatB2 in Yarrowia lipolytica triggers oleic acid accumulation.

    Stefan, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ugolini, Luisa; Lazzeri, Luca; Conte, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of industrial by-products into high-value added compounds is a challenging issue. Crude glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel production chain, could represent an alternative carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeasts. Here, we developed five minimal synthetic glycerol-based media, with different C/N ratios, and we analyzed the production of biomass and fatty acids by Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g strain. We identified two media at the expense of which Y. lipolytica was able to accumulate ∼5 g L(-1) of biomass and 0.8 g L(-1) of fatty acids (0.16 g of fatty acids per g of dry weight). These optimized media contained 0.5 g L(-1) of urea or ammonium sulfate and 20 g L(-1) of glycerol, and were devoid of yeast extract. Moreover, Y. lipolytica was engineered by inserting the FatB2 gene, coding for the CpFatB2 thioesterase from Cuphea palustris, in order to modify the fatty acid composition towards the accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. Contrary to the expected, the expression of the heterologous gene increased the production of oleic acid, and concomitantly decreased the level of saturated fatty acids. PMID:26518537

  15. The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.

    Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Ishikawa, Yu; Wada, Yoshiko; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Taura, Futoshi

    2004-09-17

    Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase is the enzyme that catalyzes oxidative cyclization of cannabigerolic acid into THCA, the precursor of Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinol. We cloned a novel cDNA (GenBank trade mark accession number AB057805) encoding THCA synthase by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions from rapidly expanding leaves of Cannabis sativa. This gene consists of a 1635-nucleotide open reading frame, encoding a 545-amino acid polypeptide of which the first 28 amino acid residues constitute the signal peptide. The predicted molecular weight of the 517-amino acid mature polypeptide is 58,597 Da. Interestingly, the deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high homology to berberine bridge enzyme from Eschscholtzia californica, which is involved in alkaloid biosynthesis. The liquid culture of transgenic tobacco hairy roots harboring the cDNA produced THCA upon feeding of cannabigerolic acid, demonstrating unequivocally that this gene encodes an active THCA synthase. Overexpression of the recombinant THCA synthase was achieved using a baculovirus-insect expression system. The purified recombinant enzyme contained covalently attached FAD cofactor at a molar ratio of FAD to protein of 1:1. The mutant enzyme constructed by changing His-114 of the wild-type enzyme to Ala-114 exhibited neither absorption characteristics of flavoproteins nor THCA synthase activity. Thus, we concluded that the FAD binding residue is His-114 and that the THCA synthase reaction is FAD-dependent. This is the first report on molecular characterization of an enzyme specific to cannabinoid biosynthesis. PMID:15190053

  16. Imaging oncogene expression in breast cancer with receptor specific peptides and peptide nucleic acids

    Full text: This year, breast cancer (BC) will attack approximately 210, 000 and will take the lives of 40,000 women in the U.S. Standard screening with breast self-examination and mammography, recommended to minimize BC morbidity, miss 10-20% (up to 40% in young women) of breast cancer. Moreover, if an abnormality is found, an invasive diagnostic procedure is required to determine if the breast contains hyperplasia, atypia, or cancer. Approximately 80% of invasive procedures detect a benign pathology. BC cells express a gene product, cell surface receptor VPAC1, so named because the endogenous growth hormones Vasoctive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Pituitary Adenylate Cylcase Activating Peptide (PACAP) bind to VPAC1 receptors with high affinity. VPAC1 receptors are overexpressed on 100% of human breast cancer cells. Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the cell cycle and overexpressed in 50% to 80% of breast cells, whereas it is low or absent in normal breast tissues. The human breast cancer cell line MCF7 displays elevated levels of CCND1 mRNA, encoding cyclin D1, and an elevated level of IGF1R mRNA, encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. We hypothesed that 99mTc or 64Cu labeled VIP analogues, or a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) chimera specific for IGFI receptor and CCND1 mRNA, will permit us to early image breast cancer by planar, SPECT or PET imaging. We synthesized, characterized and administered i.v. 99mTc-AcGly-D (Ala)-Gly-Glyaminobutanoyl- VIP (TP3654), 64Cu diaminodithiol-aminobutanoyl-VIP (TP3982), 99mTc- AcGly-D(Ala)-Gly-Gly-PNA-D(Cys-ser-lys-Cys) chimera (WT4185) and Cu-64-DOTAPNA- D(cys-ser-lys-cys) (WT4348). A 12mer, CTGGTGTTCCAT nucleic acid sequence served as the PNA and 3 or 4 mer mismatched PNAs as negative controls. Using 99mTc-TP3654 we have successfully imaged human breast cancers not detectable by current modalities. In athymic, nude mice bearing MCF-7 human breast cancer xenographs, Cu-64-TP3982 tumour uptake was 85 times greater than 99m

  17. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue.

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males' subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  18. Molecular cloning and ontogenic mRNA expression of fatty acid desaturase in the carnivorous striped snakehead fish (Channa striata).

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Enyu, Yee-Ling; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Wong, Kah-Loon; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-04-01

    There is very little information on the capacity of freshwater carnivorous fish to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) is a carnivorous species cultured inland of several Southeast Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical properties in wound healing enhancement. We described here the full-length cDNA cloning of a striped snakehead fatty acid desaturase (fads), which is responsible for desaturation of unsaturated fatty acids in the HUFA biosynthesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a protein coding region with length of 445 amino acids containing all characteristic features of desaturase enzyme, including a cytochrome b5-domain with the heme-binding motif, two transmembrane domains and three histidine-rich regions. The striped snakehead fads amino acid sequence shares high similarity with known fads of other teleosts. The mRNA expression of striped snakehead fads also showed an ontogenic-related increase in expression in 0-20 days after hatch larva. Using ISH, we localized the presence of fads in larva brain, liver and intestinal tissues. PMID:21130179

  19. Purification and characterization of a cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans CAS-52, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2013-03-01

    A highly enantioselective cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase from Nocardia tartaricans was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was purified 184-fold with a yield of 18.8 %. The purified cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase had a monomeric molecular weight of 28 kDa, and its optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7-9. With sodium cis-epoxysuccinate as the substrate, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics analysis gave a Km value of 35.71 mM and a Vmax of 2.65 mM min(-1). The enzyme was activated by Ni(2+) and Al(3+), while strongly inhibited by Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(+). The cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was cloned, and its open reading frame sequence predicted a protein composed of 253 amino acids. A pET11a expression plasmid carrying the gene under the control of the T7 promoter was introduced into Escherichia coli, and the cis-epoxysuccinic acid hydrolase gene was successfully expressed in the recombinant strains. PMID:22552902

  20. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    Ebrahimi, M; Rajion, M. A.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.; Schonewille, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α -linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α , PPAR- γ , and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous ...

  1. Increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP expression in malignant breast, ovarian and melanoma tissue: an investigational study

    Eck M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is a metalloprotein enzyme that belongs to the acid phosphatases and is known to be expressed by osteoclasts. It has already been investigated as a marker of bone metastases in cancer patients. In this study, which examined the value of serum TRAP concentrations as a marker of bone disease in breast cancer patients, we observed high concentrations of TRAP even in patients without bone metastases. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined the expression of TRAP in breast cancer cells and the cells of several other malignancies. Methods TRAP concentrations in the serum of tumor patients were determined by ELISA. The expression of TRAP in breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer and malignant melanoma was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunocytology were used to evaluate TRAP expression in cultured tumor cells. Results A marked increase in serum TRAP concentrations was observed in patients with breast and ovarian cancer, regardless of the presence or absence of bone disease. TRAP expression was found in breast and ovarian cancers and malignant melanoma, while cervical cancer showed only minimal expression of TRAP. Expression of TRAP was absent in benign tissue or was much less marked than in the corresponding malignant tissue. TRAP expression was also demonstrated in cultured primary cancer cells and in commercially available cell lines. Conclusion Overexpression of TRAP was detected in the cells of various different tumors. TRAP might be useful as a marker of progression of malignant disease. It could also be a potential target for future cancer therapies.

  2. MicroRNA gene expression during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Garzon, R; Pichiorri, F; Palumbo, T; Visentini, M; Aqeilan, R; Cimmino, A; Wang, H; Sun, H; Volinia, S; Alder, H; Calin, G A; Liu, C-G; Andreeff, M; Croce, C M

    2007-06-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of critical cell processes such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in granulopoiesis. Here, we report the expression of miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients and cell lines during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment by using a miRNA microarrays platform and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found upregulation of miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16-1, let-7a-3, let-7c, let-7d, miR-223, miR-342 and miR-107, whereas miR-181b was downregulated. Among the upregulated miRNAs, miR-107 is predicted to target NFI-A, a gene that has been involved in a regulatory loop involving miR-223 and C/EBPa during granulocytic differentiation. Indeed, we have confirmed that miR-107 targets NF1-A. To get insights about ATRA regulation of miRNAs, we searched for ATRA-modulated transcription factors binding sites in the upstream genomic region of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster and identified several putative nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) consensus elements. The use of reporter gene assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that one proximal NF-kappaB binding site is essential for the transactivation of the let-7a-3/let-7b cluster. Finally, we show that ATRA downregulation of RAS and Bcl2 correlate with the activation of known miRNA regulators of those proteins, let-7a and miR-15a/miR-16-1, respectively. PMID:17260024

  3. Fumaric acid esters stimulate astrocytic VEGF expression through HIF-1α and Nrf2.

    Diana Wiesner

    Full Text Available Fumaric acid esters (FAE are oral analogs of fumarate that have recently been shown to decrease relapse rate and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS, prompting to investigate their protective potential in other neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Despite efficacy in MS, mechanisms of action of FAEs are still largely unknown. FAEs are known to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 and downstream anti-oxidant responses through the succination of Nrf2 inhibitor KEAP1. However, fumarate is also a known inhibitor of prolyl-hydroxylases domain enzymes (PhD, and PhD inhibition might lead to stabilization of the HIF-1α transcription factor under normoxic conditions and subsequent activation of a pseudo hypoxic response. Whether Nrf2 activation is associated with HIF-1α stabilization in response to FAEs in cell types relevant to MS or ALS remains unknown. Here, we show that FAEs elicit HIF-1α accumulation, and VEGF release as its expected consequence, in astrocytes but not in other cell types of the central nervous system. Reporter assays demonstrated that increased astrocytic VEGF release in response to FAEs was dependent upon both HIF-1α and Nrf2 activation. Last, astrocytes of transgenic mice expressing SOD1(G93A, an animal model of ALS, displayed reduced VEGF release in response to FAEs. These studies show that FAEs elicit different signaling pathways in cell types from the central nervous system, in particular a pseudo-hypoxic response in astrocytes. Disease relevant mutations might affect this response.

  4. Fumaric acid esters stimulate astrocytic VEGF expression through HIF-1α and Nrf2.

    Wiesner, Diana; Merdian, Irma; Lewerenz, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc; Witting, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are oral analogs of fumarate that have recently been shown to decrease relapse rate and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS), prompting to investigate their protective potential in other neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite efficacy in MS, mechanisms of action of FAEs are still largely unknown. FAEs are known to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 and downstream anti-oxidant responses through the succination of Nrf2 inhibitor KEAP1. However, fumarate is also a known inhibitor of prolyl-hydroxylases domain enzymes (PhD), and PhD inhibition might lead to stabilization of the HIF-1α transcription factor under normoxic conditions and subsequent activation of a pseudo hypoxic response. Whether Nrf2 activation is associated with HIF-1α stabilization in response to FAEs in cell types relevant to MS or ALS remains unknown. Here, we show that FAEs elicit HIF-1α accumulation, and VEGF release as its expected consequence, in astrocytes but not in other cell types of the central nervous system. Reporter assays demonstrated that increased astrocytic VEGF release in response to FAEs was dependent upon both HIF-1α and Nrf2 activation. Last, astrocytes of transgenic mice expressing SOD1(G93A), an animal model of ALS, displayed reduced VEGF release in response to FAEs. These studies show that FAEs elicit different signaling pathways in cell types from the central nervous system, in particular a pseudo-hypoxic response in astrocytes. Disease relevant mutations might affect this response. PMID:24098549

  5. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  6. Albizia lebbeck suppresses histamine signaling by the inhibition of histamine H1 receptor and histidine decarboxylase gene transcriptions.

    Nurul, Islam Mohammed; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Shahriar, Masum; Venkatesh, Pichairajan; Maeyama, Kazutaka; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Hattori, Masashi; Choudhuri, Mohamed Sahabuddin Kabir; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Histamine plays major roles in allergic diseases and its action is mediated mainly by histamine H(1) receptor (H1R). We have demonstrated that histamine signaling-related H1R and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) genes are allergic diseases sensitive genes and their expression level affects severity of the allergic symptoms. Therefore, compounds that suppress histamine signaling should be promising candidates as anti-allergic drugs. Here, we investigated the effect of the extract from the bark of Albizia lebbeck (AL), one of the ingredients of Ayruvedic medicines, on H1R and HDC gene expression using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) sensitized allergy model rats and HeLa cells expressing endogenous H1R. Administration of the AL extract significantly decreased the numbers of sneezing and nasal rubbing. Pretreatment with the AL extract suppressed TDI-induced H1R and HDC mRNA elevations as well as [(3)H]mepyramine binding, HDC activity, and histamine content in the nasal mucosa. AL extract also suppressed TDI-induced up-regulation of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA. In HeLa cells, AL extract suppressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- or histamine-induced up-regulation of H1R mRNA. Our data suggest that AL alleviated nasal symptoms by inhibiting histamine signaling in TDI-sensitized rats through suppression of H1R and HDC gene transcriptions. Suppression of Th2-cytokine signaling by AL also suggests that it could affect the histamine-cytokine network. PMID:21782040

  7. The novel putative bile acid transporter SLC10A5 is highly expressed in liver and kidney

    Here we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of SLC10A5, which is a new member of Solute Carrier Family 10 (SLC10), also known as the 'sodium/bile acid cotransporter family'. Expression of SLC10A5/Slc10a5 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and revealed its highest expression levels in liver and kidney in humans, rat and mouse. In rat liver and kidney, Slc10a5 expression was localized by in situ hybridization to hepatocytes and proximal tubules, respectively. A SLC10A5-FLAG fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 cells and showed an apparent molecular weight of 42 kDa after immunoprecipitation. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the SLC10A5-FLAG protein was detected in the oocyte's plasma membrane but showed no transport activity for taurocholate, cholate, estrone-3-sulfate, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. As bile acid carriers are the most related carriers to SLC10A5 though, we strongly suppose that SLC10A5 is an orphan carrier with yet non-identified substrates

  8. Expression of PprI from Deinococcus radiodurans Improves Lactic Acid Production and Stress Tolerance in Lactococcus lactis

    Dong, Xiangrong; Tian, Bing; Dai, Shang; Li, Tao; Guo, Linna; Tan, Zhongfang; JIAO, Zhen; Jin, Qingsheng; Wang, Yanping; Hua, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    PprI is a general switch protein that regulates the expression of certain proteins involved in pathways of cellular resistance in the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. In this study, we transformed pprI into Lactococcus lactis strain MG1363 using the lactococcal shuttle vector pMG36e and investigated its effects on the tolerance and lactic acid production of L. lactis while under stress. PprI was stably expressed in L. lactis as confirmed by western blot assays. L. lactis expre...

  9. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress and Kinin Receptor Expression in Obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Midaoui, Adil El; Talbot, Sébastien; Lahjouji, Karim; Dias, Jenny Pena; Fantus, I. George; Couture, Réjean

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of alpha-lipoic acid on superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity as well as on the expression of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in key organs of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Methods Superoxide anion production was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression was measured at protein and mRNA levels by western blot and qRT-PCR in key organs of Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Zucker lean control rats treated for a perio...

  10. Alterations in subcellular expression of acid-sensing ion channels in the rat forebrain following chronic amphetamine administration

    Suman, Ajay; Mehta, Bhavi; Guo, Ming-Lei; Chu, Xiang-Ping; Fibuch, Eugene E.; Mao, Li-Min; WANG, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are densely expressed in broad areas of mammalian brains and actively modulate synaptic transmission and a variety of neuronal activities. To explore whether ASICs are linked to addictive properties of drugs of abuse, we investigated the effect of the psychostimulant amphetamine on subcellular ASIC expression in the rat forebrain in vivo. Repeated administration of amphetamine (once daily for 7 days, 1.25 mg/kg for days 1/7, 4 mg/kg for days 2–6) induced typi...

  11. EXPRESSION OF NESTIN AND GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN DIFFERENT PERIOD AFTER SPINAL INJURY IN ADULT RATS

    屈建强; 贺西京; 杨平林; 师蔚; 李浩鹏; 兰宾尚; 袁普卫; 王国毓

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in different period after spinal injury in adult rats. Methods Animal moels were created by artery clamp. Expression of Nestin and GFAP in different period (1,3,5days;1-8 weeks) and different area(injury locus and its surrounding tissue ) after spinal injury were observed pathologicaly using immunofluorescence and LeicaQ500IW imaging processing system. Results There was expression of Nestin and GFAP in injured area 1 day after injury.The expression increased not only in in injured area but its sourrounding 3-7 days later and gradually got to peak value. As the time went on, expression of Nestin and GFAP dereased. Conclusion Spinal injury can induce the expression of Nestin. Nerve stem cell has response to spinal injury. There is positive correlation between expression of Nestin and hyperplasia of reactivity astrocyte. Nerve stem cell maybe invovled in the repair of central nervous system (CNS).

  12. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival. PMID:26777559

  13. Analysis of the regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines

    Sugiyama Takayuki; Teratani Takumi; Takayama Tatsuya; Takaoka Naohisa; Mugiya Soichi; Ozono Seiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may be fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), also known as B-FABP and BLBP, which is expressed normally in radial glial cells of the developing central nervous system and cells of the mammary gland. Melanomas, glioblastomas, and several types of carcinomas, including RCC,...

  14. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) via fatty acid synthase gene expression.

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Yiping; Liu, Zongyu; You, Linlin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Linquan; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng; Wu, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report documented the influence of foliar JGM sprays on ovarian protein content. Here, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) protocols to analyze ovarian proteins of BPH females following JGM spray (JGM-S) and topical application (JGM-T). We recorded changes in expression of 284 proteins (142↑ and 142↓) in JGM-S compared to the JGM-S control group (S-control); 267 proteins were differentially expressed (130↑ and 137↓) in JGM-T compared to the JGM-T control group (T-control), of which, 22 proteins were up-regulated in both groups. Comparing the JGM-S to the JGM-T group, 114 proteins were differentially expressed (62↑ and 52↓). Based on the biological significance of fatty acids, pathway annotation and enrichment analysis, we designed a dsRNA construct to silence a gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS was more highly expressed in JGM-S vs S-control and JGM-S vs JGM-T groups. The dsFAS treatment reduced fecundity by about 46% and reduced ovarian and fat body fatty acid concentrations in JGM-S-treated females relative to controls. We infer FAS provides critically needed fatty acids to support JGM-enhanced fecundity in BPH. PMID:26388431

  15. Lysophosphatidic Acid Alters the Expression Profiles of Angiogenic Factors, Cytokines, and Chemokines in Mouse Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    Chia-Hung Chou; Shou-Lun Lai; Cheng-Maw Ho; Wen-Hsi Lin; Chiung-Nien Chen; Po-Huang Lee; Fu-Chuo Peng; Sung-Hsin Kuo; Szu-Yuan Wu; Hong-Shiee Lai

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a multi-function glycerophospholipid. LPA affects the proliferation of hepatocytes and stellate cells in vitro, and in a partial hepatectomy induced liver regeneration model, the circulating LPA levels and LPA receptor (LPAR) expression levels in liver tissue are significantly changed. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (Lsecs) play an important role during liver regeneration. However, the effects of LPA on Lsecs are not well known. Thus, we ...

  16. Influence of retinoic acid on TBX1 expression in myocardial cells induced by Shh and Fgf8

    Miao LIU; Xiaoyan WU; Jiawei XU; Runming JIN

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of retinoic acid (RA) on the TBX1 gene expression in myocardial cells. Ventricular cardio-cytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured, and then treated with different concentrations of retinoic acid. The expression of Shh and Fgf8 at mRNA and protein levels in neonatal rat myocardial cells were measured by using RT-PCR and Western blot technique, respectively. There was basal expression of Shh and Fgf8 in the control group. When treated with 3×10-7 mol/L RA, we observed that the expression of Shh mRNA and protein in neonatal rat myocardial cells were up-regulated by 1.51 (P<0.05) and 1.10 times (P<0.05), respectively. In comparison with the control group, under the concentra-tion of 5×10-7 mol/L RA, they were up-regulated by 2.21 (P < 0.05) and 2.38 times (P < 0.05) individually. Mean-while, we could detect that the expression of Fgf8 mRNA and protein were up-regulated by 2.50 times (P < 0.05) and 80% (P<0.05) separately compared with the control group after stimulation of 3×10-7 mol/L RA, and they were up-regulated by 3.48 (P< 0.05) and 2.04 times(P < 0.05) individually after stimulation of 5×10-7 mol/LRA. The results indicated that RA could induce the expression of Shh and Fgf8 in neonatal rat myocardial cells. At the same time, it has shown that Shh and Fgf8 were involved in the regulation process of RA on TBX1 expression.

  17. Elevated delta-6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: relationship with fatty acid composition.

    Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2009-04-01

    Although emerging evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with peripheral and central polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficits, there is currently nothing known about the expression of genes that mediate PUFA biosynthesis in SZ patients. Here we determined Delta5 desaturase (FADS1), Delta6 desaturase (FADS2), elongase (HELO1 [ELOVL5]), peroxisomal (PEX19), and Delta9 desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD) mRNA expression, and relevant fatty acid product:precursor ratios as estimates of enzyme activities, in the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with SZ (n=20) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20). After correction for multiple comparisons, FADS2 mRNA expression was significantly greater in SZ patients relative to controls (+36%, p=0.002), and there was a positive trend found for FADS1 (+26%, p=0.15). No differences were found for HELO1 (+10%, p=0.44), PEX19 (+12%, p=0.44), or SCD (-6%, p=0.85). Both male (+34%, p=0.02) and female (+42%, p=0.02) SZ patients exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to same-gender controls. Drug-free SZ patients (+37%, p=0.02), and SZ patients treated with typical (+40%, p=0.002) or atypical (+31%, p=0.04) antipsychotics, exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to controls. Consistent with increased Delta6 desaturase activity, SZ patients exhibited a greater 20:3/18:2 ratio (+20%, p=0.03) and a positive trend was found for 20:4/18:2 (+13%, p=0.07). These data demonstrate abnormal, potentially compensatory, elevations in Delta6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the PFC of SZ patients that are independent of gender and antipsychotic medications. Greater Delta6 desaturase expression and activity could have implications for central prostaglandin synthesis and proinflammatory signaling. PMID:19195843

  18. Changes in polysialic acid expression on myeloid cells during differentiation and recruitment to sites of inflammation: role in phagocytosis.

    Stamatos, Nicholas M; Zhang, Lei; Jokilammi, Anne; Finne, Jukka; Chen, Wilbur H; El-Maarouf, Abderrahman; Cross, Alan S; Hankey, Kim G

    2014-09-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique linear homopolymer of α2,8-linked sialic acid that has been studied extensively as a posttranslational modification of neural cell adhesion molecule in the central nervous system. Only two proteins are known to be polysialylated in cells of the immune system: CD56 on human natural killer cells and murine bone marrow (BM) leukocytes, and neuropilin-2 (NRP-2) on dendritic cells (DCs). We tested the hypothesis that polySia expression is regulated during maturation and migration of leukocytes and plays a role in functional activity. Using wild-type and NCAM(-/-) mice, we show that BM neutrophils express only polysialylated CD56, whereas a subset of BM monocytes expresses polysialylated CD56 and/or another polysialylated protein(s). We demonstrate that polysialylated CD56 expression is progressively down-regulated in wild-type monocytes and monocyte-derived cells during migration from BM through peripheral blood to pulmonary and peritoneal sites of inflammation. Freshly isolated monocyte-derived peritoneal macrophages are devoid of polySia yet re-express polySia on NRP-2 and an additional protein(s) after maintenance in culture. Removal of polySia from these cells enhances phagocytosis of Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggesting that down-regulation of polySia on macrophages facilitates bacterial clearance. Using wild-type and NRP-2(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that NRP-2 and an additional protein(s) are polysialylated by ST8 SiaIV in BM-derived DCs. We conclude that polySia expression in monocyte-derived cells is dynamically regulated by ST8 SiaIV activity and by expression of carrier proteins during recruitment to sites of inflammation and influences cellular interactions with microbes, contributing to innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:24865221

  19. Recent gene conversions between duplicated glutamate decarboxylase genes (gadA and gadB) in pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Tarr, Cheryl L; Christensen, Lisa M; Betting, David J; Whittam, Thomas S

    2007-10-01

    Escherichia coli have evolved adaptive systems to resist strongly acidic habitats in part through the production of 2 biochemically identical isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), encoded by the gadA and gadB genes. These genes occur in E. coli and other members of the genospecies (e.g., Shigella spp.) and originated as part of a genomic fitness island acquired early in Escherichia evolution. The present duplicated gad loci are widely spaced on the E. coli chromosome, and the 2 genes are 97% similar in sequence. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the gadA and gadB in 16 strains of pathogenic E. coli revealed 3.8% and 5.0% polymorphism in the 2 genes, respectively. Alignment of the homologous genes identified a total of 120 variable sites, including 21 fixed nucleotide differences between the loci within the first 82 codons of the genes. Twenty-three phylogenetically informative sites were polymorphic for the same nucleotides in both genes suggesting recent gene conversions or intergenic recombination. Phylogenetic analysis based on the synonymous substitutions per synonymous site indicated 2 cases in which specific gadA and gadB alleles were more closely related to one another than to other alleles at the corresponding locus. The results indicate that at least 3 gene conversion events have occurred after the gad gene duplication in the evolution of E. coli. Despite multiple gene conversion events, the upstream regulatory regions and the 5' end of each gene remains distinct, suggesting that maintaining functionally different gad genes is important in this acid-resistance mechanism in pathogenic E. coli. PMID:17675652

  20. Hormonal Regulation and Expression Profiles of Wheat Genes Involved during Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway

    Sipla Aggarwal; Vishnu Shukla; Kaushal Kumar Bhati; Mandeep Kaur; Shivani Sharma; Anuradha Singh; Shrikant Mantri; Ajay Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) biosynthesis pathway genes were reported from multiple crop species. PA accumulation was enhanced during grain filling and at that time, hormones like Abscisic acid (ABA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) interplay to control the process of seed development. Regulation of wheat PA pathway genes has not yet been reported in seeds. In an attempt to find the clues for the regulation by hormones, the promoter region of wheat PA pathway genes was analyzed for the presence of cis-elements...

  1. Characterization of Withania somnifera leaf transcriptome and expression analysis of pathogenesis-related genes during salicylic acid signaling.

    Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal is a valued medicinal plant with pharmaceutical applications. The present study was undertaken to analyze the salicylic acid induced leaf transcriptome of W. somnifera. A total of 45.6 million reads were generated and the de novo assembly yielded 73,523 transcript contig with average transcript contig length of 1620 bp. A total of 71,062 transcripts were annotated and 53,424 of them were assigned GO terms. Mapping of transcript contigs to biological pathways revealed presence of 182 pathways. Seventeen genes representing 12 pathogenesis-related (PR families were mined from the transcriptome data and their pattern of expression post 17 and 36 hours of salicylic acid treatment was documented. The analysis revealed significant up-regulation of all families of PR genes by 36 hours post treatment except WsPR10. The relative fold expression of transcripts ranged from 1 fold to 6,532 fold. The two families of peroxidases including the lignin-forming anionic peroxidase (WsL-PRX and suberization-associated anionic peroxidase (WsS-PRX recorded maximum expression of 377 fold and 6532 fold respectively, while the expression of WsPR10 was down-regulated by 14 fold. Additionally, the most stable reference gene for normalization of qRT-PCR data was also identified. The effect of SA on the accumulation of major secondary metabolites of W. somnifera including withanoside V, withaferin A and withanolide A was also analyzed and an increase in content of all the three metabolites were detected. This is the first report on expression patterns of PR genes during salicylic acid signaling in W. somnifera.

  2. Expression Levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Primary Granulosa Cells: Influence of ω-3 Fatty Acid

    Zaree, Mina; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Fayezi, Shabnam; Darabi, Maryam; Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Khani, Sajjad; Nouri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acid) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of poly- cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The present study was designed to investigate the ef- fect of EPA on the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP-19) in primary cultured granulosa cells (GC) from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare these effects with those in GC of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, human GC were isolated, pri- mary cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA and in- vestigated with respect to gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The participants (n=30) were the patients admitted to the IVF Center in February-March 2013 at Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, who were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=15) and non-PCOS (n=15) women (controls). Results All doses of the EPA significantly induced PPARγ mRNA gene expression level as compared to the control recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) alone condi- tion. High doses of EPA in the presence of rFSH produced a stimulatory effect on expres- sion level of PPARγ (2.15-fold, P=0.001) and a suppressive effect (0.56-fold, P=0.01) on the expression level of CYP-19, only in the PCOS GC. Conclusion EPA and FSH signaling pathway affect differentially on the gene ex- pression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in PCOS GC. Altered FSH-induced PPARγ activity in PCOS GC may modulate the CYP-19 gene expression in response to EPA, and possibly modulates the subsequent steroidogenesis of these cells. PMID:26246878

  3. Induction of porcine host defense peptide gene expression by short-chain fatty acids and their analogs.

    Xiangfang Zeng

    Full Text Available Dietary modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections. However, HDP regulation by dietary compounds such as butyrate is species-dependent. To examine whether butyrate could induce HDP expression in pigs, we evaluated the expressions of a panel of porcine HDPs in IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cells, 3D4/31 macrophages, and primary monocytes in response to sodium butyrate treatment by real-time PCR. We revealed that butyrate is a potent inducer of multiple, but not all, HDP genes. Porcine β-defensin 2 (pBD2, pBD3, epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C, and protegrins were induced markedly in response to butyrate, whereas pBD1 expression remained largely unaltered in any cell type. Additionally, a comparison of the HDP-inducing efficacy among saturated free fatty acids of different aliphatic chain lengths revealed that fatty acids containing 3-8 carbons showed an obvious induction of HDP expression in IPEC-J2 cells, with butyrate being the most potent and long-chain fatty acids having only a marginal effect. We further investigated a panel of butyrate analogs for their efficacy in HDP induction, and found glyceryl tributyrate, benzyl butyrate, and 4-phenylbutyrate to be comparable with butyrate. Identification of butyrate and several analogs with a strong capacity to induce HDP gene expression in pigs provides attractive candidates for further evaluation of their potential as novel alternatives to antibiotics in augmenting innate immunity and disease resistance of pigs.

  4. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  5. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-01-01

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs. PMID:24222247

  6. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. PMID:27149247

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Some reports have demonstrated that EPA inhibits NF-κB activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in various cells. However, its detailed mode of action is unclear. In this report, we investigated whether EPA inhibits the expression of TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). TNF-α induced MMP-9 expression by NF-κB-dependent pathway. Pretreatment of EPA inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and p65 phosphorylation. However, EPA could not affect IκB-α phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and DNA binding activity of NF-κB. EPA inhibited TNF-α-induced p65 phosphorylation through p38 and Akt inhibition and this inhibition was IKKα-dependent event. Taken together, we demonstrate that EPA inhibits TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of p38 and Akt activation

  8. Expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of APETx2, a specific inhibitor of acid sensing ion channel 3.

    Anangi, Raveendra; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Yuan-Ren; Cheng, Chun-Ho; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Yuan-Ping; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2010-12-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are family of proteins predominantly present in the central and peripheral nervous system. They are known to play important roles in the pathophysiology of pain and ischemic stroke. APETx2 is a potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels and was isolated from sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. To facilitate the study on the molecular determinants of ASIC3-ligand interactions, we expressed recombinant APETx2 in the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system and purified it to homogeneity. Recombinant APETx2 produced in P. pastoris inhibited the acid-evoked ASIC3 current with the IC(50) value of 37.3 nM. The potency of recombinant toxin is similar to that of native APETx2. The sequential assignment and structure analysis of APETx2 were obtained by 2D and 3D (15)N-edited NMR spectra. Our NMR data suggests that APETx2 produced in P. pastoris retained its native fold. The results presented here provide the first direct evidence that highly disulfide bonded peptide inhibitor of ASIC3, APETx2, can be expressed in P. pastoris with correct fold and high yield. We also showed that the R17A mutant exhibited a decrease in activity, suggesting the feasibility of the use of this expression system to study the interactions between APETx2 and ASIC3. These evidences may serve as the basis for understanding the selectivity and activity of APETx2. PMID:20813121

  9. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Heidker, Rebecca M; Caiozzi, Gianella C; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG) levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY). Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and complementary

  10. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Rebecca M Heidker

    Full Text Available Bile acid (BA sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and

  11. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver

    Heidker, Rebecca M.; Caiozzi, Gianella C.; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG) levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY). Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt) gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and complementary

  12. High expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a prognostic marker in bile duct adenocarcinomas

    Oncocytic L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 may be a prognostic indicator and target of new molecular therapeutic agents against malignancies. To investigate whether LAT1 expression influence the outcomes of patients with bile duct cancer, the expression of LAT1, LAT2, CD98, and Ki-67 was investigated immunohistochemically in 134 surgically resected bile duct adenocarcinomas, including 84 distal extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinomas, 21 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 15 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and 14 ampullary adenocarcinomas. LAT1 expression was weakly correlated with CD98 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significant difference in prognosis between patients with bile duct adenocarcinomas having LAT1-high and -low scores, whereas LAT2 and CD98 expression and Ki-67 LI were not predictive of poor prognosis. Prognosis tended to be worse in patients having tumors with LAT1-high/LAT2-low than LAT1-low/LAT2-high scores (P = 0.0686). Multivariable analyses revealed that LAT1 expression, surgical margin, pT stage were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, aberrant overexpression of LAT1 in bile duct adenocarcinoma predicts poor prognosis, suggesting that LAT1 may be a potential target of anticancer therapy

  13. Effect of borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii on expression levels of four amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study collected cerebrospinal fluid samples from the corpus striatum in rats treated with borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii using brain microdialysis technology. Levels of excitatory neurotransmitters aspartic acid and glutamate, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid, were measured in samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, phosphate gradient elution, and fluorescence detection. Results showed that concentrations of all four amino acid neurotransmitters significantly increased in the corpus striatum following treatment with borneol or moschus, but effects due to borneol were more significant than moschus. Acorus tatarinowii treatment increased ?-aminobutyric acid expression, but decreased glutamate concentrations. Storax increased aspartic acid concentrations and decreased glycine expression. Results demonstrated that borneol and moschus exhibited significant effects on con amino acid neurotransmitter expression; storax exhibited excitatory effects, and acorus tatarinowii resulted in inhibitory effects.

  14. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport.

    Pricilla E Day

    Full Text Available Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother's capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth.RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women's Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR.Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01, y+LAT2 (p = 0.03, aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02 and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04 mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01, ASCT1 (p = 0.03, mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02 and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05 was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05 associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05 and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01 associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01. Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001.A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter and metabolic genes and maternal smoking

  15. Salvianolic acid B modulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Qing-LanWang; QuocWu; Yan-Yan Tao; Cheng-Hai Liu; Hani El-Nezami

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzymes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism have been considered to exist in two groups: phase I and phase II enzymes. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs) are the most important phase I enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The products of phase I metabolism are then acted upon by phase II enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Herbs that inhibit CYPs such as CYP3A4 or that induce GSTs may have the potential to protect against chemical carcinogenesis since the mutagenic effects of carcinogens are often mediated through an excess of CYP-generated reactive intermediates. This study was designed to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a pure compound extracted from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, a Chinese herb, on cell proliferation and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYPs and GST protein expression in HepG2 cells. METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cell proliferation was determined by SYTOX-Green nucleic acid staining. CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression was assayed by real-time PCR. GST protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Low concentrations of Sal B (0-20 μmol/L) had no significant effects on cell proliferation, while higher concentrations (100-250 μmol/L) significantly inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Tenμmol/L Sal B, but not 1 μmol/L, down-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression after 24 hours of incubation, whereas both 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression after 96 hours of incubation; moreover, 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B inhibited CYP3A4 mRNA expression induced by rifampicin. Both 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L Sal B increased GST expression. CONCLUSION: Sal B inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression and induces GST expression in HepG2 cells.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  17. Identification of the Enterobacteriaceae in Montasio cheese and assessment of their amino acid decarboxylase activity.

    Maifreni, Michela; Frigo, Francesca; Bartolomeoli, Ingrid; Innocente, Nadia; Biasutti, Marialuisa; Marino, Marilena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the species of Enterobacteriaceae present in Montasio cheese and to assess their potential to produce biogenic amines. Plate count methods and an Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) approach, combined with 16S rDNA sequencing, were used to investigate the Enterobacteriaceae community present during the cheesemaking and ripening of 6 batches of Montasio cheese. Additionally, the potential decarboxylation abilities of selected bacterial isolates were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed against tyrosine, histidine, ornithine and lysine. The most predominant species detected during cheese manufacturing and ripening were Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Hafnia alvei. The non-limiting physico-chemical conditions (pH, NaCl% and a(w)) during ripening were probably the cause of the presence of detectable levels of Enterobacteriaceae up to 120 d of ripening. The HPLC test showed that cadaverine and putrescine were the amines produced in higher amounts by almost all isolates, indicating that the presence of these amines in cheese can be linked to the presence of high counts of Enterobacteriaceae. 44 isolates produced low amounts of histamine (agglomerans, Esch. fergusonii and R. ornithinolytica. PMID:23298547

  18. Development of a Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knockout Mouse: Dietary Taurine Reduces Neonatal Mortality

    Eunkyue Park; Seung Yong Park; Carl Dobkin; Georgia Schuller-Levis

    2014-01-01

    We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD-/-. Although CSAD-/- generation (G)1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD-/- had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD-/- born from G2 CSAD-/- treated with taurine in ...

  19. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  20. Expression of Castor LPAT2 Enhances Ricinoleic Acid Content at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lesquerella Seed

    Chen, Grace Q.; van Erp, Harrie; Martin-Moreno, Jose; Johnson, Kumiko; Morales, Eva; Browse, John; Eastmond, Peter J.; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh

    2016-01-01

    Lesquerella is a potential industrial oilseed crop that makes hydroxy fatty acid (HFA). Unlike castor its seeds are not poisonous but accumulate lesquerolic acid mostly at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas castor contains ricinoleic acid (18:1OH) at all three positions. To investigate whether lesquerella can be engineered to accumulate HFAs in the sn-2 position, multiple transgenic lines were made that express castor lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 2 (RcLPAT2) in the seed. RcLPAT2 increased 18:1OH at the sn-2 position of TAGs from 2% to 14%–17%, which resulted in an increase of tri-HFA-TAGs from 5% to 13%–14%. Our result is the first example of using a LPAT to increase ricinoleic acid at the sn-2 position of seed TAG. This work provides insights to the mechanism of HFA-containing TAG assembly in lesquerella and directs future research to optimize this plant for HFA production. PMID:27058535

  1. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD gen...

  2. Defective canalicular transport and toxicity of dietary ursodeoxycholic acid in the abcb11-/- mouse: transport and gene expression studies.

    Wang, Renxue; Liu, Lin; Sheps, Jonathan A; Forrest, Dana; Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R; Ling, Victor

    2013-08-15

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP), encoded by the abcb11 gene, is the major canalicular transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte. BSEP malfunction in humans causes bile acid retention and progressive liver injury, ultimately leading to end-stage liver failure. The natural, hydrophilic, bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is efficacious in the treatment of cholestatic conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and cholestasis of pregnancy. The beneficial effects of UDCA include promoting bile flow, reducing hepatic inflammation, preventing apoptosis, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity in hepatocytes. However, the role of BSEP in mediating UDCA efficacy is not known. Here, we used abcb11 knockout mice (abcb11-/-) to test the effects of acute and chronic UDCA administration on biliary secretion, bile acid composition, liver histology, and liver gene expression. Acutely infused UDCA, or its taurine conjugate (TUDC), was taken up by the liver but retained, with negligible biliary output, in abcb11-/- mice. Feeding UDCA to abcb11-/- mice led to weight loss, retention of bile acids, elevated liver enzymes, and histological damage to the liver. Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed that genes encoding Mdr1a and Mdr1b (canalicular) as well as Mrp4 (basolateral) transporters were upregulated in abcb11-/- mice. We concluded that infusion of UDCA and TUDC failed to induce bile flow in abcb11-/- mice. UDCA fed to abcb11-/- mice caused liver damage and the appearance of biliary tetra- and penta-hydroxy bile acids. Supplementation with UDCA in the absence of Bsep caused adverse effects in abcb11-/- mice. PMID:23764895

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids partially revert the metabolic gene expression profile induced by long-term calorie restriction.

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Cánovas, Ángela; Medrano, Juan F; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Villalba, José Manuel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon J

    2016-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) consistently extends longevity and delays age-related diseases across several animal models. We have previously shown that different dietary fat sources can modulate life span and mitochondrial ultrastructure, function and membrane fatty acid composition in mice maintained on a 40% CR. In particular, animals consuming lard as the main fat source (CR-Lard) lived longer than CR mice consuming diets with soybean oil (CR-Soy) or fish oil (CR-Fish) as the predominant lipid source. In the present work, a transcriptomic analysis in the liver and skeletal muscle was performed in order to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying the changes in energy metabolism and longevity induced by dietary fat in CR mice. After 8months of CR, transcription downstream of several mediators of inflammation was inhibited in liver. In contrast, proinflammatory signaling was increased in the CR-Fish versus other CR groups. Dietary fish oil induced a gene expression pattern consistent with increased transcriptional regulation by several cytokines (TNF, GM-CSF, TGF-β) and sex hormones when compared to the other CR groups. The CR-Fish also had lower expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and increased expression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation genes than the other CR diet groups. Our data suggest that a diet high in n-3 PUFA, partially reverts CR-related changes in gene expression of key processes, such as inflammation and steroid hormone signaling, and this may mitigate life span extension with CR in mice consuming diets high in fish oil. PMID:26875793

  4. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  5. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia.

    Nøhr, M K; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H; Gille, A; Offermanns, S; Schwartz, T W; Møller, M

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a Gαi-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells, but has recently also been shown to be present in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFAR3 is present in other autonomic and sensory ganglia possibly influencing gut physiology. Cryostat sections were cut of autonomic and sensory ganglia of a transgenic reporter mouse expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) gene under the control of the FFAR3 promoter. Control for specific expression was also done by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the reporter protein. mRFP expression was as expected found not only in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion, but also in sympathetic ganglia of the thoracic and lumbar sympathetic trunk. Further, neurons in prevertebral ganglia expressed the mRFP reporter. FFAR3-mRFP-expressing neurons were also present in both autonomic and sensory ganglia such as the vagal ganglion, the spinal dorsal root ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion. No expression was observed in the brain or spinal cord. By use of radioactive-labeled antisense DNA probes, mRNA encoding the FFAR3 was found to be present in cells of the same ganglia. Further, the expression of the FFAR3 in the ganglia of the transgenic mice was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the receptor protein, and double labeling colocalized mRFP and the FFAR3-protein in the same neurons. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on extracts from the ganglia supported the presence mRNA encoding the FFAR3 in most of the investigated tissues. These data indicate that FFAR3 is expressed on postganglionic sympathetic and

  6. Nisin-induced Expression of Pediocin in Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria

    To test if a single vector, nisin-controlled expression (NICE) system could be used to regulate expression of the pediocin operon in Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus casei, the intact pediocin operon was cloned into pMSP3535 immediately down stream of th...

  7. Structural insight into DFMO resistant ornithine decarboxylase from Entamoeba histolytica: an inkling to adaptive evolution.

    Preeti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyamine biosynthetic pathway is a validated therapeutic target for large number of infectious diseases including cancer, giardiasis and African sleeping sickness, etc. α-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, a potent drug used for the treatment of African sleeping sickness is an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the first rate limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The enzyme ODC of E. histolytica (EhODC has been reported to exhibit resistance towards DFMO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The basis for insensitivity towards DFMO was investigated by structural analysis of EhODC and conformational modifications at the active site. Here, we report cloning, purification and crystal structure determination of C-terminal truncated Entamoeba histolytica ornithine decarboxylase (EhODCΔ15. Structure was determined by molecular replacement method and refined to 2.8 Å resolution. The orthorhombic crystal exhibits P2(12(12(1 symmetry with unit cell parameters a = 76.66, b = 119.28, c = 179.28 Å. Functional as well as evolutionary relations of EhODC with other ODC homologs were predicted on the basis of sequence analysis, phylogeny and structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We determined the tetrameric crystal structure of EhODCΔ15, which exists as a dimer in solution. Insensitivity towards DFMO is due to substitution of key substrate binding residues in active site pocket. Additionally, a few more substitutions similar to antizyme inhibitor (AZI, a non-functional homologue of ODCs, were identified in the active site. Here, we establish the fact that EhODC sequence has conserved PLP binding residues; in contrast few substrate binding residues are mutated similar to AZI. Further sequence analysis and structural studies revealed that EhODC may represent as an evolutionary bridge between active decarboxylase and inactive AZI.

  8. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues. PMID:26314861

  9. Supplemental leucine and isoleucine affect expression of cationic amino acid transporters and myosin, serum concentration of amino acids, and growth performance of pigs.

    Cervantes-Ramírez, M; Mendez-Trujillo, V; Araiza-Piña, B A; Barrera-Silva, M A; González-Mendoza, D; Morales-Trejo, A

    2013-01-01

    Leucine (Leu) participates in the activity of cationic amino acid (aa) transporters. Also, branched-chain aa [Leu, isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val)] share intestinal transporters for absorption. We conducted an experiment with 16 young pigs (body weight of about 16 kg) to determine whether Leu and Ile affect expression of aa transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and expression of myosin in muscle, as well as serum concentration of essential aa, and growth performance in pigs. Dietary treatments were: wheat-based diets fortified with Lys, Thr, and Met; basal diet plus 0.50% Leu; basal diet plus 0.50% Ile, and basal diet plus 0.50% Leu and 0.50% Ile. After 28 days, the pigs were sacrificed to collect blood, jejunum, and semitendinosus and longissimus muscle samples. The effects of single and combined addition of Leu and Ile were analyzed. Leu alone or combined with Ile significantly decreased daily weight gain and reduced feed conversion. Leu and Ile, alone or in combination, significantly decreased expression of b(0,+) and significantly increased CAT-1. Ile alone or combined with Leu significantly decreased myosin expression in semitendinosus and significantly decreased it in longissimus muscle. Leu alone significantly decreased Lys, Ile and Thr serum concentrations; Ile significantly decreased Thr serum concentration; combined Leu and Ile significantly decreased Thr and significantly increased Val serum concentration. We conclude that dietary levels of Leu and Ile affect growth performance, expression of aa transporters and myosin, and aa serum concentrations in pigs. PMID:23408397

  10. Changes in activity of lysine decarboxylase in winter triticale in response to grain aphid feeding.

    Sempruch, C; Leszczyński, B; Wójcicka, Agnieszka; Makosz, M; Matok, H; Chrzanowski, G

    2010-12-01

    Changes in lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity caused by Sitobion avenae (F.) feeding on two winter triticale cultivars (cvs) were studied. The aphid fecundity and values of intrinsic rate of natural increase showed that cv Witon was less susceptible to S. avenae than cv Tornado. The grain aphid feeding on more susceptible triticale caused a decrease in the LDC activity, with exceptions of root tissues after two weeks of the feeding. In case of less susceptible cv Witon reduction of the LDC activity was observed only during initial period of S. avenae feeding. Later the aphid infestation induced activity of the LDC within tissues of cv Witon. PMID:21112841

  11. Involvement of the Octadecanoid Pathway and Protein Phosphorylation in Fungal Elicitor-Induced Expression of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthetic Genes in Catharanthus roseus

    Menke, Frank L.H.; Parchmann, Stefanie; Mueller, Martin J.; Kijne, Jan W.; Memelink, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Two key genes in terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis, Tdc and Str, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase, respectively, are coordinately induced by fungal elicitors in suspension-cultured Catharanthus roseus cells. We have studied the roles of the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway and of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction initiated by a partially purified elicitor from yeast extract. In addition to activating Tdc and Str gene expression, the elicitor also induced the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid. The jasmonate precursor α-linolenic acid or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) itself induced Tdc and Str gene expression when added exogenously . Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, an inhibitor of jasmonate biosynthesis, blocked both the elicitor-induced formation of jasmonic acid and the activation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes. The protein kinase inhibitor K-252a abolished both elicitor-induced jasmonate biosynthesis and MeJA-induced Tdc and Str gene expression. Analysis of the expression of Str promoter/gusA fusions in transgenic C. roseus cells showed that the elicitor and MeJA act at the transcriptional level. These results demonstrate that the jasmonate biosynthetic pathway is an integral part of the elicitor-triggered signal transduction pathway that results in the coordinate expression of the Tdc and Str genes and that protein kinases act both upstream and downstream of jasmonates. PMID:10198087

  12. Enhanced production of shikimic acid using a multi-gene co-expression system in Escherichia coli.

    Liu, Xiang-Lei; Lin, Jun; Hu, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is the key synthetic material for the chemical synthesis of Oseltamivir, which is prescribed as the front-line treatment for serious cases of influenza. Multi-gene expression vector can be used for expressing the plurality of the genes in one plasmid, so it is widely applied to increase the yield of metabolites. In the present study, on the basis of a shikimate kinase genetic defect strain Escherichia coli BL21 (ΔaroL/aroK, DE3), the key enzyme genes aroG, aroB, tktA and aroE of SA pathway were co-expressed and compared systematically by constructing a series of multi-gene expression vectors. The results showed that different gene co-expression combinations (two, three or four genes) or gene orders had different effects on the production of SA. SA production of the recombinant BL21-GBAE reached to 886.38 mg·L(-1), which was 17-fold (P < 0.05) of the parent strain BL21 (ΔaroL/aroK, DE3). PMID:27114316

  13. Improvement of the reverse tetracycline transactivator by single amino acid substitutions that reduce leaky target gene expression to undetectable levels.

    Roney, Ian J; Rudner, Adam D; Couture, Jean-François; Kærn, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Conditional gene expression systems that enable inducible and reversible transcriptional control are essential research tools and have broad applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. The reverse tetracycline transcriptional activator is a canonical system for engineered gene expression control that enables graded and gratuitous modulation of target gene transcription in eukaryotes from yeast to human cell lines and transgenic animals. However, the system has a tendency to activate transcription even in the absence of tetracycline and this leaky target gene expression impedes its use. Here, we identify single amino-acid substitutions that greatly enhance the dynamic range of the system in yeast by reducing leaky transcription to undetectable levels while retaining high expression capacity in the presence of inducer. While the mutations increase the inducer concentration required for full induction, additional sensitivity-enhancing mutations can compensate for this effect and confer a high degree of robustness to the system. The novel transactivator variants will be useful in applications where tight and tunable regulation of gene expression is paramount. PMID:27323850

  14. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Expression of a Novel Intergenic Long Noncoding RNA in Adult rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2016-02-01

    Around 90% of the mammalian genome undergoes pervasive transcription into various types of small and long regulatory noncoding RNAs, whereas only ∼ 1.5% codes for proteins. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute diverse classes of sense- and antisense transcripts that are abundantly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in cell type- and developmental stage-specific manners. They are implicated in brain development, differentiation, neuronal plasticity, and other cognitive functions. Mammalian brain requires the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) for its normal development, differentiation, and cell-fate determination. However, its role in adult brain function is less understood. Here, we report atRA-mediated transcriptional upregulation of endogenous expression of a novel long intergenic noncoding RNA-rat brain expressed (LINC-RBE) in cultured primary hippocampal neurons from adult rat. We have previously reported LINC-RBE as an intergenic, simple repeat sequence containing lncRNA highly expressed in the rat brain. This is a first-time report of involvement of atRA in transcriptional upregulation of lncRNA expression in rat hippocampal neurons. Therefore, it may be involved in regulation of brain function and disease. PMID:26572536

  15. Molecular characterization, tissue expression, and polymorphism analysis of liver-type fatty acid binding protein in Landes geese.

    Song, Z; Shao, D; Sun, X X; Niu, J W; Gong, D Q

    2015-01-01

    Liver weight is an important economic trait in the fatty goose liver industry. Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is involved in the formation and metabolism of fatty acids. Thus, we hypothesized that sequence polymorphisms in L-FABP were associated with fatty liver weight in goose. We first isolated, sequenced, and characterized the goose L-FABP gene, which had not been previously reported. The goose L-FABP gene was 2490 bp and included 4 exons coding for a 126-amino acid protein. Analysis of expression levels of the goose L-FABP gene in different tissues showed that the expression level in the liver tissue was higher than in other tissues, and was significantly higher in the liver tissue of overfed geese than in control geese. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism located at 774 bp in the gene was identified in a Landes goose population. To test whether this single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with fatty liver production, liver weight and the ratio of liver to carcass weights were determined for the 3 genotypes with this single nucleotide polymorphism (TT, TG, GG) in overfed Landes geese. Our data indicate that individuals with the GG genotype had higher values for the variables measured than those with the other 2 genotypes, suggesting that L-FABP can be a selection marker for the trait of fatty liver production in goose. PMID:25729971

  16. Elevated expression of fatty acid synthase and nuclear localization of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C are common among human gliomas.

    Wakamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Honda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Iwaki, Toru

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a brain-specific isoform of the CPT1 family, are upregulated in certain types of cancers, including gliomas. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis, and its phosphorylated form inhibits lipid synthesis. We examined the expression and subcellular localization of these fatty acid metabolism-related molecules in human gliomas. We performed immunostaining of two glioma cell lines (U373MG and U87MG) and 41 surgical specimens of diffuse gliomas with various histological grades (21 with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1(IDH1) R132H mutation and 20 without the mutation). In the cultured glioma cells, CPT1C and phosphorylated ACC (p-ACC) were mainly localized to the nuclei, whereas FASN localized to the cytoplasm. In the surgical specimens, most glioma tissues showed nuclear staining for CPT1C and p-ACC, and cytoplasmic staining for FASN, regardless of the genetic status of IDH1 and the histological grade. Therefore, elevated cytoplasmic expression of FASN and nuclear localization of CPT1C are common among human diffuse gliomas, which may be regulated by the differential phosphorylation status of ACC in the cellular compartment. PMID:24984811

  17. Regulation of IGFBP-1 gene expression by amino acids; Tanpakushitsu / aminosan ni yoru IGFBP-1 idenshi no hatsugen seigyo

    Takenaka, A. [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    IGFBP-1 is selected as a model, whose gene expression is regulated by dietary protein and amino acid, to outline the transcription regulating mechanism. Investigation is made to see if there is any IGFBP whose synthesis activity varies when the amount and nutritive value of dietary protein is varied. As a result, it is found that the IGFBP-1 concentration in the blood and mRNA in the liver increase largely corresponding to the decrease of the amount of dietary protein. At this time the transcription rates of IGFBP-1 gene in livers of rats increase in like manner, revealing that decrease of the amount of dietary protein has effect on the transcription process of IGFBP-1 genes. It is shown that liver cells increase IGFBP-1 synthesis in response to `deficiency of the amount of amino acid` in the transcription level. Reports are made on the results of studies on the transcription regulation of IGFBP-1 genes and the molecular structure of IGGBP-1 gene expression regulation by amino acid. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Expression, Identity and Role in the Excitability of the Cochlear Afferent Neurons

    González-Garrido, Antonia; Vega, Rosario; Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván A.; Soto, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4) that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations) and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil)-ethylenediamine increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs. PMID:26733809

  19. Expression

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinoic acid receptor-alpha in human breast tumors: retinoic acid receptor-alpha expression correlates with proliferative activity.

    van der Leede, B. M.; Geertzema, J.; Vroom, T. M.; Décimo, D.; Lutz, Y.; van der Saag, P. T.; van der Burg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids are known to prevent mammary carcinogenesis in rodents and inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Previously we demonstrated that retinoid inhibition of proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines is largely mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha. In this study we describe for the first time the histological distribution of RAR-alpha in 33 breast lesion specimens as determined by immunostaining with RAR-alpha antibody. Nuclear staining was observed in tumor tissue and normal portions of the breast samples. Connective tissue exhibited relative uniform staining, whereas a wide range of RAR-alpha expression was found in the epithelial tumor cells. RAR-alpha protein was expressed at significantly higher levels in tumors with greater proliferative activity as determined by immunostaining with Ki-67 antibody. This suggests that RAR-alpha expression may be altered with tumor progression. Although a positive correlation between RAR-alpha mRNA levels and estrogen receptor status of breast tumors has previously been documented, we did not find such a relationship at the protein level. As RAR-alpha plays a major role in retinoid-mediated growth inhibition of human breast cancer cell in vitro, our findings suggest that patients with highly proliferating tumors could be responsive to retinoid independently of their responsiveness to (anti)-estrogens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8669476