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Sample records for acid coordinates nod

  1. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis. PMID:26897126

  2. Differential Modulation of Nods Signaling Pathways by Fatty Acids in Human Colonic Epithelial HCT116 cells

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizing conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan through their leucine-rich repeats (LRR) domain. The agonists for Nods activate proinflammtory signaling pathways incl...

  3. Nodding Syndrome

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  4. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  5. Structural models of zebrafish (Danio rerio NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT domains suggest differential ATP binding orientations: insights from computational modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Jitendra Maharana

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1 and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, γ-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved 'Lysine' at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds and Aspartic acid (Walker B formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. 'Proline' of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2 interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with γ-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2.

  6. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of NodS N-methyltransferase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum WM9

    The NodS N-methyltransferase, an enzyme participating in the biosynthesis of the bacterial nodulation (Nod) factor necessary to establish symbiotic nitrogen fixation with a legume plant host, has been crystallized in the apo form as well as in complex with SAH. SAH is a byproduct of SAM degradation during the SAM-dependent methylation reaction. The Nod factor (NF) is a rhizobial signal molecule that is involved in recognition of a legume host and the formation of root and stem nodules. Some unique enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of NF, which is a variously but specifically substituted lipochitooligosaccharide. One of these enzymes is NodS, an N-methyltransferase that methylates end-deacetylated chitooligosaccharide substrates. In the methylation reaction, NodS uses S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. To date, no structural information is available about NodS from any rhizobium. X-ray crystallographic studies of the NodS protein from Bradyrhizobium japonicum WM9, which infects the legumes lupin and serradella, have been undertaken. The nodS gene was cloned and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells using natural amino acids and as an SeMet derivative. NodS without ligands was crystallized in the presence of PEG 3350 and MgCl2. The protein was also crystallized in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH) in the presence of PEG 8000 and MgCl2. SAH is produced from SAM as a byproduct of the methylation reaction. The crystals of apo NodS are tetragonal and diffracted X-rays to 2.42 Å resolution. The NodS–SAH complex crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.85 Å resolution

  7. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response.

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ingalls, Robin R

    2014-05-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. Gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2. We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type versus NOD2-deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling up-regulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. Thus, NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  8. Nel Noddings och omsorgsetiken

    Gunnel Colnerud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available NEL NODDINGS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE. Nel Noddings is one of the premierphilosophers of the ethics of care. Her elaboration of this ethics has resul-ted in a complex relation-based theory. Noddings defines care as a conti-nuing, reciprocal relationship between the carer and the cared-for. Thecaring relation is complete only if the cared-for confirms the value of thecare. The ethics of care attaches no importance to principles, since thecarer looks for guidance to the needs of the cared-for, rather than toprinciples of justice. Local and particular ethical decisions are seen as morevalid than universal principles. In this article I discuss a number of pro-blems by applying the ethics of care to all levels and aspects of schooling,from policy to the teacher–student relationship. More recently, Noddingsand philosophers who defend an ethics of justice, e.g. Strike, have agreedthat these theories are complementary. Noddings still argues, though, thatcare is the most adequate ethical theory for moral events in schools. Theconclusion drawn here is that neither the ethics of care nor the ethics ofjustice may be enough to guide teachers in their ethically demanding andcomplex practice.

  9. Rhizobium nodM and nodN genes are common nod genes: nodM encodes functions for efficiency of nod signal production and bacteroid maturation.

    Baev, N; Schultze, M; Barlier, I; Ha, D C; Virelizier, H.; Kondorosi, E.; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    Earlier, we showed that Rhizobium meliloti nodM codes for glucosamine synthase and that nodM and nodN mutants produce strongly reduced root hair deformation activity and display delayed nodulation of Medicago sativa (Baev et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 228:113-124, 1991). Here, we demonstrate that nodM and nodN genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae restore the root hair deformation activity of exudates of the corresponding R. meliloti mutant strains. Partial restoration of the nodulation...

  10. Acid rain compliance: Coordination of state and federal regulation

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new statute. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Some utilities are regulated by several states, some by a single state and by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and some by multiple states, by the FERC, and by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for reviewing acid rain compliance strategies if least cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on ratepayers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and addresses possible approaches that utility regulators may take to deal with this problem

  11. New tricks for old NODs

    Pietras, Eric M.; Cheng, Genhong

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has identified the human NOD-like receptor NLRX1 as a negative regulator of intracellular signaling leading to type I interferon production. Here we discuss these findings and the questions and implications they raise regarding the function of NOD-like receptors in the antiviral response.

  12. Synthesis and thermal study of rhenium(V) coordination compounds with pyroracemic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid thiosemicarbazones

    One synthesized rhenium (V) coordination compounds with pyroracemic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid thiosemicarbazones at metal:ligand various ratios within 1-7 mole/l concentration hydrohalic acid media. On the basis of the package of the physical and chemical procedures one studied the synthesized composition and structure. By means of the thermogravimetry one studied the thermal stability of rhenium (V) coordination compounds with pyroracemic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid thiosemicarbazones, as well as that of rhenium (V) solvatocomplexes with pyroacemic acid thiosemicarbazone. One determined thermal decomposition mechanism of the coordination compounds: separation of the second sphere water, decarboxylizing and dehalogenation

  13. Structural and functional insights into CARDs of zebrafish (Danio rerio) NOD1 and NOD2, and their interaction with adaptor protein RIP2.

    Maharana, Jitendra; Dehury, Budheswar; Sahoo, Jyoti Ranjan; Jena, Itishree; Bej, Aritra; Panda, Debashis; Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) composed of an N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), a central NACHT domain and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). They play a vital role in innate immune signaling by activating the NF-κB pathway via recognition of peptidoglycans by LRRs, and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT followed by downstream signaling. After oligomerization, CARD/s play a crucial role in activating downstream signaling via the adaptor molecule, RIP2. Due to the inadequacy of experimental 3D structures of CARD/s of NOD2 and RIP2, and results from differential experimental setups, the RIP2-mediated CARD-CARD interaction has remained as a contradictory statement. We employed a combinatorial approach involving protein modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation to illuminate the molecular mechanism that shows the possible involvement of either the acidic or basic patch of zebrafish NOD1/2-CARD/a and RIP2-CARD in CARD-CARD interaction. Herein, we have hypothesized 'type-I' mode of CARD-CARD interaction in NOD1 and NOD2, where NOD1/2-CARD/a involve their acidic surfaces to interact with RIP2. Asp37 and Glu51 (of NOD1) and Arg477, Arg521 and Arg529 (of RIP2) were identified to be crucial for NOD1-RIP2 interaction. However, in NOD2-RIP2, Asp32 (of NOD2) and Arg477 and Arg521 (of RIP2) were anticipated to be significant for downstream signaling. Furthermore, we found that strong electrostatic contacts and salt bridges are crucial for protein-protein interactions. Altogether, our study has provided novel insights into the RIP2-mediated CARD-CARD interaction in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2, which will be helpful to understand the molecular basis of the NOD1/2 signaling mechanism. PMID:26079944

  14. Different geometrical arrangements in carboxylate coordination polymers of flexible dicarboxylic acid

    Dicarboxylate coordination polymers (1-5) of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II), respectively, derived from (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid (L1H2) are synthesized and characterized. Depending on the coordination sites around the metal centers and coordination mode of the ligand, dimensionality of these polymers varies. The dicarboxylates adopt three spatial orientations: in-plane linear coordination, out-of-plane cis coordination and out-of-plane trans coordination mode. Both the cis and trans out-of-plane coordination modes are found to exist only if the ancillary ligand pyridine is coordinated to the metal ion. When the aquoligand coordinates the in-plane linear coordination mode of L1 predominates. The coordination polymers 4 and 5 show photoluminescence in solution. The dicarboxylate of (5-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-1-yloxy)-acetic acid (L2H2) does not form coordination polymer under ambient conditions, but prefers to remain as uncoordinated anion providing hydrophobic confinement to hexa-aquometal(II) cation. Compound 3 crystallizes in P21 space group and it shows broadband ultra-violet fluorescence centered at 352.9 nm on focusing 632.8 nm He:Ne laser. - Graphical abstract: Different geometrical arrangements in coordination polymers derived from (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid of metal ions Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) are presented. The (5-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-1-yloxy)-acetic acid led to hexa-aquo cadmium(II) dicarboxylate. Highlights: → Structural and spectroscopic characterizations of five dicarboxylate coordination polymers of (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid with different metal ions are presented. → Different geometrical arrangements of coordination polymers stabilized in solid state are described. → Photoluminescence properties of the polymers are shown. → NLO property of a copper coordination polymer is described.

  15. Nod-like receptors have a grip on stem cells.

    Fritz, Jörg H

    2014-06-11

    Two reports in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe establish that Nod-like receptor proteins NOD1 and NOD2 regulate stem cell function. Burberry et al. (2014) demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 synergize with TLRs to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. Nigro et al. (2014) report that NOD2 provides cytoprotection to intestinal stem cells. PMID:24922568

  16. DMPD: Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18031249 Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. Le Bour...w Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders. PubmedID 18031249 Title Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and hum...an inflammatory disorders. Authors Le Bourhis L, Benko S

  17. NOD/SCID孕鼠淋巴细胞表型检测和NK细胞活性分析%Lymphocyte phenotyping and NK cell activity analysis in pregnant NOD/SCID mice

    林羿; 王通; 狄静芳; 曾山; 黄锦桃; 冯铮; 曾耀英

    2005-01-01

    目的观察NOD/SCID小鼠免疫状况和生育力特征,并分析NK细胞亚群对同基因交配组合NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID妊娠结局的影响.方法采用流式细胞术对未孕和孕13.5 d的NOD/SCID小鼠进行淋巴细胞表型分析,并系统地观察和比较NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID和BALB/c×BALB/c小鼠的生育力特征.分别采用多聚次黄苷酸-胞苷酸(polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid,poly I:C)或抗asialoGM1单抗(anti-asialo GM1)刺激或抑制NK细胞活性,并分别观察这些因素对妊娠结局的影响.结果 与对照组NOD/SCID小鼠相比,poly I:C处理组NOD/SCID×NOD/SCID小鼠平均每窝产仔数增多,而注射抗asialo GM1单抗则使胚胎吸收率增高,进而平均每窝产仔数显著减少.结论在NOD/SCID小鼠孕期母-胎界面保持适当水平的NK细胞活性对妊娠结局有利.

  18. Different geometrical arrangements in carboxylate coordination polymers of flexible dicarboxylic acid

    Deka, Himangshu; Sarma, Rupam; Kumari, Satchi; Khare, Alika; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-07-01

    Dicarboxylate coordination polymers ( 1- 5) of Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II), respectively, derived from (7-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-2-yloxy)-acetic acid ( L1H2) are synthesized and characterized. Depending on the coordination sites around the metal centers and coordination mode of the ligand, dimensionality of these polymers varies. The dicarboxylates adopt three spatial orientations: in-plane linear coordination, out-of-plane cis coordination and out-of-plane trans coordination mode. Both the cis and trans out-of-plane coordination modes are found to exist only if the ancillary ligand pyridine is coordinated to the metal ion. When the aquoligand coordinates the in-plane linear coordination mode of L1 predominates. The coordination polymers 4 and 5 show photoluminescence in solution. The dicarboxylate of (5-carboxymethoxy-naphthalen-1-yloxy)-acetic acid ( L2H2) does not form coordination polymer under ambient conditions, but prefers to remain as uncoordinated anion providing hydrophobic confinement to hexa-aquometal(II) cation. Compound 3 crystallizes in P2 1 space group and it shows broadband ultra-violet fluorescence centered at 352.9 nm on focusing 632.8 nm He:Ne laser.

  19. Oral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-65 and IL10 by Lactococcus lactis reverses diabetes in recent-onset NOD mice.

    Robert, Sofie; Gysemans, Conny; Takiishi, Tatiana; Korf, Hannelie; Spagnuolo, Isabella; Sebastiani, Guido; Van Huynegem, Karolien; Steidler, Lothar; Caluwaerts, Silvia; Demetter, Pieter; Wasserfall, Clive H; Atkinson, Mark A; Dotta, Francesco; Rottiers, Pieter; Van Belle, Tom L; Mathieu, Chantal

    2014-08-01

    Growing insight into the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and numerous studies in preclinical models highlight the potential of antigen-specific approaches to restore tolerance efficiently and safely. Oral administration of protein antigens is a preferred method for tolerance induction, but degradation during gastrointestinal passage can impede such protein-based therapies, reducing their efficacy and making them cost-ineffective. To overcome these limitations, we generated a tolerogenic bacterial delivery technology based on live Lactococcus lactis (LL) bacteria for controlled secretion of the T1D autoantigen GAD65370-575 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in the gut. In combination with short-course low-dose anti-CD3, this treatment stabilized insulitis, preserved functional β-cell mass, and restored normoglycemia in recent-onset NOD mice, even when hyperglycemia was severe at diagnosis. Combination therapy did not eliminate pathogenic effector T cells, but increased the presence of functional CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. These preclinical data indicate a great therapeutic potential of orally administered autoantigen-secreting LL for tolerance induction in T1D. PMID:24677716

  20. The dual role of scavenger receptor class A in development of diabetes in autoimmune NOD mice.

    Mami Shimizu

    Full Text Available Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic β cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I:C. In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I: C to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I:C than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I:C treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.

  1. Coordinations between gene modules control the operation of plant amino acid metabolic networks

    Galili Gad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being sessile organisms, plants should adjust their metabolism to dynamic changes in their environment. Such adjustments need particular coordination in branched metabolic networks in which a given metabolite can be converted into multiple other metabolites via different enzymatic chains. In the present report, we developed a novel "Gene Coordination" bioinformatics approach and use it to elucidate adjustable transcriptional interactions of two branched amino acid metabolic networks in plants in response to environmental stresses, using publicly available microarray results. Results Using our "Gene Coordination" approach, we have identified in Arabidopsis plants two oppositely regulated groups of "highly coordinated" genes within the branched Asp-family network of Arabidopsis plants, which metabolizes the amino acids Lys, Met, Thr, Ile and Gly, as well as a single group of "highly coordinated" genes within the branched aromatic amino acid metabolic network, which metabolizes the amino acids Trp, Phe and Tyr. These genes possess highly coordinated adjustable negative and positive expression responses to various stress cues, which apparently regulate adjustable metabolic shifts between competing branches of these networks. We also provide evidence implying that these highly coordinated genes are central to impose intra- and inter-network interactions between the Asp-family and aromatic amino acid metabolic networks as well as differential system interactions with other growth promoting and stress-associated genome-wide genes. Conclusion Our novel Gene Coordination elucidates that branched amino acid metabolic networks in plants are regulated by specific groups of highly coordinated genes that possess adjustable intra-network, inter-network and genome-wide transcriptional interactions. We also hypothesize that such transcriptional interactions enable regulatory metabolic adjustments needed for adaptation to the stresses.

  2. Nod2-Nodosome in a Cell-Free System: Implications in Pathogenesis and Drug Discovery for Blau Syndrome and Early-Onset Sarcoidosis

    Tomoyuki Iwasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (Nod 2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which recognizes muramyl dipeptide (N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP, a bacterial peptidoglycan component, and makes a NF-κB-activating complex called nodosome with adaptor protein RICK (RIP2/RIPK2. Nod2 mutants are associated with the autoinflammatory diseases, Blau syndrome (BS/early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS. For drug discovery of BS/EOS, we tried to develop Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system. FLAG-tagged RICK, biotinylated-Nod2, and BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants were synthesized, and proximity signals between FLAG-tagged and biotinylated proteins were detected by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHA. Upon incubation with MDP, the ALPHA signal of interaction between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The ALPHA signal of interaction between RICK and the BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants was more significantly increased than Nod2-WT. Notably, the ALPHA signal between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased upon incubation with MDP, but not when incubated with the same concentrations, L-alanine, D-isoglutamic acid, or the MDP-D-isoform. Thus, we successfully developed Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system reflecting its function in vivo, and it can be useful for screening Nod2-nodosome-targeted therapeutic molecules for BS/EOS and granulomatous inflammatory diseases.

  3. Nodding syndrome, western Uganda, 1994.

    Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George

    2015-07-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208

  4. Synthesis of Coordination Polymers Using Different Maleic Acid Ligands under Hydrothermal Conditions

    WANG Xiao-lan; WANG En-bo; XU Xin-xin

    2007-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer, [Ni(mal)(1,10'-phen)(H2O)]n(1)(mal=malate, 1,10'-phen=1,10-phenanthroline) was synthesized using malic acid which was generated from maleic acid via hydrothermal reaction. Complex 1, which displays a two-dimensional supramolecular network, was formed by the addition reaction of Ni and maleic acid with water molecules. To our knowledge, several coordination polymers have been directly synthesized from malic acid, but these types of complexes have seldom been synthesized from maleic acid via hydrothermal reactions. When Ni(Ⅱ) ion was changed to Zn(Ⅱ) ion under the same condition, two-dimensional covalent complex 2[Zn2(fma)2(1,10'-phen)2]n(fma=fumatic acid) was formed. Furthermore, complex 2 exhibits intense photoluminescent property at room temperature.

  5. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome. PMID:26274050

  6. Achieving Consensus Through Professionalized Head Nods

    Oshima, Sae

    2014-01-01

    While the interactional functions of head nodding in everyday Japanese conversation have been frequently studied, a discourse on head nodding as a professional communicative practice has yet to be explored. With the method of multimodal conversation analysis, the current study examines the role...

  7. Supramolecular Coordination Assemblies Constructed From Multifunctional Azole-Containing Carboxylic Acids

    Yuheng Deng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of recent progress in the field of metal coordination polymers assembled from azole-containing carboxylic acids and gives a diagrammatic summary of the diversity of topological structures in the resulting infinite metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs. Azole-containing carboxylic acids are a favorable kind of multifunctional ligand to construct various metal complexes with isolated complexes and one, two and three dimensional structures, whose isolated complexes are not the focus of this review. An insight into the topology patterns of the infinite coordination polymers is provided. Analyzed topologies are compared with documented topologies and catalogued by the nature of nodes and connectivity pattern. New topologies which are not available from current topology databases are described and demonstrated graphically.

  8. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  9. The (unusual) aspartic acid in the metal coordination sphere of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain.

    D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Baglivo, Ilaria; Netti, Fortuna; de Paola, Ivan; Zaccaro, Laura; Farina, Biancamaria; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Malgieri, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of choices of protein ligands and coordination geometries leads to diverse Zn(II) binding sites in zinc-proteins, allowing a range of important biological roles. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger domain (originally found in the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens) tetrahedrally coordinates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine residues and it does not adopt a correct fold in the absence of the metal ion. Ros is the first structurally characterized member of a family of bacterial proteins that presents several amino acid changes in the positions occupied in Ros by the zinc coordinating residues. In particular, the second position is very often occupied by an aspartic acid although the coordination of structural zinc by an aspartate in eukaryotic zinc fingers is very unusual. Here, by appropriately mutating the protein Ros, we characterize the aspartate role within the coordination sphere of this family of proteins demonstrating how the presence of this residue only slightly perturbs the functional structure of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain while it greatly influences its thermodynamic properties. PMID:27238756

  10. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. PMID:7574650

  11. Coordination vanadium(5) compounds with adamantylhydroxamic acid and their photochemical transformations

    The method of electron spectroscopy has been used to study the composition and spectral characteristics of coordination vanadium (5) compounds with adamantylhydroxamic acid (AdHA) formed in alcohol solUtions during the AdHA interaction with VOCl3 as well as with VO(OR)3. Coordination compounds of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 composition are formed in the VOCl3-AdHA system, and complexes of 1:1 and 1:2 composition are formed in the VO(OR)3-AdHA system depending on the ratio of reacting agent concentrations. Coordination vanadium (4) compounds with AdHA of different composition which are identified using EPR and electron spectroscopy are formed in the solutions under UV and visible light irradiation of initial vanadium (5) complexes

  12. NOD2: Ethnic and geographic differences

    Juleen Cavanaugh

    2006-01-01

    Investigations into the inheritance of the three risk alleles R702W, G908R and 1007fsInsC in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease have demonstrated a remarkable amount of heterogeneity across ethnicities and populations, with regional variation across Europe for example, suggesting local founder effects. In nonCaucasian populations Crohn's disease continues to increase in incidence but this increase appears not to be a consequence of variation in NOD2, further advancing the accumulating evidence for other susceptibility loci.Frequencies of the known alleles are compared across populations in health and disease and evidence for additional alleles in NOD2 is reviewed. Based on its position on chromosome 16 coincident with some other autoimmune disease susceptibility localizations, research has targeted NOD2 variation as the potential cause of other autoimmune disorders. While these investigations have mostly returned negative findings, two diseases,Blau Syndrome and Graft versus Host Disease, have been shown to be caused by risk alleles in NOD2. As is frequent in complex disease investigations, some results await validation, but the identification of NOD2 and the differences within and across population raises intriguing questions about the population genetics of the variation at this locus.

  13. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new lanthanum(III coordination polymer with fumaric acid

    Hayet Anana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[diaquatris(μ4-but-2-enedioato(μ2-but-2-enedioic aciddilanthanum(III], [La2(C4H2O43(C4H4O4(H2O2]n, was synthesized by the reaction of lanthanum chloride pentahydrate with fumaric acid under hydrothermal conditions. The asymmetric unit comprises an LaIII cation, one and a half fumarate dianions (L2−, one a half-molecule of fumaric acid (H2L and one coordinated water molecule. Each LaIII cation has the same nine-coordinate environment and is surrounded by eight O atoms from seven distinct fumarate moieties, including one protonated fumarate unit and one water molecule in a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic environment. The LaO8(H2O polyhedra centres are edge-shared through three carboxylate bridges of the fumarate ligand, forming chains in three dimensions to construct the MOF. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H...O hydrogen-bond interactions between the coordinated water molecule and the carboxylate O atoms, and also between oxygen atoms of fumaric acid

  15. Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain

    Parkhouse, Rhiannon; Boyle, Joseph P; Mayle, Sophie; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Rittinger, Katrin; Monie, Tom P.

    2014-01-01

    NOD2 activation by muramyl dipeptide causes a proinflammatory immune response in which the adaptor protein CARD9 works synergistically with NOD2 to drive p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. To date the nature of the interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 remains undetermined. Here we show that this interaction is not mediated by the CARDs of NOD2 and CARD9 as previously suggested, but that NOD2 possesses two interaction sites for CARD9; one in the CARD–NACHT linker and one in the NA...

  16. Interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 involves the NOD2 NACHT and the linker region between the NOD2 CARDs and NACHT domain.

    Parkhouse, Rhiannon; Boyle, Joseph P; Mayle, Sophie; Sawmynaden, Kovilen; Rittinger, Katrin; Monie, Tom P

    2014-08-25

    NOD2 activation by muramyl dipeptide causes a proinflammatory immune response in which the adaptor protein CARD9 works synergistically with NOD2 to drive p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling. To date the nature of the interaction between NOD2 and CARD9 remains undetermined. Here we show that this interaction is not mediated by the CARDs of NOD2 and CARD9 as previously suggested, but that NOD2 possesses two interaction sites for CARD9; one in the CARD-NACHT linker and one in the NACHT itself. PMID:24960071

  17. A model for protocellular coordination of nucleic acid and protein syntheses

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The proteinoid model for the coordination of protein synthesis with nucleic acid coding within the evolving protocell is discussed. Evidence for the self-ordering of amino acid chains, which would enhance the catalytic activity of a lysine-rich proteinoid, is presented, along with that for the preferential formation of microparticles, particularly proteinoid microparticles, in various solutions. Demonstrations of the catalytic activity of lysine-rich proteinoids in the synthesis of peptide and internucleotide bonds are pointed out. The view of evolution as a two stage sequence in which the geological synthesis of peptides evolved to the protocellular synthesis of peptides and oligonucleotides is discussed, and contrasted with the alternative view, in accord with the central dogma, that nucleic acids arose first then governed the production of proteins and protocells.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and Thermogravimetry of ortho-phthalic acid bridged coordination polymer of Copper(II)

    BABITA SARMA; SAURAV BHARALI; DIGANTA KUMAR DAS

    2016-06-01

    Coordination polymer of Cu(II) bridged by o-phthalic acid alone is not known. The reaction of$CuCl_{2}.2H_{2}O$ with (2-butoxycarbonyl)benzoic acid yielded three dimensional coordination polymer bridged byo-phthalic acid. X-ray crystal structure shows structure with monoclinic P21/c space group. o-Phthalic acidmolecules act as bridge between two Cu(II), one carboxylate binds to one Cu(II) as bidentate while the othercarboxylate binds to another Cu(II) as monodentate. The four planar co-ordination positions of Cu(II) aresatisfied by two chelated carboxylates while fifth and sixth co-ordination positions are satisfied by monodentatecarboxylates. EPR and TGA of the coordination polymer are also reported.

  19. Concurrent synthesis and release of nod-gene-inducing flavonoids from alfalfa roots

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Alfalfa roots release three major nod-gene inducers: 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone. The objective of the present study was to define temporal relationships between synthesis and exudation for those flavonoids. Requirements for concurrent flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed by treating roots of intact alfalfa seedlings with [U-14C]-L-phenylalanine in the presence or absence of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). In the absence of AOPP, each of the three flavonoids in exudates contained 14C. In the presence of AOPP, 14C labeling and release of all the exuded nod-gene inducers were reduced significantly. AOPP inhibited labeling and release of the strongest nod-gene inducer, methoxychalcone, by more than 90%. The release process responsible for exudation of nod-gene inducers appears to be specific rather than a general phenomenon such as a sloughing off of cells during root growth

  20. Design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of NOD2-ligand–antigen conjugates

    Marian M. J. H. P. Willems

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of an innate immune system stimulating agent to an antigen can provide active vaccine modalities capable of eliciting a potent immune response against the incorporated antigen. Here we describe the design, automated synthesis and immunological evaluation of a set of four muramyl dipeptide–peptide antigen conjugates. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP represents a well-known ligand for the intracellular NOD2 receptor and our study shows that covalently linking an MDP-moiety to an antigenic peptide can lead to a construct that is capable of stimulating the NOD2 receptor if the ligand is attached at the anomeric center of the muramic acid. The constructs can be processed by dendritic cells (DCs and the conjugation does not adversely affect the presentation of the incorporated SIINFEKL epitope on MHC-I molecules. However, stimulation of the NOD2 receptor in DCs was not sufficient to provide a strong immunostimulatory signal.

  1. NOD2 gene expression in Paneth cells and monocytes.

    Lala, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Mutations in the NOD2 gene are associated with the development of Crohn's disease, an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The NOD2 protein induces cellular activation in response to the bacterial antigen muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The NOD2 gene is mainly expressed by circulating blood monocytes although NOD2-associated Crohn's disease involves mainly the terminal ileum. Paneth cells, which are most numerous in the terminal ileum, are specialised intestinal epithel...

  2. Syntheses and Structures of Two Coordination Polymers Containing Macrocyclic Oxamide and Isophthalic Acid Derivatives

    WU Lin; SUN Ya-qiu; LIU Xiao-xu; GAO Dong-zhao; XU Yan-yan; ZHANG Guo-ying

    2012-01-01

    Two novel coordination polymers [Cd(NiL)(aipt)](1) and [Mn(nipt)(NiL)2]·H2O(2)(NiL,H2L=2,3-dioxo5,6,14,15-dibenzo- 1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7,13-dien,H2aipt=5-aminoisophthalic acid,H2nipt=5-nitroisophthalic acid) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.Compounds 1 and 2 consist of different ID chains including both oxamide and 5-aminoisophthalate or 5-nitroisophthalic bridge.And all these chains were further interlinked via hydrogen bonds,resulting in a 2D architecture in compounds 1 and 2.

  3. Terbium(III) based coordination polymer microparticles as a luminescent probe for ascorbic acid

    We report on terbium coordination polymer (Tb-CP) microparticles prepared from Tb(III) ion, dipicolinic acid (DPA; acting as a bridging ligand) and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris; acting as an auxiliary ligand), and show that it can be used as a luminescent probe for ascorbate in aqueous solutions. The Tb-CP emits strong fluorescence due to an intramolecular energy transfer from DPA to the Tb (III) ion, and both fluorescence intensity and decay time are quenched by ascorbate. This finding led to a method for the quantitation of ascorbic acid in the 1 μM to 1 mM concentration range and with a detection limit at ∼200 nM. The strategy presented here is based on the construction of special functions directly from initial molecule/ion blocks and is expected to enable the design of various other CP materials for use as optical probes. (author)

  4. The mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP) coordinates mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis with iron sulfur cluster biogenesis.

    Van Vranken, Jonathan G; Jeong, Mi-Young; Wei, Peng; Chen, Yu-Chan; Gygi, Steven P; Winge, Dennis R; Rutter, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (FASII) and iron sulfur cluster (FeS) biogenesis are both vital biosynthetic processes within mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), which has a well-known role in FASII, plays an unexpected and evolutionarily conserved role in FeS biogenesis. ACP is a stable and essential subunit of the eukaryotic FeS biogenesis complex. In the absence of ACP, the complex is destabilized resulting in a profound depletion of FeS throughout the cell. This role of ACP depends upon its covalently bound 4'-phosphopantetheine (4-PP)-conjugated acyl chain to support maximal cysteine desulfurase activity. Thus, it is likely that ACP is not simply an obligate subunit but also exploits the 4-PP-conjugated acyl chain to coordinate mitochondrial fatty acid and FeS biogenesis. PMID:27540631

  5. New coordination monomers of copper, Cadnium and manganese with maleamic acid ligands

    New coordination monomers of Mn (II), CU(II) and (Cd(II) with different maleamic acid moieties have been synthesised. The tetra or hexacoordinated complexes of Cu have following formulas: Cu(2CPMA)2, Cu(3CPMA)2, Cu(APMA)2 Cu(DCPM)2 H2O, Cu(1,2PBMA) and Cu (1,PBMA). The tefta coordinated complexes of Mn and Cd have the following formulas: M(2CPMA)2 Mn(3CPMA)2, while their hexa-coordinated complexes have the formulas: M(PMA)2. 2H2O, M(I,2PBMA).2H2O, M(1,4PBMA). 2H2O, and Cd(DCPMA)(CH3 COO)22H2. O. Free radical and thermal polymerization was performed on these complexes. Viscosity measurement show degree of polymerization Cu polymers are thermally more stable than Mn and Cd polymers. The polymers of tetradentate units (1,2 or 1,4 PBMA) or tridentate units (APMA) are more thermally stable than bidentate units. (authors). 29 refs., 4 tabs., 1fig

  6. Coordination Polymers and Metal Organic Frameworks Derived from 1,2,4-Triazole Amino Acid Linkers

    Yann Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceptible appearance of biomolecules as prospective building blocks in the architecture of coordination polymers (CPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are redolent of their inclusion in the synthon/tecton library of reticular chemistry. In this frame, for the first time a synthetic strategy has been established for amine derivatization in amino acids into 1,2,4-triazoles. A set of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatized amino acids were introduced as superlative precursors in the design of 1D coordination polymers, 2D chiral helicates and 3D metal-organic frameworks. Applications associated with these compounds are diverse and include gas adsorption-porosity partitioning, soft sacrificial matrix for morphology and phase selective cadmium oxide synthesis, FeII spin crossover materials, zinc-b-lactamases inhibitors, logistics for generation of chiral/non-centrosymmetric networks; and thus led to a foundation of a new family of functional CPs and MOFs that are reviewed in this invited contribution.

  7. Trehalose 6-phosphate coordinates organic and amino acid metabolism with carbon availability.

    Figueroa, Carlos M; Feil, Regina; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Kölling, Katharina; Krause, Ursula; Höhne, Melanie; Encke, Beatrice; Plaxton, William C; Zeeman, Samuel C; Li, Zhi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hoefgen, Rainer; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2016-02-01

    Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) is an essential signal metabolite in plants, linking growth and development to carbon metabolism. The sucrose-Tre6P nexus model postulates that Tre6P acts as both a signal and negative feedback regulator of sucrose levels. To test this model, short-term metabolic responses to induced increases in Tre6P levels were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the Escherichia coli Tre6P synthase gene (otsA) under the control of an ethanol-inducible promoter. Increased Tre6P levels led to a transient decrease in sucrose content, post-translational activation of nitrate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and increased levels of organic and amino acids. Radio-isotope ((14)CO2) and stable isotope ((13)CO2) labelling experiments showed no change in the rates of photoassimilate export in plants with elevated Tre6P, but increased labelling of organic acids. We conclude that high Tre6P levels decrease sucrose levels by stimulating nitrate assimilation and anaplerotic synthesis of organic acids, thereby diverting photoassimilates away from sucrose to generate carbon skeletons and fixed nitrogen for amino acid synthesis. These results are consistent with the sucrose-Tre6P nexus model, and implicate Tre6P in coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. PMID:26714615

  8. NOD1 and NOD2 signalling links ER stress with inflammation.

    Keestra-Gounder, A Marijke; Byndloss, Mariana X; Seyffert, Núbia; Young, Briana M; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Tsai, April Y; Cevallos, Stephanie A; Winter, Maria G; Pham, Oanh H; Tiffany, Connor R; de Jong, Maarten F; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Ravindran, Resmi; Luciw, Paul A; McSorley, Stephen J; Bäumler, Andreas J; Tsolis, Renée M

    2016-04-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1α. Once activated, IRE1α recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the NF-κB pathway. Inflammation is commonly triggered when pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, detect tissue damage or microbial infection. However, it is not clear which PRRs have a major role in inducing inflammation during ER stress. Here we show that NOD1 and NOD2, two members of the NOD-like receptor family of PRRs, are important mediators of ER-stress-induced inflammation in mouse and human cells. The ER stress inducers thapsigargin and dithiothreitol trigger production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in a NOD1/2-dependent fashion. Inflammation and IL-6 production triggered by infection with Brucella abortus, which induces ER stress by injecting the type IV secretion system effector protein VceC into host cells, is TRAF2, NOD1/2 and RIP2-dependent and can be reduced by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholate or an IRE1α kinase inhibitor. The association of NOD1 and NOD2 with pro-inflammatory responses induced by the IRE1α/TRAF2 signalling pathway provides a novel link between innate immunity and ER-stress-induced inflammation. PMID:27007849

  9. Two different coordination dimers of pyromellitic acid in terms of molecular geometry and supramolecular architecture

    Aycan, Tuğba Ak; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Kaştaş, Gökhan

    2016-02-01

    Two mixed-ligand coordination dimers, [Ni2(pm) (ina)2(H2O)4] (1) and [Mn2(Hpm)2(ina)2(H2O)2]·H2O (2) (pm = tetraanion of pyromellitic acid, Hpm = trianion of pyromellitic acid and ina = isonicotinamide), were comparatively investigated by focusing on their supramolecular architectures. Their structural properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In 1, each pm4- anion adopts μ2-bridging mode to connect two Ni(II) ions through carboxylate groups while in 2 Hpm3- anion bridges Mn(II) ions with tridentate coordination mode of carboxylate groups in cis positions. In 1, 1D H-bonded linear chain consists of R22(8) synthons. Linear chains are inter-connected by O-H⋯O bonds with DA:AD type organization of aqua ligands, resulting in R42(8) synthons to form 2D structure. The increase in the dimensionality of the network is achieved by the involvement of aqua ligands in H-bonds with DD:AA fashion. In 2, the amide group of ina ligand and the aqua ligand involve in DD:AA type H-bond with COO- group of Hpm3- in the formation of ribbon structure. The ribbon structures are inter-connected by H-bonds between the aqua ligands and carboxylate groups, forming 2D supramolecular sheet through R12(4) synthons. Unlike the case of 1, the pyridinium plays an important role to form 3D network of 2 by connecting 2D sheets through R22(22) and R44(30) synthons. The FT-IR investigation of the complexes was performed within the mid-IR region, mainly focusing on the characteristic vibrations of pyromellitic acid and isonicotinamide moieties by considering their free states and ligand behavior in the case of complex formation.

  10. Organophosphonotungstic HPA of Keggin Type with Sulfo, Taurine and Glycine Substituted Ethylphosphonic Acids as the Coordinate Center

    2003-01-01

    The title compounds 2a-c were synthesized and characterized for the first time.Their proton numbers are around 3.2±0.15 and are not in proportion with the valid acidity-basicity of the central phosphonic acids.The entirety of phosphonic acids 1a-c is as the coordinate center of heteropoly anions of 2a-c.

  11. Assembling supramolecular networks by halogen bonding in coordination polymers driven by 5-bromonicotinic acid

    A series of six coordination compounds ([Zn(5-Brnic)2]·1.5H2O)n (1), [Cd(5-Brnic)2]n (2), [Co(5-Brnic)2(H2O)2]n (3), [Zn(5-Brnic)2(H2biim)]n (4), ([Cd(5-Brnic)2(phen)]·H2O)n (5), and [Pb(5-Brnic)2(phen)] (6) have been generated by the hydrothermal method from the metal(II) nitrates, 5-bromonicotinic acid (5-BrnicH), and an optional ancillary 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 2,2′-biimidazole (H2biim) ligand. All the products 1–6 have been characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Their 5-bromonicotinate-driven structures vary from the 3D metal-organic framework with the seh-3,5-P21/c topology (in 2) and the 2D interdigitated layers with the sql topology (in 1 and 3), to the 1D chains (in 4 and 5) and the 0D discrete monomers (in 6). The 5-bromonicotinate moiety acts as a versatile building block and its tethered bromine atom plays a key role in reinforcing and extending the structures into diverse 3D supramolecular networks via the various halogen bonding Br⋯O, Br⋯Br, and Br⋯π interactions, as well as the N–H⋯O and C–H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The obtained results demonstrate a useful guideline toward engineering the supramolecular architectures in the coordination network assembly under the influence of various halogen bonding interactions. The luminescent (for 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) and magnetic (for 3) properties have also been studied and discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: Six coordination compounds driven by 5-bromonicotinic acid have been generated and structurally characterized, revealing diverse metal-organic networks that are further reinforced and extended via various halogen bonding interactions. - Highlights: • 5-Bromonicotinic acid is a versatile ligand for Zn, Cd, Co and Pb derivatives. • Careful selection of co-ligands and metals resulted in different network structures. • Halogen and hydrogen bonding interactions lead to various supramolecular networks.

  12. Syntheses, structures, and properties of multidimensional lithium coordination polymers based on aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    Cheng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Feng-Shuen; Kao, Ching-Che; Chang, Ting-Guang; Senthil Raja, Duraisamy; Liu, Wei-Ren; Lin, Chia-Her

    2013-02-28

    Three lithium coordination polymers, [Li4(H2O)2(EDTA)] (1), [Li4(H2O)4(BTCA)] (2), and (H2NMe2)2[Li2(H2O)2(BTCA)] (3) (H4EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, H4BTCA = 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylic acid, H2NMe2 = dimethyl amine), have been synthesized by reacting lithium salts with aliphatic carboxylic acids using a solvothermal method. The structures of all the three complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The single crystal structure analysis revealed that complex 1 has a three-dimensional framework, whereas complex 2 has 2D sheets and complex 3 has 1D chains. In addition, these lithium complexes contain various inorganic motifs with a tetramer in 1 and 2, and discrete tetrahedra in 3 and have further been connected through organic ligands to construct multidimensional structures. Further, the electrochemical properties of complexes 1–3 have been studied to evaluate these compounds as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries with discharge capacities of around 100 mA h g(-1) in the first thirty cycles. PMID:23235699

  13. Synthesis and crystal structure of new lanthanide coordination polymers with Pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid

    Du, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Yan-Yan; Xie, Yu-Yu; Li, Hao-Tian; Liu, Tian-Fu

    2016-03-01

    Reactions between Ln(NO3)3 aq (Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3) and Nd(4)), pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (2, 6-pdc), and sodium nitroprusside Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] lead to three-dimensional network structures: {[Ln2(2, 6-pdc)2(H2O)8][Fe(CN)5NO]·4H2O}n (Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3) and Nd(4)). The complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic space group Cc while complexes 3 and 4 crystallize in the monoclinic space group I2. The Ln(III) ion is nine-coordinate by four oxygen atoms of three 2, 6-pdc ligands, four oxygen of water and one nitrogen atom of 2, 6-pdc. Ln(III) ions are bridged by 2, 6-pdc ligands via bridging/chelating-bridging pentadentate coordination to form 3-D framework structures. Hydrogen bonds provide additional stabilization of the crystal structures. The magnetic properties of 2-4 have been investigated.

  14. A Novel Coordination Polymer Based on 4,4'-(Hexauoroisopropylidene)diphthalic Acid: Synthesis, Structure and Physical Properties

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Jianqing; Xu, Xiaojuan; Tan, Chunyun [Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China)

    2012-11-15

    The design and synthesis of coordination polymers is an attractive area of research, not only owing to their diverse topology and intriguing structures but also due to their potential applications in many fields, such as ion-exchange, catalysis, luminescence, magnets, and gas storage. The mainstream method of constructing such coordination polymers is to utilize organic ligands with aromatic polycarboxylate groups, because of their excellent coordination capability and flexible coordination patterns. Among them, aromatic polycarboxylic derivatives, such as 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, 4,4'-oxydiphthalic acid, 4,4'-(hexauoroisopropylidene) diphthalic acid (H{sub 4}FA), and so on, have been extensively used to prepare coordination polymers. Meanwhile, the flexible 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene (BTX) as an excellent derivative of triazole not only possesses the merits of triazole, but also can adopt different conformations compared with the corresponding 1,2,4-triazole ligand on the basis of the relative orientations of its CH{sub 2} groups.10 Taking these into consideration, we explored the self-assembly of Cd(II) ion, H{sub 4}FA, and BTX under hydrothermal conditions, and obtained a novel 3D coordination polymer: [Cd{sub 3}(BTX){sub 2}(HFA){sub 2}·{sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sub n}. Herein, we report the synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties.

  15. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization of Manganese(Ⅱ) Coordination Polymer with Camphoric Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    HOU Ying; SHI Zhan; YANG Ming; LI Guang-hua; FENG Shou-hua

    2005-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer, Mn(H2O)(CA)(Phen)·H2O(CA=camphoric acid, Phen=1,10-phenanthroline), was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Six-coordinated Mn(Ⅱ) atoms are linked with carboxyl groups from camphoric acid ligands to form infinite one-dimensional chains. These chains are packed by means of hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, forming a three-dimensional structure. IR, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic susceptibility data for Mn(H2O)(CA)(Phen)·H2O are given.

  16. Nod2 mediates susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice.

    Ulrich Meinzer

    Full Text Available Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2 is a component of the innate immunity known to be involved in the homeostasis of Peyer patches (PPs in mice. However, little is known about its role during gut infection in vivo. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis, adenolymphitis and septicaemia which is able to invade its host through PPs. We investigated the role of Nod2 during Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Death was delayed in Nod2 deleted and Crohn's disease associated Nod2 mutated mice orogastrically inoculated with Y. pseudotuberculosis. In PPs, the local immune response was characterized by a higher KC level and a more intense infiltration by neutrophils and macrophages. The apoptotic and bacterial cell counts were decreased. Finally, Nod2 deleted mice had a lower systemic bacterial dissemination and less damage of the haematopoeitic organs. This resistance phenotype was lost in case of intraperitoneal infection. We concluded that Nod2 contributes to the susceptibility to Y. pseudotuberculosis in mice.

  17. Synthesis and structural evaluation of five coordination complexes of benzenepentacarboxylic acid with aza-donor ligands

    Shimpi, Manishkumar R.; Biswas, Sharmita Nandy; Sarkar, Sohini; Pedireddi, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis and structural features of five new coordination assemblies, [Co(bpyH)(H2O)5](BPCH)·(bpyH2)0.5·(H2O) (1a), [{Cu(H2O)3}·{Cu0.5(bpy)0.5(H2O)0.5}2(μ-BPCH)] (1b), [{Cd0.5(BPCH)}2·{Cd0.5(bpy)(H2O)2}2]·6(H2O) (1c), [Cu(BPCH2)(bpyeaH)]·2(H2O) (1d) and [Cd2 (bpyea)0.5(oxalate)0.5(μ-BPC) (H2O)]·(bpyeaH2)·2(H2O) (1e), have been reported. All the assemblies were prepared by co-crystallization of benzenepentacarboxylic acid (BPCH5) either with 4,4‧-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpyea) in the presence of a transition metal ion (either Co(II), Cu(II) or Cd(II)) as the case may be. All the five compounds were synthesized by hydrothermal method and structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the obtained compounds, 1a-1e, exhibit distinct 3-D polymeric architectures either in the form of stacked layers or host-guest networks in which water molecules play a pivotal role providing additional stabilization by coordinate bonds as well as hydrogen bonds. Other non-covalent interactions such as C-H … π and π … π stacking also participate in the formation of exotic 3-D structures of these complexes.

  18. Proposed guidelines for the management of nodding syndrome

    Idro, R.; Musubire, K A; Byamah Mutamba, B; Namusoke, H; Muron, J; Abbo, C; Oriyabuzu, R; Ssekyewa, J; Okot, C; Mwaka, D; Ssebadduka, P; I. Makumbi; Opar, B; Aceng, JR; Mbonye, AK

    2013-01-01

    Nodding Syndrome is a poorly understood neurologic disorder of unknown aetiology that affects children and adolescents in Africa. Recent studies have suggested that the head nods are due to atonic seizures and Nodding Syndrome may be classified as probably symptomatic generalised epilepsy. As part of the Ugandan Ministry of Health clinical management response, a multidisciplinary team developed a manual to guide the training of health workers with knowledge and skills to manage the patients. ...

  19. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 mediate immune recognition of putative newly identified periodontal pathogens.

    Marchesan, J; Jiao, Y Z; Schaff, R A; Hao, J; Morelli, T; Kinney, J S; Gerow, E; Sheridan, R; Rodrigues, V; Paster, B J; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. Although the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, six being classical pathogens and four putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. Campylobacter concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2 stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). PMID:26177212

  20. NOD1 and NOD2 receptors in mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala): Inductive expression and downstream signalling in ligand stimulation and bacterial infections

    Banikalyan Swain; Madhubanti Basu; Mrinal Samanta

    2013-09-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)1 and NOD2 are important cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and key members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family. They sense a wide range of bacteria or their products and play a key role in inducing innate immunity. This report describes the role of NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling in innate immunity in the Indian major carp, mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Tissue-specific expression analysis of NOD1 and NOD2 genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed their wide distribution in various organs/tissues. In the untreated fish, the highest expression of NOD1 and NOD2 was detected in liver and blood, respectively. Stimulation with NOD1- and NOD2-specific ligands, i.e. iE-DAP and MDP, activated NOD1 and NOD2 receptor signalling in vivo and in vitro resulting in significant ( < 0.05) induction of downstream signalling molecule RICK, and the effector molecules IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- in the treated group as compared to their controls. In response to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections, NOD1 and NOD2 receptors signalling were activated and IL-1, IL-8 and IFN- were induced. These findings highlight the important role of NOD receptors in eliciting innate immune response during the pathogenic invasion to the fish.

  1. First research coordination meeting for the coordinated research programme on the use of isotope techniques in investigating acidic fluids in geothermal exploitation. Report

    Geothermal exploration and development for electrical and non-electrical applications is taking place in more than 36 countries worldwide. Although the technology has fully emerged, there are still hindrances to the full exploitation of the available heat. Most of the high temperature geothermal areas are situated in volcanic environments that produce acidic fluids which are corrosive for wells, as well as pipelines. Incidental drilling in those areas, for lack of better data, cause high economic losses ar a cost of about US D 2 million per well. In addition, a potential natural resource for electricity remains untapped. In realization of the problems associated with with geothermal exploitation and the potential role that isotope techniques could provide for a greater understanding of the complex behavior of geothermal systems, particularly those affected by acidic fluids, the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Problems Associated with Geothermal Exploitation is implemented in 1997-2000. An understanding of the phenomena will assist the scientific community involved in geothermal development. The information generated from the scientific investigations will be an input to management of the resource as well as to decision-making for monitoring and development of geothermal areas. The First Research Coordination Meeting for this CRP was held on 21-23 October 1997 in the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria. The results of the current investigations relating to acid fluids in the various geothermal systems were presented by the participants. The report provides the hydrological concept on which research on acid fluids is based. The report includes also the summaries of the researches under the CRP as well as the agreed actions for follow-up work

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis Using Novel Cationic Diether-Coordinated Lewis Acid and Stereoselective Synthesis of Piperidones and 1,2-Amino Alcohols

    Ishimaru, Kaori

    1997-01-01

    CONTENTS Chapter 1.Asymmetric Synthesis Using Novel Cationic Diether-Coordinated Lewis Acids  1-1.Introduction / p1  1-2.Cationic Lewis Acids for [4+2]Type Cycloaddition of α-Chiral Aldimines / p12  1-3.Development of Novel Cationic Lewis Acids Coordinated by a Chiral Diether Ligand / p18  1-4.Attempt to Develop Novel Lewis Acids Bearinga Monoether-Coordinated Ligand / p31  1-5.Aldol Reaction by Using the Novel Cationic Lewis Acids / p39  1-6.Synthesis of the Modified Chi...

  3. Polyoxometalate coordinated transition metal complexes as catalysts: Oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde/benzoic acid

    Srinivasa Rao Amanchi; Anjali Patel; Samar K Das

    2014-11-01

    Oxidation of styrene is carried out by using heptamolybdate coordinated transition metal (Co2+, Zn2+) complexes, [2-ampH]4[{Co(H2O)5}Mo7O24]·9H2O (1), [3-ampH]4[{Co(H2O)5}Mo7O24]·9H2O (2), [2-ampH]4[{Zn(H2O)5}Mo7O24]·4H2O (3) and [3-ampH]4[{Zn(3-ampy)(H2O)4}Mo7O24]·4H2O (4) as catalysts and H2O2 as an oxidant at 80°C. The leaching study has been carried out to check the quality of catalyst and it has been reused for three times with good percentage of conversion. For the first two catalysts (compounds 1 and 2), the major product obtained is benzaldehyde, and benzoic acid is the major product for next two catalysts (compounds 3 and 4). Stability of the catalysts has been analyzed by IR, UV-spectroscopy and powder X-ray crystallography.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanosized Uranyl Coordination Polymers derived from Terephthalic acid and Azoles

    Maged S.Al-Fakeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the complexes [UO2(TPA(Azole(H2O].xH2O, TPA = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and azoles = 2-aminobenzothiazole, 2-aminothiazole, 2-amino-4-methylthiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole has been prepared and characterized. The structure of the complexes has been assigned based on elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectral studies, magnetic measurement, molar conductance, Scanning electron microscope (S.E.M, X-ray powder diffraction techniques investigations and thermogravimetric analysis complete the characterization of the compound. Thermogravimetry(TG, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA have been used to study the thermal decomposition of the complexes. The kinetic parameters have been calculated making use of the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger. The scanning electron microscope SEM photographs and particle size calculations from the powder XRD data indicate the average size of the prepared UO2(II (28-56 nm supramolecular coordination polymers in the nanoscale range. The biological screening of the compounds was also tested.

  5. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF A Ca (II COORDINATION POLYMER BASED ON 3-AMINO-2-PYRAZINECARBOXYLIC ACID

    XI-SHI TAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new Ca(II coordination polymer has been obtained by reaction of Ca(ClO42·H2O with 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by IR, 1HNMR, thermal analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. X-ray analysis reveals that each Ca(II center is seven-coordination with a N2O5 distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. The Ca(II ions are linked through the O atoms of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligands to form 1D chain structure. And then a 3D network structure is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. The antitumor activity of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligand and its Ca(II coordination polymer against human intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cells, lung adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line have been investigated.

  6. Synthesis, structure, and thermodynamics of a lanthanide coordination compound incorporating 5-nitroisophthalic acid

    Highlights: ► A microporous LnMOF have been prepared and characterized. ► The standard molar enthalpy for the compound was determined to be to be −(831.4 ± 16.0) kJ · mol−1. ► Thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction of formation of the compound were invesitigated. - Abstract: A lanthanide coordination compound, [Sm3(5-nip)4(5-Hnip)(H2O)7·9H2O]n (5-H2nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG-DSC, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis reveals that the compound features two kinds of 1D channels with guest water molecules. TG-DSC curves show that the dehydrated product of the compound exhibits high stability up to 673 K. The enthalpy change of reaction of formation in water, ΔrHmθ(l), was determined to be (27.608 ± 0.133) kJ · mol−1 at (298.15 ± 0.01) K by microcalorimetry. Based on a designed thermochemical cycle and other auxiliary thermodynamic data, the enthalpy change of reaction of formation in solid at (298.15 ± 0.01) K and the standard molar enthalpy for the compound, ΔrHmθ(s) and ΔfHmθ, were calculated to be (96.8 ± 0.8) kJ · mol−1 and (−831.4 ± 16.0) kJ · mol−1, respectively. In addition, thermodynamics and thermokinetics of the reaction of formation of the compound were investigated in water.

  7. N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid-based lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, magnetism and quantum Monte Carlo studies

    Zhuang Guilin, E-mail: glzhuang@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Wulin [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zheng Jun [Center of Modern Experimental Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Yu Huiyou [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wang Jianguo, E-mail: jgw@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A series of lanthanide coordination polymers have been obtained through the hydrothermal reaction of N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid (H{sub 3}SIDA) and Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Gd, 4). Crystal structure analysis exhibits that lanthanide ions affect the coordination number, bond length and dimension of compounds 1-4, which reveal that their structure diversity can be attributed to the effect of lanthanide contraction. Furthermore, the combination of magnetic measure with quantum Monte Carlo(QMC) studies exhibits that the coupling parameters between two adjacent Gd{sup 3+} ions for anti-anti and syn-anti carboxylate bridges are -1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and -5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}, respectively, which reveals weak antiferromagnetic interaction in 4. - Graphical abstract: Four lanthanide coordination polymers with N-(sulfoethyl) iminodiacetic acid were obtained under hydrothermal condition and reveal the weak antiferromagnetic coupling between two Gd{sup 3+} ions by Quantum Monte Carlo studies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four lanthanide coordination polymers of H{sub 3}SIDA ligand were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanide ions play an important role in their structural diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measure exhibits that compound 4 features antiferromagnetic property. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum Monte Carlo studies reveal the coupling parameters of two Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  8. Cationic zinc (II) dimers and one dimensional coordination polymer from ionic carboxylic acid

    Paladugu Suresh; Ganesan Prabusankar

    2014-09-01

    A rare example of chelating two tetra cationic paddle-wheel zinc dimers were synthesized from the reaction between flexible imidazolium carboxylate (LH2Br2) and corresponding zinc precursors. A zinc coordination polymer was synthesised by treating in situ generation of 2 in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine. These new molecules, dimers and polymer, were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-vis, fluorescent and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Zinc polymer is the first example of 1D coordination polymer constructed by tetra cationic zinc dimer as a secondary building unit in coordination polymer.

  9. A Series of Transition-metal Coordination Complexes Assembled from 3-Nitrophthalic Acid and Thiabendazole: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

    In order to explore new coordination frameworks with novel designed 3-nitrophthalic acid and the same N-donor ancillary ligand, a series of novel coordination complexes, namely, [Cd2(3-NPA)2(TBZ)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (1), [Zn2(3-NPA)2(TBZ)2] (2), [Zn2O(3-NPA)(TBZ)(H2O)]n (3), [Co(3-NPA)(TBZ)(H2O)]n (4) (3-NPAH2 = 3-nitrophthalic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized through the reaction of 3-nitrophthalic acid with divalent transition-metal salts in the presence of N-donor ancillary coligand (TBZ = thiabendazole). As a result of various coordination modes of the versatile 3-NPAH2 and the coligand TBZ, these complexes exhibit structural diversity. X-ray structure analysis reveals that 1 and 2 are 0D molecular rings, while 3 and 4 are one-dimensional (1D) infinite chain polymers. And the weak O-H···O hydrogen bonds and C-H···O nonclassical hydrogen bonds as well as π-π stacking also play important roles in affecting the final structure where complexes 1, 3 and 4 have 3D supramolecular architectures, while complex 2 has a 2D supramolecular network. Also, IR spectra, fluorescence properties and thermal decomposition process of complexes 1-4 were investigated

  10. Thymic negative selection is functional in NOD mice

    Mingueneau, Michael; Jiang, Wenyu; Feuerer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyses of multiple TCR transgenic (tg) models, the emergence of pathogenic T cells in diabetes-prone NOD mice has been ascribed to a failure to censure autoreactive clones in the thymus. In contrast, using isolated and preselected thymocytes, we show that nonobese diabetic (NOD) genetic variation impairs neither clonal deletion nor downstream transcriptional programs. However, we find that NOD genetic variation influences αβ/γδ-lineage decisions promoted by early expression of tg αβ-TCRs at the double-negative (DN) stage. In B6 and other genetic backgrounds, tg αβ-TCRs behave like γδ-TCRs and commit a large fraction of DNs toward the γδ-lineage, thereby decreasing the size of the double-positive (DP) pool, which is efficiently positively and negatively selected. In NOD DNs, αβ-TCR signalosomes instead behave like pre-TCRs, resulting in high numbers of DPs competing for limited selection niches, and poor positive and negative selection. Once niche effects are neutralized in mixed bone marrow chimeras, positive and negative selection are equally efficient on B6 and NOD backgrounds. Biochemical analysis revealed a selective defect in the activation of Erk1/2 downstream of NOD αβ-TCR signalosomes. Therefore, NOD genetic variation influences αβ/γδ-lineage decisions when the αβ-TCR heterodimer is prematurely expressed, but not the process of negative selection. PMID:22329992

  11. A one-step colorimetric acid-base titration sensor using a complementary color changing coordination system.

    Cho, Hui Hun; Kim, Si Hyun; Heo, Jun Hyuk; Moon, Young Eel; Choi, Young Hun; Lim, Dong Cheol; Han, Kwon-Hoon; Lee, Jung Heon

    2016-06-21

    We report the development of a colorimetric sensor that allows for the quantitative measurement of the acid content via acid-base titration in a single-step. In order to create the sensor, we used a cobalt coordination system (Co-complex sensor) that changes from greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+) after neutralization. Greenish blue and pink are two complementary colors with a strong contrast. As a certain amount of acid is introduced to the Co-complex sensor, a portion of greenish blue colored Co(H2O)4(OH)2 changes to pink colored Co(H2O)6(2+), producing a different color. As the ratio of greenish blue and pink in the Co-complex sensor is determined by the amount of neutralization reaction occurring between Co(H2O)4(OH)2 and an acid, the sensor produced a spectrum of green, yellow green, brown, orange, and pink colors depending on the acid content. In contrast, the color change appeared only beyond the end point for normal acid-base titration. When we mixed this Co-complex sensor with different concentrations of citric acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid, three representative organic acids in fruits, we observed distinct color changes for each sample. This color change could also be observed in real fruit juice. When we treated the Co-complex sensor with real tangerine juice, it generated diverse colors depending on the concentration of citric acid in each sample. These results provide a new angle on simple but quantitative measurements of analytes for on-site usage in various applications, such as in food, farms, and the drug industry. PMID:27143645

  12. New silver(I) coordination polymers constructed from pyrazine derivatives and aromatic carboxylic acids: Syntheses, structures and photoluminescence

    Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Mei, Hong-Xin; Wang, Dan-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2015-11-01

    Five one-dimensional to three-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized by 2-chlorobenzoic acid (HL1), 2-nitrobenzoic acid (HL2), o-toluic acid (HL3), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (tpyz) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (mpyz) in the presence of NH3·H2O in mixed solvents systems, namely, {Ag4(tpyz)2(L1)4}n (1), {Ag2(tpyz) (L2)2}n (2), {Ag2(tpyz) (L3)2}n (3), {Ag2(mpyz) (L1)2}n (4), {Ag(mpyz) (L2) (H2O)}n (5). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a 3D framework. The tpyz ligand links 1D chain which was connected by silver atom and L1 anion into 3D framework. Compounds 2 and 4 possess a similar 2D network with (4, 4) topology. Complex 3 also exhibits a two-dimensional structure. There is a 1D silver chain in 3, which is the main difference from 2 and 4. So, 3 shows three-connected (4 8, 3) topology. For 5, only one oxygen of L2 coordinated to Ag(I) ions. The L2 anions were arranged in both sides of the chain, which was connected by silver atoms and mpyz ligands. Then, the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen with coordinated water 1molecule oxygen through the hydrogen bond made the resultant structure to a 3D framework. Complexes 1-5 spanning from one-dimensional chains to three-dimensional framework suggest that carboxylates and the kinds of pyrazine derivatives play significant roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. The photoluminescence and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the complexes were also investigated.

  13. Phenotyping of Nod1/2 double deficient mice and characterization of Nod1/2 in systemic inflammation and associated renal disease

    Ingrid Stroo

    2012-10-01

    It is indispensable to thoroughly characterize each animal model in order to distinguish between primary and secondary effects of genetic changes. The present study analyzed Nod1 and Nod2 double deficient (Nod1/2 DKO mice under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Nod1 and Nod2 are members of the Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat containing Receptor (NLR family. Several inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn's disease and asthma, are linked to genetic changes in either Nod1 or Nod2. These associations suggest that Nod1 and Nod2 play important roles in regulating the immune system. Three-month-old wildtype (Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice were sacrificed, body and organ weight were determined, and blood was drawn. Except for lower liver weight in Nod1/2 DKO mice, no differences were found in body/organ weight between both strains. Leukocyte count and composition was comparable. No significant changes in analyzed plasma biochemical markers were found. Additionally, intestinal and vascular permeability was determined. Nod1/2 DKO mice show increased susceptibility for intestinal permeability while vascular permeability was not affected. Next we induced septic shock and organ damage by administering LPS+PGN intraperitoneally to Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice and sacrificed animals after 2 and 24 hours. The systemic inflammatory and metabolic response was comparable between both strains. However, renal response was different as indicated by partly preserved kidney function and tubular epithelial cell damage in Nod1/2 DKO at 24 hours. Remarkably, renal inflammatory mediators Tnfα, KC and Il-10 were significantly increased in Nod1/2 DKO compared with Wt mice at 2 hours. Systematic analysis of Nod1/2 DKO mice revealed a possible role of Nod1/2 in the development of renal disease during systemic inflammation.

  14. NOD-like receptors in lung diseases

    Catherine eChaput

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The lung is a particularly vulnerable organ at the interface of the body and the exterior environment. It is constantly exposed to microbes and particles by inhalation. The innate immune system needs to react promptly and adequately to potential dangers posed by these microbes and particles, while at the same time avoiding extensive tissue damage. NOD-like receptors (NLRs represent a group of key sensors for microbes and damage in the lung. As such they are important players in various infectious as well as acute and chronic sterile inflammatory diseases, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, acute lung injury/ARDS, pneumoconiosis and asthma. Activation of most known NLRs leads to the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and/or to the induction of cell death. We will review NLR functions in the lung during infection and sterile inflammation.

  15. Coordination Compounds Based on 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid

    Markéta Svobodová

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine and its coordination compounds with Cu2+, Co2+, Co3+, or Fe3+ are described. By means of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra it was proved that 2,6-bis[((3S-3-(methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylcarbonyl]pyridine as well as its coordination compound with Co3+ exist in the form of a mixture of three conformers, differing in the conformations at the two amide groups present. The prepared coordination compounds were tested in the enantioselective catalysis of the nitroaldol addition of nitromethane with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and in the Michael addition of ethyl 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylate to but-3-en-2-one.

  16. Photodecomposition of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid in methanol to form an electroactive infinite coordination polymer and its application in bioelectrochemistry.

    Zhang, Li; Gao, Xia; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2013-08-28

    Accurately characterizing the product of photodecomposition of ferrocene derivatives remains a longstanding challenge due to its structural complexity and strong dependence on the solvent and the substituent. Herein, photodecomposition of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (FcDC) in methanol is found for the first time to form an electroactive infinite coordinate polymer (ICP) with uniform size, good water stability and photostability, and excellent electrochemical activity. The possible mechanism for the ICP formation is proposed based on the fission of the Fe-ring bond and deprotonation of FcDC under light irradiation. The dissociated Fe(2+) is first oxidized to Fe(3+) that consequently coordinates with the deprotonated ferrocene dicarboxylate to produce ICP nanoparticles. This work not only provides a new insight into the product formation of the photodecomposition of ferrocene derivatives but also offers a mild and simple route to the synthesis of electroactive ICPs. PMID:23869481

  17. Limiting Behavior of Weighted Sums of NOD Random Variables

    De Hua QIU; Ping Yan CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The strong laws of large numbers and laws of the single logarithm for weighted sums of NOD random variables are established.The results presented generalize the corresponding results of Chen and Gan [5]in independent sequence case.

  18. Fatty Acid Dietary Supplements in Treatment of Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil and evening primrose oil (in a ratio of 80% to 20% compared to placebo were assessed in a randomized, controlled trial in 117 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, aged 5-12 years, at the University of Oxford, UK.

  19. Optical Resolution of α-Bromo-2-Chlorophenacetic Acid by Way of Coordination with Copper(Ⅱ) and O,O'-Dibenzoyltartaric Acid

    Xu HongWu; Wang QiWei; Deng JinGen; Zhu Jin; Xu XinLiang; Wu YuLiang

    2004-01-01

    Optically active molecules play important roles in medicinal chemistry and materials science in both industrial and academic sectors. Resolution is one of the most efficient ways to obtain enantiopure substances. For a long period, racemic carboxylic acids are generally resolved by optically active bases, however, these bases are often extremely toxic and expensive.[1] Recently, A.Mravik Group applied optically active O, O'-dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA), which is usually used for the resolution of bases, as a new resolving reagent for the racemic carboxylic acids. Some new metal co-complexes of DBTA can form with the racemic acids and then optically active acids can be obtained by decomposition of the resulting salts. [2] In contrast, optically pure DBTA is relatively cheap, nontoxic reagent. Therefore, this method will be a promising one for the resolution of acids.In many traditional resolutions, the theoretic maximum yield for each of the two pure enantiomers cannot exceed 50%. So scientists were interested in the resolution in which there is an epimerization process owing to the fact that the theoretic yield of one of the two pure enantiomers may be greater than 50%. Asymmetric transformation is one of such cases.Herein, we report a resolution procedure in which α-bromo-2-chlorophenacetic acid was resolved efficiently by way of coordination with copper(Ⅱ) salt and commercially available optically active DBTA. Asymmetric transformation of α -bromo-2-chlorophenacetic acid was found in this resolution procedure, in which 84% yield based on the racemic acid was obtained with 94%enantiomeric excess of the acid (See Scheme 1).

  20. Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid Secretion in Coordination with Ghrelin in Suncus murinus.

    Chayon Goswami

    Full Text Available Motilin and ghrelin constitute a peptide family, and these hormones are important for the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, we examined the effect of motilin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in anesthetized suncus (house musk shrew, Suncus murinus, a ghrelin- and motilin-producing mammal. We first established a gastric lumen-perfusion system in the suncus and confirmed that intravenous (i.v. administration of histamine (1 mg/kg body weight stimulated acid secretion. Motilin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW stimulated the acid output in a dose-dependent manner in suncus, whereas ghrelin (0.1, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg BW alone did not induce acid output. Furthermore, in comparison with the vehicle administration, the co-administration of low-dose (1 μg/kg BW motilin and ghrelin significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion, whereas either motilin (1 μg/kg BW or ghrelin (1 μg/kg BW alone did not significantly induce gastric acid secretion. This indicates an additive role of ghrelin in motilin-induced gastric acid secretion. We then investigated the pathways of motilin/motilin and ghrelin-stimulated acid secretion using receptor antagonists. Treatment with YM 022 (a CCK-B receptor antagonist and atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist had no effect on motilin or motilin-ghrelin co-administration-induced acid output. In contrast, famotidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist completely inhibited motilin-stimulated acid secretion and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin induced gastric acid output. This is the first report demonstrating that motilin stimulates gastric secretion in mammals. Our results also suggest that motilin and co-administration of motilin and ghrelin stimulate gastric acid secretion via the histamine-mediated pathway in suncus.

  1. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of molybdenum(6) coordinate compounds with hydrazide of isonicotinic acid and some its derivatives

    Compounds with the MoO2(L-H)2 composition, where L is ligand, were separated by the interaction of molybdenum trioxide with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its derivatives: phthivazide, saluzide larusan. The infrared spectra are taken. On the base of the infrared spectra of the separated complexes a conclusion is made on the method of coordination of ligands to metal. The substances obtained are studied by the X-raying method and their molar electric conductivity is determined. The complex thermolysis products are characterized qualitatively

  2. Compatibility of nitrilotriacetic acid and 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone in the coordination sphere of lanthanon ions

    A study of the competetion of 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone (dehydracetic acid, DHA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) in the coordination sphere of lanthanon ions has been carried out by calculating reproportionation constant which relates the stability of the mixed ligand complex to those of the parent complexes formed by the same ligands. It has been found that NTA and DHA are incompatible ligands and mixed ligand complexes formed are less stable than either of the parent complexes. The fact is also supported by the observed change in free energy occuring during mixed ligand complex formation. All these studies have been carried out at 30.0 +- 0.50 and μ-0.01 (NaClO4) in 50 percent v/v aqueous dioxane medium. (author)

  3. Geometry of trigonal boron coordination sphere in boronic acids derivatives - a bond-valence vector model approach.

    Czerwińska, Karolina; Madura, Izabela D; Zachara, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The systematic analysis of the geometry of three-coordinate boron in boronic acid derivatives with a common [CBO2] skeleton is presented. The study is based on the bond-valence vector (BVV) model [Zachara (2007). Inorg. Chem. 46, 9760-9767], a simple tool for the identification and quantitative estimation of both steric and electronic factors causing deformations of the coordination sphere. The empirical bond-valence (BV) parameters in the exponential equation [Brown & Altermatt (1985). Acta Cryst. B41, 244-247] rij and b, for B-O and B-C bonds were determined using data deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database. The values obtained amount to rBO = 1.364 Å, bBO = 0.37 Å, rBC = 1.569 Å, bBC = 0.28 Å, and they were further used in the calculation of BVV lengths. The values of the resultant BVV were less than 0.10 v.u. for 95% of the set comprising 897 [CBO2] fragments. Analysis of the distribution of BVV components allowed for the description of subtle in- and out-of plane deviations from the `ideal' (sp(2)) geometry of boron coordination sphere. The distortions specific for distinct groups of compounds such as boronic acids, cyclic and acyclic esters, benzoxaboroles and hemiesters were revealed. In cyclic esters the direction of strains was found to be controlled by the ring size effect. It was shown that the syn or anti location of substituents on O atoms is decisive for the deformations direction for both acids and acyclic esters. The greatest strains were observed in the case of benzoxaboroles which showed the highest deviation from the zero value of the resultant BVV. The out-of-plane distortions, described by the vz component of the resultant BVV, were ascertained to be useful in the identification of weak secondary interactions on the fourth coordination site of the boron centre. PMID:27048726

  4. Regulation of nod factor sulphation genes in Rhizobium tropici CIAT899.

    Manyani, H; Sousa, C; Soria Díaz, M E; Gil-Serrano, A; Megías, M

    2001-06-01

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 is a tropical symbiont able to nodulate various legumes such as Leucaena, Phaseolus, and Macroptilium. Broad host range of this species is related to its Nod factors wide spectrum. R. tropici contains Nod factors sulphation nod genes, nodHPQ genes, which control nodulation efficiency in Leucaena. To study nodHPQ regulation, we carried out different interposon insertions in its upstream region. One of these generated interruptions, nodI mutant produced nonsulphated Nod factors suggesting a possible dependence of these genes on nodI upstream region. Moreover, analysis results of lacZ transcriptional fusions with these genes in symbiotic plasmid showed dependence of these genes on NodD protein. In order to determine nodHPQ organization, we studied the effect of interposon insertion upstream of each lacZ transcriptional fusion, and the data obtained was used to indicate that nodHPQ belong to the nodABCSUIJ operon. However, comparison between nodP::lacZ beta-galactosidase activity in the symbiotic plasmid and in the pHM500 plasmid (containing nodHPQ genes) suggested constitutive expression in free living, and flavonoid inducible expression in symbiotic conditions. Constitutive nodHPQ expression may play a role in bacterial house-keeping metabolism. On the other hand, the transference of R. tropici nodHPQ genes to other rhizobia that do not present sulphated substitutions demonstrated that NodH protein sulphotransference is specific to C6 at the reducing end. PMID:11467733

  5. Phylogeny of Sym plasmids of rhizobia by PCR-based sequencing of a nodC segment.

    Ueda, T.; Suga, Y; Yahiro, N; Matsuguchi, T

    1995-01-01

    To understand the host specificity of rhizobia and the relationship between the evolution of Sym plasmids and that of host plants, we determined partial nodC sequences of 10 representative rhizobium strains and then constructed an evolutionary tree for the deduced amino acid sequences with four published sequences. These coding sequences yield a phylogenetic tree similar to that for leghemoglobin of host plants, suggesting that the evolution of common nodulation genes may be linked to host le...

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis NOD1 and NOD2 receptors and their functional role in in-vitro cellular immune response.

    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo--a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds.

  7. Influence of the steric effect of flexible isomeric phenylenediacetic acids on the resultant lead(II) coordination polymers

    To study the steric effect of the flexible dicarboxylate ligands on the resultant formations of coordination polymers (CPs), four new PbII CPs [Pb(1,2-pda)(H2O)]n (1), [Pb(1,3-pda)]n·nH2O (2), [Pb2(1,4-pda)2(H2O)]n·2nH2O (3a and 3b) have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H2pda). The X-ray crystallography study reveals that CP 1 is a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected sql (44.62) network via the weak Pb···O interactions built on 1D chain-like structure. CP 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with chiral space group P212121, showing a 4-connected sra (42.63.8) framework where a left-handed helical motif is formed by PbII ions and trans-1,3-pda ligands. More interestingly, CPs 3a and 3b are two true 3D polymorphs and have the different morphology. Topologically, the framework of 3a exhibits a 4-connected lon 66 motif, while that of 3b is a (4,6)-connected fsh (43.63)2(46.66.83) net. It is found that the three isomeric pda anions display the various coordination fashions in four CPs. The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H2pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of PbII CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four new PbII-based CPs have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H2pda). The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H2pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of PbII CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Highlights: • Four PbII-based coordination polymers were produced by phenylenediacetic acids. • The crystal and topological structures of the CPs have been investigated carefully. • Different structures show the steric effect of H2pda has a role in directing CPs. • The fluorescence of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room

  8. Coordination of gene expression of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascade enzymes during human brain development and aging.

    Veronica H Ryan

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (AA and DHA participate in cell membrane synthesis during neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, and neurotransmission throughout life. Each is metabolized via coupled enzymatic reactions within separate but interacting metabolic cascades.AA and DHA pathway genes are coordinately expressed and underlie cascade interactions during human brain development and aging.The BrainCloud database for human non-pathological prefrontal cortex gene expression was used to quantify postnatal age changes in mRNA expression of 34 genes involved in AA and DHA metabolism.Expression patterns were split into Development (0 to 20 years and Aging (21 to 78 years intervals. Expression of genes for cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2, and other AA cascade enzymes, correlated closely with age during Development, less so during Aging. Expression of DHA cascade enzymes was less inter-correlated in each period, but often changed in the opposite direction to expression of AA cascade genes. Except for the PLA2G4A (cPLA2 IVA and PTGS2 (COX-2 genes at 1q25, highly inter-correlated genes were at distant chromosomal loci.Coordinated age-related gene expression during the brain Development and Aging intervals likely underlies coupled changes in enzymes of the AA and DHA cascades and largely occur through distant transcriptional regulation. Healthy brain aging does not show upregulation of PLA2G4 or PTGS2 expression, which was found in Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Syntheses, crystal structure and properties of two novel coordination polymers with the flexible tetrazole-1-acetic acid (Htza)

    Two new coordination polymers, [Ag(tza)]∞ (1) (Htza=tetrazole-1-acetic acid) and [Cu(tza)2]∞ (2) have been prepared at room temperature and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, UV-vis, fluorescence spectra and magnetism analysis. Compound 1 exhibits extended helical chains through bridging ligand tza. The Ag···Ag interactions between the adjacent chains form a 3-D framework featuring the extended tza-connected Ag chains that obviously affect the photoluminescent property. Compound 2 features undulated layered structure with hourglass-shaped [Cu4(tza)4] as subunits with the weak ferromagnetic interactions between Cu(II) ions, which are further stabilized by inter-lamellar C-H···O hydrogen bonds in the resulting 3-D supramolecular framework. - Graphical abstract: Two novel coordination polymers, [Ag(tza)]∞ (1) and [Cu(tza)2∞ (2) have been prepared and characterized. Compound 1 features extended double-stranded helical chains. Compound 2 features undulated layered structure with hourglass-shaped [Cu4(tza)4] as subunits with the weak ferromagnetic interactions between Cu(II) ions

  10. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Graham Smith

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, and poly[μ-aqua-bis[μ3-2-(3,5-dichlorophenoxy)acetato]dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged comple...

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Luminescence Properties of a New Calcium(II Coordination Polymer Based on L-Malic Acid

    Duraisamy Senthil Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new calcium coordination polymer [Ca(HL-MA]n (H3L-MA = L-malic acid has been solvothermally synthesized. The structure of the newly synthesized complex has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further characterized by elemental analysis, reflectance UV-Vis & IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The single crystal structure analysis showed that the complex forms three-dimensional framework. The new Ca(II complex has displayed very high thermal stability which was inferred from TGA and PXRD results. As far as the optical property of the new complex is concerned, the complex emitted its own characteristic sensitized luminescence.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical property of three coordination polymer constructed from m-phenylenediacrylate acid

    Xiao, YiFan; Wang, TingTing; Zeng, HePing, E-mail: hpzeng@scut.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Three new complexes of the wholly deprotonated flexible ligand m-phenylenediacrylate acid (H{sub 2}mpda), namely, [Zn (mpda) (H{sub 2}O)] [1], [Pr{sub 2}(mpda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(CHOO){sub 2}] [2], and [Mn{sub 2}(mpda){sub 2} (H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] [3], were synthesized by the solvothermal reaction. The complexes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. A mixed sample [Nd(mpda)(H{sub 2}O)(CHOO)·Pr(mpda)(H{sub 2}O)(CHOO)] [2{sup ]} was also synthesized and studied. Compounds [1] and [2] exhibit a selective sensing function with respect to acetone, and they are a potential luminescent sensory material for the selective detection of Zn{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescent changes of compound [1] upon the addition of cations (Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, Bi{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}) are utilized to construct two logic gates at the molecular level. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes of flexible ligand m-phenylenedicarboxylic acid were synthesized by solvothermal reaction. Three metal−organic frameworks exhibiting 1D, 2D, 3D structures, respectively. - Highlights: • Three new complexes of m-phenylenedicarboxylic acid were synthesized. • Three metal−organic frameworks exhibiting 1D, 2D, 3D structures, respectively. • [1] and [2] exhibits a very high quenching effect with acetone. • [1] and [2] are a potential luminescent sensory material for Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Two logic gates have been constructed using compound [1].

  13. NOD2 mutations and colorectal cancer - Where do we stand?

    Branquinho, Diogo; Freire, Paulo; Sofia, Carlos

    2016-04-27

    Due to the overwhelming burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), great effort has been placed on identifying genetic mutations that contribute to disease development and progression. One of the most studied polymorphisms that could potentially increase susceptibility to CRC involves the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene. There is growing evidence that the biological activity of NOD2 is far greater than previously thought and a link with intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity is increasingly sought after. In fact, microbial composition may be an important contributor not only to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) but also to CRC. Recent studies have showed that deficient NOD2 function confers a communicable risk of colitis and CRC. Despite the evidence from experimental models, population-based studies that tried to link certain NOD2 polymorphisms and an increase in CRC risk have been described as conflicting. Significant geographic discrepancies in the frequency of such polymorphisms and different interpretations of the results may have limited the conclusions of those studies. Since being first associated to IBD and CRC, our understanding of the role of this gene has come a long way, and it is tempting to postulate that it may contribute to identify individuals with susceptible genetic background that may benefit from early CRC screening programs or in predicting response to current therapeutic tools. The aim of this review is to clarify the status quo of NOD2 mutations as genetic risk factors to chronic inflammation and ultimately to CRC. The use of NOD2 as a predictor of certain phenotypic characteristics of the disease will be analyzed as well. PMID:27152134

  14. Extending framework based on the linear coordination polymers: Alternative chains containing lanthanum ion and acrylic acid ligand

    One-dimensional alternative chains of two lanthanum complexes: [La(L1)3(CH3OH)(H2O)2].5H2O (L1=anion of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid ) 1 and [La(L2)3(H2O)2].3H2O (L2=anion of trans-3-(4-methyl-benzoyl)-acrylic acid) 2 were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, element analysis, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structure data are as follows for 1: C31H36LaN3O17, triclinic, P-1, a=9.8279(4)A, b=11.8278(5)A, c=17.8730(7)A, α=72.7960(10)o, β=83.3820(10)o, γ=67.1650(10)-bar , Z=2, R1=0.0377, wR2=0.0746; for 2: C33H37LaO14, triclinic, P-1, a=8.7174(5)A, b=9.9377(5)A, c=21.153(2)A, α=81.145(2)o, β=87.591(2)o, γ=67.345(5)o, Z=2, R1=0.0869, wR2=0.220. 1 is a rare example of the alternative chain constructed by syn-syn and anti-syn coordination mode of carboxylato ligand arranged along the chain alternatively. La(III) ions in 2 are linked by two η3-O bridges and four bridges (two η2-O and two η3-O) alternatively. Both of the linear coordination polymers grow into two- and three-dimensional networks by packing through extending hydrogen-bond network directed by ligands

  15. Coordination compounds of molybdenum and tungsten with α-, β-, γ-monopyridine carboxylic acids

    The complexes of the general composition MoOCl3L2 are isolated through the interaction of molybdenum pentachloride with picolinic, nicotinic, and isonicotinic acids, and as a results of reactions of tungsten hexachloride with above ligands the complex compounds of the composition WoCl4L2 are obtained. All the compounds are synthesized in an absolutely ethanol medium, in the atmosphere of purified helium. The study of the infrared-spectrum suggests that the bond of the central atom with a ligand is realized through a heteroatom of hydrogen. All the compounds are not electrolytes in dimethylformamide

  16. DMPD: Role of Nods in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17379560 Role of Nods in bacterial infection. Bourhis LL, Werts C. Microbes Infect.... 2007 Apr;9(5):629-36. Epub 2007 Jan 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Role of Nods in bacterial infection.... PubmedID 17379560 Title Role of Nods in bacterial infection. Authors Bourhis LL, Werts C. Publication M

  17. DMPD: Sensing of bacteria: NOD a lonely job. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17161646 Sensing of bacteria: NOD a lonely job. Kufer TA, Sansonetti PJ. Curr Opin ...Microbiol. 2007 Feb;10(1):62-9. Epub 2006 Dec 11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Sensing of bacteria: NOD a lonely job.... PubmedID 17161646 Title Sensing of bacteria: NOD a lonely job. Authors Kufer TA, Sansonetti

  18. DMPD: NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18585455 NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Shaw...tml) (.csml) Show NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. PubmedID 18585455 Ti...tle NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Authors

  19. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  20. Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers based on mixed pipemidic acid and flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligands: Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties

    Jia, Yanxia; Zhou, Pingping

    2016-09-01

    Two new Zn(II) coordination polymers, namely [Zn(4,4‧-sdb) (HPPA)]n (1) and [Zn(2,2‧-bpdc)0.5(PPA)]n (2) (4,4‧-H2sdb = 4,4‧-sulfonyldibenzoate, 2,2‧-H2bpdc = 2,2‧-biphenyldicarboxylic acid, HPPA = pipemidic acid) were successfully obtained under hydrothermal conditions. These two compounds were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analyses and IR spectra. Compound 1 features a 1D chain structure, which further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via intermolecular hydrogen bonds and weak van der Waals interactions, and compound 2 features a 3D framework with 6-connected α-Po-type topology. The structural regulation for these two compounds was successfully achieved by changing the flexible aromatic dicarboxylic acid ligand. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties for these two compounds were also investigated.

  1. The tep1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti coding for a putative transmembrane efflux protein and N-acetyl glucosamine affect nod gene expression and nodulation of alfalfa plants

    Soto María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil bacteria collectively known as Rhizobium, characterized by their ability to establish beneficial symbiosis with legumes, share several common characteristics with pathogenic bacteria when infecting the host plant. Recently, it was demonstrated that a fadD mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti is altered in the control of swarming, a type of co-ordinated movement previously associated with pathogenicity, and is also impaired in nodulation efficiency on alfalfa roots. In the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris, a fadD homolog (rpfB forms part of a cluster of genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factors. In this work, we have investigated the role in swarming and symbiosis of SMc02161, a S. meliloti fadD-linked gene. Results The SMc02161 locus in S. meliloti shows similarities with members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS of transporters. A S. meliloti null-mutant shows increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol. This indication led us to rename the locus tep1 for transmembrane efflux protein. The lack of tep1 does not affect the appearance of swarming motility. Interestingly, nodule formation efficiency on alfalfa plants is improved in the tep1 mutant during the first days of the interaction though nod gene expression is lower than in the wild type strain. Curiously, a nodC mutation or the addition of N-acetyl glucosamine to the wild type strain lead to similar reductions in nod gene expression as in the tep1 mutant. Moreover, aminosugar precursors of Nod factors inhibit nodulation. Conclusion tep1 putatively encodes a transmembrane protein which can confer chloramphenicol resistance in S. meliloti by expelling the antibiotic outside the bacteria. The improved nodulation of alfalfa but reduced nod gene expression observed in the tep1 mutant suggests that Tep1 transports compounds which influence nodulation. In contrast to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we show that in S. meliloti there is no feedback regulation

  2. Coordination compounds of nitrates and sulfates of some metals with isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    The complexes M(No3)2x2HINA, MSO4x2HINA, Cu(NO3)2xHINA, and CuSO4xHINAx1, 5C2H5OH (where M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd; HINA is hydrazide of isonicotinic acid) are obtained, their infrared (400-4000 cm-1) and Raman (50-4000 cm-1) spectra are studied. It is shown that HINA molecules in all compounds are bound with the metal by the nitrogen atoms of the amino group. In nickel, zink, and cadmium complexes the nitrogen atoms of the heterocycle are also bound with the central atom, thus forming tubazid bridges

  3. The pathogen recognition sensor, NOD2, is variably expressed in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Johnson Margaret A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NOD2, an intracellular pathogen recognition sensor, modulates innate defences to muropeptides derived from various bacterial species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. Experimentally, NOD2 attenuates two key putative mycobactericidal mechanisms. TNF-α synthesis is markedly reduced in MTB-antigen stimulated-mononuclear cells expressing mutant NOD2 proteins. NOD2 agonists also induce resistance to apoptosis, and may thus facilitate the survival of MTB in infected macrophages. To further define a role for NOD2 in disease pathogenesis, we analysed NOD2 transcriptional responses in pulmonary leucocytes and mononuclear cells harvested from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Methods We analysed NOD2 mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain-reaction in alveolar lavage cells obtained from 15 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their matched controls. We compared NOD2 transcriptional responses, in peripheral leucocytes, before and after anti-tuberculous treatment in 10 patients. In vitro, we measured NOD2 mRNA levels in MTB-antigen stimulated-mononuclear cells. Results No significant differences in NOD2 transcriptional responses were detected in patients and controls. In some patients, however, NOD2 expression was markedly increased and correlated with toll-like-receptor 2 and 4 expression. In whole blood, NOD2 mRNA levels increased significantly after completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment. NOD2 expression levels did not change significantly in mononuclear cells stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Conclusion There are no characteristic NOD2 transcriptional responses in PTB. Nonetheless, the increased levels of NOD2 expression in some patients with severe tuberculosis, and the increases in expression levels within peripheral leucocytes following treatment merit further studies in selected patient and control populations.

  4. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  5. Head Nodding Seizures and O.Volvulus Infestation

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Head nodding (HN syndrome, a new epilepsy disorder in sub-Sahara Africa, is described in 62 patients studied prospectively at the University of Ulm, Germany; Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania; and other centers in Austria, Tanzania, and Canada.

  6. Caring for the Ethical Ideal: Nel Noddings on Moral Education

    Bergman, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Nel Noddings is arguably one of the premier philosophers of moral education in the English-speaking world today. Although she is outside the mainstream theory, research, and practice traditions of cognitive-developmentalism (the Kohlberg legacy) and of character education (which is in public ascendancy), her body of work is unrivalled for…

  7. NOD mouse model for Sjogren's syndrome: lack of longitudinal stability

    B.M. Lodde; F. Mineshiba; M.R. Kok; J. Wang; C. Zheng; M. Schmidt; A.P. Cotrim; M. Kriete; P.P. Tak; B.J. Baum

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is not only a widely used model for diabetes mellitus type I, but also for the chronic autoimmune disease Sjogren's syndrome (SS), mainly affecting salivary and lacrimal glands. We studied the efficacy of local recombinant serotype 2 adeno-associated vi

  8. Influence of the steric effect of flexible isomeric phenylenediacetic acids on the resultant lead(II) coordination polymers

    Wu, Yunlong; Zhao, Yanqing; Yang, Guo-Ping, E-mail: ygp@nwu.edu.cn; Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2015-03-15

    To study the steric effect of the flexible dicarboxylate ligands on the resultant formations of coordination polymers (CPs), four new Pb{sup II} CPs [Pb(1,2-pda)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Pb(1,3-pda)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Pb{sub 2}(1,4-pda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (3a and 3b) have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The X-ray crystallography study reveals that CP 1 is a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network via the weak Pb···O interactions built on 1D chain-like structure. CP 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, showing a 4-connected sra (4{sup 2}.6{sup 3}.8) framework where a left-handed helical motif is formed by Pb{sup II} ions and trans-1,3-pda ligands. More interestingly, CPs 3a and 3b are two true 3D polymorphs and have the different morphology. Topologically, the framework of 3a exhibits a 4-connected lon 6{sup 6} motif, while that of 3b is a (4,6)-connected fsh (4{sup 3}.6{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 6}.8{sup 3}) net. It is found that the three isomeric pda anions display the various coordination fashions in four CPs. The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four new Pb{sup II}-based CPs have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Highlights: • Four Pb{sup II}-based coordination polymers were produced by phenylenediacetic acids. • The crystal and topological structures of the

  9. A novel binuclear copper complex incorporating a nalidixic acid derivative displaying a one-dimensional coordination polymeric structure.

    Bergamini, F R G; Ribeiro, M A; Miranda, P C M L; Formiga, A L B; Corbi, P P

    2016-07-01

    The identification of the antibacterial action of nalidixic acid (nx) was central to the development of the quinolone antibacterial compounds. The ability of the nx naphthyridyl ring to interact with and inhibit some proteins has encouraged the investigation of similar structures in the search for more active compounds with less adverse effects. The possibility of structural modification by attachment of other biologically active moieties to the naphthyridyl ring of nx allowed the development of new active antimicrobial molecules. Hydrazone derivatives of nx can be synthesized easily based on the condensation of the hydrazide derivative of nx with the desired aldehyde or ketone. Only a few complexes with nx hydrazone derivatives have been described but for none were the crystal structures elucidated. The synthesis of a new one-dimensional Cu(II) coordination polymer, namely catena-poly[[copper(II)-di-μ-chlorido-copper(II)-{μ-1-ethyl-N'-[(1H-imidazol-4-yl)methylidene]-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazidato}-[dimethanolcopper(II)]-{μ-1-ethyl-N'-[(1H-imidazol-3-yl)methylidene]-7-methyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carbohydrazidato}] dichloride methanol tetrasolvate], {[Cu3(C16H15N6O2)2Cl2(CH3OH)2]Cl2·4CH3OH}n, with the (1H-imidazol-4-yl)methylidene carbohydrazide derivative of nalidixic acid (denoted h4imi), is presented and its structure is compared to the density functional theory (DFT) optimized structure of free h4imi. The title structure presents an octahedral Cu(II) ion on an inversion centre alternating along a polymer chain with a square-pyramidal Cu(II) ion, with the two Cu(II) centres bridged by two chloride ligands. Hydrogen bonds involving chloride counter-ions and methanol solvent molecules mediate the three-dimensional packing of the polymer. Comparison of the geometrical results from the structure analysis with those derived from a DFT study of the free ligand reveal the differences that arise upon coordination

  10. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  11. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  12. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    Ochi, Mitsukazu, E-mail: mochi@ipcku.kansai-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. {yields} The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. {yields} The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. {yields} The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  13. X-ray structure of 1D-coordination polymer of copperII bearing 1,4-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and 2-aminopyrimidine

    Mirzaei Masoud; Eshtiagh-Hosseini Hossein; Hassanpoor Azam; Barba Victor

    2012-01-01

    The new 1D-coordination polymer of CuII ion, {(2- apymH)2[Cu(pyzdc)2] .6H2O}n, (2-apym = 2-aminopyrimidine, pyzdcH2 = 1,4- pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid), was synthesized based on proton transfer mechanism and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The coordination polymer consists of infinite anionic chains of [Cu(pyzdc)2]2- anion bridged crossing double chain running along a-axis and discrete (2-apymH)+ fragment. The CuII ion...

  14. A new coordination mode of (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in copper complex: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Jin, Xin; Zhou, Pei; Zheng, Chunying [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihui@bit.edu [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-05-15

    A copper complex ([Cu(py){sub 2}(L){sub 2}]·2CH{sub 3}OH){sub n} (HL=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) (1) with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and structurally analyzed by IR, elemental analysis, TGA and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. It is the first time to find that phenolic hydroxyl of L coordinates to Cu(II). Complex 1 exhibits 1D chain by a double-bridge of ligands, and the 3D supramolecular framework in complex 1 is constructed by π–π stacking interactions and van der Waals Contacts among the 1D chains. The magnetic properties of complex 1 have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A copper complex based on (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in a novel coordinated way was synthesized and a ferromagnetic exchange interactions between neighboring Cu(II) ions has be achieved. - Highlights: • A new copper complex with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and analyzed. • We find the phenolic hydroxyl of MCA ligand coordinates to metal ion firstly. • A ferromagnetic exchange interactions between Cu(II) ions has been achieved.

  15. A new coordination mode of (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in copper complex: Crystal structure and magnetic properties

    A copper complex ([Cu(py)2(L)2]·2CH3OH)n (HL=(E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid) (1) with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and structurally analyzed by IR, elemental analysis, TGA and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. It is the first time to find that phenolic hydroxyl of L coordinates to Cu(II). Complex 1 exhibits 1D chain by a double-bridge of ligands, and the 3D supramolecular framework in complex 1 is constructed by π–π stacking interactions and van der Waals Contacts among the 1D chains. The magnetic properties of complex 1 have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A copper complex based on (E)-3-(3-hydroxyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid in a novel coordinated way was synthesized and a ferromagnetic exchange interactions between neighboring Cu(II) ions has be achieved. - Highlights: • A new copper complex with acrylic acid ligand was synthesized and analyzed. • We find the phenolic hydroxyl of MCA ligand coordinates to metal ion firstly. • A ferromagnetic exchange interactions between Cu(II) ions has been achieved

  16. Functions of NOD-Like Receptors in Human Diseases

    Zhong, Yifei; Kinio, Anna; Saleh, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that perform critical functions in surveying the intracellular environment for the presence of infection, noxious substances, and metabolic perturbations. Sensing of these danger signals by NLRs leads to their oligomerization into large macromolecular scaffolds and the rapid deployment of effector signaling cascades to restore homeostasis. While some NLRs operat...

  17. 1D coordination polymers formed by tetranuclear lead(II) building blocks with carboxylate ligands: In situ isomerization of itaconic acid

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb2(mpic)4(H2O)]·0.5H2O (1) and [Pb2(phen)2(cit)(mes)]·2H2O (2) has been reported, where mpic=3-methyl picolinate, phen=o-phenanthroline, H2cit=citraconic acid, H2mes mesaconic acid. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses showed that the complexes comprise topologically different 1D polymeric chains stabilized by weak interactions and both containing tetranuclear Pb4 units connected by carboxylate groups. In compound 1 3-methylpicolinic acid is formed in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile, and mesaconate and citraconate anions were surprisingly formed from itaconic acid during the synthesis of 2. The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the complexes have been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two new topologically different 1D coordination polymers formed by Pb4 clusters have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray analysis. The luminescence and thermal properties have been studied. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Both the complexes, made up of different ligands, forms topologycally different 1D polymeric chains containing Pb4 clusters. • The final structures are stabilized by weak interactions (H-bond, π∙∙∙π stacking). • In complex 1, the 3-methylpicolinic acid is generated in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile. • Mesaconate and citraconate anions are surprisingly formed in situ from itaconic acid during the synthesis of complex 2, indicating an exceptional transformation

  18. The Ubiquitin Ligase XIAP Recruits LUBAC for NOD2 Signaling in Inflammation and Innate Immunity

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Nachbur, Ueli; Yabal, Monica;

    2012-01-01

    -linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP-2). Here, we demonstrate that the RING domain of XIAP is essential for NOD2 signaling and that XIAP contributes to exacerbation of inflammation-induced hepatitis in experimental mice. We find that XIAP ubiquitylates RIPK2 and recruits the linear ubiquitin chain assembly...... signaling. We conclude that XIAP and LUBAC constitute essential ubiquitin ligases in NOD2-mediated inflammatory signaling and propose that deregulation of NOD2 signaling contributes to XLP-2 pathogenesis....

  19. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  20. X-ray structure of 1D-coordination polymer of copperII bearing 1,4-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and 2-aminopyrimidine

    Mirzaei Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new 1D-coordination polymer of CuII ion, {(2- apymH2[Cu(pyzdc2] .6H2O}n, (2-apym = 2-aminopyrimidine, pyzdcH2 = 1,4- pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, was synthesized based on proton transfer mechanism and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The coordination polymer consists of infinite anionic chains of [Cu(pyzdc2]2- anion bridged crossing double chain running along a-axis and discrete (2-apymH+ fragment. The CuII ion is located on inversion centre in the basal plane of an elongated octahedron and two oxygen atoms from adjacent (pyzdc2-ligands occupy axial position. The interaction between oxygen atoms of water molecules along with the dicarboxylic acid play an important role in the overall supramolecular assembly.

  1. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival

    Sheena M Cruickshank; Louise Wakenshaw; John Cardone; Peter D Howdle; Peter J Murray; Simon R Carding

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC).METHODS: A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines.RESULTS: In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2-/- mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis.CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation.

  2. Proteomic Dissection of Endosperm Starch Granule Associated Proteins Reveals a Network Coordinating Starch Biosynthesis and Amino Acid Metabolism and Glycolysis in Rice Endosperms

    Yu, Huatao; Wang, Tai

    2016-01-01

    Starch biosynthesis and starch granule packaging in cereal endosperms involve a coordinated action of starch biosynthesis enzymes and coordination with other metabolisms. Because directly binding to starch granules, starch granule-associated proteins (SGAPs) are essential to understand the underlying mechanisms, however the information on SGAPs remains largely unknown. Here, we dissected developmentally changed SGAPs from developing rice endosperms from 10 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). Starch granule packaging was not completed at 10 DAF, and was finished in the central endosperm at 15 DAF and in the whole endosperm at 20 DAF. Proteomic analysis with two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed 115 developmentally changed SGAPs, representing 37 unique proteins. 65% of the unique proteins had isoforms. 39% of the identified SGAPs were involved in starch biosynthesis with main functions in polyglucan elongation and granule structure trimming. Almost all proteins involved in starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, protein folding, and PPDK pathways increased abundance as the endosperm developed, and were predicted in an interaction network. The network represents an important mechanism to orchestrate carbon partitioning among starch biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and glycolysis for efficient starch and protein storage. These results provide novel insights into mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and its coordination with amino acid metabolisms and glycolysis in cereal endosperms. PMID:27252723

  3. Implication of NOD1 and NOD2 for the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.

    Hyung-Sik Kim

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are known to trigger an innate immune response against microbial infection. Although studies suggest that activation of TLRs modulate the function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, little is known about the role of NLRs on the MSC function. In this study, we investigated whether NOD1 and NOD2 regulate the functions of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs. The genes of TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 were expressed in hUCB-MSCs. Stimulation with each agonist (Pam(3CSK(4 for TLR2, LPS for TLR4, Tri-DAP for NOD1, and MDP for NOD2 led to IL-8 production in hUCB-MSC, suggesting the expressed receptors are functional in hUCB-MSC. CCK-8 assay revealed that none of agonist influenced proliferation of hUCB-MSCs. We next examined whether TLR and NLR agonists affect osteogenic-, adipogenic-, and chondrogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs. Pam(3CSK(4 and Tri-DAP strongly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and ERK phosphorylation in hUCB-MSCs, and LPS and MDP also slightly did. Treatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor restored osteogenic differentiation enhanced by Pam(3CSK(4. Tri-DAP and MDP inhibited adipogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs, but Pam(3CSK(4 and LPS did not. On chondrogenic differentiation, all TLR and NLR agonists could promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs with difference in the ability. Our findings suggest that NOD1 and NOD2 as well as TLRs are involved in regulating the differentiation of MSCs.

  4. Syntheses and Crystal Structures of Two Coordination Polymers Based on a Flexible Ligand N,N'-Diacetic Acid Imidazolium

    柴小川; 赵玲艳; 张汉辉; 陈义平; 弓巧娟

    2012-01-01

    Two coordination compounds with a flexible ligand N,N?-diacetic acid imidazolium(HDAM),{[Co(trans-DAM)(bipy)(H2O)2](OH)·4H2O}n 1 and {[Cd(trans-DAM)(bipy)(H2O)](NO3)?2H2O}n 2(bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine),were prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.Compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P2/n with a = 7.589(6),b = 11.444(2),c = 12.894(3)(A°),β = 90.99(3)°,V = 1119.8(4)(A°)^3,Z = 4,C8.5H14N2O5.5Co0.5,Mr = 261.68,Dc = 1.552 g/cm^3,F(000) = 546,μ = 0.832 mm^-1,the final R = 0.0657 and wR = 0.1958.Compound 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic C2 space group with a = 17.479(4),b = 11.689(2),c = 11.670(2),β = 117.13(3)°,V = 2121.9(7)3,Z = 4,C17H21N5O10Cd,Mr = 567.79,Dc = 1.777 g/cm^3,F(000) = 1144,μ = 1.096 mm^-1,the final R = 0.0233 and wR = 0.0638.In 1,the Co(II) ions are linked by μ2-trans-DAM-and bipy ligands to build a 2D(4,4) rectangular grid layer,exhibiting a 4-connected sql net.As for 2,μ3-trans-DAM-and bipy bridge Cd(II) ions form a 2D double-layer,consisting of a couple of(4,4) grid layers,which can be viewed as a(3,4)-connected network.In both compounds,the 2D structures are stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions to give 3D supramolecular frameworks.Additionally,FT-IR spectroscopy,UV-Visible spectroscopy,and the fluorescent properties are discussed.

  5. NOD2 is highly expressed in Behçet disease with pulmonary manifestations

    Hamzaoui Kamel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive Th1 cells and TLRs functions are involved in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD in response to bacterial antigens. NOD2, an intracellular pathogen recognition sensor, modulates innate defence to muropeptides derived from various bacterial species. To further define a role for NOD2 in BD, we analysed NOD2 transcriptional responses in BAL-MNC from BD patients with pulmonary manifestations. Methods We analysed NOD1, NOD2, T-bet and TLRs mRNA expression with real-time polymerase chain-reaction in BAL cells obtained from 23 BD patients with pulmonary manifestations and their matched controls. Results We found that NOD2 mRNA expression was highly up-regulated in BAL cells from BD and sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy control group (P = 0.001. In BD patients, significant correlation was found between NOD2 and T-bet mRNA expression (r = 0.602; P = 0.0009. In BAL from BD patients, NOD2 and T-bet mRNA expression were significantly correlated with BAL-lymphocytes (r = 0.485, P = 0.010; r = 0684, P = 0.0001 respectively. NOD2 in BD was also correlated with TLR 2(r = 0.444; P = 0.021 and TLR 4 (r = 0.574; P = 0.001 mRNA expression. Conclusion Our results indicate that BAL-MNC from BD patients expressed NOD2 as a result of lung inflammation. TLRs and NOD2 synergize for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. BAL inflammatory cells showed an increased Th1 situation as indicated by increased T-bet mRNA expression.

  6. Nod2 suppresses Borrelia burgdorferi mediated murine Lyme arthritis and carditis through the induction of tolerance.

    Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja

    Full Text Available The internalization of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, by phagocytes is essential for an effective activation of the immune response to this pathogen. The intracellular, cytosolic receptor Nod2 has been shown to play varying roles in either enhancing or attenuating inflammation in response to different infectious agents. We examined the role of Nod2 in responses to B. burgdorferi. In vitro stimulation of Nod2 deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM resulted in decreased induction of multiple cytokines, interferons and interferon regulated genes compared with wild-type cells. However, B. burgdorferi infection of Nod2 deficient mice resulted in increased rather than decreased arthritis and carditis compared to control mice. We explored multiple potential mechanisms for the paradoxical response in in vivo versus in vitro systems and found that prolonged stimulation with a Nod2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP, resulted in tolerance to stimulation by B. burgdorferi. This tolerance was lost with stimulation of Nod2 deficient cells that cannot respond to MDP. Cytokine patterns in the tolerance model closely paralleled cytokine profiles in infected Nod2 deficient mice. We propose a model where Nod2 has an enhancing role in activating inflammation in early infection, but moderates inflammation after prolonged exposure to the organism through induction of tolerance.

  7. Inhibition of Nod2 signaling and target gene expression by curcumin

    Nod2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that detects a conserved moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan and subsequently activates proinflammatory signaling pathways. Mutations in Nod2 have been implicated to be linked to inflammatory granulomatous disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and Bla...

  8. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]n (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H2O]n (2) (H2ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co2(CO2)4/Ni2(CO2)4 SBUs by ca2− ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1–2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation. - Graphical abstract: Two new coordination compounds 1–2 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic and electrochemical measurement. - Highlights: • This paper reports two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid. • Both the compounds feather two-dimensional layered networks built up from paddle-wheel SBUs. • The magnetism and electrochemical property are investigated

  9. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    Lun, Huijie; Yang, Jinghe; Jin, Linyu; Cui, Sasa; Bai, Yanlong [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Yamin, E-mail: liyamin@henu.edu.cn [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2015-05-15

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]{sub n} (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}/Ni{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4} SBUs by ca{sup 2−} ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1–2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation. - Graphical abstract: Two new coordination compounds 1–2 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic and electrochemical measurement. - Highlights: • This paper reports two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid. • Both the compounds feather two-dimensional layered networks built up from paddle-wheel SBUs. • The magnetism and electrochemical property are investigated.

  10. Coordination polymers of La(III) acetate with terephthalaldehyde bis isonicotinic acid hydrazone (Paper No. AL-12)

    Polymerization reactions involving the formation of schiff base metal complexes by condensation have been described. Metal complexes of schiff bases of hyrazides with aldehydes and ketones have been of special interest in recent years, particularly in the context of therapeutic value of hydrazide and hydrazone. The coordination occurs both in keto as well as in enolic form of ligands with metal ions. Coordination polymers of 3-d series have been extensively studied but less attention has been paid on rare earths polymeric complexes. The synthesis and characterization of lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sr and Gd) acetate complexes with a schiff base derived from terephthalaldehyde and isonicotinic acidhydrazide are reported. (author)

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and...

  12. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    Anna Siczek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides. To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M or water (control before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  13. Coordination assisted molecular assemblies of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid with copper (II) ion at the air/water interface

    Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) was found to form stable Langmuir films at the air/water interface through the coordination with Cu(II) ion in the subphase although the compound itself could not form monolayer on a plain water surface. The Langmuir films can be transferred onto solid substrates by a Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) method. Surface pressure-area isotherm and measurement of the UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra of the transferred LS films confirmed the coordination between the carboxylic group and Cu(II) ion in the Langmuir films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements indicated that the Langmuir film was composed of small nanoparticles with a diameter of several tens of nanometers. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement on the transferred LS films revealed that the film formed a clear layer structure with a distance of 3.9 nm, which was in agreement with the height measurement from the AFM

  14. 1.3.2. Synthesis, crystal structure and thermal stability property of a new terbium(III coordination polymer based on 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid

    Min-Min Han, Xiao Chen, Shi-Jia Sun, Yun-Long Feng*

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new coordination polymer [Tb2L2(Ox(H2O4]n·nH2O (H2L = 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid, H2Ox = Oxalicacid has been synthesized under hydrothermal reaction andcharacterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IRspectra, and thermogravimetric analyses. The two Tb atoms areeight-coordinated in a distorted dodecahedron geometry for Tb1and in a distorted bicapped trigonal prism geometry for Tb2.The structure possesses a 3D (3,8-connected topology net withTb2(COO2O12 SBUs and L2–, Ox2– ligands. The thermogravimetricproperty of 1 has been investigated.Supporting information: CIF file.

  15. Application of NOD/SCID Mice in Research of Experimental Hematology-Review%NOD/SCID小鼠在实验血液学研究中的应用

    于文俊; 杨文华; 史哲新; 杨向东; 王慧娟

    2008-01-01

    NOD/SCID(非肥胖糖尿病/重症联合免疫缺陷)小鼠是在SCID(重症联合免疫缺陷)小鼠的基础上与非肥胖性糖尿病小鼠(NOD/Lt)品系回交的免疫缺陷鼠.NOD/SCID小鼠既有先天免疫缺陷,又有T和B淋巴细胞缺乏,各种肿瘤细胞可以植入,且较少发生排斥反应及移植物抗宿主病(GVHD),所以NOD/SCID小鼠逐渐成为血液学实验研究的有用工具.本文从NOD/SCID小鼠的生物学特性及其在建立人类白血病模型、干细胞移植、药物研究及NOD/SCID小鼠应用中存在的不足和改良等方面综合述评.

  16. Mixed ligand coordination polymer based on 5-nitroisophthalic acid and 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,2,4-triazole: Synthesis, characterization, magnetic and photocatalytic properties

    Li, Le; Ju, Wen-Wen; Tao, Jian-Qing; Xin, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiao-Juan

    2015-09-01

    A new Cu(II) coordination polymer, namely, [Cu(NPT)2(NO2-BDC)]n (1) (NO2-H2BDC = 5-nitro-1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, NPT = 4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,2,4-triazole) has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that complex 1 features one-dimensional chain structure. The magnetic studies reveal that the antiferromagnetic interactions exist between the adjacent CuII ions. Moreover, complex 1 displays highly photocatalytic degradation activity for the degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue and methyl orange.

  17. Cytosolic proteins NODs involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses%参与免疫及炎症反应调控的胞浆蛋白NODs

    胡巢凤

    2004-01-01

    Nucleotide- binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are members of a growing family of cytosolic factors related to the apoptosis regulator Apaf-1 and a class of plant disease resistance proteins. NOD proteins have been implicated in the induction of NF-κB activity and in the activation of caspases. Biochemical evidence has unraveled the role of NOD1 and NOD2 as intraceUular sensors of bacterial peptidoglycan. Notably, genetic variation in the genes encoding the NOD proteins NOD2, cryopyrin and C Ⅱ TA inhmnans is associated with inflammatory disease or increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. NOD proteins may be involved in the recognition of microorganisms and regulation of inflammatory responses.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Catalysis of Dinuclear Cd(Ⅱ) Complexes Bridged by Unusual (N,O,O')-Coordinated a-Amino Acids

    DENG Dong-sheng; WANG Li; PEI Ya-mei; FENG Lu; LIU Chang-lin

    2012-01-01

    Four dinuclear amino acid cadmium(Ⅱ) complexes [Cd2(tren)2(dl-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅰ),[Cd2(tren)2·(l-alaninato)](ClO4)3·H2O(Ⅱ),[Cd2(tren)2(dl-phenylalaninato)](ClO4)3(Ⅲ) and [Cd2(tren)2(l-phenylalaninato)]·(ClO4)3(Ⅳ),constructed from mixed ligands of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine(tren) and racemic or natural amino acids(amino acids=dl- or l-alanine,and dl- or l-phenylalanine),have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography.The structural analysis of complexes Ⅰ and Ⅲ reveals that the cadmium centers are coordinated by one tren ligand and one amino acid molecule with the unusual (N,O,O')-bridged mode,resulting in asymmetric chromophores of CdN4O and CdN5O in complex Ⅰ,CdN4O2 and CdN5O in complex Ⅲ,respectively.The utility of the four complexes as efficient water-compatible Lewis acid catalysts for the direct aldol reaction in water was examined.The reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones in up to 99% yield.Moreover,the diastereoselectivity of the reaction favors the formation of the syn-isomers.

  19. Role of Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing (NOD 2 in Host Defense during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    Tijmen J Hommes

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD 2 is a pattern recognition receptor located in the cytosol of myeloid cells that is able to detect peptidoglycan fragments of S. pneumoniae. We here aimed to investigate the role of NOD2 in the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. Phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae was studied in NOD2 deficient (Nod2-/- and wild-type (Wt alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in vitro. In subsequent in vivo experiments Nod2-/- and Wt mice were inoculated with serotype 2 S. pneumoniae (D39, an isogenic capsule locus deletion mutant (D39Δcps or serotype 3 S. pneumoniae (6303 via the airways, and bacterial growth and dissemination and the lung inflammatory response were evaluated. Nod2-/- alveolar macrophages and blood neutrophils displayed a reduced capacity to internalize pneumococci in vitro. During pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae D39 Nod2-/- mice were indistinguishable from Wt mice with regard to bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs, lung pathology and neutrophil recruitment. While Nod2-/- and Wt mice also had similar bacterial loads after infection with the more virulent S. pneumoniae 6303 strain, Nod2-/- mice displayed a reduced bacterial clearance of the normally avirulent unencapsulated D39Δcps strain. These results suggest that NOD2 does not contribute to host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia and that the pneumococcal capsule impairs recognition of S. pneumoniae by NOD2.

  20. ATPase Cycle of the Nonmotile Kinesin NOD Allows Microtubule End Tracking and Drives Chromosome Movement

    Cochran, J.; Sindelar, C; Mulko, N; Collins, K; Kong, S; Hawley, R; Kull, F

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of nonexchange chromosomes during Drosophila melanogaster meiosis requires the proper function of NOD, a nonmotile kinesin-10. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the NOD catalytic domain in the ADP- and AMPPNP-bound states. These structures reveal an alternate conformation of the microtubule binding region as well as a nucleotide-sensitive relay of hydrogen bonds at the active site. Additionally, a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the nucleotide-free microtubule-NOD complex shows an atypical binding orientation. Thermodynamic studies show that NOD binds tightly to microtubules in the nucleotide-free state, yet other nucleotide states, including AMPPNP, are weakened. Our pre-steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrates that NOD interaction with microtubules occurs slowly with weak activation of ADP product release. Upon rapid substrate binding, NOD detaches from the microtubule prior to the rate-limiting step of ATP hydrolysis, which is also atypical for a kinesin. We propose a model for NOD's microtubule plus-end tracking that drives chromosome movement.

  1. Thymic epithelium determines a spontaneous chronic neuritis in Icam1(tm1Jcgr)NOD mice.

    Meyer zu Horste, Gerd; Mausberg, Anne K; Cordes, Steffen; El-Haddad, Houda; Partke, Hans-Joachim; Leussink, Verena I; Roden, Michael; Martin, Stephan; Steinman, Lawrence; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2014-09-15

    The NOD mouse strain spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes. A deficiency in costimulatory molecules, such as B7-2, on the NOD genetic background prevents diabetes but instead triggers an inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. This constitutes a shift in the target of autoimmunity, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that NOD mice deficient for isoforms of ICAM-1, which comediate costimulatory functions, spontaneously develop a chronic autoimmune peripheral neuritis instead of diabetes. The disease is transferred by CD4(+) T cells, which infiltrate peripheral nerves together with macrophages and B cells and are autoreactive against peripheral myelin protein zero. These Icam1(tm1Jcgr)NOD mice exhibit unaltered numbers of regulatory T cells, but increased IL-17-producing T cells, which determine the severity, but not the target specificity, of autoimmunity. Ab-mediated ICAM-1 blockade triggers neuritis only in young NOD mice. Thymic epithelium from Icam1(tm1Jcgr)NOD mice features an altered expression of costimulatory molecules and induces neuritis and myelin autoreactivity after transplantation into nude mice in vivo. Icam1(tm1Jcgr)NOD mice exhibit a specifically altered TCR repertoire. Our findings introduce a novel animal model of chronic inflammatory neuropathies and indicate that altered expression of ICAM-1 on thymic epithelium shifts autoimmunity specifically toward peripheral nerves. This improves our understanding of autoimmunity in the peripheral nervous system with potential relevance for human diseases. PMID:25108020

  2. Co-ordinated research programme on application of stable isotope tracer methods to studies of amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism in malnourished populations of developing countries. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    The use of isotopes has revolutionized the field of human nutrition research, but has been of greatest benefit to industrialized countries. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring programmes using isotopic and related technologies in human nutrition research to address issues that are of priority to developing countries. Scientists participating in the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism in Malnourished Populations of Developing Countries'' are conducting research on the interaction between infection and amino acid metabolism, particularly the potential diversion of substrates from anabolic pathways to fight infection in marginally nourished children during periods of infections. This topic is of great importance to the nutritional status of children in developing countries, who frequently or chronically have infections and who, as a consequence, may have alterations in nutrient requirements. The CRP has developed and implemented a standardized protocol for measuring leucine oxidation during infection in 8 different countries. The CRP is expected to contribute important new knowledge about interactions between protein utilization, the stresses of unhygienic environments, and infections in marginally nourished people. This information is expected to be applicable to efforts to increase efficient utilization of limited food resources in developing countries. Another highlight of the CRP is that it represents an international team of nutrition scientists who together are building nutritional biology research capabilities in developing countries. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Auxiliary aromatic-acid effect on the structures of a series of ZnII coordination polymers: Syntheses, crystal structures, and photoluminescence properties

    Five novel ZnII-(pyridyl)imidazole derivative coordination polymers, [Zn(L)2] (1), [Zn2(μ3-OH)L(m-BDC)] (2), [Zn2(μ3-OH)L(p-BDC)].H2O (3), [Zn2L(BTC)(H2O)].2.5H2O (4) and [Zn3.5(μ3-OH)L2(BTEC)(H2O)].H2O (5) (L=4-((2-(pyridine-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid, p-H2BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, m-H2BDC=1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, H3BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H4BTEC=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid), were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions through varying auxiliary aromatic-acid ligands and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 exhibits a 1D chain linked via double L bridges. Compound 2 features a well-known pcu topology with bent dicarboxylate ligand (m-H2BDC) as an auxiliary ligand, while 3 displays a bcu network with linear dicarboxylate ligand (p-H2BDC) as an auxiliary ligand. The structure of compound 4 is a novel 3D (3,5)-connected network with (4.62)(4.64.82.10.122) topology. It is interesting that compound 5 shows an intricate (3,4,8)-connected framework with (4.62)(42.63.8)(42.64)(42.618.7.86.10) topology. In addition, their infrared spectra (IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD) and photoluminescent properties were also investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: Five novel ZnII-organic architectures have been hydrothermally synthesized through varying auxiliary aromatic-acid ligands and characterized by X-ray diffraction, the photoluminescence properties of compounds 1-5 were studied.

  4. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  5. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Highlights: ► Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. ► Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. ► Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. ► Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic β-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  6. Systemic alterations in the metabolome of diabetic NOD mice delineate increased oxidative stress accompanied by reduced inflammation and hypertriglyceremia.

    Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Bell, Graeme I; Hara, Manami

    2015-06-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are a commonly used model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals will develop overt diabetes despite undergoing similar autoimmune insult. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic approach, consisting of gas chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass quadruple time-of-flight (UHPLC-qTOF) MS and targeted UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based methodologies, was used to capture metabolic alterations in the metabolome and lipidome of plasma from NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Using this multi-platform approach, we identified >1,000 circulating lipids and metabolites in male and female progressor and nonprogressor animals (n = 71). Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age- and sex-independent metabolic markers, which best differentiated metabolic profiles of progressors and nonprogressors. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with 1) increases in oxidation products glucono-δ-lactone and galactonic acid and reductions in cysteine, methionine and threonic acid, suggesting increased oxidative stress; 2) reductions in circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid signaling mediators, most notably arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-derived eicosanoids, implying impaired states of systemic inflammation; 3) elevations in circulating triacylglyercides reflective of hypertriglyceridemia; and 4) reductions in major structural lipids, most notably lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Taken together, our results highlight the systemic perturbations that accompany a loss of glycemic control and development of overt T1D. PMID:25852003

  7. Interactions between Nod-like Receptors and Intestinal Bacteria

    Marcel R de Zoete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide oligomerization domain (Nod-like Receptors (NLRs are cytosolic sensors that mediate the activation of Caspase-1 and the subsequent processing and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as an inflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. While a multitude of bacteria have been shown to activate one or more NLRs under in vitro conditions, the exact impact of NLR activation during the course of colonization, both of pathogenic and commensal nature, is less understood. In this review, we will focus on the role of intestinal NLRs during the various stages of infection with common gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, as well as NLR function in controlling and shaping the microbiota.

  8. Nod-shuffle 3D spectroscopy with PMAS

    Roth, Martin M.; Fechner, Thomas; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas

    2004-09-01

    PMAS is a versatile integral field spectrograph based on the principle of a fiber-coupled lens array type of IFU. The instrument was commissioned at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope in May 2001. PMAS is offered as a common user instrument at Calar Alto since 2002. However, it has remained flexible enough to be used as a testbed for new observing techniques. Since the instrument is sensitive in the wavelength range from 0.35 to 1 μm, it is being used to experiment with faint object 3D spectroscopy for a variety of objects in stellar and extragalactic astronomy. Among these experiments, we have implemented a nod-shuffle mode of operation, which is a beam switching technique to achieve a high degree of sky subtraction accuracy. We describe the technical details of the special solution found for PMAS and first results obtained in test observations of faint haloes of planetary nebulae.

  9. Expression of Nucleotide-oligomerization Domain (NOD) and Related Genes in Mouse Tissues Infected with Mycobacterium leprae

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chae, Gue-Tae

    2015-01-01

    The nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) is an important molecule involved in host defense against bacterial infection. To study the role of NODs in the host response to Mycobacterium leprae, we measured the mRNA levels of NODs and related genes in infected mouse tissues. The mRNA expression of NOD1, NOD2, caspase-1 and ASC was increased in mouse footpads. Whereas NOD2 expression in macrophages was increased at 2 and 24 h post-infection with M. leprae, there was no expression of NOD1 at these time points. An increase in caspase-1 expression was observed at 2 h and continued at 24 h. However, the expression of ASC was increased only at the early time point. The expression of caspase-1 is regulated by NOD2-dependent pathway in established HEK 293. Our results suggest NOD2, rather than NOD1, may be associated with the host response to M. leprae and that caspase-1 activation is essential for the host response. PMID:26770186

  10. Disease-causing mutations in the XIAP BIR2 domain impair NOD2-dependent immune signalling

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Speckmann, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    ), an immunodeficiency associated with a potentially fatal deregulation of the immune system, whose aetiology is not well understood. Here, we identify the XIAP baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)2 domain as a hotspot for missense mutations in XLP2. We demonstrate that XLP2-BIR2 mutations severely impair NOD1....../2-dependent immune signalling in primary cells from XLP2 patients and in reconstituted XIAP-deficient cell lines. XLP2-BIR2 mutations abolish the XIAP-RIPK2 interaction resulting in impaired ubiquitylation of RIPK2 and recruitment of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to the NOD2-complex. We show...... that the RIPK2 binding site in XIAP overlaps with the BIR2 IBM-binding pocket and find that a bivalent Smac mimetic compound (SMC) potently antagonises XIAP function downstream of NOD2 to limit signalling. These findings suggest that impaired immune signalling in response to NOD1/2 stimulation is a...

  11. The effect of NOD2 on the microbiota in Crohn's disease.

    Lauro, Mackenzie L; Burch, Jason M; Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler

    2016-08-01

    Recent advancements toward the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) indicate great promise for long-term remission. CD patients suffer from a complex host of dysregulated interactions between their innate immune system and microbiome. The most predominant link to the onset of CD is a genetic mutation in the innate immune receptor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2). NOD2 responds to the presence of bacteria and stimulates the immune response. Mutations to NOD2 promote low diversity and dysbiosis in the microbiome, leading to impaired mucosal barrier function. Current treatments suppress the immune response rather than enhancing the function of this critical protein. New progress toward stabilizing NOD2 signaling through its interactions with chaperone proteins holds potential in the development of novel CD therapeutics. PMID:27035071

  12. Backchannel Head Nods in Danish First Meeting Encounters with a Humanoid Robot

    Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj; Rehm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    investigate the use of head nods in communications between a user and a humanoid robot (Nao) that they meet for the first time. Contrary to the virtual agent case, the robot elicited less talking from the user when it was using head nods as a feedback signal. A follow-up experiment revealed that the physical...... embodiment of the robot had a huge impact on the users' behavior in the first encounters....

  13. Generation of Stable Pluripotent Stem Cells From NOD Mouse Tail-Tip Fibroblasts

    Liu, Jun; Ashton, Michelle P.; Sumer, Huseyin; O’Bryan, Moira K.; Brodnicki, Thomas C.; Verma, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The NOD mouse strain has been widely used to investigate the pathology and genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from this unique mouse strain would enable new strategies for investigating type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic fibroblasts from NOD mice could be reprogrammed to become iPSCs, providing an alternative source of stem cells for the p...

  14. Backchannel Head Nods in Danish First Meeting Encounters with a Humanoid Robot

    Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj; Rehm, Matthias

    investigate the use of head nods in communications between a user and a humanoid robot (Nao) that they meet for the first time. Contrary to the virtual agent case, the robot elicited less talking from the user when it was using head nods as a feedback signal. A follow-up experiment revealed that the physical...... embodiment of the robot had a huge impact on the users' behavior in the first encounters....

  15. Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD X B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice

    The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response

  16. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers.

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen-oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl-ate O atom of the oxo-acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb-oxy-ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)-2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)-3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol-ecule forms an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl-ate O atom. PMID:26594400

  17. SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠部分免疫指标的比较%Comparison of some immune indexes between SCID and NOD/SCID mice

    郝智慧; 孔丽娟; 王成; 王欣丽; 傅谨凤; 李兰芳

    2016-01-01

    目的 测定SCID和NOD/SCID小鼠的免疫器官质量、血常规指标以及部分血液生化指标(immunoglobulin G,IgG),分析比较2个免疫缺陷小鼠在免疫方面的特点.方法 对4~8、12~ 16和20~24周龄SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠眼眶静脉采血,测定血常规指标,剖取胸腺和脾脏进行称质量比较.对4~6、8~ 10、16~18周龄的SCID和NOD/SCID小鼠眼眶静脉采血,测定比较血清IgG含量.结果 a.同周龄SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠胸腺质量差异无显著性.3个年龄段(4~8、12~16和20~24周龄)的NOD/SCID小鼠脾脏显著低于各组SCID小鼠(P<0.05),SCID小鼠脾脏随年龄增加趋势明显;b.NOD/SCID小鼠白细胞数(white blood cell count,WBC)、淋巴细胞绝对值(lymphocytes,LYM#)、红细胞数(red blood cell,RBC)、血红蛋白含量(hemoglobin,HGB)及平均血红蛋白浓度(mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,MCHC)显著低于同周龄SCID小鼠(P<0.05),高龄SCID小鼠白细胞水平和淋巴细胞百分比显著高于低龄(4~8周龄)SCID鼠(P<0.05).c.NOD/SCID小鼠血清IgG含量显著低于SCID小鼠(P<0.05).结论 SCID与NOD/SCID小鼠部分免疫指标存在显著性差异.

  18. Solvent induced synthesis, structure and properties of coordination polymers based on 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid as linker and 1,10-phenanthroline as auxiliary ligand

    Kariem, Mukaddus; Yawer, Mohd; Sheikh, Haq Nawaz

    2015-11-01

    Three new coordination polymers [Mn(hip)(phen) (H2O)]n (1), [Co(hip)(phen) (H2O)]n (2), and [Cd(hip) (phen) (H2O)]n (3) (H2hip=5-hydroxyisophthalic acid; phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized by solvo-hydrothermal method using diethyl formamide-water (DEF-H2O) as solvent system. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all three coordination polymers 1, 2 and 3 crystallize in monoclinic space group P2/n. Metal ions are inter-connected by hydroxyisophthalate anions forming zig-zag 1D chain. 1D chains are further inter-connected by hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions leading to 3D supramolecular architecture. Hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking provide thermal stability to polymers. Compounds 1 and 2 are paramagnetic at room temperature and variable temperature magnetic moment measurements revealed weak ferromagnetic interactions between metal ions at low temperature. Compound 3 exhibits excellent photoluminescence with large Stokes shift.

  19. A new one-dimensional coordination polymer of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid with manganese.

    Wang, Jing; Jia, Chunmei; Feng, Xiao; Yuan, Wenbing

    2015-09-01

    The coordination polymer catena-poly[[(dimethylformamide-κO)[μ3-5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalato-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(3):O(3')](methanol-κO)manganese(III)] dimethylformamide monosolvate], {[Mn(C40H23NO6)(CH3OH)(C3H7NO)]·C3H7NO}n, has been synthesized from the reaction of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid and manganese(II) acetate tetrahydrate in a glass tube at room temperature by solvent diffusion. The Mn(II) centre is hexacoordinated by two O atoms from one chelating carboxylate group, by two O atoms from two monodentate carboxylate groups and by one O atom each from a methanol and a dimethylformamide (DMF) ligand. The single-crystal structure crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\\overline{1}. Moreover, the coordination polymer shows one-dimensional 2-connected {0} uninodal chain networks, and free DMF molecules are connected to the chains by O-H···O hydrogen bonds. The thermogravimetric and photoluminescent properties of the compound have also been investigated. PMID:26322606

  20. Synthesis, structures of four coordination compounds constructed from o-methacrylamidobenzoic acid and their relationship between structure and solid state luminescence

    Four new coordination compounds, namely, Zn(o-MAABA)2(Phen) (1), [Cd(o-MAABA)2·2H2O]2 (2), ([Pb2Cl2(o-MAABA)2(Phen)4])·2H2O (3·2H2O), [Pb(NO3)(o-MAABA)(Phen)]n (4), where o-MAABA=o-methacrylamidobenzoic acid and phen=1, 10-phenanthroline, have been synthesized. All compounds were fully confirmed by FT-IR, elemental analysis and TGA analysis. Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, in which compound 1 shows a mononuclear structure, compounds 2 and 3 have binuclear structures and compound 4 shows an infinite chain. In 2 and 4, the adjacent chains are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture via π–π interactions. Solid-state room temperature luminescence spectra revealed that emission bands of compound 1 were located at 524 nm (λex=352 nm) and compound 4 at 479 and 584 nm (λex=390 nm) assigned to the excimer formation. The emission at 454 nm (λex=340 nm) of compound 2 was mainly ascribed to the Ligand–Metal Charge Transfer (LMCT). - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds constructed by o-methacrylamidobenzoic, phenanthroline and metal ions are reported. The photoluminescent properties is studied, which is affected by the molecular stacking and LMCT.

  1. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    Smith, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinucle...

  2. Three PbII coordination polymers based on 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, and fluorescent properties

    Three lead coordination polymers, [PbCl(C10H6N3O4)(H2O)·H2O]n (1), [Pb(C10H6N3O4)2(H2O)]n (2) and [Pb3(C10H5N3O4)3]n (3) (C10H7N3O4=2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, Cl anions connected neighboring wave-like 2D layers, which are constructed with left- and right-handed helical chains, into a 3D network structure with a (63)(65·8) topology. In 2, Pb cations are linked into a 3D 66 network with left- and right-handed helixes by μ2-bridging C10H6N3O4− ligands. In 3, C10H5N3O42− ligands link Pb6O12 clusters into a 3D (412·63) network. Their fluorescent properties were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three 3D lead compounds based on 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid have been hydrothermally synthesized. Four new coordination modes of the organic ligand are first reported. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three new Pb(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. • Left- and right-handed helical chains can be found in the 3D networks of 1 and 2. • Pb6O12 clusters are connected into (412·63) network in 3

  3. Characterization studies and cyclic voltammetry on nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamates with triphenylphosphine in the coordination sphere

    SUBBIAH THIRUMARAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamate complexes of the composition [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(NCS], [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(CN] and [Ni(AAdtc(PPh32]ClO4 [(AAdtc = dithiocarbamate derivatives of amino acids, i.e., glycine (glydtc, L-iso-leucine (i-leudtc and L-proline (prodtc] were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by IR and electronic spectroscopy, thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements. In the case of the mixed ligand complexes, the thioureide n(C−N values were shifted to higher wave numbers compared to [Ni(AAdtc2]. This observation shows the increased strength of the thioureide bond due to the presence of the p-accepting phosphine. Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for the complexes. Thermal analyses of the complexes are in keeping with the proposed formulae. Almost all the complexes showed signs of decay above 170 °C. At around 390 °C, the final mass corresponded to NiS. Cyclic voltammetry showed a decrease of the electron density on the nickel in the mixed ligand complexes compared to [Ni(AAdtc2].

  4. Crystal structures, fluorescent and magnetic properties of five new coordination polymers based on biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylic acid

    Five new coordination polymers, {[Cd3(bpt)2(DMF)2]·(H2O)2}n (1), [Cd(Hbpt)(bipy)0.5(H2O)]n (2), [Cd2(bpt)(phen)2Cl]n (3), {[Cu2(bpt)(phen)(μ2–OH)(H2O)]·(H2O)2}n (4) and {[Mn5(Hbpt)4(phen)4(μ2–OH)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)2(CH3CN)2}n (5) have been prepared through hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of H3bpt (H3bpt=biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylic acid) with different pyridyl-containing auxiliary ligands (bipy=4,4′-bipyridine and phen=1,10-phenanthroline). Compound 1 represents a 3D ladder-like framework composed of rod-shaped infinite chains. In 2, the bridging ligand bipy links binuclear cadmium ions to generate a 2D layer. Compound 3 features a 1D ladder structure and further linked by π–π stacking interaction to form a 3D supramolecular network. Compound 4 exhibits a binodal 3-connected net which features the Schlafli symbol of (4·82). Compound 5 contains trimetallic cluster and binuclear unite which are further linked by Hbpt ligand to form a 2D layer. Moreover, photoluminescent properties of compounds 1–3 were studied in the solid state. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 4 exhibits ferromagnetic exchange interactions, whereas compound 5 displays antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: Five new coordination polymers have been prepared through reactions of H3bpt with different pyridyl-containing auxiliary ligands. The bpt exhibits four new kinds of coordination modes with “V or Y shape”. Highlights: ► 1 represents a unique (4·8)-connected network with a Schlafli symbol (46)(412·612·84). ► Compound 4 shows ferromagnetic interaction between the dimeric Cu2+ units. ► The bpt ligand exhibits four new kinds of coordination modes with “V or Y shape”.

  5. Roles for GTP-binding proteins in Vigna unguiculata responding to Nod factors or chitin elicitors

    μNod factors are lipo-chito-oligosaccharides secreted by Rhizobium to initiate deformation of legume root hairs and other changes such as increases in intracellular calcium in responsive root hairs. We studied the effects of Nod factors and G-protein modulators on root hair deformation and found significant deformation of root hairs after 30 min exposure to the compounds. Since G-proteins have been implicated in the root hair response to Nod factors in vivo, we examined the GTP-binding profiles of root microsomal membrane fractions isolated from the nodulation competent zone of the legume Vigna unguiculata. GTP competitively binds to microsomal membrane fractions labelled with [35S]GTPγS with a high affinity, yielding a two-site displacement curve with displacement constants (Ki) of 0.58 μM and 0.16 μM. Competition with either ATP or GDP revealed a one-site displacement curve with Ki of 4.14 and 11.7 μM respectively. To test if exposure to Nod factors affect the GTP-binding profile, we isolated microsomal membrane fractions from roots pretreated with either NodNGR[S] (from Rhizobium sp. NGR234) or the four-sugar, tetracetylchitotetraose (TACT) backbone of Nod factors. Pretreatment with NodNGR[S] results in an increased affinity for GTP of several hundred-fold. Roots pretreated with TACT also showed a similar but slightly smaller increase in affinity for GTP. To begin identification of possible candidates microsomal proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and GTP-binding proteins were probed with [35S]GTPγS. Microsomal membrane factions isolated from roots pretreated with NodNGR[S] revealed two proteins (27 kDa and 25 kDa) with a higher affinity for GTPγS. Western blotting of the microsomal membrane preparation with anti-Rac antibodies also showed changes in Rac associated signal in microsomal membranes prepared from either NodNGR[S] or TACT pretreated roots. These results provide further support for a role for small, monomeric G-proteins in the Nod factor signal

  6. Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Dynamics of Beta Cell Loss in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

    John Virostko; Armandla Radhika; Greg Poffenberger; Dula, Adrienne N.; Moore, Daniel J.; Alvin C Powers

    2013-01-01

    We generated a mouse model (MIP-Luc-VU-NOD) that enables non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of beta cell loss during the progression of autoimmune diabetes and determined the relationship between BLI and disease progression. MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice displayed insulitis and a decline in bioluminescence with age which correlated with beta cell mass, plasma insulin, and pancreatic insulin content. Bioluminescence declined gradually in female MIP-Luc-VU-NOD mice, reaching less than 50% of the ...

  7. The properties of NodD were affected by mere variation in length within its hinge region

    Bihe Hou; Fengqing Li; Xiaoer Yang; Cruofan Hong

    2009-01-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum by. viciae, NodD, a member of the LysR-type transcriptional regulators, while auto-regulating, activates transcription of other nod genes in the presence of naringenin. A hinge region of NodD was previously identified in our lab-oratory as a functional region independent of its N-terminal DNA-binding and C-terminal regulatory domain. Further study was carried out to see the possible effect of the length variation in the hinge region on NodD's properties. To our surprise, as many as seven classes of phenotypes were observed. Class Ⅰ is deficient of activating nodA transcription and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅱ is able to acti-vate nodA transcription independently of naringenin and abolishes auto-regulation; class Ⅲ retains auto-regulating but partial activating ability; class Ⅳ is able to activate transcription independently of narin-genin and retains auto-regulation; in class Ⅴ, nod A is transcribed constitutively but the transcription level is drastically down-regulated in the presence of narin-genin; in class Ⅵ, nodA is transcribed constitutively with higher induction ratio; in class Ⅶ, nodA is tran-scribed constitutively with lower induction ratio. To learn more about the possible mechanism, circular permutation assays were done, which showed that the length variation of the hinge of NodD caused by mutation led to the change in bend angles of nod pro-moter. This finding should help to get an insight into how transcriptional regulation is mediated by NodD at the molecular level as well as to understand the regulatory system of this important family.

  8. Activation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 by human cytomegalovirus initiates innate immune responses and restricts virus replication.

    Arun Kapoor

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-κB pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy. Although the importance of NOD2 in recognizing RNA viruses has recently been identified, its role in sensing DNA viruses has not been studied. We report that infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. Infection with human herpesvirus 1 and 2 does not induce NOD2 expression. While the HCMV-encoded glycoprotein B is not required for NOD2 induction, a replication competent virion is necessary. Lentivirus-based NOD2 knockdown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs and U373 glioma cells leads to enhanced HCMV replication along with decreased levels of interferon beta (IFN-β and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL8. NOD2 induction in HCMV-infected cells activates downstream NF-κB and interferon pathways supported by reduced nuclear localization of NF-κB and pIRF3 in NOD2 knockdown HFFs. Stable overexpression of NOD2 in HFFs restricts HCMV replication in association with increased levels of IFN-β and IL8. Similarly, transient overexpression of NOD2 in U373 cells or its downstream kinase, RIPK2, results in decreased HCMV replication and enhanced cytokine responses. However, overexpression of a mutant NOD2, 3020insC, associated with severe Crohn's disease, results in enhanced HCMV replication and decreased levels of IFN-β in U373 cells. These results show for the first time that NOD2 plays a significant role in HCMV replication and may provide a model for studies of HCMV recognition by the host cell and HCMV colitis in Crohn's disease.

  9. Nonirradiated NOD/SCID-Human Chimeric Animal Model for Primary Human Multiple Myeloma : A Potential in Vivo Culture System

    Huang, Shang-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Su, Fang-Hsein; Hsu, Su-Ming

    2004-01-01

    The NOD/SCID human chimeric animal model was generated by implanting of human fetal bones (FBs) into subcutaneous sites of NOD/SCID mice (NOD/SCID-hu+), followed by inoculation of primary bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) obtained from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) into the FBs. The BMNCs from 30 patients with MM were inoculated, and 28 (93%) of them revealed evidence of tumor growth of myeloma cells (MCs) in the NOD/SCID-hu+ mice. Intriguingly, 17 (61%) of the 28 patients’ BMNCs in...

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry as a spectroscopic probe of the coordination sphere of a paramagnetic metal bound to a humic acid mixture

    Protons on water molecules are strongly affected by paramagnetic ions. Since the acid-base properties of water facilitate rapid proton exchange, a single proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is seen in aqueous solutions of paramagnetic ions. Proton relaxation times are significantly affected by paramagnetic species and the readily detectable single signal serves as a powerful amplifier of the information contained concerning the protons in the paramagnetic environment. Where water molecules coordinated to free paramagnetic ions and to metal complexes of ligands that form non-labile (on the NMR time scale) complexes, the effects on water in the two environments can be distinguished. This can provide information on the nature of the ligand binding sites. The example of Cu2+ bound to the Laurentian humic acid mixture reported here using convenient low field NMR relaxometers shows that the information can enrich our understanding of complexation and speciation in the presence of complex mixture ligands characteristic of natural water systems. In this case, the data underline the role of aggregation and conformation in defining the complexation sites

  11. Spin state tuning in Fe{sup II} 1D coordination polymers made of 1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-propanoic and butanoic acids

    Railliet, Antoine P.; Naik, Anil D.; Castanho-Vaz, Pedro [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (Belgium); Rotaru, Aurelian [Stefan cel Mare University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Romania); Grigoras, Marian; Lupu, Nicoleta [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics (Romania); Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Garcia, Yann, E-mail: yann.garcia@uclouvain.be [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    A series of four Fe{sup II} coordination polymers [Fe(patrz){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2H{sub 2}O, [Fe(patrz){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, [Fe(batrz){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2H{sub 2}O and [Fe(batrz){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} was prepared with slight variations in the ligand framework (1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-propanoic acid (patrz) or 1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-butanoic acid (batrz)) and solvation (2H{sub 2}O or dry). Dramatic influence of chain length and solvent has been evidenced on magnetic properties. Spin crossover properties were carefully studied by temperature dependent SQUID magnetometry and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Thermodynamic parameters for [Fe(batrz){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2H{sub 2}O were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allowing a simulation of the spin crossover behaviour and the quantification of the cooperativity.

  12. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  13. Synthesis, structure and properties of zinc(II) coordination polymers with 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid

    Yi, Xiu-Chun; Xi, Fu-Gui; Wang, Kun; Su, Zhao; Gao, En-Qing, E-mail: eqgao@chem.ecnu.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    From a new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-H{sub 2}CDC), three Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized in the absence or presence of ditopic N-donor ligands. They are formulated as [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 4}(DEF){sub 2}] (1) (DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(DABCO)(H{sub 2}O)]·5DMF·H{sub 2}O (2) (DABCO=1-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), and [Zn{sub 2}(2,7-CDC){sub 2}(bpea)]·3DMA·2 H{sub 2}O (3) (bpea=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylane, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide). Compounds 1 and 3 display the 3D pcu frameworks. In 1 the unusual pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building units (SBUs) are linked by dicarboxylate ligands. Differently, in 3 the well-known paddle–wheel [Zn{sub 2}(COO){sub 4}] SBUs are linked by dicarboxylate and dipyridyl ligands. Compound 2 shows the rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net topology based on the dinuclear paddle–wheel SBU and a mononuclear unit. The stability and fluorescent properties of the compounds have been studied. - Graphical abstract: A new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid, was used to construct Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks, including a novel self-catenated network with the rare 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net and two pcu-type networks based on an unprecedented pentanuclear clusters and the common paddle–wheel units. The compounds show blue fluorescent properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MOFs with a new carbazole-based dicarboxylate ligand. • New pentanuclear [Zn{sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}(COO){sub 8}] secondary building unit. • The rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net.

  14. Synthesis, structure and properties of zinc(II) coordination polymers with 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid

    Yi, Xiu-Chun; Xi, Fu-Gui; Wang, Kun; Su, Zhao; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-10-01

    From a new dicarboxylate ligand, 9H-carbazole-2,7-dicarboxylic acid (2,7-H2CDC), three Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized in the absence or presence of ditopic N-donor ligands. They are formulated as [Zn5(μ3-OH)2(2,7-CDC)4(DEF)2] (1) (DEF=N,N-diethylformamide), [Zn2(2,7-CDC)2(DABCO)(H2O)]·5DMF·H2O (2) (DABCO=1-diaza-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), and [Zn2(2,7-CDC)2(bpea)]·3DMA·2 H2O (3) (bpea=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylane, DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide). Compounds 1 and 3 display the 3D pcu frameworks. In 1 the unusual pentanuclear [Zn5(μ3-OH)2(COO)8] secondary building units (SBUs) are linked by dicarboxylate ligands. Differently, in 3 the well-known paddle-wheel [Zn2(COO)4] SBUs are linked by dicarboxylate and dipyridyl ligands. Compound 2 shows the rare self-catenated 3D alb-3,6-C2/c net topology based on the dinuclear paddle-wheel SBU and a mononuclear unit. The stability and fluorescent properties of the compounds have been studied.

  15. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O))n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO2)2)n connected by the ligand nda2−, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2−, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((43)2(46.618.84)). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm−1, zj′=−0.73(2) cm−1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured

  16. Synthesis, structure and thermochemical study of a cobalt energetic coordination compound incorporating 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid

    Highlights: • An energetic coordination compound with dinuclear cobalt unit has been synthesized and structurally characterized. • The standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was determined by a designed thermochemical cycle. • The specific heat capacity of the compound at T = 298.15 K was determined to be 1.13 ± 0.02 J · mol−1 · K−1. - Abstract: An energetic coordination compound [Co2(C2H5N5)2(C7H3NO4)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (Hdatrz(C2H5N5) = 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole, H2pda(C7H5NO4) = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, chemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the compound possessed a di-nuclear unit and featured a 3D super-molecular structure. Furthermore, a reasonable thermochemical cycle was designed based on the preparation reaction of the compound and the standard molar enthalpy of dissolution of reactants and products was measured by the RD496-2000 calorimeter. Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was determined to be −(2475.0 ± 3.1) kJ · mol−1 in accordance with Hess’s law. In addition, the specific heat capacity of the compound at T = 298.15 K was determined to be (1.13 ± 0.02) J · K−1 · g−1 by RD496-2000 calorimeter

  17. Establishment of Retinoblastoma Model in NOD-SCID Mice and Study of Metastasis

    Bo Zhang; Yongping Li; Xiufeng Zhong; Wenge Huang; Li Nie; Wenxin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To establish model of retinoblastoma subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice and study rules of formation and distribution of retinoblastoma metastasis.Methods: Retinoblastoma cells SO-RB50 were inoculated subcutaneously in NOD-SCID mice. Animal acts and tumor formation, growth and metastasis in NOD-SCID mice were observed. Primary and metastatic tumors were studied pathohistologically by HE and immunohistochemical staining.Results: The latent periods of tumor growth were 12~19 days and the taken rate of tumor was 100%. 32 days later, 5 NOD-SCID mice were found with tumors that had metastasized to areas mainly located in the abdominal cavity and the side of the kidney; the metastatic time of tumors in the mice also differed. The tumor cells of the primary nodules and the metastasis were similar with human retinoblastoma cells and positive in immunohistochemical staining of NSE.Conclusion: The subcutaneous model of retinoblastoma in NOD-SCID mice showed a high taken rate and a short latent period of tumor, which had a high metastatic rate and was the best model in research of behaviors of retinoblastoma at present.

  18. TAK1 inhibition prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Cao, Hui; Lu, Jingli; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Wei, Shouguo; Liu, Xiulan; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1, Map3k7), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, is essential in innate and adaptive immune responses. We postulated that blockade of TAK1 would affect autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Administration of 5Z-7-oxozeaenol (OZ), a TAK1 inhibitor, decreased the incidence and delayed the onset of autoimmune diabetes in both spontaneous and accelerated (cyclophosphamide-induced) experimental NOD mice. OZ also reduced insulitis, preserved islet function, increased the expression of α1- antitrypsin (AAT), and severely inhibited NF-κB and JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways in immune organs and pancreatic tissues. Importantly, TAK1 inhibition by OZ elicited a Th1 to Th2 cytokine shift, and increased TGF-β1 production in cultured T lymphocytes supernatants. Systemic TAK1 inhibition induced immature DCs with lower expressions of MHC-II and CD86, attenuated DC-mediated T cell proliferation in allogeneic MLR, and production of cytokine IL-12p70 in DCs suspensions. The results indicate that TAK1 inhibition with OZ was associated with a lower frequency of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. The net effect of TAK1 inhibition in NOD mice therefore appears to be protective rather than disease-enhancing. Strategies targeting TAK1 specifically in NOD mice might prove useful for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes in general. PMID:26459028

  19. Evidence that MHC I-E dampens thyroid autoantibodies and prevents spreading to a second thyroid autoantigen in I-Ak NOD mice

    Pelletier, Adam-Nicolas; Aliesky, Holly A.; Banuelos, Bianca; Chabot-Roy, Geneviève; Rapoport, Basil; Lesage, Sylvie; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    NOD.H2k and NOD.H2h4 mice carry the MHC class II molecule I-Ak associated with susceptibility to experimentally-induced thyroiditis. Dietary iodine enhanced spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity, well known in NOD.H2h4 mice, has not been investigated in NOD.H2k mice. We compared NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k strains for thyroiditis and autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) without or with dietary sodium iodide (NaI) for up to 32 weeks. TgAb levels were significantly higher in NOD.H2h4 than NOD.H2k mice on NaI and TPOAb developed in NOD.H2h4 but not NOD.H2k mice. DNA exome analysis revealed, in addition to the differences in the chromosome (Chr) 17 MHC regions, that NOD.H2k and particularly NOD.H2h4 mice have substantial non-MHC parental DNA. KEGG pathway-analysis highlighted thyroid autoimmunity and immune-response genes on Chr 17 but not on Chr 7 and 15 parental B10.A4R DNA. Studies of parental strains provided no evidence for non-MHC gene contributions. The exon 10 thyroglobulin haplotype, associated with experimentally-induced thyroiditis, is absent in NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k mice and is not a marker for spontaneous murine thyroid autoimmunity. In conclusion, the absence of I-E is a likely explanation for the difference between NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k mice in TgAb levels and, as in humans, autoantibody spreading to TPO. PMID:25811933

  20. Prevention of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by transferring in vitro antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells

    Papaccio, G; Nicoletti, F; Pisanti, F A; Bendtzen, K; Galdieri, M

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) transfer on the development of diabetes, 5-week-old female NOD mice received a single iv injection of splenic syngeneic DC from euglycemic NOD mice pulsed in vitro with human y globulin (HGG). Eleven of 12 mice were protected from the d...

  1. Synergistic reversal of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice with anti-CD3 and interleukin-1 blockade

    Ablamunits, Vitaly; Henegariu, Octavian; Hansen, Jakob Bondo;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in autoimmune diabetes: among the most prominent is interleukin (IL)-1ß. We postulated that blockade of IL-1ß would modulate the effects of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in treating diabetes in NOD mice. To test this, we treated hyperglycemic NOD mice with...

  2. Coordinate increase in major transcripts from the high pI alpha-amylase multigene family in barley aleurone cells stimulated with gibberellic acid.

    Rogers, J C; Milliman, C

    1984-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to identify specifically genes and transcripts for the high pI isozyme of barley alpha-amylase. From hybridization of coding sequence probes to blots of genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes that do not cut within our cloned high pI alpha-amylase cDNA, it is estimated that about 7 alpha-amylase genes or pseudogenes exist. No difference could be detected between barley aleurone cell and sprout DNAs. Experiments using probes from the 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of the high pI alpha-amylase cDNA clone identified three HindIII fragments that probably carry high pI sequences. Primer extension experiments used as a primer the terminal 5' coding sequence from our cDNA clone; this primer would not cross-hybridize to low pI alpha-amylase transcripts. Two major transcripts were identified. These shared a conserved 23-base sequence immediately 5' to the ATG start codon, although a C----G transversion and a 3-base deletion were present within this sequence. An unusual 8-base pair GC palindrome was present in the conserved region immediately preceding the ATG start codon. Distal to the conserved sequence there was no apparent homology. One transcript carrying a 97-base untranslated region was identical to our high pI cDNA clone E. The gene for the other was recovered from a lambda phage genomic library. The 5' coding sequence was very similar, but not identical to clone E, demonstrating that these transcripts arise from separate genes. The two transcripts increased coordinately in aleurone cells stimulated with gibberellic acid. These data indicate that there is a high pI alpha-amylase multigene family with at least two active members, both of which are regulated in some manner by the plant hormone gibberellic acid. PMID:6090459

  3. Practically Coordinating

    Durfee, Edmund H.

    1999-01-01

    To coordinate, intelligent agents might need to know something about themselves, about each other, about how others view themselves and others, about how others think others view themselves and others, and so on. Taken to an extreme, the amount of knowledge an agent might possess to coordinate its interactions with others might outstrip the agent's limited reasoning capacity (its available time, memory, and so on). Much of the work in studying and building multiagent systems has thus been dev...

  4. Species-specific engagement of human nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD)2 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling upon intracellular bacterial infection: role of Crohn's associated NOD2 gene variants.

    Salem, M; Seidelin, J B; Eickhardt, S; Alhede, M; Rogler, G; Nielsen, O H

    2015-03-01

    Recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan-derived muramyl-dipeptide (MDP) by nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) induces crucial innate immune responses. Most bacteria carry the N-acetylated form of MDP (A-MDP) in their cell membranes, whereas N-glycolyl MDP (G-MDP) is typical for mycobacteria. Experimental murine studies have reported G-MDP to have a greater NOD2-stimulating capacity than A-MDP. As NOD2 polymorphisms are associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a link has been suggested between mycobacterial infections and CD. Thus, the aim was to investigate if NOD2 responses are dependent upon type of MDP and further to determine the role of NOD2 gene variants for the bacterial recognition in CD. The response pattern to A-MDP, G-MDP, Mycobacterium segmatis (expressing mainly G-MDP) and M. segmatisΔnamH (expressing A-MDP), Listeria monocytogenes (LM) (an A-MDP-containing bacteria) and M. avium paratuberculosis (MAP) (a G-MDP-containing bacteria associated with CD) was investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). A-MDP and M. segmatisΔnamH induced significantly higher tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein levels in healthy wild-type NOD2 PBMCs compared with G-MDP and M. segmatis. NOD2 mutations resulted in a low tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein secretion following stimulation with LM. Contrary to this, TNF-α levels were unchanged upon MAP stimulation regardless of NOD2 genotype and MAP solely activated NOD2- and Toll-like receptor (TLRs)-pathway with an enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. In conclusion, the results indicate that CD-associated NOD2 deficiencies might affect the response towards a broader array of commensal and pathogenic bacteria expressing A-MDP, whereas they attenuate the role of mycobacteria in the pathogenesis of CD. PMID:25335775

  5. Vibrational spectroscopic investigation and normal coordinate analysis of the fibrate hypolipidemic agent 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl pentanoic acid (Gemfibrozil)

    Priya, M. Siva; Benitta, T. Asenath; James, C.

    2011-03-01

    Colorless crystals of 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl pentanoic acid were grown by slow evaporation method and the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm -1 and 4000-50 cm -1 respectively. Molecular structure is optimized with the help of B3LYP/6-31G (d) density functional theory method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugation and charge delocalization is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ ∗ antibonding orbitals and E (2) energies confirms the occurrence of intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule.

  6. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin; Xiao, Changyu; Zhang, Xudong; Xu, Yanhui; Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, {[MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O)}n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain {MnO(CO2)2}n connected by the ligand nda2-, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2-, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ({43}2{46.618.84}). The interactions within each Mn(II)-Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=-1.42(1) cm-1, zj‧=-0.73(2) cm-1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm).

  7. Crystal structure and photoluminescence of a new two-dimensional Cd(II) coordination polymer based on 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid

    Kong, Zhi-Guo; Guo, Sheng-Nan; Miao, Jia-Qi; An, Miao [Jilin Normal Univ., College of Chemistry, Siping (China); Ministry of Education, Siping (China). Key Lab. of Preparation and Applications of Enviromental Friendly Materials

    2015-11-01

    A new Cd(II) coordination polymer, [Cd(CNA)]{sub n} (1) (H{sub 2}CNA = 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P{sub 2}1/c with a = 16.9698(18), b = 7.8314(8), c = 8.9553(10) Aa, β = 100.657(2) {sup circle}, V = 1169.6(2) Aa{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub calcd.} = 2.03 g cm{sup -3}, μ(MoK{sub α}) = 1.9 mm{sup -1}, F(000) = 696 e, R = 0.0305, wR = 0.0784 for 172 refined parameters and 2285 data. Each CNA anion bridges three Cd(II) cations to give rise to a two-dimensional network structure. Topologically, if each CNA anion is regarded as a linker, and each Cd(II) atom considered as a 4-connected node, the structure is simplified as a 4-connected (4,4) network. The solid state photoluminescent properties of the compound were also studied at room temperature.

  8. Crystal structure and photoluminescence of a new two-dimensional Cd(II) coordination polymer based on 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid

    A new Cd(II) coordination polymer, [Cd(CNA)]n (1) (H2CNA = 3-(carboxymethoxy)-2-naphthoic acid), was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 16.9698(18), b = 7.8314(8), c = 8.9553(10) Aa, β = 100.657(2) circle, V = 1169.6(2) Aa3, Z = 4, Dcalcd. = 2.03 g cm-3, μ(MoKα) = 1.9 mm-1, F(000) = 696 e, R = 0.0305, wR = 0.0784 for 172 refined parameters and 2285 data. Each CNA anion bridges three Cd(II) cations to give rise to a two-dimensional network structure. Topologically, if each CNA anion is regarded as a linker, and each Cd(II) atom considered as a 4-connected node, the structure is simplified as a 4-connected (4,4) network. The solid state photoluminescent properties of the compound were also studied at room temperature.

  9. Liposome-mediated transfer of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene to dispersed islet cells does not prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted NOD mice

    Saldeen, J; Sandler, S; Bendtzen, K; Welsh, N

    2000-01-01

    transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation...

  10. NOD/SCID-GAMMA mice are an ideal strain to assess the efficacy of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of myeloma bone disease.

    Michelle A Lawson

    Full Text Available Animal models of multiple myeloma vary in terms of consistency of onset, degree of tumour burden and degree of myeloma bone disease. Here we describe five pre-clinical models of myeloma in NOD/SCID-GAMMA mice to specifically study the effects of therapeutic agents on myeloma bone disease. Groups of 7-8 week old female irradiated NOD/SCID-GAMMA mice were injected intravenously via the tail vein with either 1x106 JJN3, U266, XG-1 or OPM-2 human myeloma cell lines or patient-derived myeloma cells. At the first signs of morbidity in each tumour group all animals were sacrificed. Tumour load was measured by histological analysis, and bone disease was assessed by micro-CT and standard histomorphometric methods. Mice injected with JJN3, U266 or OPM-2 cells showed high tumour bone marrow infiltration of the long bones with low variability, resulting in osteolytic lesions. In contrast, mice injected with XG-1 or patient-derived myeloma cells showed lower tumour bone marrow infiltration and less bone disease with high variability. Injection of JJN3 cells into NOD/SCID-GAMMA mice resulted in an aggressive, short-term model of myeloma with mice exhibiting signs of morbidity 3 weeks later. Treating these mice with zoledronic acid at the time of tumour cell injection or once tumour was established prevented JJN3-induced bone disease but did not reduce tumour burden, whereas, carfilzomib treatment given once tumour was established significantly reduced tumour burden. Injection of U266, XG-1, OPM-2 and patient-derived myeloma cells resulted in less aggressive longer-term models of myeloma with mice exhibiting signs of morbidity 8 weeks later. Treating U266-induced disease with zoledronic acid prevented the formation of osteolytic lesions and trabecular bone loss as well as reducing tumour burden whereas, carfilzomib treatment only reduced tumour burden. In summary, JJN3, U266 or OPM-2 cells injected into NOD/SCID-GAMMA mice provide robust models to study anti

  11. Acceleration of type 1 diabetes mellitus in proinsulin 2–deficient NOD mice

    Thébault-Baumont, Karine; Dubois-Laforgue, Danielle; Krief, Patricia; Briand, Jean-Paul; Halbout, Philippe; Vallon-Geoffroy, Karine; Morin, Joëlle; Laloux, Véronique; Lehuen, Agnès; Carel, Jean-Claude; Jami, Jacques; Muller, Sylviane; Boitard, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Accumulating evidence favors a role for proinsulin as a key autoantigen in diabetes. In the mouse, two proinsulin isoforms coexist. Most studies point to proinsulin 2 as the major isoform recognized by T cells in the NOD mouse. We studied mice in which a null proinsulin 2 mutation was transferred from proinsulin 2–deficient 129 mice onto the NOD background along with 16 genetic markers (including I-Ag7 MHC molecule) associated with diabetes. Intercross mice from the fourth backcross generatio...

  12. Expressão dos genes nodC, nodW e nopP em Bradyrhizobium japonicum estirpe CPAC 15 avaliada por RT-qPCR Expression of nodC, nodW and nopP genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15 strain evaluated by RT-qPCR

    Simone Bortolan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão, por RT-qPCR, dos genes de nodulação nodC e nodW e do gene nopP da estirpe CPAC 15, que provavelmente atuam na infecção das raízes da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, a expressão dos genes foi avaliada nas células após a incubação com genisteína por 15 min, 1, 4 e 8 horas. Os resultados revelaram que os três genes apresentaram maior expressão imediatamente após o contato com o indutor (15 min. No segundo experimento, a bactéria foi cultivada na presença de indutores (genisteína ou exsudatos de sementes de soja por 48 horas. A expressão dos três genes foi maior na presença de genisteína, com valores de expressão para nodC, nodW e nopP superiores ao controle. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a funcionalidade dos três genes na estirpe CPAC 15, com ênfase para o nopP, cuja funcionalidade em Bradyrhizobium japonicum foi descrita pela primeira vez.The objective of this work was to evaluate, by RT-qPCR, the expression of the nodC and nodW nodulation genes and of the nopP gene of the CPAC 15 strain, which probably play a role in the infection of soybean roots. Two experiments were done. In the first, the gene expression was evaluated in cells after incubation with genistein for 15 min, 1, 4 and 8 hours. Results showed that the three genes showed higher expression immediately after contact with the inducer (15 min. In the second experiment, the bacterium was grown in the presence of inducers (genistein or soybean seed exudates for 48 hours. The expression of the three genes was greater when induced by genistein, and the expression of nodC, nodW and nopP had higher values than the control. The results confirm the functionality of the three genes in the CPAC 15 strain, with an emphasis on the nopP, whose functionality in Bradyrhizobium japonicum was described for the first time.

  13. Radiolabeling of lipo-chitooligosaccharides using the NodH sulfotransferase: a two-step enzymatic procedure

    Ranjeva Raoul

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NodH sulfotransferase from Sinorhizobium meliloti has been used to radiolabel lipochitooligosaccharidic (LCO Nod factor signals with 35S from inorganic sulfate in a two-step enzymatic procedure. The first step involved the production of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS, a sulphate donor, using enzymes contained in a yeast extract, and the second step used the NodH enzyme. However with this established procedure, only a low incorporation of the initial inorganic sulfate into the Nod factors was obtained (about 7% after purification of the labeled compounds. The aim of this work was to optimize the radiolabelling of Nod factors with 35S. Results The limiting step has been shown to be the sulfation of ATP and its subsequent conversion into PAPS (first step, the sulfate donor for the NodH sulfotransferase activity (second step. By the addition of GTP to the reaction mixture and by manipulating the [ATP]/[Mg2+] ratio the yield of PAPS has been increased from 13% to 80%. Using the radiolabeled PAPS we have shown that the efficiency of sulfate transfer to LCOs, by the recombinant S. meliloti NodH sulfotransferase is strongly influenced by the length of the oligosaccharide chain. Variations in the substitutions on the non-reducing sugar, including the structure of the fatty acyl chain, had little effect and Nod factors from the heterologous bacterium Rhizobium tropici could be sulfated by NodH from S. meliloti. Conclusions By characterizing the two steps we have optimized the procedure to radiolabel biologically-important, lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO Nod factors to a specific radioactivity of about 800 Ci.mmol-1 with an incorporation of 60% of the initial inorganic sulfate. The two-step sulfation procedure may be used to radiolabel a variety of related LCO molecules.

  14. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin, E-mail: liyamin@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xiao, Changyu [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Yanhui [Department of Medical Imaging, Bethune Medical Non-Commissioned Officer' s, College, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050081 (China); Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H{sub 2}dmt)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (1), [Ag{sub 5}(nda){sub 2.5}(dmt)]{sub n} (2), (H{sub 2}nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H{sub 2}nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and AgNO{sub 3}, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub n} connected by the ligand nda{sup 2−}, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda{sup 2−}, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 18}.8{sup 4})). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm{sup −1}, zj′=−0.73(2) cm{sup −1}). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λ{sub ex}=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured.

  15. Progress of cancer experimental research in NOD/SCID mice%NOD/SCID小鼠平台上的肿瘤实验研究进展

    孙冰; 吴世凯; 宋三泰

    2008-01-01

    非肥胖糖尿病/严重联合免疫缺陷(non-obese diabetes-SCID mice, NOD/SCID)小鼠具有T、B淋巴细胞联合免疫缺陷、NK细胞活性低下、无循环补体、巨噬细胞和抗原提呈细胞功能损害等特性,近年已成为人类肿瘤移植瘤的最佳研究模型.NOD/SCID鼠的人类血液系统肿瘤模型能够研究造血微环境、白血病细胞的分化调控机制和潜在的治疗靶点,并且建立在此平台上的体内药敏实验,可以指导临床化疗方案设计,目前已显示出突出的疗效.乳腺癌等实体瘤原代肿瘤组织的移植瘤模型,也显示出可复制人类肿瘤特点的优势.此外,NOD/SCID鼠可进行肿瘤干细胞的筛选和鉴定,并寻找针对肿瘤干细胞的特异性治疗靶点.目前的研究已展现了NOD/SCID鼠在肿瘤研究领域的广阔前景.

  16. Structural diversity and magnetic properties of six metal-organic coordination polymers based on semi-rigid V-shape tetracarboxylic acid ligand

    Yang, Shanshan; Bai, Yue-Ling; Xing, Feifei; Zhao, Yongmei; Li, Ming-Xing; Shao, Min; Zhu, Shourong

    2016-04-01

    Six Mn metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions with V-shaped terphenyl tetracarboxylate ligands (H4ttac). Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, PXRD, thermogravimetric analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal structures reveal that the coordination number of H4ttac ligand varies from 6 to 10, and each ligand links 4-8 Mn(II) ions. Coordination modes vary from η6μ4 to η10μ8. The existence of DMF solvent can increase coordination number of the ligand. The first coordination saturated phthalate is presented. The variable-temperature magnetic studies indicate that complexes exhibit dominant antiferromagnetic behaviors. Structural parameters and coordination modes were summarized. The porosity of these complexes is less than 15%, indicating that the V-shape ligand is not a good choice to construct porous coordination polymers.

  17. Altered Expression of Somatostatin Receptors in Pancreatic Islets from NOD Mice Cultured at Different Glucose Concentrations In Vitro and in Islets Transplanted to Diabetic NOD Mice In Vivo

    Eva Ludvigsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin acts via five receptors (sst1-5. We investigated if the changes in pancreatic islet sst expression in diabetic NOD mice compared to normoglycemic mice are a consequence of hyperglycemia or the ongoing immune reaction in the pancreas. Pancreatic islets were isolated from NOD mice precultured for 5 days and further cultured for 3 days at high or low glucose before examined. Islets were also isolated from NOD mice and transplanted to normal or diabetic mice in a number not sufficient to cure hyperglycemia. After three days, the transplants were removed and stained for sst1-5 and islet hormones. Overall, changes in sst islet cell expression were more common in islets cultured in high glucose concentration in vitro as compared to the islet transplantation in vivo to diabetic mice. The beta and PP cells exhibited more frequent changes in sst expression, while the alpha and delta cells were relatively unaffected by the high glucose condition. Our findings suggest that the glucose level may alter sst expressed in islets cells; however, immune mechanisms may counteract such changes in islet sst expression.

  18. The NOD2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C Is a Predictor for Perianal Fistulas in Patients with Crohn's Disease in the Absence of Other NOD2 Mutations.

    Fabian Schnitzler

    Full Text Available A previous study suggested an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C in the NOD2 gene with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD. However, this finding has not been confirmed. Given that NOD2 variants still represent the most important predictors for CD susceptibility and phenotype, we evaluated the association of rs72796353 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD susceptibility and the IBD phenotype.Genomic DNA from 2256 Caucasians, including 1073 CD patients, 464 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 719 healthy controls, was genotyped for the NOD2 SNP rs72796353 and the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066845, and rs2066847. Subsequently, IBD association and genotype-phenotype analyses were conducted.In contrast to the strong associations of the NOD2 SNPs rs2066844 (p=3.51 x 10(-3, rs2066845 (p=1.54 x 10(-2, and rs2066847 (p=1.61 x 10(-20 with CD susceptibility, no significant association of rs72796353 with CD or UC susceptibility was found. However, in CD patients without the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, rs72796353 was significantly associated with the development of perianal fistulas (p=2.78 x 10(-7, OR 5.27, [95% CI 2.75-10.12] vs. NOD2 wild-type carriers.Currently, this study represents the largest genotype-phenotype analysis of the impact of the NOD2 variant rs72796353 on the disease phenotype in IBD. Our data demonstrate that in CD patients the IVS4+10 A>C variant is strongly associated with the development of perianal fistulas. This association is particularly pronounced in patients who are not carriers of the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, suggesting rs72796353 as additional genetic marker for the CD disease behaviour.

  19. Interaction of Pb2+, PbMe22+ and PbPh22+ with 3-(phenyl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acid: a coordinative and toxicological approach.

    Félix Camiña, M; Casas, José S; Victoria Castaño, M; Couce, María D; Gato, Angeles; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Sánchez, Agustín; Sordo, José; Dolores Torres, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the reaction of Pb(2+), PbMe(2)(2+) and PbPh(2)(2+) with 3-(phenyl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acid (H(2)pspa) to give the complexes [Pb(pspa)], [PbMe(2)(pspa)], [PbPh(2)(pspa)], [HQ](2)[Pb(pspa)(2)] and [HQ[(2)[PbPh(2)(pspa)(2)] (HQ=diisopropylammonium), which were characterized by IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (207)Pb) spectroscopy and by fast atom bombardment (FAB) spectrometry. The structures of [PbMe(2)(pspa)], [PbPh(2)(pspa)], [PbPh(2)(pspa)(dmso)].dmso and [HQ[(2)[PbPh(2)(pspa)(2)] are interesting examples of unexplored Pb coordination kernels and supramolecular association. Pig renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 culture cells were used to determine in vitro the effect of the pretreatment with H(2)pspa (alone or combined with vitamin B(6)) and [HQ](2)[Zn(pspa)(2)] on the cytotoxicity of PbMe(2)(2+) and PbPh(2)(2+) by comparing the results with those of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (dmsa). The results show that the cell viability was scarcely affected by these agents. The ability of these reagents to decorporate lead was investigated in vivo by analysing the lead levels in the liver, kidney, brain and blood. In the case of the dimethyl derivative, and under certain protocols, undesirable effects such as an increase in brain and liver lead levels were detected. These increases were not detected when the diphenyl derivative was assayed but in this case a positive effect was not identified either. The blood lead levels also increased in the case of the dimethyl derivative and the activity of delta-ALAD was significantly recovered upon treatment with vitamin B(6) or H(2)pspa; neither the blood lead levels nor the delta-ALAD activity was modified in the case of the diphenyl derivative. PMID:20211491

  20. Prevention of early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Funda, David; Fundová, Petra; Hansen, A. K.; Buschard, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014). E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : gliadin * diabetes * diabetes 1 type * NOD mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  1. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP.

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Dudek, Nadine L; McKenzie, Mark D; Purcell, Anthony W; Brooks, Andrew G; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G; Harrison, Leonard C; Lew, Andrew M; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H

    2006-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic beta cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transgenic NOD mice tolerant to proinsulin, we determined that immune responses against proinsulin are necessary for IGRP-specific T cells to develop. On the other hand, transgenic overexpression of IGRP resulted in loss of intra-islet IGRP-specific T cells but did not protect NOD mice from insulitis or T1D, providing direct evidence that the response against IGRP is downstream of the response to proinsulin. Our results suggest that pathogenic proinsulin-specific immunity in NOD mice subsequently spreads to other antigens such as IGRP. PMID:17143333

  2. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Dudek, Nadine L.; McKenzie, Mark D.; Purcell, Anthony W.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G.; Harrison, Leonard C.; Lew, Andrew M.; Thomas, Helen E.; Kay, Thomas W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic β cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit–related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transgenic NOD mice tolerant to proinsulin, we determined that immune responses against proinsulin are necessary for IGRP-specific T cells to develop. On the other hand, transgenic overexpression of IGRP resulted in loss of intra-islet IGRP-specific T cells but did not protect NOD mice from insulitis or T1D, providing direct evidence that the response against IGRP is downstream of the response to proinsulin. Our results suggest that pathogenic proinsulin-specific immunity in NOD mice subsequently spreads to other antigens such as IGRP. PMID:17143333

  3. Effect of gluten-free diet on incidence of spontaneously developing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    Funda, David; Řeháková, Zuzana; Kozáková, Hana; Kaas, A.; Bock, T.; Buschard, K.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Tučková, Ludmila

    Paříž, 2002. s. 53. [International Symposium On Coeliac Disease /10./. 02.06.2002-05.06.2002, Paříž] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : gluten -free * diabetes * nod mice Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne;

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater...

  5. Penetrance of NOD2/CARD15 genetic variants in the general population

    Yazdanyar, Shiva; Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2010-01-01

    In case-control studies of Europeans, heterozygosity for Arg702Trp(rs2066844), Gly908Arg(rs2066845) and Leu1007fsinsC(rs5743293) on the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of Crohn disease, whereas homozygosity or compound heterozygosity is associated with a 17-fold greater ...

  6. A RIPK2 inhibitor delays NOD signalling events yet prevents inflammatory cytokine production

    Nachbur, Ueli; Stafford, Che A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra;

    2015-01-01

    , WEHI-345 prevents cytokine production in vitro and in vivo and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Our study highlights the importance of the kinase activity of RIPK2 for proper immune responses and demonstrates the therapeutic potential of inhibiting RIPK2 in NOD...

  7. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  8. The nonconventional MHC class II molecule DM governs diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice.

    Marc A J Morgan

    Full Text Available The spontaneous destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provides a valuable model of type 1 diabetes. As in humans, disease susceptibility is controlled by the classical MHC class II genes that guide CD4(+ T cell responses to self and foreign antigens. It has long been suspected that the dedicated class II chaperone designated HLA-DM in humans or H-2M in mice also makes an important contribution, but due to tight linkage within the MHC, a possible role played by DM peptide editing has not been previously tested by conventional genetic approaches. Here we exploited newly established germ-line competent NOD ES cells to engineer a loss of function allele. DM deficient NOD mice display defective class II peptide occupancy and surface expression, and are completely protected against type 1 diabetes. Interestingly the mutation results in increased proportional representation of CD4(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells and the absence of pathogenic CD4(+ T effectors. Overall, this striking phenotype establishes that DM-mediated peptide selection plays an essential role in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

  9. 人源化NOD/SCID小鼠的细胞免疫重建%Post-transplant cell immune reconstitution in humanized NOD/SCID mice

    杨海燕; 胡文华; 贾潇潇; 邓飞

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨人脐带血CD34+细胞移植于非肥胖性糖尿病/重症联合免疫缺陷(NOD/SCID)小鼠后的免疫重建作用.方法 免疫磁珠法分选人脐血CD34+细胞,经外侧尾静脉移植于亚致死量照射的NOD/SCID小鼠.移植后4、6、8、10周流式细胞术动态监测小鼠外周血人源CD45+、CD3+、CD56+细胞的数量;10周后PCR检测小鼠骨髓人ALU基因的表达,免疫组织化学染色检测小鼠脾脏人源CD3+、CD56+细胞的表达.结果 NOD/SCID小鼠经照射后骨髓腔内有核细胞及巨细胞数量均明显减少或消失,达到理想的清髓预处理效果;移植后4、6、8、10周,移植组所有存活小鼠外周血均可检测到人源性CD45+、CD3+、CD56+细胞的表达,人源淋巴细胞的数量随时间的延长面变化,8周时达到高峰,10周仍有较高的比例.10周时移植组所有存活小鼠骨髓细胞均检测到人ALU基因的表达,脾脏均检测到人CD3+、CD56+细胞;未移植组小鼠照射后2周内全部死亡.结论 经照射后的NOD/SCID小鼠通过移植人脐血CD34+细胞成功地建立了hu-SRC-NOD/SCID模型,并有效地重建了小鼠细胞免疫系统.

  10. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, D.; Lee, E.K. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. [Komipharm International Co. Ltd., 3188, Seongnam-dong, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 462-827 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.S. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, H.S., E-mail: hsjun@gachon.ac.kr [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of glucose

  11. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of glucose

  12. Direct bacterial killing in vitro by recombinant Nod2 is compromised by Crohn's disease-associated mutations.

    Laurent-Herve Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A homeostatic relationship with the intestinal microflora is increasingly appreciated as essential for human health and wellbeing. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR domain of Nod2, a bacterial recognition protein, are associated with development of the inflammatory bowel disorder, Crohn's disease. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying disruption of intestinal symbiosis in patients carrying Nod2 mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, using purified recombinant LRR domains, we demonstrate that Nod2 is a direct antimicrobial agent and this activity is generally deficient in proteins carrying Crohn's-associated mutations. Wild-type, but not Crohn's-associated, Nod2 LRR domains directly interacted with bacteria in vitro, altered their metabolism and disrupted the integrity of the plasma membrane. Antibiotic activity was also expressed by the LRR domains of Nod1 and other pattern recognition receptors suggesting that the LRR domain is a conserved anti-microbial motif supporting innate cellular immunity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of anti-bacterial activity demonstrated with Crohn's-associated Nod2 mutations in vitro, supports the hypothesis that a deficiency in direct bacterial killing contributes to the association of Nod2 polymorphisms with the disease.

  13. Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Two Novel 2D Zinc(II) Coordination Polymers based on Fluconazole and Benzene Carboxylic Acid

    Pan, Ganghong; Tang, Jingniu; Xu, Wenjia; Liang, Peng; Huang, Zhongjing [Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning (China)

    2013-12-15

    The design and synthesis of coordination polymers have aroused great interest owing to their intriguing aesthetic structures and potential applications in nonlinear optics, gas storage, ion exchange, luminescence, magnetism and catalysis. Self-assembly of bridging organic ligands (connectors) and multi-connected metal ions can give rise to various types of interesting coordination polymers. Since metal ion Zn(II) with d{sup 10} electronic configuration permits a variety of coordination numbers and geometries which are not dependent on ligand field stabilization but on ligand size and charge, it is well suited for the construction of various coordination polymers. Its borderline hardness allows the coordination of N, O and S donor atoms.

  14. Effect of P53 binding site on regulation of human NOD8 gene%P53结合位点对人NOD8基因的调控

    曾琪; 张芸; 田莉; 唐清亮; 胡巢凤; 柏志全

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨P53结合位点在NOD8基因调控中的作用.方法:利用生物信息学方法,我们发现人与黑猩猩的NOD8基因核心启动子区域相似位置含有P53结合位点;以人基因组DNA为模板,PCR扩增含有人NOD8基因序列,构建含有/缺失人P53结合位点的NOD8基因启动子驱动的、表达绿色荧光蛋白-NOD8融合蛋白的质粒pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8和mpNOD8(750 bp)-EGFP-NOD8;将构建的重组质粒经阳离子聚合物JetPeiTM介导瞬时转染HEK293细胞中,并加入不同浓度的P53抑制剂pifithrin alpha(PFT-α)处理HEK293细胞,用RT-PCR和Westren blotting 方法检测NOD8 mRNA和蛋白的表达;此外,用pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP质粒转染HEK293细胞,利用染色质免疫共沉淀法(ChIP)观察P53是否与NOD8启动子结合.结果:经酶切鉴定和序列测定证实重组质粒构建成功.ChIP实验证实P53能与NOD8启动子结合.pNOD8 (760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8 转染组中NOD8 mRNA的表达显著高于pEGFP-C2转染组(P<0.05),并且NOD8 mRNA 在缺失人P53结合位点的mpNOD8 (750 bp)-EGFP-NOD8转染组中的表达明显降低(P<0.01);同时发现加入 PFT-α的pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8 转染组NOD8 mRNA的表达显著下降,并呈剂量依赖关系,其中90 μmol/L PFT-α对NOD8 mRNA表达的抑制作用最为显著(P<0.01).与mRNA检测结果一致的是pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8 转染组NOD8蛋白的表达量显著高于对照组pEGFP-C2;而mpNOD8(750 bp)-EGFP-NOD8转染组NOD8蛋白的表达量明显低于pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8转染组和加入 PFT-α的pNOD8(760 bp)-EGFP-NOD8 转染组(P<0.01).结论:P53结合位点在NOD8基因调控中起着重要的作用,并且P53结合位点与NOD8基因之间可能存在正反馈调节.%AIM: To investigated the characterization and biological function of P53 binding element in the regulation of N0D8 gene. METHODS: Using the method of bioinformatics, we found a completely preserved P53 binding site in N0D8 core promoter both in humans and chimpanzees. N0D8

  15. NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Is Hungary different?

    Carsten Büning; Tomas Mlolnar; Ferenc Nagy; Janos Lonovics; Renita Weltrich; Bettina Bochow; Janine Genschel; Hartmut Schmidt; Herbert Lochs

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyse the impact of NOD2/CARD15 mutations on the clinical course of Crohn's disease patients from an eastern European country (Hungary).METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of the three common NOD2/CARD15 mutations (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg,1007finsC) in 148 patients with Crohn's disease, 128patients with ulcerative colitis and 208 controls recruited from the University of Szeged, Hungary. In patients with Crohn's disease, the prevalence of NOD2/CARD15 mutations was correlated to the demographical and clinical parameters.RESULTS: In total, 32.4% of Crohn's disease patients carried at least one mutant allele within NOD2/CARD15compared to 13.2% of patients with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.0002) and to 11.5% of controls (P<0.0001). In Crohn's disease patients, the allele frequencies for Arg702Trp,Gly908Arg and 1007finsC were 7.1%, 3.0% and 10.8%respectively. Interestingly, only the 1007finsC mutation was associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. The patients positive for the 1007finsC mutation suffered more frequently from stenotic disease behaviour (P = 0.008). Furthermore,51.9% of patients positive for the 1007finsC mutation underwent a surgical resection within the ileum compared to only 17.4% of patients without the 1007finsC mutation (P = 0.001). With respect to the other two mutations (Arg702Trp and Gly908Arg), no associations were found with all investigated clinical parameters.CONCLUSION: NOD2/CARD15 mutations are frequently found in Crohn's disease patients from Hungary. The 1007finsC mutation is associated with stenotic disease behaviour and frequent ileal resections.

  16. Leukotriene B4 Enhances NOD2-Dependent Innate Response against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Manon Le Bel

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, a central mediator of inflammation, is well known for its chemoattractant properties on effectors cells of the immune system. LTB4 also has the ability to control microbial infection by improving host innate defenses through the release of antimicrobial peptides and modulation of intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs expression in response to agonist challenge. In this report, we provide evidences that LTB4 acts on nucleotide-binging oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 pathway to enhance immune response against influenza A infection. Infected mice receiving LTB4 show improved survival, lung architecture and reduced lung viral loads as compared to placebo-treated animals. NOD2 and its downstream adaptor protein IPS-1 have been found to be essential for LTB4-mediated effects against IAV infection, as absence of NOD2 or IPS-1 diminished its capacity to control viral infection. Treatment of IAV-infected mice with LTB4 induces an increased activation of IPS-1-IRF3 axis leading to an enhanced production of IFNβ in lungs of infected mice. LTB4 also has the ability to act on the RICK-NF-κB axis since administration of LTB4 to mice challenged with MDP markedly increases the secretion of IL-6 and TNFα in lungs of mice. TAK1 appears to be essential to the action of LTB4 on NOD2 pathway since pretreatment of MEFs with TAK1 inhibitor prior stimulation with IAV or MDP strongly abrogated the potentiating effects of LTB4 on both IFNβ and cytokine secretion. Together, our results demonstrate that LTB4, through its ability to activate TAK1, potentiates both IPS-1 and RICK axis of the NOD2 pathway to improve host innate responses.

  17. Japanese herbal medicine TJ-48 prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Koji; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F; Shimada, Mitsuo; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is mainly caused by CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell infiltration into islets. Recently, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the prevention of the onset of T1DM was reported. We reported that TJ-48, a common Japanese herbal medicine, decreased Treg population in cancer patients, thus we investigated whether TJ-48 had an influence on T1DM onset using NOD mice. In the TJ-48 group, TJ-48 (2.0g/kg/day) was administered in the drinking water for NOD mice from three weeks of age to 20 weeks of age. Their body weight and fast blood glucose (FBG) were measured every week. Histology (Hematoxylin-Eosin staining) was investigated every month. Lymphocyte profiles were investigated every month with FACS. The results were compared to the age-matched NOD mice control group. FBG of the control group mice showed diabetic status of 66.7% at 18 weeks of age. On the other hand, the TJ-48 group mice showed diabetic status of 16.7% at 18 weeks of age (p = 1.905E-06). There were no significant differences in general conditions or body weight between the two groups. Lymphocyte infiltrations into islets were dramatically suppressed in the TJ-48 group. The effect of TJ-48 on decreasing Tregs was less apparent in the NOD mice model. TJ-48 inhibited lymphocyte infiltrations into islets, which led to preventing the onset of T1DM in NOD mice. PMID:21721154

  18. Prevention of spontaneous and cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with oral 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), a component of caramel colouring III.

    Mandel, T E; Koulmanda, M; Mackay, I R

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of THI, a compound present in ammonia caramel food colouring, was studied in spontaneous and induced murine diabetes mellitus. Continuous administration of THI at 400 ppm in drinking water reduced the prevalence of spontaneous diabetes in female NOD/Lt mice from 63% in untreated controls to 8% in treated animals. Since cyclophosphamide (CP) accelerates and intensifies diabetes in NOD mice, we also studied the effect of THI in this model. Diabetes incidence was reduced from 100% in mice given only CP to 13-14% in mice given THI either concurrently or from 14 days previously. Histologically, THI greatly reduced the severity of insulitis. As measured by flow cytometry, all THI-treated mice had a 60-80% reduction in splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. THI-treated mice showed no untoward effects and specifically no weight loss, or pathological changes in their livers, kidneys or lungs. However, there was moderate atrophy of the thymus cortex. THI is a small imidazole-containing compound with structural similarity to histamine and urocanic acid, both known to have immunosuppressive properties. It is a widely used food additive with no known long-term toxic effects at low dosage. Thus, THI could be a useful immunosuppressive agent. PMID:1606724

  19. Isolation and identification of phosphatidic acid targets from plants.

    C. Testerink; H.L. Dekker; Z.-Y. Lim; M.K. Johns; A.B. Holmes; C.G. de Koster; N.T. Ktisakis; T. Munnik

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is emerging as an important lipid signalling molecule. In plants, it is implicated in various stress-signalling pathways and is formed in response to wounding, osmotic stress, cold stress, pathogen elicitors, Nod factors, ethylene and abscisic acid. How PA exerts its effects i

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  1. Saturated Fatty Acid Induces Insulin Resistance Partially Through Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    Yi-jun Zhou; Yin-si Tang; Yu-ling Song; Ai Li; Hui Zhou; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), a component of the innate immune system, in mediating lipid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Methods Adipocytes from Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency mice were used for stimulation experiments. The effect of oleate/palmitate mixture on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was analyzed by reporter plasmid assay. The release of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines production was determined by using real-time PCR. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Chemokine/cytokine expression and glucose uptake in adipocytes transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOD1 upon fatty acids treatment were analyzed. Results Oleate/palmitate mixture activated the NF-κB pathway and induced interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expressions in adipocytes from mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4, and these effects were blocked by siRNA targeting NOD1. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids decreased the ability of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, siRNA targeting NOD1 partially reversed saturated fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion NOD1 might play an important role in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced NOD1 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action.

  2. Regulatory role of the sequences downstream from nodD3 P1 promoter of Rhizobium meliloti

    2000-01-01

    The 660 bp region between nodD3 P1 promoter and the following coding region of Rhizobium meliloti has been studied.This region is designated "downstream sequences".It consists of two potential open reading frames,ORF1 and ORF2.Studies on the role of the downstream sequences on the activity of nodD3 P1 with nod D3(P1)-lacZ fusion show that deletion of the sequences containing ORF2 causes the increase of the activity of the fusion; on the contrary,addition of extra copies of ORF2 markedly decreases the activity of the fusion.These results indicate that the product of ORF2 plays a negative role in the expression of nod D3.

  3. A novel mutation in the NOD2 gene associated with Blau syndrome: a Norwegian family with four affected members

    Milman, N; Ursin, K; Rødevand, E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blau syndrome is a chronic granulomatous disease with an autosomal dominant trait characterized by the triad granulomatous dermatitis, arthritis, and uveitis. It is caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene, also termed the CARD15 gene. OBJECTIVE: To report a novel mutation in the NOD2 gene...... associated with Blau syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The proband was a 68-year-old ethnic Norwegian male who had uveitis and arthritis since 10 years of age followed by lifelong recurrent arthritis and chronic eye involvement. Genetic analysis showed a heterozygous c.1814 C>A, T605N mutation in NOD2 that has...... not previously been described. All of his three children had Blau syndrome and had inherited the NOD2 mutation. The proband's first son had exanthema, arthritis, and uveitis from 10 years of age and later presented with granulomatous lymphadenopathy, granulomatous parotitis, and granulomatous...

  4. Prediction of Crohn’s disease aggression through NOD2/CARD15 gene sequencing in an Australian cohort

    Bhullar, Maneesha; Macrae, Finlay; Brown, Gregor; Smith, Margie; Sharpe, Ken

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between mutations in oligomerisation domain 2/caspase recruitment domains 15 (NOD2/CARD15) and the natural history of Crohn’s disease (CD) to identify patients who would benefit from early aggressive medical intervention.

  5. Coordinated unbundling

    Timmermans, Bram; Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Jon Mikel

    2013-01-01

    not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework on how......Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms; however, the existing literature has...

  6. Fission yeast Nod1 is a component of cortical nodes involved in cell size control and division site placement.

    Isabelle Jourdain

    Full Text Available Most cells enter mitosis once they have reached a defined size. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitotic entry is orchestrated by a geometry-sensing mechanism that involves the Cdk1/Cdc2-inhibiting Wee1 kinase. The factors upstream of Wee1 gather together in interphase to form a characteristic medial and cortical belt of nodes. Nodes are also considered to be precursors of the cytokinesis contractile actomyosin ring (CAR. Here we describe a new component of the interphase nodes and cytokinesis rings, which we named Nod1. Consistent with its role in cell size control at division, nod1Δ cells were elongated and epistatic with regulators of Wee1. Through biochemical and localisation studies, we placed Nod1 in a complex with the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Gef2. Nod1 and Gef2 mutually recruited each other in nodes and Nod1 also assembles Gef2 in rings. Like gef2Δ, nod1Δ cells showed a mild displacement of their division plane and this phenotype was severely exacerbated when the parallel Polo kinase pathway was also compromised. We conclude that Nod1 specifies the division site by localising Gef2 to the mitotic cell middle. Previous work showed that Gef2 in turn anchors factors that control the spatio-temporal recruitment of the actin nucleation machinery. It is believed that the actin filaments originated from the nodes pull nodes together into a single contractile ring. Surprisingly however, we found that node proteins could form pre-ring helical filaments in a cdc12-112 mutant in which nucleation of the actin ring is impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of either nod1 or gef2 created an un-expected situation where different ring components were recruited sequentially rather than simultaneously. At later stages of cytokinesis, these various rings appeared inter-fitted rather than merged. This study brings a new slant to the understanding of CAR assembly and function.

  7. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  8. Brazilein inhibits neuronal inflammation induced by cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation through targeting NOD2 expression.

    Yan, Xiao-Jin; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Xin-Pei; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming; DU, Li-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Brazilein is reported to have immunosuppressive effect on cardiovascular and cerebral-vascular diseases. The essential roles of innate immunity in cerebral ischemia are increasingly identified, but no studies concerning the influence of brazilein on the innate immunity receptors have been reported. The present study was designed to investigate the regulation of NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2) by brazilein for its protection of neuron in cerebral ischemia in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro. The results showed that brazilein could reverse the elevated expression of NOD2 and TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) elicited by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. This reduction could also be detected in normal mice and C17.2 cells, indicating that this suppressive effect of brazilein was correlated with NOD2. The results from GFP reporter plasmid assay suggested brazilein inhibited NOD2 gene transcription. In conclusion, brazilein could attenuate NOD2 and TNFα expression in cerebral ischemia and NOD2 may be one possible target of brazilein for its immune suppressive effect in neuro-inflammation. PMID:27478098

  9. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice.

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-05-24

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility. PMID:21543717

  10. Deficiency of Nuclear Factor-κB c-Rel Accelerates the Development of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice.

    Ramakrishnan, Parameswaran; Yui, Mary A; Tomalka, Jeffrey A; Majumdar, Devdoot; Parameswaran, Reshmi; Baltimore, David

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear factor-κB protein c-Rel plays a critical role in controlling autoimmunity. c-Rel-deficient mice are resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes, a drug-induced model of autoimmune diabetes. We generated c-Rel-deficient NOD mice to examine the role of c-Rel in the development of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. We found that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from c-Rel-deficient NOD mice showed significantly decreased T-cell receptor-induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF expression. Despite compromised T-cell function, c-Rel deficiency dramatically accelerated insulitis and hyperglycemia in NOD mice along with a substantial reduction in T-regulatory (Treg) cell numbers. Supplementation of isogenic c-Rel-competent Treg cells from prediabetic NOD mice reversed the accelerated diabetes development in c-Rel-deficient NOD mice. The results suggest that c-Rel-dependent Treg cell function is critical in suppressing early-onset autoimmune diabetogenesis in NOD mice. This study provides a novel natural system to study autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis and reveals a previously unknown c-Rel-dependent mechanistic difference between chemically induced and spontaneous diabetogenesis. The study also reveals a unique protective role of c-Rel in autoimmune diabetes, which is distinct from other T-cell-dependent autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, where c-Rel promotes autoimmunity. PMID:27217485

  11. Sulphation of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 Nod factors is dependent on noeE, a new host-specificity gene.

    Hanin, M; Jabbouri, S; Quesada-Vincens, D; Freiberg, C; Perret, X; Promé, J C; Broughton, W J; Fellay, R

    1997-06-01

    Rhizobia secrete specific lipo-chitooligosaccharide signals (LCOs) called Nod factors that are required for infection and nodulation of legumes. In Rhizobium sp. NGR234, the reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine of LCOs is substituted at C6 with 2-O-methyl-L-fucose which can be acetylated or sulphated. We identified a flavonoid-inducible locus on the symbiotic plasmid pNGR234a that contains a new nodulation gene, noeE, which is required for the sulphation of NGR234 Nod factors (NodNGR). noeE was identified by conjugation into the closely related Rhizobium fredii strain USDA257, which produces fucosylated but non-sulphated Nod factors (NodUSDA). R. fredii transconjugants producing sulphated LCOs acquire the capacity to nodulate Calopogonium caeruleum. Furthermore, mutation of noeE (NGRdelta noeE) abolishes the production of sulphated LCOs and prevents nodulation of Pachyrhizus tuberosus. The sulphotransferase activity linked to NoeE is specific for fucose. In contrast, the sulphotransferase NodH of Rhizobium meliloti seems to be less specific than NoeE, because its introduction into NGRdelta noeE leads to the production of a mixture of LCOs that are sulphated on C6 of the reducing terminus and sulphated on the 2-O-methylfucose residue. Together, these findings show that noeE is a host-specificity gene which probably encodes a fucose-specific sulphotransferase. PMID:9218762

  12. Nodding syndrome-a new hypothesis and new direction for research.

    Colebunders, Robert; Hendy, Adam; Nanyunja, Miriam; Wamala, Joseph Francis; van Oijen, Marieke

    2014-10-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is an unexplained neurological illness that mainly affects children aged between 5 and 15 years. NS has so far been reported from South Sudan, northern Uganda, and Tanzania, but in spite of extensive investigations, the aetiology remains unknown. We hypothesize that blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) infected with Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae may also transmit another pathogen. This may be a novel neurotropic virus or an endosymbiont of the microfilariae, which causes not only NS, but also epilepsy without nodding. This hypothesis addresses many of the questions about NS that researchers have previously been unable to answer. An argument in favour of the hypothesis is the fact that in Uganda, the number of new NS cases decreased (with no new cases reported since 2013) after ivermectin coverage was increased and with the implementation of a programme of aerial spraying and larviciding of the large rivers where blackflies were breeding. If confirmed, our hypothesis will enable new strategies to control NS outbreaks. PMID:25181949

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the caspase-recruitment domain of human Nod1

    The caspase-recruitment domain of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) is known to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation as an essential protein–protein interaction domain. The CARD of the cytosolic pathogen receptor Nod1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified CARD was crystallized at 277 K using the microseeding method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P31 or P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.1, c = 80.9 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates that there is one dimeric CARD molecule in the asymmetric unit

  14. Responses against islet antigens in NOD mice are prevented by tolerance to proinsulin but not IGRP

    Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Nadine L Dudek; McKenzie, Mark D.; Anthony W Purcell; Brooks, Andrew G.; Gellert, Shane; Colman, Peter G; Harrison, Leonard C.; Lew, Andrew M.; Helen E. Thomas; Kay, Thomas W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by immune responses against several autoantigens expressed in pancreatic β cells. T cells specific for proinsulin and islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit–related protein (IGRP) can induce T1D in NOD mice. However, whether immune responses to multiple autoantigens are caused by spreading from one to another or whether they develop independently of each other is unknown. As cytotoxic T cells specific for IGRP were not detected in transge...

  15. Patients with nodding syndrome in Uganda improve with symptomatic treatment: a cross-sectional study

    Idro, Richard; Namusoke, Hanifa; Abbo, Catherine; Mutamba, Byamah B; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Opoka, Robert O.; Musubire, Abdu K.; Mwaka, Amos D; Opar, Bernard T

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood neurological disorder affecting thousands of children in Africa. In March 2012, we introduced a treatment intervention that aimed to provide symptomatic relief. This intervention included sodium valproate for seizures, management of behaviour and emotional difficulties, nutritional therapy and physical rehabilitation. We assessed the clinical and functional outcomes of this intervention after 12 months of implementation. Design This was ...

  16. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup;

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis was.......n. vaccination with gliadin, an environmental antigen with possible etiological influence in T1D, may represent a novel, safer strategy for prevention or even early cure of T1D....

  17. Coordination Capacity

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  18. The 3020insC Allele of NOD2 Predisposes to Cancers of Multiple Organs

    Lubiński Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NOD2 gene has been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and individuals with Crohn's disease are at increased risk for cancer at a number of organ sites. We studied the association between the 3020insC allele of the NOD2 gene and cancer among 2604 cancer patients and 1910 controls from Poland. Patients were diagnosed with one of twelve types of cancer in the Szczecin region between 1994 and 2004. Significant associations were found for colon cancer (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6, for lung cancer (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.5 and for ovarian cancer (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3. In addition, a significant association was found for early-onset laryngeal cancer (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 6.2 and for breast cancer in the presence of DCIS (OR = 2.1 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.6. The NOD2 3020insC allele is relatively common (in Poland 7.3% of individuals and may be responsible for an important fraction of cancer cases. We estimate that the lifetime cancer risk among carriers of this allele is 30% higher than that of individuals with two wild-type alleles.

  19. Design of non-molecular coordination solids from aqueous solution: [CuIILnX(H2O)], where X=SO4, Cl or H2O and L=pyrazole, imidazole or glutamic acid and = 1 or 4

    Vineet Kumar; Aritra Kundu; Monika Singh; Kandalam V Ramanujachary; Arunachalam Rramanan

    2014-09-01

    We have successfully crystallized four new non-molecular coordination solids utilizing the synthons-Cu-OSO3- and -Cu-Cl- in the presence of four organic ligands:[{Cu()4SO4}{Cu()4SO4 (H2O)}]. H2O2, [Cu(imi)4SO4]3, [Cu(imi)4(NO3)2]4 and [Cu(glu)Cl(H2O)]5. Use of glutamic acid resulted in two chiral coordination polymers 5 and [Cu(glu)(H2O)]. H2O 6 depending on the copper source. The paper provides chemical insights to the supramolecular aggregation of a crystal driven by the various competing intermolecular forces.

  20. Defining proximity relationships in the tertiary structure of the dopamine transporter. Identification of a conserved glutamic acid as a third coordinate in the endogenous Zn(2+)-binding site

    Løland, Claus Juul; Norregaard, L; Gether, U

    1999-01-01

    Recently, we have described a distance constraint in the unknown tertiary structure of the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) by identification of two histidines, His(193) in the second extracellular loop and His(375) at the top of transmembrane (TM) 7, that form two coordinates in an endogenous...

  1. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Reveals Positive and Negative Regulators of the NOD2 and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Warner, Neil; Burberry, Aaron; Franchi, Luigi; Kim, Yun-Gi; McDonald, Christine; Sartor, Maureen A.; Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplasmic receptor NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) senses peptidoglycan fragments and triggers host defense pathways that lead to inflammatory immune responses. Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and Blau syndrome. We used a genome-wide, small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to identify regulators of the NOD2 signaling pathway. Several genes associated with Crohn’s disease risk were identified in the screen...

  2. 小剂量K562细胞NOD/SCID小鼠动物模型的建立%Establishment of an Animal Model of Human Erythroleukemia in NOD/SCID Mice Using Microdose K562 Cells

    黎阳; 张绪超; 黄绍良; 魏菁; 黄文革; 周敦华; 吴燕峰

    2005-01-01

    [目的]探索建立小剂量(1×106)人急性红白血病K562细胞株的NOD/SCID小鼠动物模型及通过流式细胞仪对NOD/SCID小鼠的肿瘤负荷情况进行评价的可行性.[方法]实验组NOD/SCID小鼠分别经尾静脉接种K562细胞1×106、5×106,比较不同剂量接种实验组小鼠的生存时间、组织病理改变及通过流式细胞术对NOD/SCID小鼠体内的肿瘤标记进行检测.[结果]1×106及5×106 K562细胞接种的NOD/SCID小鼠的生存时间分别为(30.3±4.3)d和(22.2±3.7)d;其外周血、骨髓及肝、肺组织匀浆中均可发现不同比例的肿瘤细胞;通过流式细胞术检测5×106 K562细胞接种组NOD/SCID小鼠外周血、肝匀浆中人CD13表达水平显著高于1×10s接种组,而肺匀浆的CD13表达水平两组无显著性差异.[结论]小剂量(1×106)K562细胞NOD/SCID小鼠动物模型的建立是完全可行的,这有助于降低实验成本.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of two 1D nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by lanthanide with pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    The hydrothermal reactions of LnCl3.6H2O (Ln=Eu, Tb), pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid (3,4-pydaH2), 1,10-phenthroline (phen) and NaOH in aqueous medium yield two metal-organic hybrid materials, [Eu2(3,4-pyda)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (1) and [Tb2(3,4-pyda)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (2), respectively. Both compounds have similar topology structure containing one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. To the best of our knowledge, they represent the first example of nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by 3,4-pydaH2 and chelate heterocylic ligand. Interestingly, the 3,4-pyda anion exhibits three kinds of coordination modes in these complexes. The coordination modes of 3,4-pyda in complexes 1 and 2 have not been observed in other coordination polymers containing 3,4-pyda ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Their magnetic analyses show that they exhibit different magnetic interactions. - Graphical abstract: Two novel lanthanide coordination polymers [M2(pydc)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (M=Eu(1) and Tb(2), pydc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate, phen=1,10-phenthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. Both compounds reveal a one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. Their luminescent and magnetic properties have been investigated

  4. mt-Nd2a Modifies Resistance Against Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice at the Level of the Pancreatic β-Cell

    Chen, Jing; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Piganelli, Jon; Leiter, Edward H.; Mathews, Clayton E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene for NADH dehydrogenase 2 (mt-Nd2) can modulate susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS NOD/ShiLtJ mice conplastic for the alloxan resistant (ALR)/Lt-derived mt-Nd2a allele (NOD.mtALR) were created and compared with standard NOD (carrying the mt-Nd2c allele) for susceptibility to spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, or to diabetes elicited by reciprocal adoptive sple...

  5. A Manganese Coordination Polymer and a Palladium Molecular Compound of 3-Pyridinepropionic acid (HL): [MnL2(H2O)2]∞ and trans-[Pd(HL)2Cl2

    Three coordination polymers, [ML2(H2O)2] (M = Co (1), Ni (2), Mn (3)), were prepared from metal acetates (M(CH3COO)2·4H2O) and 3-pyridinepropionic acid (HL = (3-py).CH2CH2COOH) by solvent-layer methods. By contrast, a discrete molecular compound, trans-[Pd(HL)2Cl2] (4), was synthesized by replacing benzonitrile (PhCN) ligands in trans-[Pd(PhCN)2Cl2] with HL under microwave-heating conditions. Compounds 1-3 have a 2D framework, and compound 4 contains a square-planar Pd metal

  6. RUN COORDINATION

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  7. RUN COORDINATION

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence property of a three dimensional Sm(III) coordination polymer with 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid

    Kranthi Kumar Gangu; Anima S Dadhich; Saratchandra Babu Mukkamala

    2015-12-01

    A novel three dimensional coordination polymer [Sm(2,5-pydc)(NO3)(H2O)]·(H2O) (2,5-pydc = 2,5-pyridine dicarboxylate) (1) had been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. This coordination polymer crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2/n with cell parameters = 9.3610(4) Å, = 8.3498(3) Å, = 16.7159(8) Å, = 106.31(0)°, = 1253.98(184) Å3. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that complex 1 is stable up to 400°C which on photoexcitation at 365 nm exhibited yellow emission at 583 nm.

  9. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice

    Nayara Simon Gonzalez Schumacher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1 treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes.

  10. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951