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Sample records for acid conjugates participate

  1. Macrophage PPAR gamma Co-activator-1 alpha participates in repressing foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in response to conjugated linoleic acid

    McCarthy, Cathal; Lieggi, Nora T; Barry, Denis; Mooney, Declan; de Gaetano, Monica; James, William G; McClelland, Sarah; Barry, Mary C; Escoubet-Lozach, Laure; Li, Andrew C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Fitzgerald, Desmond J.; Belton, Orina

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has the unique property of inducing regression of pre-established murine atherosclerosis. Understanding the mechanism(s) involved may help identify endogenous pathways that reverse human atherosclerosis. Here, we provide evidence that CLA inhibits foam cell formation via regulation of the nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, and that macrophage PGC-1α plays a role in atheroprotection in vivo. PGC...

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: good or bad nutrient

    Gonçalves Daniela C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a class of 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid octadecadienoic.Currently, it has been described many benefits related to the supplementation of CLA in animals and humans, as in the treatment of cancer, oxidative stress, in atherosclerosis, in bone formation and composition in obesity, in diabetes and the immune system. However, our results show that, CLA appears to be not a good supplement in patients with cachexia.

  3. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

    Kazuo Miyashita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.

  4. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  5. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in di-chloromethane at room temperature.

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA-An Overview

    D J Crumb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in the highest concentrations in foods originating in ruminant animals, and dairy products such as milk. Especially large numbers of CLA polymers have been detected in beef, lamb and milk fat. Results from many in vitro and animal studies, though conflicting, have suggested that CLA supplementation may have beneficial effect on obesity, weight management, cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview on the functionality, safety and toxicity of CLA as described in literature. .   Industrial Relevance: CLA is a functional food and dietary supplement ingredient with potential benefits against a number of metabolic chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and its toxicological effects are not very well understood. These factors may play an important role in the effectiveness as CLA as a viable functional dietary bioactive compound.

  7. Specific bile acid radioimmunoassays for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum and their clinical application

    Specific radioimmunoassays have been developed for separate determinations of unconjugated cholic acid, conjugated cholic acid and conjugated deoxycholic acid in serum. Before carrying out the radioimmunoassay, the serum bile acids were extracted with Amberlite XAD-2. Unconjugated cholic acid was separated from glyco- and taurocholic acids by thin-layer chromatography. At 50% displacement of bound labelled glyco-[3H]-cholic acid, using antiserum obtained after immunization with cholic acid-bovine serum albumin-conjugate, the cross-reactivity of taurocholic acid was 100%, cholic acid 80%, glycochenodeoxycholic acid 10%, chenodeoxycholic acid 7%, conjugated deoxycholic acid 3% and conjugated lithocholic acid 3H]-cholic acid in the solid-phase radioimmunoassay was linear on a logit-log plot from 5 to 200 pmol of unlabelled cholic acid. The coefficient of variation between samples was 5%. The clinical application of these bile acid radioimmunoassays is shown by an ''oral cholate tolerance test'', which is a sensitive indicator of liver function, and by an ''oral cholylglycine tolerance test'' which is a useful test for bile acid absorption. (author)

  8. Tanzawaic Acids, a Chemically Novel Set of Bacterial Conjugation Inhibitors

    Getino, María; Fernández-López, Raúl; Palencia-Gándara, Carolina; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, Jose M.; Martínez, Marta; Fernández, Antonio; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is the main mechanism for the dissemination of multiple antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. This dissemination could be controlled by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. A search for conjugation inhibitors among a collection of 1,632 natural compounds, identified tanzawaic acids A and B as best hits. They specially inhibited IncW and IncFII conjugative systems, including plasmids mobilized by them. Plasmids belonging to IncFI, IncI, IncL/M, IncX and IncH incompatibility groups were targeted to a lesser extent, whereas IncN and IncP plasmids were unaffected. Tanzawaic acids showed reduced toxicity in bacterial, fungal or human cells, when compared to synthetic conjugation inhibitors, opening the possibility of their deployment in complex environments, including natural settings relevant for antibiotic resistance dissemination. PMID:26812051

  9. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Identification of Its Isomers

    郭诤; 张根旺; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid(CLA)is a kind of fatty acid with physiological activities and potential appli-cation prospect ,A synthesis method of conjugated linoleic acid and a purification technology were studied .CLA was prepared and purified by urea-complexation and conjugation using safflower oil as raw material,The purity of CLA and total recovery of the product was more than 95% and 48%,respectively,The main isomers produced in alkali-catalyzed conjugation were identified by gas chromatography (GC)linked to mass spectrometry(MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),The total amount of the two main isomers (9cis,11trans-and 10trans,12cis-CLA) determined by GC was more than 90% of the product.

  10. Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Schmidt, Soren;

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of fatty acids found in beef, dairy foods and dietary supplements, reduces adiposity in several animal models of obesity and some human studies. However, the isomer-specific antiobesity mechanisms of action of CLA are unclear, and its use in humans is...

  11. Synthesis of novel fullerene α-amino acid conjugates

    Jing Zhang; Yan Xia Wang; Feng Kang; Ying Ya Shao; Zong Jie Li; Xin Lin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aspartie acid and glutamic acid with protected α-amino and α-carboxyl groups had been used to react with the activated hydroxyl group of N-substituted 3,4-fuUero pyrrolidine.The products were deprotected,affording two monofullerene α-amino acids,monofullerene aspartic acid(mFas)and monofullerene glutamic acid(mFgu).Then a bifullerene glutamic acid conjugate (bFguC)was synthesized by reaction of mFgu containing protected amino group with N-subsfimted 3,4-fullero pyrrolidine.

  12. The Preparation and Characterization of Conjugated Linolenic Acid

    Cao Ying; Yang Lin; Chen Zhen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated Linolenic Acid (CLN) has recently been shown to have a more strong cytotoxic effect on various human tumor cell lines than CLA. In CLN, all the three double bonds are conjugated, whereas they are methylene-interrupted in LN. Some seed oil, such as tung oil and pomegranate seed oil, principally consist of CLN, accounting for 76.5% and 75.5%, respectively.CLN can be characterized using the combination of gas chromatography (GC), highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV /VIS spectrophotomea-ic analysis. GC can separate the CLN from other fatty acids and HPLC can separate the individual CLN isomers.The conjugated triene formation has a maximum absorbency at 268 nm and the conjugated diene formation has an absorbency at 235 nm in UV spectrum.CLN was prepared from linseed oil by isomerization reaction in our present study. By treating at was isomerized and the product was purified by recrystallizing in the methanol. The GC and UV /VIS spectrophotometric analysis were used to characterize the obtained products. It was found that the a-LN in the linseed oil was converted to the corresponding conjugated diene acids and CLN. The GC analysis also showed that there formed about 20% CLN when reacting for 10h with 40% KOH/ethylene glycol.

  13. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  14. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential. PMID:23731716

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X...

  16. Conjugation of kojic acid with chitosan

    Synytsya, Andriy.; Blafková, P.; Synytsya, A.; Čopíková, J.; Spěváček, Jiří; Uher, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2008), s. 21-31. ISSN 0144-8617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : kojic acid * chitosan * iron(III) * chlorokojic acid Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2008

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Raimondi, Stefano; Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer st...

  18. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N.; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-01-01

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant...

  19. Radioimmunoassay for the determination of free and conjugated abscisic acid

    The characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay specific for free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA) is reported, The antibodies produced against a bovine serum albumin-(+-)-ABA conjugate have a high affinity for ABA (Ka= 1.3 x 109 l mol-1). Trans, trans-ABA and related compounds, such as xanthoxin, phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, vomifoliol or violaxanthin do not interfere with the assay. The detection limit of this method is 0.25 x 10-12 mol ABA, the measuring range extends to 20 x 10-12 mol, and average recoveries are 103%. Because of the high specificity of this immunoassay, no extract purification steps are required prior to analysis. Several hundred plants can be analyzed per day in a semi-automatic assay performance. ABA has been detected in all higher plant families examined, but was absent in the blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, and two species of fungi. (orig.)

  20. Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Dairy Products: A Review

    H. Hernandez-Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in foods derived from ruminant animals such as meat and dairy products. Many bacteria from cheese starters and some probiotics are able to produce CLA from the linoleic acid present in milk, increasing the content of this compound. Some in vitro and animal studies have suggested that CLA may have important health benefits for humans including cancer prevention, immune response modulation and weight loss. More research is necessary before a definitive recommendation can be issued.

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Chemical Structure, Sources and Biological Properties

    AYDIN, Rahim

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2, cis-9, cis-12). In contrast to linoleic acid, double bonds in CLA are usually located at positions 9 and 11 or 10 and 12 and each double bond can be either in the cis or trans configuration. Meat and dairy products from ruminant animals (such as milk, butter, yogurt and cheese) are the principal natural sources of CLA in the human diet. Egg and meat products from poultry contain less CLA t...

  2. Metabolic Interactions between Vitamin A and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Gianfranca Carta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4. However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A.

  3. Immunoassay of serum conjugates of cholic acid in cystic fibrosis.

    Davidson, G P; Corey, M; Morad-Hassel, F; Sondheimer, J M; Crozier, D; Forstner, G G

    1980-01-01

    Pre- and post-prandial serum conjugates of cholic acid (SCCA) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 83 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), 14 of whom did not have steatorrhoea, and in 25 controls. Of the CF patients with steatorrhoea, 38% had fasting SCCA levels greater than 3 standard deviations above mean fasting control values, whereas no CF patient without steatorrhoea had elevated fasting SCCA levels. Steatorrhoeic patients with palpable livers had higher pre- and post-prandial SCCA...

  4. Intracellular Fate of Spherical Nucleic Acid Nanoparticle Conjugates

    Wu, Xiaochen A.; Choi, Chung Hang J.; Zhang, Chuan; Hao, Liangliang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoparticle conjugates are a class of bionanomaterials that are extremely potent in many biomedical applications. Their unique ability to enter multiple mammalian cell types as single-entity agents arises from their novel three-dimensional architecture, which consists of a dense shell of highly oriented oligonucleotides chemically attached typically to a gold nanoparticle core. This architecture allows SNAs to engage certain cell surface receptors to facilitate e...

  5. Diversity of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in Colombian potato tubers.

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Zheng, Chaoya; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-08-15

    In potato tuber, caffeic acid (the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA)), its conjugates (HCAcs; i.e. chlorogenic acid (ChA), crypto-ChA, and neo-ChA), and anthocyanin-linked HCAs have been extensively described in the literature. In contrast, only little information is available on the occurrence of other HCAcs and didydrohydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs). Fifteen Colombian potato cultivars were screened for these less commonly described conjugates by reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a heated electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer. A total of 62 HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs were found in extracts from peel and flesh. Among them, only twelve compounds were common to all cultivars in both peel and flesh. The less commonly described compounds accounted for 7.1-20.1% w/w of the total amount of HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs in whole tubers, highlighting their contribution to the total phenolic profile of potato tubers. Among all cultivars, the abundance (mg/100 g DW whole tuber) of neo-ChA (0.8-7.4) ranged in similar quantities as the less commonly reported feruloyl octopamine (1.2-5.2), 5-O-feruloyl quinic acid (0.1-7.5), cis-ChA (1.1-2.2), caffeoyl putrescine (0.6-2.5), sinapoyl hexose (0.1-1.8), N(1),N(14)-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (0.2-1.7), N(1),N(10)-bis-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermidine (1.1-2.6), and N(1),N(5),N(14)-tris-(dihydrocaffeoyl) spermine (trace - 11.1). PMID:23561213

  6. Analysis of Peptides and Conjugates by Amino Acid Analysis

    Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid analysis is a highly accurate method for characterization of the composition of synthetic peptides. Together with mass spectrometry, it gives a reliable control of peptide quality and quantity before conjugation and immunization.Peptides are hydrolyzed, preferably in gas phase, with 6 M...... HCl at 110 °C for 20-24 h and the resulting amino acids analyzed by ion-exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization. Depending on the hydrolysis conditions, tryptophan is destroyed, and cysteine also, unless derivatized, and the amides, glutamine and asparagine, are deamidated to...... glutamic acid and aspartic acid, respectively. Three different ways of calculating results are suggested, and taking the above limitations into account, a quantitation better than 5 % can usually be obtained....

  7. Doxorubicin-loaded microgels composed of cinnamic acid-gelatin conjugate and cinnamic acid-Pluronic F127 conjugate.

    Zhang, Hong; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Microgels were prepared by cinnamic acid-gelatin (type B) conjugate (CA-GelB) and cinnamic acid-Pluronic F127 conjugate (CA-Plur). (1)H NMR confirmed that CA was conjugated to gelatin and the gelatin to CA residue molar ratio was estimated to be 1:4.7 by a colorimetric method. CA-Plur of which the CA residue to Plur molar ratio was 1.2:1 was used as a thermo-sensitive polymer. The CA residues of CA-Plur/CA-GelB mixture were readily photo-dimerized to form microgels by UV irradiation. The isoelectric point of the microgel was found to be pH 5.8 and the hydrodynamic diameter decreased when the suspension temperature increased. The microgel could hardly retard the release of doxorubicin (DOX) at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0, but it could suppress and control the release at pH 7.4 possibly due to electrostatic attraction. Meanwhile, the release of DOX at pH 7.4 was less suppressed when the medium temperature was higher, possibly because of thermal thinning of Pluronic chain layer. PMID:25567320

  8. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  9. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQua...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1187 - Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1187 Conjugated sulfolithocholic acid (SLCG) test system. (a) Identification....

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10-Hydroxy-12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Ogawa, Jun; Matsumura, Kenji; Kishino, Shigenobu; Omura, Yoriko; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2001-01-01

    Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or trans-9, cis-11-octadecadienoic acid and trans-9, trans-11-octadecadie...

  12. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity. PMID:27081749

  13. Spodoptera littoralis detoxifies neurotoxic 3-nitropropanoic acid by conjugation with amino acids.

    Novoselov, Alexey; Becker, Tobias; Pauls, Gerhard; von Reuß, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis is a phytophagous generalist. Its host range includes more than 40 plant species, some of which produce 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA), an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Growth in larvae fed an artificial diet with a sublethal admixture of 3-NPA (4.2 μmol per g) was slowed significantly, but larvae experienced no increase in mortality. In contrast, larvae injected with 25.2 μmol/g (bodyweight) 3-NPA experienced acute toxicity and death. To study the detoxification mechanism of 3-NPA in S. littoralis, the insect frass was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Comparative analysis of 3-NPA-treated and -untreated control samples using HR-MS(2) revealed a group of differential signals that were identified as amino acid amides of 3-NPA with glycine, alanine, serine, and threonine. When sublethal amounts of stable isotope-labeled 3-NPA were injected into a larva's hemolymph, 3-NPA amino acid conjugates were identified as putative detoxification products. Bioassays with synthetic standards confirmed that the toxicity of the amides was negligible in comparison to the toxicity of free 3-NPA, demonstrating that amino acid conjugation in S. littoralis represents an efficient way to detoxify 3-NPA. Furthermore, biosynthetic studies using crude fractions of the gut tissue indicated that conjugation of 3-NPA with amino acids occurs in epithelial cells of the insect's gut. Taken together, these results suggest that the detoxification of 3-NPA in S. littoralis proceeds via conjugation to specific amino acids within the epithelial cells followed by export of the nontoxic amino acid conjugates to the hemolymph via as yet uncharacterized mechanisms, most likely involving the Malpighian tubules. PMID:26092560

  14. Stable dye-labelled oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates for nucleic acid detection

    Barrett, Lee; Dougan, Jennifer A.; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Metallic nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides are used for a number of nucleic acid detection strategies. However, oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to certain conditions associated with DNA detection assays. In this study, we report the synthesis of thiol and thioctic acid-modified oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle (OGNs) conjugates functionalized with a dye label and varying spacer groups. The thioctic acid-modified conjugates exhibit increased stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared to the more commonly used thiol modification. When the dye labelled oligonucleotide nanoparticle conjugates are exposed to the same conditions there is a pronounced increase in the stability for both thioctic acid and thiol modified sequences. These results open up the possibility of simply using a dye label to enhance the stability of oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates in DNA detection assays where the enhanced stability of the conjugate system can be advantageous in more complex biological environments.

  15. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  16. Conjugated linoleic acids influence fatty acid metabolism in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.

    Masur, F; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Fuhrmann, H; Gäbel, G

    2016-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), particularly cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12), are used as feed additives to adapt to constantly increasing demands on the performance of lactating cows. Under these feeding conditions, the rumen wall, and the rumen epithelial cells (REC) in particular, are directly exposed to high amounts of CLA. This study determined the effect of CLA on the fatty acid (FA) metabolism of REC and expression of genes known to be modulated by FA. Cultured REC were incubated with c9t11, t10c12, and the structurally similar FA linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) for 48 h at a concentration of 100µM. Cellular FA levels were determined by gas chromatography. Messenger RNA expression levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and 4 were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Fatty acid evaluation revealed significant effects of CLA, LA, OA, and TVA on the amount of FA metabolites of β-oxidation and elongation and of metabolites related to desaturation by SCD. The observed changes in FA content point (among others) to the ability of REC to synthesize c9t11 from TVA endogenously. The mRNA expression levels of SCD identified a decrease after CLA, LA, OA, or TVA treatment. In line with the changes in mRNA expression, we found reduced amounts of C16:1n-7 cis-9 and C18:1n-9 cis-9, the main products of SCD. The expression of MCT1 mRNA increased after c9t11 and t10c12 treatment, and CLA c9t11 induced an upregulation of MCT4. Application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α antagonist suggested that activation of PPARα is involved in the changes of MCT1, MCT4, and SCD mRNA expression induced by c9t11. Participation of PPARγ in the changes of MCT1 and SCD mRNA expression was shown by the application of the respective antagonist. The study demonstrates that exposure to CLA affects both FA metabolism and regulatory pathways within REC. PMID

  17. Impact of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid metabolism and endocannabinoid biosynthesis

    Piras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) mainly found in the meat and dairy products of ruminants. CLA has been shown to possess different biological activities such as anticarcinogenic and anti-atherogenic properties, and also to influence body weight, energy and lipid metabolism, immune response, and inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in a variety of physiological processes, ...

  18. The transfer of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid from milk to meat in goats

    G. Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical studies with animal models have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have many positive health benefits. The major sources of CLA in human diets are meat and milk products from ruminants. The content of CLA in ruminant fat depends on the rumen’s production of CLA and trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid,VA as bio-hydrogenation intermediates and on VA by D9-desaturase.

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids are inhibitors of bacterial conjugation

    Fernandez-Lopez, R.; Machón, C.; Longshaw, C.; Martin, S.; Molin, S; E. Zechner; Espinosa, M; Lanka, E; de la Cruz, F

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a high-throughput assay to identify substances that reduce the frequency of conjugation in Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial conjugation is largely responsible for the spread of multiple antibiotic resistances in human pathogens. Conjugation inhibitors may provide a means to control the spread of antibiotic resistance. An automated conjugation assay was developed that used plasmid R388 and a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli as a model system, and bioluminescence as ...

  20. Production of carrier-peptide conjugates using chemically reactive unnatural amino acids

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G.

    2015-08-18

    Provided are methods of making carrier polypeptide that include incorporating a first unnatural amino acid into a carrier polypeptide variant, incorporating a second unnatural amino acid into a target polypeptide variant, and reacting the first and second unnatural amino acids to produce the conjugate. Conjugates produced using the provided methods are also provided. In addition, orthogonal translation systems in methylotrophic yeast and methods of using these systems to produce carrier and target polypeptide variants comprising unnatural amino acids are provided.

  1. Folic acid-CdTe quantum dot conjugates and their applications for cancer cell targeting

    Suriamoorthy, Preethi; Zhang, Xing; Hao, Guiyang; Joly, Alan G.; Singh, Surya; Hossu, Marius; Sun, Xiankai; Chen, Wei(Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China)

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we report the preparation, luminescence, and targeting properties of folic acid-CdTe quantum dot conjugates. Water-soluble CdTe quantum dots were synthesized and conjugated with folic acid using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide-N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The influence of folic acid on the luminescence properties of CdTe quantum dots was investigated, and no energy transfer between them was observed. To investigate the efficiency of folic acid-CdTe nanoconjuga...

  2. Kinetic Optimization of Folic Acid Polymer Conjugates for Drug Targeting

    Jacob M. Ngoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Folic Acid (FA is an essential, bioavailable water soluble B-complex vitamin that helps in the replication of normal cells. It is obtained from natural sources and it deficiency can leads to oncogenic cells development. Within this frame work in mind, we designed and synthesized a new bioconjugate carrier that can enhance the effectiveness of FA. Approach: The polymeric carrier: Polysucscinimide (PSI was synthesized via the polycondensation of aspartic acid by attaching 3-(N,N-Dimethylamino Propylamine (DMP and 1,3-P-propylenediamine (PDA for solubility behavior and reactivity for FA site anchoring. Also the use of an ester 2-(1H-benzotrial-1- yl-1,1,3,3-tetramethylurium Hexafluorophosphate (HBTU as coupling agent to FA. The bioreversible binding of the water-soluble and biocompatible macromolecular were attested through kinetic studies. The kinetic reactions were investigated through the nuclear resonance (H1NMR spectra analysis. Results and Conclusion: The H1NMR optimization reaction times were found within the range of 120-130 min (80-85% as optimum coupling. The yield of the FA occurred within the same time range but with maximum incorporation between 90-100%. The growth of FA incorporation in terms of reaction time resulted to an increase inherent viscosity relative to the decrease of water solubility of the conjugate obtained.

  3. Immunogenicity of a synthetic HBsAg peptide: enhancement by conjugation to a fatty acid carrier.

    Hopp, T P

    1984-01-01

    Effective immunization with short polypeptide antigens has typically only been possible when the peptide is conjugated to a large carrier substance, usually a protein. Such immunizations suffer from difficulties in producing conjugates of reliable composition, and from unwanted anti-carrier immune responses. When a chemically synthesized peptide, bearing hepatitis B virus a-determinant specificity, was conjugated to a dipalmityl-lysine moiety, a significant improvement in anti-hepatitis B surface antigen response was obtained, in comparison to the corresponding peptide-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate. Dipalmityl lysyl peptide conjugates are readily made by standard Merrifield synthesis procedures, and are relatively free of byproducts that might cause unwanted immune responses. Gel filtration experiments suggest that the conjugates form large aggregates, possibly micelles, which may play a significant role in the enhancement of the anti-peptide response. These properties suggest that fatty acid conjugation may be a useful procedure for producing chemically synthesized peptide vaccines. PMID:6423970

  4. Investigation of Plasma Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels in Obese and Healthy Subjects

    Hümeyra Yerlikaya; İdris Mehmetoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Obesity is very widespread health problem especially in developed countries. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it implicates with many factors in the etiology and it needs to treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. An array of purposed beneficial effects of CLA, such as capability of reducing or eliminating cancer, preventing heart disease a...

  5. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis were compared in a solvent-free system. Two systems were used in the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis at 60C temperature and 5% by weight enzyme load (based on substrates). One included...... tristearin (SSS) and linoleic (L) or conjugated linoleic (cL) acids (1:6, mol/mol). The other was between tristearin and the mixture of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids (1:3:3, mol/mol/mol). Acyl incorporation and migration together with triacylglycerol composition of the products were monitored with...... gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...

  6. The Transfer of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid from milk to meat in goats

    G. Pulina; S. Fancellu; G. Battacone; A. Nudda

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical studies with animal models have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have many positive health benefits. The major sources of CLA in human diets are meat and milk products from ruminants. The content of CLA in ruminant fat depends on the rumen’s production of CLA and trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid,VA) as bio-hydrogenation intermediates and on VA by D9-desaturase. Kid’s meat is a valuable and expensive product. The kids are fed exclusively with the milk of th...

  7. Effect of Linoleic Acid Concentration on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38

    Kim, Young Jun; Liu, Rui Hai; Bond, Daniel R.; Russell, James B.

    2000-01-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38 inocula were inhibited by as little as 15 μM linoleic acid (LA), but growing cultures tolerated 10-fold more LA before growth was inhibited. Growing cultures did not produce significant amounts of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) until the LA concentration was high enough to inhibit biohydrogenation, growth was inhibited, and lysis was enhanced. Washed-cell suspensions that were incubated anaerobically with 350 μM LA converted most of the LA to hydr...

  8. Mefenamic acid conjugates based on a hydrophilic biopolymer hydroxypropylcellulose: novel prodrug design, characterization and thermal analysis

    Macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of mefenamic acid were designed onto a cellulose ether derivative hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as ester conjugates. Fabrication of HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates was achieved by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride as carboxylic acid (a functional group in drug) activator at 80 degree C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction was preceded under homogeneous reaction conditions as HPC was dissolved before use in DMAc solvent. Imidazole was used as a base. Easy workup reactions resulted in good yields (55-65%) and degree of substitution (DS) of drug (0.37-0.99) onto HPC. The DS was calculated by acid-base titration after saponification and UV/Vis spectrophotometry after hydrolysis. DS by both of the methods was found in good agreement with each other. Aqueous and organic soluble novel prodrugs of mefenamic acid were purified and characterized by different spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques. The initial, maximum and final degradation temperatures of HPC, mefenamic acid and HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates were drawn from thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative TG curves and compared to access relative thermal stability. The TG analysis has indicated that samples obtained were thermally more stable especially with increased stability of mefenamic acid in HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates. These novel MPDs of mefenamic acid (i.e., HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates) may have potential applications in pharmaceutically viable drug design due to wide range of solubility and extra thermal stability imparted after MPD formation. (author)

  9. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Steinhart Hans; Winkler Kirstin; Rickert Rainer

    2001-01-01

    The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA) and conjugated fatty acids (CFA), especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA). This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  10. AWARD LECTURES Trans — and conjugated fatty acids in food — contents and analytical aspects

    Steinhart Hans

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations on fatty acids are focused on long chain fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA and conjugated fatty acids (CFA, especially isomers of linoleic acid (CLA. This paper deals with the origins of TFA and CLA and their physiological significance. Furthermore an overview is given of analytical procedures of both TFA and CLA. In addition the contents and isomeric distribution of these groups of fatty acids in foods are presented.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  12. Intracellular fate of spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates.

    Wu, Xiaochen A; Choi, Chung Hang J; Zhang, Chuan; Hao, Liangliang; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-05-28

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoparticle conjugates are a class of bionanomaterials that are extremely potent in many biomedical applications. Their unique ability to enter multiple mammalian cell types as single-entity agents arises from their novel three-dimensional architecture, which consists of a dense shell of highly oriented oligonucleotides chemically attached typically to a gold nanoparticle core. This architecture allows SNAs to engage certain cell surface receptors to facilitate entry. Here, we report studies aimed at determining the intracellular fate of SNAs and the trafficking events that occur inside C166 mouse endothelial cells after cellular entry. We show that SNAs traffic through the endocytic pathway into late endosomes and reside there for up to 24 h after incubation. Disassembly of oligonucleotides from the nanoparticle core is observed 16 h after cellular entry, most likely due to degradation by enzymes such as DNase II localized in late endosomes. Our observations point to these events being likely independent of core composition and treatment conditions, and they do not seem to be particularly dependent upon oligonucleotide sequence. Significantly and surprisingly, the SNAs do not enter the lysosomes under the conditions studied. To independently track the fate of the particle core and the fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides that comprise its shell, we synthesized a novel class of quantum dot SNAs to determine that as the SNA structures are broken down over the 24 h time course of the experiment, the oligonucleotide fragments are recycled out of the cell while the nanoparticle core is not. This mechanistic insight points to the importance of designing and synthesizing next-generation SNAs that can bypass the degradation bottleneck imposed by their residency in late endosomes, and it also suggests that such structures might be extremely useful for endosomal signaling pathways by engaging receptors that are localized within the endosome

  13. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  14. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the...... influence on the fatty acid profile. We fed five groups of rats semi-purified diets with varying levels of CLA and VA: control butter with low CLA (c9,t11) and VA; control butter added 5% CLA (c9,t11); control butter added 5% Tonalin [equal amount of CLA (c9,t11) and CLA (t10,c12)]; control butter added 5...

  15. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  16. Oral conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhanced glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Tsao, Jung-Piao; Liao, Su-Fen; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Present study examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Twelve male participants completed a cross-over trial with CLA (3.8 g/day for 8 week) or placebo supplements by separation of 8 weeks. CLA is a mixture of trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 isomers (50:50). On experiment day, all participants performed 60-min cycling exercise at 75% VO2 max, then consumed a carbohydrate meal immediately after exercise and recovered for 3 h. Biopsied muscle samples from vastus lateralis were obtained immediately (0 h) and 3 h following exercise. Simultaneously, blood and gaseous samples were collected for every 30 min during 3-h recovery. Results showed significantly increased muscle glycogen content with CLA after a single bout of exercise (P Gaseous exchange data showed no beneficial effect of CLA on fat oxidation, instead lower non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol levels were found at 0 h. Our findings conclude that CLA supplementation can enhance the glycogen resynthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle. PMID:25385360

  17. p-Coumaric acid and its conjugates: dietary sources, pharmacokinetic properties and biological activities.

    Pei, Kehan; Ou, Juanying; Huang, Junqing; Ou, Shiyi

    2016-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a phenolic acid that has low toxicity in mice (LD50 = 2850 mg kg(-1) body weight), serves as a precursor of other phenolic compounds, and exists either in free or conjugated form in plants. Conjugates of p-coumaric acid have been extensively studied in recent years due to their bioactivities. In this review, the occurrence, bioavailability and bioaccessibility of p-coumaric acid and its conjugates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, alkyl alcohols, organic acids, amine and lignin are discussed. Their biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation, anxiolytic, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-arthritis activities, and their mitigatory effects against diabetes, obesity, hyperlipaemia and gout are compared. Cumulative evidence from multiple studies indicates that conjugation of p-coumaric acid greatly strengthens its biological activities; however, the high biological activity but low absorption of its conjugates remains a puzzle. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26692250

  18. Targeted gene correction using psoralen, chlorambucil and camptothecin conjugates of triplex forming peptide nucleic acid (PNA)

    Birkedal, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Gene correction activation effects of a small series of triplex forming peptide nucleic acid (PNA) covalently conjugated to the DNA interacting ligands psoralen, chlorambucil and camptothecin targeted proximal to a stop codon mutation in an EGFP reporter gene were studied. A 15-mer homopyrimidine....... Consistent with the extract experiments, treatment with adduct forming PNA conjugates (psoralen and chlorambucil) resulted in a decrease in background correction frequencies in transiently transfected cells, whereas unmodified PNA or the PNA-camptothecin conjugate had little or no effect. These results...... suggest that simple triplex forming PNAs have little effect on proximal gene correctional events whereas PNA conjugates capable of forming DNA adducts and interstrand crosslinks are strong inhibitors. Most interestingly the PNA conjugated to the topoisomerase inhibitor, camptothecin enhanced repair in...

  19. Physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions stabilized by chlorogenic acid-lactoferrin-glucose/polydextrose conjugates.

    Liu, Fuguo; Wang, Di; Xu, Honggao; Sun, Cuixia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the influence of chlorogenic acid (CA)-lactoferrin (LF)-glucose (Glc) conjugate and CA-LF-polydextrose (PD) conjugate on the physicochemical characteristics of β-carotene emulsions was investigated. Novel emulsifiers were formed during Maillard reaction between CA-LF conjugate and Glc/PD. The physicochemical properties of β-carotene emulsions were characterized by droplet size, ζ-potential, rheological behavior, transmission changes during centrifugal sedimentation and β-carotene degradation. Results showed that the covalent attachment of Glc or PD to CA-LF conjugate effectively increased the hydrophilicity of the oil droplets surfaces and strengthened the steric repulsion between the oil droplets. Glucose was better than polydextrose for the conjugation with CA-LF conjugate to stabilize β-carotene emulsions. In comparison with LF and CA-LF-Glc/PD mixtures, CA-LF-Glc/PD ternary conjugates exhibited better emulsifying properties and improved physical stability of β-carotene emulsions during the freeze-thaw treatment. In addition, CA-LF-Glc/PD conjugates significantly enhanced chemical stability of β-carotene in the emulsions against ultraviolet light exposure. PMID:26593499

  20. Physiological function and ecological aspects of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates in insects.

    Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2016-07-01

    In tritrophic interactions, plants recognize herbivore-produced elicitors and release a blend of volatile compounds (VOCs), which work as chemical cues for parasitoids or predators to locate their hosts. From detection of elicitors to VOC emissions, plants utilize sophisticated systems that resemble the plant-microbe interaction system. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), a class of insect elicitors, resemble compounds synthesized by microbes in nature. Recent evidence suggests that the recognition of insect elicitors by an ancestral microbe-associated defense system may be the origin of tritrophic interactions mediated by FACs. Here we discuss our findings in light of how plants have customized this defense to be effective against insect herbivores, and how some insects have successfully adapted to these defenses. PMID:26940831

  1. Preparation of surfactant-stabilized gold nanoparticle-peptide nucleic acid conjugates

    Duy, Janice, E-mail: janice.duy@umit.maine.ed [University of Maine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); Connell, Laurie B. [University of Maine, School of Marine Sciences (United States); Eck, Wolfgang [University of Heidelberg, Applied Physical Chemistry (Germany); Collins, Scott D. [University of Maine, Department of Chemistry (United States); Smith, Rosemary L. [University of Maine, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A simple, two-step method of producing stable and functional peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-conjugated gold nanoparticles using a surfactant stabilization step is presented. PNA are DNA analogs with superior chemical stability and target discrimination, but their use in metallic nanoparticle systems has been limited by the difficulty of producing stable colloids of nanoparticle-PNA conjugates. In this work, the nonionic surfactant Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate) was used to sterically shield gold surfaces prior to the addition of thiolated PNA, producing conjugates which remain dispersed in solution and retain the ability to hybridize to complementary nucleic acid sequences. The conjugates were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy. PNA attachment to gold nanoparticles was confirmed with an enzyme-linked immunoassay, while the ability of nanoparticle-bound PNA to hybridize to its complement was demonstrated using labeled DNA.

  2. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis were compared in a solvent-free system. Two systems were used in the Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis at 60C temperature and 5% by weight enzyme load (based on substrates). One included...... gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...

  3. Amplified spontaneous emission from the exciplex state of a conjugated polymer "PFO" in oleic acid

    Idriss, Hajo; Taha, Kamal K.; Aldaghri, O.; Alhathlool, R.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Ibnaouf, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a conjugated polymer poly (9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl) (PFO) in oleic acid have been studied under different concentrations and temperatures. Here, the ASE spectra of PFO in oleic acid have been obtained using a transverse cavity configuration where the conjugated PFO was pumped by laser pulses from the third harmonic of Nd: YAG laser (355 nm). The PFO in oleic acid produces ASE from an exciplex state - a new molecular species. The obtained results were compared with the PFO in benzene. Such ASE spectra from the exciplex state have not been observed for the PFO in benzene.

  4. Conjugal transfer and characterization of bacteriocin plasmids in group N (lactic acid) streptococci.

    Neve, H.; Geis, A.; Teuber, M

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen bacteriocin-producing strains of group N (lactic acid) streptococci were screened for their potential to transfer this property by conjugation to Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis Bu2-60. Bacteriocin production in three strains was plasmid encoded as shown by conjugal transfer and by analysis of cured, bacteriocin-negative derivatives of the donor strains and the transconjugants. With Streptococcus cremoris strains 9B4 and 4G6 and S. lactis subsp. diacetylactis 6F7 as donors,...

  5. Improved procedure for the synthesis of glycine and taurine conjugates of bile acids

    Glycine and taurine conjugates of 5β-cholanic acids have been synthesized using improved procedures based on the peptide coupling reagent, N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline. The conjugates are obtained in chromatographically pure form in yields higher than 90%. The use of this procedure in the large scale preparation of cholyl[1,2-13C2]glycine is described

  6. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatgoat milk yogurts contain respectively 0.128-1.501, 0.405-1.250 and 0.433-0.976 g CLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  7. GSTP1-1 stereospecifically catalyzes glutathione conjugation of ethacrynic acid

    Iersel, M.L.P.S. van; Lipzig, M.M.H. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.; Bladeren, P.J. van

    1998-01-01

    Using 1H NMR two diastereoisomers of the ethacrynic acid glutathione conjugate (EASG) as well as ethacrynic acid (EA) could be distinguished and quantified individually. Chemically prepared EASG consists of equal amounts of both diastereoisomers. GSTP1-1 stereospecifically catalyzes formation of one

  8. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA...... productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows....

  9. Bioavailability of nanoemulsified conjugated linoleic acid for an antiobesity effect

    Kim D; Park JH; Kweon DJ; Han GD

    2013-01-01

    Dongyeop Kim,1,3* Jin-Hong Park,2* Dae-Jun Kweon,2 Gi Dong Han11Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Natural Resources, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea; 2BioHealth Convergence Center, Daegu Technopark, Daegu, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of conjugated lin...

  10. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  11. Synthesis and structural elucidation of glutathione and N-aceyl-cysteine conjugates of 5-aminosalicylic acid

    Jensen, J.; Cornett, Claus; Olsen, C. E.;

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) to be oxidized to a quinone monoimine compound capable of conjugating with nucleophilic compounds such as N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) has been investigated in vitro. Three isomeric conjugates of 5-ASA and NAC as well as three isomeric...... conjugates of 5-ASA and GSH were found to be formed. 5-ASA was initially oxidized by PbO2 in a solution of TRIS-HCl buffer pH 9.3 followed by the in situ addition of N-acetyl-cysteine or glutathione to the oxidized 5-ASA at pH 7.5. The resulting conjugates were N-acetylated at the aromatic amino group in...

  12. Study on synthesis and distribution in vivo of 5-Fu-cholic acid conjugate

    Jie Li; Li Hai; Wei Jia Liu; Xiao Chun Wu; Yong Wu

    2009-01-01

    A series of hepatic targeting drugs,5-Fu-cholic acid conjugate T1-T5,were synthesized.5-Fu and cholic acid was selected as starting material,after N-hydroxymethylation,condensation,hydrogenolysis to obtain carboxylated 5-Fu 5a--e.Carboxylated 5-Fu 5a--e were eondensated with intermediate 3-hydroxyethyl cholic acid benzyl ester 6 to get 7a-e,7a-e were deproteeted to get T1-T5.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  14. Fatty acid profile and proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells after conjugated linoleic acid supplementation

    Renner Lydia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are in focus of dairy cattle research because of its milk fat reducing effects. Little is known about the impact of CLA on immune function in dairy cows. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of a long term supplementation of dairy cows with CLA on the fatty acid profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and their proliferation ex vivo. Results The supplementation of dairy cows with either 100 g/d of a control fat preparation (CON, n = 15, 50 g/d of the control fat preparation and 50 g/d CLA supplement – containing 12.0% cis-9, trans-11 and 11.9% trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acid methyl esters – (CLA-50, n = 15 or 100 g/d of the CLA supplement (CLA-100, n = 16 did not influence the major fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14 C20:4 in the lipid fraction of PBMC. The proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acids was increased in both CLA supplemented groups, but there was no effect on the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. Furthermore, the proportion of trans-9 C18:1 and cis-12 C24:1 was reduced in the CLA-100 group. The mitogen stimulated cell proliferation was not influenced by CLA feeding. Conclusion CLA supplementation influenced the FA profile of some minor FA in PBMC, but these changes did not lead to differences in the mitogen induced activation of the cells.

  15. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and va...

  16. Identification and quantification of (dihydro) hydroxycinnamic acids and their conjugates in potato by UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (HCAcs) and dihydrohydroxycinamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs) were identified and quantified in potato tuber extracts by UHPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn. The HCAcs and DHCAcs identification took place by screening for product ions and neutral losses in combination with UV spectra. Thi

  17. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid inhibiting DNA repair damaged by x-ray

    Non-homologous end-joining is the most effective repair of DNA double strand break. Epidermal growth factor receptor activates DSB repairs. Integration of EGFR inhibitors with radiation or chemotherapy were used in lung cancer treatment. Radiosensitivity effect of conjugated linoleic acid on tumor cells and reduced metastasis are reported

  19. Intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of ursodeoxycholic acid and its taurine conjugate

    Rudolph, G; Kloeters-Plachky, P; Sauer, P; Stiehl, A

    2002-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) exert a protective effect in cholestatic liver diseases. A greater hepatoprotective effect of TUDCA has been suggested. Absorption appears to be a limiting factor and up to now has not been studied in man. Methods We studied ab

  20. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  1. Functionalization of Fatty Acid Vesicles through Newly Synthesized Bolaamphiphile-DNA Conjugates

    Wamberg, M. C.; Wieczorek, R.; Brier, S. B.; de Vries, J. W.; Kwak, M.; Herrmann, A.; Monnard, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    consists of a single hydrocarbon chain of 20 carbons having on one end a triazole group linked to the S'-phosphate of the nucleic acid and on the other side a hydroxyl-group. Its insertion was so effective that a fluorescent label on the DNA complementary to the conjugate could be used to visualize fatty...

  2. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    Sörhede Winzell, Maria; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistance mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E347-E354, 2006. First published September 27, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2005.-Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of ...

  3. Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system

    YI Dan; SUN Xiuqin; LI Guangyou; LIU Fayi; LIN Xuezheng; SHEN Jihong

    2009-01-01

    We compared four esterifiable enzymes. The lipase Novozym 435 possessed the highest activity for the conjugated linoleic acid esterification during the synthesis of triglycerides. The triglycerides were synthesized by esterification of glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a no-solvent system using lipase catalysis. We investigated the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration, water content, and time on esterification. Enzyme and water concentrations of up to 1% of the total reaction volume and a system temperature of 60°C proved optimal for esterification. Similarly, when the esterification was carried out for 24 h, the reaction ratio improved to 94.11%. The esterification rate of the rotating screen basket remained high (87.28%) when the enzyme was re-used for the 5th time. We evaluated the substrate selectivity of lipase (NOVO 435) and determined that this lipase prefers the 10,12-octadacadienoic acid to the 9,11-octadecadienoic acid.

  4. Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

    Liu, Runping; Zhao, Renping; Zhou, Xiqiao; Liang, Xiuyin; Campbell, Deanna JW; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; ZHANG, LUYONG; Shi, Ruihua; Wang, Guangji; Pandak, William M.; Sirica, Alphonse E.; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Zhou, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, ...

  5. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Yunsook Lim; Na-Young Park; Giuseppe Valacchi

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness e...

  6. Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Humans: Regulation of Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity1,2

    Brown, J. Mark; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)], have been studied extensively due to their ability to modulate cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, immune function and diabetes in a variety of experimental models. The purpose of this review was to examine CLA’s isomer-specific regulation of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in humans and in cultures of human adipocytes. It has been clearly demonstrated that specific CLA isomers or...

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid enrichment on the quality characteristics of Turkish dry fermented sausage

    Özer, Cem Okan; Kiliç, Birol

    2014-01-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment on lipid oxidation, the fatty acid profile, physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological features of sucuk were investigated. The control sucuk did not contain CLA, however, other groups contained 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, 2 %, 2.5 %, and 3 % CLA, respectively. The results indicated that CLA concentration was increased in sucuk with CLA addition (p 

  8. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Benjamin Sailas; Spener Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studi...

  9. Beef conjugated linoleic acid isomers reduce human cancer cell growth even when associated with other beef fatty acids

    De La Torre, Anne; Debiton, Eric; Juaneda, Pierre; Durand, Denis; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Bauchart, Dominique; Gruffat, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Although many data are available concerning anticarcinogenic effects of industrial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), few studies have reported the antitumour properties of CLA mixtures originating from ruminant products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antiproliferative effects of beef CLA mixtures on breast, lung, colon, melanoma and ovarian human cancer cell lines. For this purpose, four fatty acid (FA) extracts prepared from beef lipid and varying in their CLA co...

  10. Synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide conjugates of bile acids, and polymerase construction of bile acid-functionalized DNA.

    Ikonen, Satu; Macícková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Sanda, Miloslav; Hocek, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using Phusion polymerase for primer extension. One of the dNTPs (dCTP bearing cholic acid) was also efficient for PCR amplification. PMID:20165813

  11. Gelation of self-assembed bile acid-PEG conjugates

    Strandman, Satu; Le Devedec, Frantz; Zhu, X. X.

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of macromolecules and low-molar-mass compounds into elongated self-assemblies such as wormlike micelles, fibers, or tubules increases the viscosity of the solutions and often leads to gelation due to network formation, even in organic solvents. Such one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for drug delivery vehicles, packing materials for separation, templates for metal nanowires, biocides, and photo- or biocatalysis. An interesting group of compounds capable of this type of self-organization are bile acids, which are endogeneous steroids known to form gels at high concentrations and appropriate pH conditions. Grafting poly(ethylene oxide) on bile acids via anionic polymerization brings along thermoresponsiveness represented by lower critical solution temperature (LCST), while self-assembling occurs below another threshold temperature leading to a gelation at high concentrations, as shown by rheological experiments. The latter transition is assigned to the nanotube formation of pegylated bile acids, visualized by electron microscopy.

  12. Enhanced cellular delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-peptide nucleic acid conjugates by photochemical internalization

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been widely used for a cellular delivery of biologically relevant cargoes including antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs). Although chemical conjugation of PNA to a variety of CPPs significantly improves the cellular uptake of the PNAs, bioavailability...... (antisense activity) is still limited by endocytotic entrapment. We have shown that this low bioavailability can be greatly improved by combining CPP-PNA conjugate administration with a photochemical internalization technique using photosensitizers such as aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS(2a)) or...... cellular efficacy of CPP conjugates were evaluated by measuring luciferase activity as a result of splicing correction and was also confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of luciferase pre-mRNA....

  13. Hyaluronic acid based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines: In vitro effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Gaskarova, Aigul R; Khaybrakhmanova, Elvira A; Lukina, Elena S; Odinokov, Victor N

    2016-06-25

    In this study, water soluble hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines and hydrazides such as p- and o-aminophenols, anthranilic, 4- and 5-aminosalicylic acids, nicotinic, N-benzylnicotinic and isonicotinic hydrazides, p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (Streptocide), p-aminobenzoic acid diethylaminoethyl ester (Procaine), and 4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one (4-aminoantipyrene) were examined as matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitors (MMPIs). In a dose of 0.27-270μM, the most efficient MMPIs were HA conjugates with o-aminophenol=4-aminoantipyrine>4-aminosalicylic acid>5-aminosalicylic acid. Conjugates with Streptocide, Procaine and HA hydroxamate showed 40-50% inhibitory effect at all used concentrations. Conjugates with anthranilic acid and isonicotinic hydrazide (Isoniazid) in a dose of 0.27μM inhibited enzyme activity by ∼70%, but with the concentration increase their inhibitory effect was decreased. PMID:27083788

  14. Synthesis and cellular uptake of folic acid-conjugated cellulose nanocrystals for cancer targeting.

    Dong, Shuping; Cho, Hyung Joon; Lee, Yong Woo; Roman, Maren

    2014-05-12

    Elongated nanoparticles have recently been shown to have distinct advantages over spherical ones in targeted drug delivery applications. In addition to their oblong geometry, their lack of cytotoxicity and numerous surface hydroxyl groups make cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) promising drug delivery vectors. Herein we report the synthesis of folic acid-conjugated CNCs for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to folate receptor-positive cancer cells. Folate receptor-mediated cellular binding/uptake of the conjugate was demonstrated on human (DBTRG-05MG, H4) and rat (C6) brain tumor cells. Folate receptor expression of the cells was verified by immunofluorescence staining. Cellular binding/uptake of the conjugate by DBTRG-05MG, H4, and C6 cells was 1452, 975, and 46 times higher, respectively, than that of nontargeted CNCs. The uptake mechanism was determined by preincubation of the cells with the uptake inhibitors chlorpromazine or genistein. DBTRG-05MG and C6 cells internalized the conjugate primarily via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, whereas H4 cells internalized the conjugate primarily via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:24716601

  15. New conjugated hydroxydienoic fatty acids and acetotriacylglycerols from Securidaca longipedunculata seed oil.

    Smith, C R; Madrigal, R V; Plattner, R D

    1979-02-26

    Like other members of the plant family Polygalaceae, Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., is a source of fatty acids and triacylglycerols with unusual structures. Its seed oil contains at least seven chromatographically distinct groups of triacylglycerols divided into two series: One series represents monoacetotriacylglycerols, and the other 'normal' triacylglycerols having only long-chain fatty acids. Each series has groups containing zero, one or two conjugated hydroxydienoic acids. In addition, there is a small amount of triacylglycerol incorporating three hydroxy acids. In addition to coriolic (13-hydroxyoctadeca-cis-9,trans-11-dienoic) acid (27%), two of its previously unknown homologs are present: 11-hydroxyhexadeca-cis-7,trans-9-dienoic acid (15%) and 9-hydroxytetradeca-cis-5,trans-7-dienoic acid (2%). PMID:427179

  16. Folic acid conjugated ferritins as photosensitizer carriers for photodynamic therapy

    Zhen, Zipeng; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Weizhong; Xie, Jin

    2015-06-01

    We coupled folic acid as a tumour targeting ligand to the surface of ferritins and loaded them with ZnF16Pc. The resulting nanoconjugates can efficiently hone in on 4T1 tumours in vivo, and, with photoirradiation, leading to suppressed tumour growth and tumour metastasis.We coupled folic acid as a tumour targeting ligand to the surface of ferritins and loaded them with ZnF16Pc. The resulting nanoconjugates can efficiently hone in on 4T1 tumours in vivo, and, with photoirradiation, leading to suppressed tumour growth and tumour metastasis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experiments and ex vivo imaging results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01833a

  17. Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens.

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Rugmai, Supagorn; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Shigella flexneri B, are the major cause of diarrheal endemics worldwide. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. Therefore, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as gallic acid (GA), are needed. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used as drug delivery agents. This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP-GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. AuNP was conjugated with GA, and the core-shell structures were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity of AuNP-GA against P. shigelloides and S. flexneri B was evaluated by well diffusion method. AuNP-GA bactericidal mechanism was elucidated by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering showed that AuNP-GA conjugation was successful. Antibacterial activity of GA against both bacteria was improved by conjugation with AuNP because the minimum inhibitory concentration value of AuNP-GA was significantly decreased (P<0.0001) compared to that of GA. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that AuNP-GA resulted in alterations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids at the bacterial cell membrane. Our findings show that AuNP-GA has potential for further application in biomedical sciences. PMID:27555764

  18. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles*

    Liu, Pei; Shen, Sheng-rong; Ruan, Hui; ZHOU, Qian; Ma, Liu-liu; He, Guo-qing

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines. Of these isolates, lp15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 µg/ml of linoleic acid (LA). Compa...

  19. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  20. The effect of the dietary constituent conjugated linoleic acid and homocysteine on vascular endothelial cell function

    Coen, Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between circulating dietary constituents and the vascular endothelial monolayer is vital to the proper maintenance o f vascular homeostatic mechanisms, such as vasoregulation. Endothelial dysfunction with subsequent loss of vasoregulatory function are implicated in the early stages of atherosclerosis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and homocysteine are dietary constituents that have been implicated in the aetiology of atherosclerosis. CLA is the collective term used for po...

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz; Marcelo Wladimir Alonzo; Manuel Delgado Pertíñez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1) grazing based systems (Los Lagos region); and 2) housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR) diets (Los...

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  3. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  4. Isomer specificity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 9E,11E-CLA

    Lee, Yunkyoung

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were identified in 1980's, since then it has been intensively studied due to its various beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic/obesity effects. Isomer specificity of a number of CLA isomers, especially predominant isomer 9Z,11E- and 10E,12Z-CLA, is now recognized. However, the less prevalent CLA isomers have not been well characterized. Recently, studies have reported the distinctively differe...

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  6. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos; Margaret Rae; Sylvia Soldatou; Yuanqing Ding; Wolff, Carsten W.; Grace McCormack; Coleman, Christina M.; Daneel Ferreira; Deniz Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited mode...

  7. Influence of a dry fractionation of butterfat on the content of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids

    Rehberger, Brita; Bütikofer, Ueli; Bisig, Walter; Collomb, Marius

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing demand among consumers for food products with natural nutritional-physiological advantages over comparable conventional products. As part of an EU project, a process using dry fractionation is evaluated that enables the targeted lowinput enrichment of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in milk fat. Furthermore, the distribution of CLA isomers in the fat fractions was analysed. In the olein fraction for highland butter a CLA enrichment of 15.3% was obtained. The yield of the...

  8. Design of Ru-zeolites for hydrogen-free production of conjugated linoleic acids.

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Vermandel, Walter; Tromp, Moniek; Turner, Stuart; Geboers, Jan; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    While conjugated vegetable oils are currently used as additives in the drying agents of oils and paints, they are also attractive molecules for making bio-plastics. Moreover, conjugated oils will soon be accepted as nutritional additives for "functional food" products. While current manufacture of conjugated vegetable oils or conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) uses a homogeneous base as isomerisation catalyst, a heterogeneous alternative is not available today. This contribution presents the direct production of CLAs over Ru supported on different zeolites, varying in topology (ZSM-5, BETA, Y), Si/Al ratio and countercation (H(+), Na(+), Cs(+)). Ru/Cs-USY, with a Si/Al ratio of 40, was identified as the most active and selective catalyst for isomerisation of methyl linoleate (cis-9,cis-12 (C18:2)) to CLA at 165 °C. Interestingly, no hydrogen pre-treatment of the catalyst or addition of hydrogen donors is required to achieve industrially relevant isomerisation productivities, namely, 0.7 g of CLA per litre of solvent per minute. Moreover, the biologically most active CLA isomers, namely, cis-9,trans-11, trans-10,cis-12 and trans-9,trans-11, were the main products, especially at low catalyst concentrations. Ex situ physicochemical characterisation with CO chemisorption, extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements, transmission electron microscopy analysis, and temperature-programmed oxidation reveals the presence of highly dispersed RuO(2) species in Ru/Cs-USY(40). PMID:21506286

  9. N-Acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets

    Connor, Mark; Vaughan, Chris W; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad functions of lipids as signalling molecules is one of the most interesting fields in contemporary pharmacology, with a host of compounds recognized as mediators of communication within and between cells. The N-acyl conjugates of amino acids and neurotransmitters (NAANs) have recently come to prominence because of their potential roles in the nervous system, vasculature and the immune system. NAAN are compounds such as glycine, GABA or dopamine conjugated with long chain fatty acids...

  10. Sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates from the Irish marine sponge Polymastia boletiformis.

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-04-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  11. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  12. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W.; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M.; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  13. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty aci...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  14. Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens

    Rattanata N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Narintorn Rattanata,1 Sompong Klaynongsruang,1 Chanvit Leelayuwat,2 Temduang Limpaiboon,2 Aroonlug Lulitanond,2 Patcharee Boonsiri,3 Sirinart Chio-Srichan,4 Siriwat Soontaranon,4 Supagorn Rugmai,4 Jureerut Daduang2 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 4Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand Abstract: Foodborne pathogens, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Shigella flexneri B, are the major cause of diarrheal endemics worldwide. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. Therefore, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as gallic acid (GA, are needed. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are used as drug delivery agents. This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP–GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. AuNP was conjugated with GA, and the core–shell structures were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity of AuNP–GA against P. shigelloides and S. flexneri B was evaluated by well diffusion method. AuNP–GA bactericidal mechanism was elucidated by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering showed that AuNP–GA conjugation was successful. Antibacterial activity of GA against both bacteria was improved by conjugation with AuNP because the minimum inhibitory concentration value of AuNP–GA was significantly decreased (P<0.0001 compared to that of GA. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that AuNP–GA resulted in alterations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids at the bacterial cell membrane. Our findings show that AuNP–GA has potential for further application in biomedical sciences.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, gallic acid

  15. Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic Acid in foods: a technological challenge.

    Gorissen, Lara; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc; De Smet, Stefaan; Raes, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers are present in foods derived from ruminants as a result of the respective linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) metabolism by ruminal microorganisms and in animals' tissues. CLA and CLNA have isomer-specific, health-promoting properties, including anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activity, as well as the ability to reduce body fat. Besides ruminal microorganisms, such as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, many food-grade bacteria, such as bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and propionibacteria, are able to convert LA and LNA to CLA and CLNA, respectively. Linoleate isomerase activity, responsible for this conversion, is strain-dependent and probably related to the ability of the producer strain to tolerate the toxic effects of LA and LNA. Since natural concentrations of CLA and CLNA in ruminal food products are relatively low to exert their health benefits, food-grade bacteria with linoleate isomerase activity could be used as starter or adjunct cultures to develop functional fermented dairy and meat products with increased levels of CLA and CLNA or included in fermented products as probiotic cultures. However, results obtained so far are below expectations due to technological bottlenecks. More research is needed to assess if bacterial production kinetics can be increased and can match food processing requirements. PMID:24915316

  16. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic and alpha linolenic fatty acids into Pimedolus maculatus fillets

    Ana Beatriz Zanqui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of Pimedolus maculatus fillets of fish fed with different diets. The fish were submitted to an adaptation period (over 30 days and fed only a control diet (diet I. After this period, the fish were divided into two groups: one group received a diet enriched with flaxseed oil (diet II, and the other received a diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (diet III. Subsequent collections were undertaken after 25 and 50 days. Compared to the control samples, fish fed diet II showed an increase in concentrations of total fatty acid omega-3 (n-3 in the fillets, with an improvement ratio of n-6/n-3. The incorporation of CLA into fish fed diet III was successful. Supplementing the diet of Pimedolus maculatus with CLA and flaxseed oil led to improvements in nutritional quality and fatty acid profile of the fish fillets.

  17. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    Bee, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    Influence de l'apport des acides linoléiques conjugués dans l'alimentation sur la composition des tissus adipeux et la lipogenèse de novo chez les porcs en finition. Plusieurs travaux ont révélé que les acides linoléiques conjugués (conjugated linoleic acids : CLA) ont une influence importante sur le métabolisme des lipides et des protéines. En revanche, les effets des CLA sur le profil des acides gras dans les tissus adipeux chez le porc sont peu connus. Dans cette étude, nous avons détermin...

  18. Interaction of conjugated bile acids and detergents with a radiosorbent assay of vitamin B-12

    The effect of conjugated bile acids and detergents on the radiosorbent technique for the determination of vitamin B-12 activity is reported. It is shown that whereas the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 has no effect on the vitamin B-12-radiosorbent assay, the addition of ionic detergents, e.g. glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid or sodium lauryl sulfate, results in a falsely-elevated vitamin B-12 activity presumably due to the disruption of the binding of vitamin B-12 to the intrinsic factor-Sephadex complex. This effect may be of importance not only to the radiosorbent assaying of vitamin B-12, but to the in vivo intestinal absorption of vitamin B-12 as well

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice.

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Condlin, Michelle L; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation significantly prevented ovariectomy-associated weight and fat mass gain, compared to non-supplemented controls. CLA significantly increased bone markers without major changes in bone mineral composition in the femur compared to respective controls. CLA treatment increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly (p=0.0172), while serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was not changed by CLA. Meanwhile, CLA significantly reduced femur tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, suggesting potential reduction of osteoclastogenesis. The data suggest that CLA, along with dietary calcium, has great potential to be used to prevent bone loss and weight gain associated with menopause. PMID:23578644

  20. The Conjugates of Phenolic Acids in Lichens of the Order Lecanorales

    T. N. NIKOLAEVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an ascomycete and a photobiont, which may be an alga and/or a cyanobacterium. Lichens dominate on about 6–8% of land surface, mainly in the habitats with severe climatic conditions. Lichenized fungi are among the pioneer vegetation on bare rock or soil. Mat-forming species contribute substantially to the soil cover in tundras and high mountain elevations. Lichens are rich in water-soluble compounds which can be leached-out the lichen thalli with atmospheric depositions. We have recently described the occurrence of water-soluble phenolics in lichens (Zagoskina et al 2013. These compounds can play important role in the ecosystem functioning and primary soil formation (weathering, humification. The aim of this work was to study qualitative composition of water-soluble phenolics in the lichen species widespread in the soil cover of tundra zone. The air-dried thalli of Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria islandica, C.nigricans, C.nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula and C.stellaris were homogenized to powder and used for the study. Lichens were collected in Khibiny mountains, Kola Peninsula in August 2013. Phenolic compounds were extracted by distilled water (1h, 30C and analyzed by TLC before and after the acid hydrolysis. It was found that all the lichens under the study contained the conjugates of phenol carboxylic acids. We have identified that non-phenolic part in some of these conjugates was represented by sugars and amino acids. The TLC of the hydrolizates of water extracts revealed occurrence of p-oxybenzoic acid in all of the species studied. The lichens Cetraria islandica, С.nigricans and Cladonia stellaris contained also vanillic acid. These phenolic acids are widespread in plant kingdom and are known as products of lignin decomposition in higher plants. The physiological role of water-soluble phenolics in lichens as well as their environmental role are need to be understood in future studies.

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and dairy cows: metabolism, reproduction and products quality

    Esposito, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate in dairy cows the effects of the supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, as natural feed (pasture) or as additive (CLA rumen protected), on quality of dairy products and on cow metabolism and reproduction. In the first experiment three farms of the Alta Irpina area, (Campania region, Italy) were surveyed focusing on three main features 1.00 2.00 3.00 In the farms surveyed, cows’ requirements were seldom met due to the poor q...

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Mast Cell Recruitment during Mouse Mammary Gland Stromal Remodeling12

    Russell, Joshua S.; McGee, Sibel Oflazoglu; Ip, Margot M.; Kuhlmann, Dietrich; Masso-Welch, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary chemopreventive agent that induces apoptosis in the mammary adipose vascular endothelium and decreases mammary brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). To determine onset and extent of stromal remodeling, we fed CD2F1/Cr mice diets supplemented with 1 or 2 g/100 g mixed CLA isomers for 1–7 wk. BAT loss, collagen deposition, and leukocyte recruitment occurred in the mouse mammary fat pad, coincident with an increase in parenchymal-a...

  3. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimen...

  4. Production of phosphatidylcholine containing conjugated linoleic acid mediated by phospholipase A2

    Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Esterification of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was carried out using porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2). PLA2 only slightly synthesized phosphatidylcholine containing CLA (CLA-PC) at 2.6% by the addition of water. Addition of formamide in place of water markedly increased the yield of CLA-PC. In addition, synthesis of CLA-PC by PLA2 was affected by the amount of substrate CLA and PLA2 in the reaction system. Under optimal reaction conditions using ...

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  6. Nitrite Treatment Rescues Cardiac Dysfunction in Aged Mice Treated with Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Piell, Kellianne M.; Kelm, Natia Qipshidze; Caroway, Megan P.; Aman, Masarath; Cole, Marsha P.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (cLA) is a commercially available weight loss supplement that is not currently regulated by the FDA. Numerous studies suggest that cLA mediates protection in diseases including cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, immune function, and obesity. Based upon these reports, it was hypothesized that supplementation of cLA would improve heart function in aged wild-type (WT) mice. At 10 months of age, mice were treated with cLA, nitrite, or the combination of the two. Echocardi...

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 in hearts of mice

    Zhang Jize; Li Defa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Results from different trails have provided evidence of protective effects of cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiovascular diseases. But the inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1) associated with induction of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) by CLA in these protective effects has never been reported before. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the two predominant cis-9,trans-11 (c9, t11), trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12) CLA isomers and mixture of...

  8. Peptide nucleic acid-anthraquinone conjugates: strand invasion and photoinduced cleavage of duplex DNA.

    Armitage, B.; T. Koch; Frydenlund, H; Orum, H; Batz, H G; Schuster, G B

    1997-01-01

    A bis-peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-anthraquinone imide (AQI) conjugate has been synthesized and shown to form strand invasion complexes with a duplex DNA target. The two arms of the bis-PNA each consist of five consecutive thymine residues and are linked by a flexible, hydrophilic spacer. Probing with potassium permanganate reveals that the bis-PNA complexes to duplex DNA at A5.T5sites with local displacement of the T5DNA strand. The 5 bp sequence targeted by the PNA is the shortest strand inva...

  9. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  10. Improved cellular uptake of antisense Peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cell-penetrating Peptide and a lipid domain

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    peptides known as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is attracting wide attention for a variety of biologically active molecules. CPP-mediated delivery is typically based on the covalent conjugation of the (therapeutic) cargo to CPPs, and is particularly relevant for the delivery of noncharged RNA...... interference agents such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and morpholino oligomers. Although chemical conjugation to a variety of CPPs significantly improves the cellular uptake of PNAs, the bioavailability (and hence antisense activity) of CPP-PNA -conjugates is still highly limited by endocytotic entrapment...

  11. Shortcut Access to Peptidosteroid Conjugates: Building Blocks for Solid-Phase Bile Acid Scaffold Decoration by Convergent Ligation

    Sara Figaroli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present three versatile solid-supported scaffold building blocks based on the (deoxycholic acid framework and decorated with handles for further derivatization by modern ligation techniques such as click chemistry, Staudinger ligation or native chemical ligation. Straightforward procedures are presented for the synthesis and analysis of the steroid constructs. These building blocks offer a new, facile and shorter access route to bile acid-peptide conjugates on solid-phase with emphasis on heterodipodal conjugates with defined spatial arrangements. As such, we provide versatile new synthons to the toolbox for bile acid decoration.

  12. Synthesis of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates designed for photo-CIDNP experiments by a phosphotriester approach

    Tatyana V. Abramova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugates of 2’-deoxyguanosine, L-tryptophan and benzophenone designed to study pathways of fast radical reactions by the photo Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (photo-CIDNP method were obtained by the phosphotriester block liquid phase synthesis. The phosphotriester approach to the oligonucleotide synthesis was shown to be a versatile and economic strategy for preparing the required amount of high quality samples of nucleotide–amino acid conjugates.

  13. STEAROYL-COA DESATURASE GENE TRANSCRIPTION, mRNA, AND ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO TRANS-VACCENIC ACID AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ISOMERS

    Lin, Xiaobo

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate: 1) desaturation of dietary trans-vaccenic acid (TVA, trans11-18:1) to the cis9,trans11-18:2 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (9/11CLA), 2) effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers [9/11CLA or trans10,cis12-18:2 (10/12CLA)] and TVA on enzyme activities and mRNA abundance for lipogenic enzymes, and 3) regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene transcription. In the first study, lactating mice were fed 3% linoleic acid (LA...

  14. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding m

  15. Conjugal transfer and characterization of bacteriocin plasmids in group N (lactic acid) streptococci.

    Neve, H; Geis, A; Teuber, M

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen bacteriocin-producing strains of group N (lactic acid) streptococci were screened for their potential to transfer this property by conjugation to Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis Bu2-60. Bacteriocin production in three strains was plasmid encoded as shown by conjugal transfer and by analysis of cured, bacteriocin-negative derivatives of the donor strains and the transconjugants. With Streptococcus cremoris strains 9B4 and 4G6 and S. lactis subsp. diacetylactis 6F7 as donors, bacteriocin-producing transconjugants were isolated with frequencies ranging from ca. 2 X 10(-2) to 2 X 10(-1) per recipient cell. Bacteriocin-producing transconjugants had acquired a 39.6-megadalton plasmid from the donor strains 9B4 and 4G6, and a 75-megadalton plasmid from the donor strain 6F7. As shown by restriction endonuclease analysis, the plasmids from strains 9B4 and 4G6 were almost identical. The plasmid from strain 6F7 yielded some additional fragments not present in the two other plasmids. In hybridization experiments any of the three plasmids strongly hybridized with each other and with some other bacteriocin but nontransmissible plasmids from other S. cremoris strains. Homology was also detected to a variety of cryptic plasmids in lactic acid streptococci. Images PMID:6321437

  16. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    ,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within......Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  17. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  18. Research advance of conjugated linoleic acids%共轭亚油酸研究进展

    谷利伟; 赵金兰

    2001-01-01

    Conjugated linoletic acids were naturally occured isomers of linoleic acid, which were new functional lipids possessing many physiological benefits including anticarcinogenesis, antioxidant, inhibition of body fat accumulation, growth and immune stimulation. Their physiological effects, resource and preparation were reviewed.%共轭亚油酸是天然存在于食品中的亚油酸异构体,具有抗癌、抗氧化、降低血清胆固醇、抑制脂肪积累、促进生长、刺激免疫等作用,是一种新的保键功能脂质。本文对其生理功能、来源等研究情况进行论述。

  19. Conjugates of 1'-Aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic Acid and Proline: Synthesis, Conformational Analysis and Biological Evaluation

    Monika Kovačević

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that alteration of dipeptides Y-Fca-Ala-OMe (III into Y-Ala-Fca-OMe (IV (Y = Ac, Boc; Fca = 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid significantly influenced their conformational space. The novel bioconjugates Y-Fca-Pro-OMe (1, Y = Ac; 2, Y = Boc and Y-Pro-Fca-OMe (3, Y = Boc; 4, Y = Ac have been prepared in order to investigate the influence of proline, a well-known turn-inducer, on the conformational properties of small organometallic peptides with an exchanged constituent amino acid sequences. For this purpose, peptides 1–4 were subjected to detailed spectroscopic analysis (IR, NMR, CD spectroscopy in solution. The conformation of peptide 3 in the solid state was determined. Furthermore, the ability of the prepared conjugates to inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-responsive MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was tested.

  20. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. PMID:27188898

  1. Improved cellular activity of antisense peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cationic peptide-lipid (CatLip) domain

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Zachar, Vladimir; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    and therefore mechanisms that promote endosomal escape (or avoid the endosomal route) are required for improving bioavailability. A variety of auxiliary agents (chloroquine, calcium ions, or lipophilic photosensitizers) has this effect, but improved, unaided delivery would be highly advantageous in...... particular for future in vivo applications. We find that simply conjugating a lipid domain (fatty acid) to the cationic peptide (a CatLip conjugate) increases the biological effect of the corresponding PNA (CatLip) conjugates in a luciferase cellular antisense assay up to 2 orders of magnitude. The effect...... increases with increasing length of the fatty acid (C8-C16) but in parallel also results in increased cellular toxicity, with decanoic acid being optimal. Furthermore, the relative enhancement is significantly higher for Tat peptide compared to oligoarginine. Confocal microscopy and chloroquine enhancement...

  2. In Vitro Investigation of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates for Controlled Release Doxorubicin: Effect of Degree of Substitution of Deoxycholic Acid

    Wen-Hao Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS of deoxycholic acid (DOCA were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE, which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin–mediated cancer therapy.

  3. Investigations into the choice of immunogen, ligand, antiserum and assay conditions for the radioimmunoassay of conjugated cholic acid

    Investigations into the choice of immunogen, ligand, antiserum and assay conditions for the radioimmunoassay of conjugated cholic acid have been performed with a view to producing optimal assay conditions. Cholic acid-BSA was found to be the best immunogen to produce antibodies to conjugated cholic acid and the response was of an IgG type. Incorporating a spacer (hexanoic acid) between hapten and carrier protein resulted in a decrease in antiserum titre. Optimal conditions for the assay were found using [125I]histamine-glycocholic acid as ligand with a dilution of antiserum to produce 60% binding of ligand and a pH of 7.4. Using these assay conditions no serum effects were found; extraction of serum prior to assay was therefore unnecessary. The assay was sensitive enough to detect post-prandial increases in serum bile acid concentrations following a liquid test meal; no increase was observed throughout the same time period in a fasting control. (Auth.)

  4. Fabrication of conductive NGF-conjugated polypyrrole-poly(l-lactic acid) fibers and their effect on neurite outgrowth.

    Zeng, Jingwen; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu; Qin, Jiabang; Chen, Xianchun; Gu, Jianwen

    2013-10-01

    In order to fabricate a tissue scaffold with the neurotrophic and electrical activities, conductive nerve growth factor (NGF)-conjugated polypyrrole-poly(l-lactic acid) (PPy-PLLA) composite fibers were prepared by oxidation polymerization and EDC chemistry with poly-l-lysine. PPy nanoparticles (∼70nm diameter) accumulated on PLLA fiber surface to form a rough thick shell (∼200nm thickness). These NGF-conjugated PPy-PLLA fibers could support PC12 neurite outgrowth and extension. Especially, 40% and 74% increase in PC12 neurite outgrowth and extension, respectively, could be obtained under electrical stimulation of 100mV/cm voltages through the composite fibers. A mechanism for the interaction between neurite extension and the NGF-conjugated PPy-PLLA fibers under electro-stimulation was proposed, to explain the synergistic effect of the rough PPy shell, conjugated NGF and electricity on neurite outgrowth and elongation. PMID:23759386

  5. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  7. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  8. De novo synthesis of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia Lipolytica

    Zhang Baixi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has many well-documented beneficial physiological effects. Due to the insufficient natural supply of CLA and low specificity of chemically produced CLA, an effective and isomer-specific production process is required for medicinal and nutritional purposes. Results The linoleic acid isomerase gene from Propionibacterium acnes was expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica Polh. Codon usage optimization of the PAI and multi-copy integration significantly improved the expression level of PAI in Y. lipolytica. The percentage of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was six times higher in yeast carrying the codon-optimized gene than in yeast carrying the native gene. In combination with multi-copy integration, the production yield was raised to approximately 30-fold. The amount of trans-10, cis-12 CLA reached 5.9% of total fatty acid yield in transformed Y. lipolytica. Conclusions This is the first report of production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA by the oleaginous yeast Y. lipolytica, using glucose as the sole carbon source through expression of linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes.

  9. Punicic acid a conjugated linolenic acid inhibits TNFalpha-induced neutrophil hyperactivation and protects from experimental colon inflammation in rats.

    Tarek Boussetta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils play a major role in inflammation by releasing large amounts of ROS produced by NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO. The proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha primes ROS production through phosphorylation of the NADPH-oxidase subunit p47phox on Ser345. Conventional anti-inflammatory therapies remain partially successful and may have side effects. Therefore, regulation of neutrophil activation by natural dietary components represents an alternative therapeutic strategy in inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic fatty acid from pomegranate seed oil on TNFalpha-induced neutrophil hyperactivation in vitro and on colon inflammation in vivo. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the effect of punicic acid on TNFalpha-induced neutrophil upregulation of ROS production in vitro and on TNBS-induced rat colon inflammation. Results show that punicic acid inhibited TNFalpha-induced priming of ROS production in vitro while preserving formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced response. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of Ser345-p47phox phosphorylation and upstream kinase p38MAPK. Punicic acid also inhibited fMLP- and TNFalpha+fMLP-induced MPO extracellular release from neutrophils. In vivo experiments showed that punicic acid and pomegranate seed oil intake decreased neutrophil-activation and ROS/MPO-mediated tissue damage as measured by F2-isoprostane release and protected rats from TNBS-induced colon inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that punicic acid exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of TNFalpha-induced priming of NADPH oxidase by targeting the p38MAPKinase/Ser345-p47phox-axis and MPO release. This natural dietary compound may provide a novel alternative therapeutic strategy in inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases.

  10. An oil mixture with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid increases markers of inflammation and in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in postmenopausal women

    Tholstrup, Tine; Raff, Marianne; Straarup, Ellen Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixture) reduced atherosclerosis in animals, thus the effect of these isomers on endothelial dysfunctions leading to inflammation and atherosclerosis is of interest. We gave 75 healthy postmenopausal...

  11. Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.

    Shen, Wan; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-07-17

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism. However, causality of CLA-mediated responses to body fat loss, particularly the linkage between inflammation, thermogenesis, and energy metabolism, is unclear. This review examines whether CLA's antiobesity properties are due to inflammatory signaling and considers CLA's linkage with lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, and browning of white and brown adipose tissue. We propose a series of questions and studies to interrogate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating CLA's antiobesity properties. PMID:27431366

  12. Enabling the Tablet Product Development of 5-Fluorocytosine by Conjugate Acid Base Cocrystals.

    Perumalla, Sathyanarayana R; Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan C

    2016-06-01

    5-Fluorocytosine (FC) is a high-dose antifungal drug that challenges the development of a tablet product due to poor solid-state stability and tabletability. Using 2 pharmaceutically acceptable conjugate acid base (CAB) cocrystals of FC with HCl and acesulfame, we have developed commercially viable high loading FC tablets. The tablets were prepared by direct compression using nano-coated microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH105 as a tablet binder, which provided both excellent tabletability and good flowability. Commercial manufacturability of formulations based on both CAB cocrystals was verified on a compaction simulator. The results from an expedited friability study were used to set the compaction force, which yielded tablets with sufficient mechanical strength and rapid tablet disintegration. This work demonstrates the potential value of CAB cocrystals in drug product development. PMID:27238493

  13. 共轭亚油酸:防癌食品%Conjugated Linoleic Acid: New Anticancer Ingredient

    王光文

    2001-01-01

    迄今的研究结果表明,共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid CLA)对人体健康有利,天然的优质CLA主要来源于反刍家畜乳和肉的脂肪.改进各种CLA的分析方法,可进一步解明CLA异构体的生理作用.因为乳和肉中发现的CLA对人的健康有利,所以消费者对牛乳、牛肉产生很大的兴趣.有必要对其进行长期的研究.

  14. Weight gain and psychiatric treatment: is there as role for green tea and conjugated linoleic acid?

    Marcus Madalyn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary supplement use is widespread in developed nations. In particular, patients who utilize mental health services also report frequent consumption of dietary supplements, often in relation to management of adverse events and specifically weight gain. Weight gain induced by psychotropic medications can further compound psychological distress and negatively influence compliance. Here we report on four cases of social anxiety disorder treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. Self-administration of conjugated linoleic acid and green tea extract may have influenced objective anthropomorphic measurements; each patient had an unexpected decrease in total body fat mass, a decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in lean body mass. Since weight gain is a common and undesirable side-effect with psychiatric medications, our observation strongly suggests the need for controlled clinical trials using these agents.

  15. Enhanced cellular uptake of protoporphyrine IX/linolenic acid-conjugated spherical nanohybrids for photodynamic therapy.

    Lee, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has wide applications in photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in many human diseases. However, poor water solubility and cancer cell localization limit its direct application for PDT. We improved the water-solubility and cellular internalization of PpIX to enhance PDT efficacy by developing biocompatible PpIX/linolenic acid-conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PPLA) nanohybrids. The resulting PPLA nanohybrids exhibited a quasi-spherical shape with a size of laser irradiation was detected by photoluminescence emission. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis displayed higher cellular internalization of PPLA compared with free PpIX. In addition, PPLA nanohybrids exhibited significantly reduced dark-toxicity and a high phototoxicity mostly because of apoptotic cell death against human gastric cancer cells. These results imply that the PPLA nanohybrid system may be applicable in PDT. PMID:26954084

  16. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  17. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14C or 3H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14C- or 3H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  18. Production of conjugated linoleic acids by Lactobacillusplantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented Chinese pickles

    Pei LIU; Sheng-rong SHEN; Hui RUAN; Qian ZHOU; Liu-liu MA; Guo-qing HE

    2011-01-01

    Naturally fermented pickles harbour many lactic acid bacteria (LAB).Forty-three LAB strains with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability were isolated from three naturally fermented pickle brines.Of these isolates,Ip15 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by API 50 CHL system and full-length 16S rDNA sequence analysis exhibited the highest CLA-producing ability (26.1% conversion) at 48 h in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth in the presence of 100 μg/ml of linoleic acid (LA).Compared to other strains,L.plantarum strain Ip15 showed the highest tolerance upon increased levels of LA in the medium,I.e.,up to 600 pg/ml.This strain converted about 25% of LA into CLA isomers [predominantly cis-9,trans-11 CLA (9-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (10-CLA)],of which 75% was 9-CLA.Interestingly,though the conversion rate of LA into CLA by Ip15 remained stable between 100 to 600 μg/ml LA levels in the medium,it dropped sharply at 1000 μg/ml.Taken together,the Ip15 strain displayed relatively high LA tolerance with higher conversion rate,which implies that this strain is a valuable candidate for enhancing the CLA content in food-sources like pickles.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid and fatty acid binding protein as antioxidants Ácido linoleico conjugado y proteína transportadora de ácidos grasos como antioxidantes

    V.A. Piergiacomi; Palacios, A.

    2006-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and rat liver cytosolic protein enriched in fatty acid binding protein (FABP) on the non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was more evident when the FABP containing fraction obtained from CLA-group was used with either kind of microsomes (CLA and control). The chemiluminescence and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of rat liver microsomes changed aft...

  20. Upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver fatty acid binding protein in hepatic cells of broiler chicken supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Y. Meng; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Since conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has structural and physiological characteristics similar to peroxisome proliferators, it is hypothesized that CLA would upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) in the liver of broiler chicken. The aim of the present study was to determine fatty acid composition of liver in CLA-fed broiler chickens and the genes associated with hepatic lipid metabolism. A total of 180-day-old broiler chicks w...

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and selenium (Se) content of meat of rabbits fed diets enriched with CLA and Se

    Marounek, Milan; Dokoupilová, A.; Skřivanová, V.; Berladyn, A.

    Maringá, 2006, s. 1-5. [3rd Rabbit Congress of the Americas. Maringá (BR), 21.08.2006-23.08.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : conjugated linoleic acid * selenium Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition

  2. Non-covalent conjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid for interaction with cells overexpressing folate receptors

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Novoa, Leidy V.;

    2013-01-01

    We here present amethod to form a noncovalent conjugate of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid aimed to interact with cells over-expressing folate receptors. The bonding was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple, rapid “one pot” synthesis method. The zeta p...

  3. Accurate pKa Calculation of the Conjugate Acids of Alkanolamines, Alkaloids and Nucleotide Bases by Quantum Chemical Methods

    Gangarapu, S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2013-01-01

    The pKa of the conjugate acids of alkanolamines, neurotransmitters, alkaloid drugs and nucleotide bases are calculated with density functional methods (B3LYP, M08-HX and M11-L) and ab initio methods (SCS-MP2, G3). Implicit solvent effects are included with a conductor-like polarizable continuum mode

  4. Advance in conjugated linoleic acid glycerides%共轭亚油酸甘油酯的研究进展

    田玉霞; 苗榕宸; 杨丹白; 贺艾; 武言生

    2015-01-01

    共轭亚油酸甘油酯的合成方法主要有化学合成法与酶催化合成法,分离与纯化方法主要有超临界CO2萃取法与分子蒸馏法。对共轭亚油酸甘油酯的合成方法、分离与纯化、储存稳定性方面的研究进展进行了综述。指出开发一种绿色环保、成本低的共轭亚油酸甘油酯合成新方法很有必要。%The main synthesis methods of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides are chemical method and enzymat-ic method and the separation and purification methods of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides include supercriti-cal CO2 extraction and molecular distillation. The synthesis, separation and purification and storage stability of conjugated linoleic acid glycerides were summerized. It was proposed that it was necessary to develop an envi-ronmental protecting and low cost method for synthesizing conjugated linoleic acid glycerides.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, a probiotic strain with high conjugated linoleic acid production ability.

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Haiqin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 was isolated from sauerkraut and identified to synthesize the beneficial metabolite conjugated linoleic acid. The genome contains a 319,7363-bp chromosome and three plasmids. The sequence will facilitate identification and characterization of the genetic determinants for its putative biological benefits. PMID:26439428

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2004-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglycer...

  7. Synthesis and antiulcer activity evaluation of conjugates of amino acids with N-aroyl- N, N'-dicyclohexyl urea

    Subudhi Bharat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amino acids are safe molecules with variable efficacy against ulceration. Considering the good antioxidant potential of N-aroyl- N, N'-dicyclohexyl urea and antiulcer activities of amino acids, a series of amino acid conjugates of N-aroyl- N, N'-dicyclohexyl urea was synthesized and the effect against ulceration in albino rats induced by pyloric ligation was screened. All these compounds were found to be safe and active. Reduction of ulcer index was significant for all compounds. Conjugates of methionine and histidine exhibited enhanced antiulcer activity comparable to omeprazole in terms of inhibition of release of gastric juice, hydrochloric acid and neutralization activity. The promising efficacy and safety of these compounds is interesting for further investigation.

  8. Hybrid fluorescent nanoparticles fabricated from pyridine-functionalized polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer as reversible pH probes over a broad range of acidity-alkalinity

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were developed based on a polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer with thiophene units carrying pyridyl moieties incorporated in the backbone of polymer chains (PFPyT). Hybrid CPNs fabricated from PFPyT and an amphiphilic polymer (NP1) displayed pH-sensitive fluorescence emission features in the range from pH 4.8 to 13, which makes them an attractive nanomaterial for wide range optical sensing of pH values. The fluorescence of hybrid CPNs based on chemically close polyfluorene derivatives without pyridyl moieties (NP3), in contrast, remains virtually unperturbed by pH values in the same range. The fluorescence emission features of NP1 underwent fully reversible changes upon alternating acidification/basification of aqueous dispersions of the CPNs and also displayed excellent repeatability. The observed pH sensing properties of NP1 are attributed to protonation/deprotonation of the nitrogen atoms of the pyridine moieties. This, in turn, leads to the redistribution of electron density of pyridine moieties and their participation in the π-conjugation within the polymer main chains. The optically transparent amphiphilic polymers also exerted significant influence on the pH sensing features of the CPNs, likely by acting as proton sponge and/or acid chaperone. (author)

  9. Folic Acid Conjugated δ-Valerolactone-Poly(ethylene glycol) Based Triblock Copolymer as a Promising Carrier for Targeted Doxorubicin Delivery

    Nair K, Lekha; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Nair S, Asha; Kumar, G. S. Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the newly synthesized poly(δ-valerolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(δ-valerolactone) (VEV) copolymer grafted with folic acid would impart targetability and further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX). Here, folic acid conjugated VEV (VEV-FOL) was synthesized by a modified esterification method and characterized using IR and NMR. DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles were synthesized using a novel solvent evaporation method and wer...

  10. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Human Adipocyte Delipidation: AUTOCRINE/PARACRINE REGULATION OF MEK/ERK SIGNALING BY ADIPOCYTOKINES*

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu; Fabiyi, Olowatoyin; Ron F Morrison; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh1, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated recepto...

  11. Toxicity of Carboxylic Acid-Containing Drugs: The Role of Acyl Migration and CoA Conjugation Investigated.

    Lassila, Toni; Hokkanen, Juho; Aatsinki, Sanna-Mari; Mattila, Sampo; Turpeinen, Miia; Tolonen, Ari

    2015-12-21

    Many carboxylic acid-containing drugs are associated with idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT), which may be caused by reactive acyl glucuronide metabolites. The rate of acyl migration has been earlier suggested as a predictor of acyl glucuronide reactivity. Additionally, acyl Coenzyme A (CoA) conjugates are known to be reactive. Here, 13 drugs with a carboxylic acid moiety were incubated with human liver microsomes to produce acyl glucuronide conjugates for the determination of acyl glucuronide half-lives by acyl migration and with HepaRG cells to monitor the formation of acyl CoA conjugates, their further conjugate metabolites, and trans-acylation products with glutathione. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity experiments were performed with HepaRG cells to compare the predictability of toxicity. Clearly, longer acyl glucuronide half-lives were observed for safe drugs compared to drugs that can cause IDT. Correlation between half-lives and toxicity classification increased when "relative half-lives," taking into account the formation of isomeric AG-forms due to acyl migration and eliminating the effect of hydrolysis, were used instead of plain disappearance of the initial 1-O-β-AG-form. Correlation was improved further when a daily dose of the drug was taken into account. CoA and related conjugates were detected primarily for the drugs that have the capability to cause IDT, although some exceptions to this were observed. Cytotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity did not correlate to drug safety. On the basis of the results, the short relative half-life of the acyl glucuronide (high acyl migration rate), high daily dose and detection of acyl CoA conjugates, or further metabolites derived from acyl CoA together seem to indicate that carboxylic acid-containing drugs have a higher probability to cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI). PMID:26558897

  12. PARTICIPATION OF Y89 AND Y97 IN THE CONJUGATING ACTIVITY OF Drosophila melanogaster GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE D3 (DmGSTD3).

    Vignesvaran, Kithalakshmi; Alias, Zazali

    2016-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase D3 (DmGSTD3) has a shorter amino acid sequence as compared to other GSTs known in the fruit flies. This is due to the 15 amino acid N-terminal truncation in which normally active amino acid residue is located. The work has made use of homology modeling to visualize the arrangement of amino acid side chains in the glutathione (GSH) substrate cavity. The identified amino acids were then replaced with amino acids without functional groups in the side chains and the mutants were analyzed kinetically. Homology modeling revealed that the side chains of Y89 and Y97 were shown facing toward the substrate cavity proposing their possible role in catalyzing the conjugation. Y97A and Y89A GSH gave large changes in Km (twofold increase), Vmax (fivefold reduction), and Kcat /Km values for GSH suggesting their significant role in the conjugation reaction. The replacement at either positions has not affected the affinity of the enzyme toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as no significant change in values of Kmax was observed. The replacement, however, had significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency of both mutants with (Kcat /Km )(GSH) and (Kcat /Km )(CDNB) of eight- and twofold reduction. The recombinant DmGSTD3 has shown no activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 2,4-hexadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, p-nitrobenzyl chloride, ethacrynic acid, and sulfobromophthalein. Therefore, it was evident that DmGSTD3 has made use of distal amino acids Y97 and Y89 for GSH conjugation. PMID:27075600

  13. Isomerization of all-(E)-Retinoic Acid Mediated by Carbodiimide Activation - Synthesis of ATRA Ether Lipid Conjugates

    Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of the lysolipid 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine with all-(E)-retinoic acid, DCC and DMAP resulted in poor acylation and caused (Z)/(E) isomerization of the alpha-beta double bond. In the presence of a proton source, the carbodiimide-activated all-(E)-retinoic acid undergoes fast...... isomerization to give a final mixture of (13E)/(13Z) isomers in a 3:1 ratio. Similar treatment of (13Z)-retinoic acid leads to the same isomer ratio. The isomerization was circumvented successfully by using a Mitsunobu reaction, which provided an efficient synthesis of all-(E)-retinoic acid sn-2-conjugated to...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  15. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  16. Investigation of Plasma Conjugated Linoleic Acid Levels in Obese and Healthy Subjects

    Hümeyra Yerlikaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Obesity is very widespread health problem especially in developed countries. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it implicates with many factors in the etiology and it needs to treatment. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a class of positional and geometric conjugated isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. An array of purposed beneficial effects of CLA, such as capability of reducing or eliminating cancer, preventing heart disease and improving immune function on human healthy have been reported. This study has aimed to investigate biologically active isomers of CLA (10-trans, 12-cis CLA and 9-cis,11-trans CLA in obese and healthy subjects. Material and Method: The study was performed on 105 obese people (22M, 83F aged 18-70 years and 80 control subjects (20M,60F aged 18-70 years. Body mass index of the obese subjects was more than 35 kg/m2 and that of healthy controls was less than 25 kg/m2. Plasma 10-trans, 12-cis CLA (t10,c12 CLA and 9-cis,11-trans CLA (c9,t11 CLA levels were measured by GS-MS technique. Results: t10,c12 and c9,t11 isomers of CLA levels of the obese subjects were found as follows: 13.423.94 and 9.23 5.61 mg/L respectively. The same parameters of the controls were as follows: 13.153.67 and 9.80 5.06 mg/L respectively. Discussion: The differences between plasma CLA isomers levels of obese and control subjects were not significant. But, isomers of CLA negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio, which accepted as a good indicator of body fat distribution, in obese subjects. These findings suggest that the levels of t10,c12 CLA and c9,t11 CLA isomers inversely associated with body fat mass in obesity.

  17. A rapid biosensor-based method for quantification of free and glucose-conjugated salicylic acid

    Mou Zhonglin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salicylic acid (SA is an important signalling molecule in plant defenses against biotrophic pathogens. It is also involved in several other processes such as heat production, flowering, and germination. SA exists in the plant as free SA and as an inert glucose conjugate (salicylic acid 2-O-β-D-glucoside or SAG. Recently, Huang et al. developed a bacterial biosensor that responds to free SA but not SAG, designated as Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux. In this paper we describe an improved methodology for Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux-based free SA quantification, enabling high-throughput analysis, and present an approach for the quantification of SAG from crude plant extracts. Results On the basis of the original biosensor-based method, we optimized extraction and quantification. SAG content was determined by treating crude extracts with β-glucosidase, then measuring the released free SA with the biosensor. β-glucosidase treatment released more SA in acetate buffer extract than in Luria-Bertani (LB extract, while enzymatic hydrolysis in either solution released more free SA than acid hydrolysis. The biosensor-based method detected higher amounts of SA in pathogen-infected plants than did a GC/MS-based method. SA quantification of control and pathogen-treated wild-type and sid2 (SA induction-deficient plants demonstrated the efficacy of the method described. Using the methods detailed here, we were able to detect as little as 0.28 μg SA/g FW. Samples typically had a standard deviation of up to 25% of the mean. Conclusion The ability of Acinetobacter sp. ADPWH_lux to detect SA in a complex mixture, combined with the enzymatic hydrolysis of SAG in crude extract, allowed the development of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method to simultaneously measure free and glucose-conjugated SA. This approach is amenable to a high-throughput format, which would further reduce the cost and time required for biosensor-based SA quantification

  18. Poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate is a potent enhancer of tumor radiocurability

    Purpose: Conjugating drugs with polymeric carriers is one way to improve selective delivery to tumors. Poly (L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) is one such conjugate. Compared with paclitaxel, its uptake, tumor retention, and antitumor efficacy are increased. Initial studies showed that PG-TXL given 24 h before or after radiotherapy enhanced tumor growth delay significantly more than paclitaxel. To determine if PG-TXL-induced enhancement is obtained in a more clinically relevant setting, we investigated PG-TXL effects on tumor cure. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing 7-mm-diameter ovarian carcinomas were treated with PG-TXL at an equivalent paclitaxel dose of 80 mg/kg, single dose or 5 daily fractions of radiation or both PG-TXL and radiation. Treatment endpoint was TCD50 (radiation dose yielding tumor control in 50% of mice). Acute radioresponse of jejunum, skin, and hair was determined for all treatments. Results: PG-TXL dramatically improved tumor radioresponse, reducing TCD50 of single-dose irradiation from 53.9 (52.2-55.5) Gy to 7.5 (4.5-10.7) Gy, an enhancement factor (EF) of 7.2. The drug improved the efficacy of fractionated irradiation even more, reducing the TCD50 of 66.6 (62.8-90.4) Gy total fractionated dose to only 7.9 (4.3-11.5) Gy, for an EF of 8.4. PG-TXL did not affect normal tissue radioresponse resulting from either single or fractionated irradiation. Conclusion: PG-TXL dramatically potentiated tumor radiocurability after single-dose or fractionated irradiation without affecting acute normal tissue injury. To our knowledge, PG-TXL increased the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy more than that previously reported for other taxanes, thus, PG-TXL has a high potential to improve clinical radiotherapy

  19. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  20. Enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugate-based photodynamic therapy using pulse laser

    Xu, Hao; Yao, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chang, Zhennan; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2016-02-01

    The low bioavailability is a crucial limitation for the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in theranostics. In this research, 5-aminolevulinic acid and gold nanoparticle conjugates (ALA-GNPs) were synthesized to improve the bioavailability of ALA and to investigate the impact of ALA photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in Hela cells. A 532 nm pulse laser and light-emitting diode (central wavelengths 502 nm) were jointly used as light sources in PDT research. The results show a 532 nm pulse laser can control ALA release from ALA-GNPs by adjusting the pulse laser dose. This laser control release may be attributed to the heat generation from GNPs under pulse laser irradiation, which indicates accurately adjusting the pulse laser dose to control the drug release in the cell interior can be considered as a new cellular surgery modality. Furthermore, the PDT results in Hela cells indicate the enhancement of ALA release by pulse laser before PDT can promote the efficacy of cell eradication in the light-emitting diode PDT (LED-PDT). This laser mediated drug release system can provide a new online therapy approach in PDT and it can be utilized in the optical monitor technologies based individual theranostics.

  1. Amino acid conjugated self assembling molecules for enhancing surface wettability of fiber laser treated titanium surfaces

    Akkan, Cagri K.; Hür, Deniz; Uzun, Lokman; Garipcan, Bora

    2016-03-01

    Surface wetting properties of implants are one of the most critical parameter, which determine the interaction of proteins and cells with the implant surface. In this regards, acid etching and sand blasting are the mostly used methods at surface modification of Titanium (Ti) for enhanced surface wettability. Besides, these kinds of modifications may cause a conflict whether the surface wettability is influenced by the process related surface contaminations or by the surface roughness. In contrast, lasers might be an option for the alteration of surface wetting properties via supporting micro and/or nano surface topographies while preventing surface chemical contaminations. In this work, we focused on two steps of surface processing approaches of Ti surface: physical and chemical modifications. Herein, we hierarchically structured Ti surfaces by using microsecond modulated pulsed fiber laser. Subsequently, laser structured and non-structured Ti surfaces were further modified with novel histidine and leucine Amino Acid conjugated Self-Assembled Molecules (His1-SAMs2 and Leu3-SAMs) to alter the surface wettability by introducing biologically hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Modification of Ti surfaces with His-SAMs and Leu-SAMs ended up with stable wetting properties when compared to non-modified surfaces after 7 days which may enhances the cell-surface interaction.

  2. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction during myocardial ischemia.

    Van Hoose, Patrick M; Kelm, Natia Qipshidze; Piell, Kellianne M; Cole, Marsha P

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular health is influenced by dietary composition and the western diet is composed of varying types/amounts of fat. Conjugated linoleic acid (cLA) is an abundant dietary unsaturated fatty acid associated with health benefits but its biological signaling is not well understood. Nitrite is enriched in vegetables within the diet and can impact signaling of unsaturated fatty acids; however, its role on cLA signaling is not well understood. Elucidating how nitrite may impact the biological signaling of cLA is important due to the dietary consumption of both cLA and nitrite in the western diet. Since co-administration of cLA and nitrite results in cardioprotection during myocardial infarction (MI), it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may affect cardiac mitochondrial respiratory function and complex activity in MI. C57BL/6J mice were treated with cLA and nitrite for either 10 or 13days, where MI was induced on day 3. Following treatment, respiration and complex activity were measured. Among the major findings of this study, cLA treatment (10days) decreases state 3 respiration in vivo. Following MI, nitrite alone and in combination with cLA attenuates increased state 3 respiration and decreases hydrogen peroxide levels. Further, nitrite and cLA co-treatment attenuates increased complex III activity after MI. These results suggest that cLA, nitrite and the combination significantly alter cardiac mitochondrial respiratory and electron transport chain activity in vivo and following MI. Overall, the daily consumption of cLA and nitrite in the diet can have diverse cardiovascular implications, some of which occur at the mitochondrial level. PMID:27156147

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) inhibits expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and fatty acid synthase genes and impairs the growth of human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells

    Donnelly, Christina; Olsen, Arne M.; Lewis, Lionel D; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Eastman, Alan; Kinlaw, William B

    2009-01-01

    Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Havartine and Bauman reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues, and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells, and that this will retard their growth. Ex...

  5. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Rivero, Montserrat; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Castellote, Cristina; Noé, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done ...

  6. Self-assembled ternary complexes stabilized with hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates for targeted gene delivery.

    Liang, Kun; Bae, Ki Hyun; Lee, Fan; Xu, Keming; Chung, Joo Eun; Gao, Shu Jun; Kurisawa, Motoichi

    2016-03-28

    Nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes are attractive delivery vehicles for the transfer of therapeutic genes to diseased cells. Here we report the application of self-assembled ternary complexes constructed with plasmid DNA, branched polyethylenimine and hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates for targeted gene delivery. These conjugates not only stabilize plasmid DNA/polyethylenimine complexes via the strong DNA-binding affinity of green tea catechin, but also facilitate their transport into CD44-overexpressing cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The hydrodynamic size, surface charge and physical stability of the complexes are characterized. We demonstrate that the stabilized ternary complexes display enhanced resistance to nuclease attack and polyanion-induced dissociation. Moreover, the ternary complexes can efficiently transfect the difficult-to-transfect HCT-116 colon cancer cell line even in serum-supplemented media due to their enhanced stability and CD44-targeting ability. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrates that the stabilized ternary complexes are able to promote the nuclear transport of plasmid DNA more effectively than binary complexes and hyaluronic acid-coated ternary complexes. The present study suggests that the ternary complexes stabilized with hyaluronic acid-green tea catechin conjugates can be widely utilized for CD44-targeted delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. PMID:26855049

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: lipid content and hepatic histology in healthy Wistar rats

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the consumption of two commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixtures on lipid content and liver histology of healthy rats. The investigation was carried out using thirty rats divided into three groups: C (control, AE (AdvantEdge®CLA, and CO (CLA One®. The concentration of CLA was 2% of feed consumption, and the animals were supplemented daily for 42 days. The total lipid content of the liver was determined, and the histology of the organ was examined by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. The results of total liver lipid contents did not exhibit significant differences between the groups. With regard to hepatic histology, it was observed that although fat globules were visibly present in higher numbers and bigger size in the CLA groups, the organ histology was considered normal since both cytoplasm and organelles showed integrity. It was concluded that even though liver microscopic images indicated the presence of fat globules in the liver, from a statistical point of view, the supplementation for 42 days did not bring about lipid accumulation, nor did it alter hepatic histology.

  8. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid on the porcine immune response and morbidity: a randomized controlled trial

    Wraber Branka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has diverse influences on the immune response in different experimental models. In the present study we investigated the effect of CLA feeding on inflammatory and immune responses in a piglet model. We studied the duration of this effect and possible detrimental effects of CLA feeding. After 12 weeks of CLA and control supplementation and washout, animals were sacrificed and parenchymal organs were histologically examined. Results In activated peripheral mononuclear cells interferon-γ was significantly (p = 0.008 lower in the CLA group by the end of the feeding period. This effect disappeared as soon as supplementation was stopped. No differences were found in the tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 production, serum immunoglobulin-G levels and fat infiltration of the liver, except that fat storage cell infiltration was significantly (p Conclusion At the end of the feeding period the interferon-γ response was depressed. However, the maturation of the piglet immune system in our young pig model probably outweighs the impact of CLA feeding on the immune response, even though liver fat storage cell infiltration, which plays an important role in liver regeneration, increased during CLA feeding of the piglets.

  9. Synthesis of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated inulin and utility for cellular uptake of liposomes

    The synthesis, binding of radioactive cations, liposomal encapsulation, and biodistribution of the oxidized-inulin reaction product with ethylenediamine and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4) are described. The four-step synthesis of the inulin derivative proceeded in a good overall yield of 72%. The complex of the inulin derivative with either 67Ga3+ or 111In3+ was stable in vivo and did not readily distribute into tissues, being excreted primarily in urine after intravenous administration to mice. The liposome-entrapped inulin derivative can be loaded with radioactive heavy metal cations by mobile ionophores in high radiochemical yields of 80-91%. Following the intravenous administration of the liposomal encapsulation of the indium-111-labeled inulin derivative, the entrapped compound had a biodistribution characteristic of liposomes and allowed an estimation of the extent of the intracellular uptake of liposomes. The ability of the inulin derivative to chelate many different types of metals will allow the use of this probe for studying subtle differences in tissue distribution resulting from different drug targeting or delivery protocols in the same animal by multiple labeling techniques. Moreover, the chelate-conjugated inulin permits studies of the applications of drug delivery systems in primates or human subjects by noninvasive techniques such as gamma-scintigraphic or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging methods

  10. Preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch and conjugated linoleic acid complex.

    Seo, Tae-Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-11-15

    Crystalline starch-CLA complexes were prepared by blending an alcoholic solution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in an aqueous high-amylose maize starch dispersion. Recovery yield of CLA in the precipitates obtained by centrifuging the dispersion was dependent on reaction conditions such as temperature, time and pH. The CLA recovery reached a maximum when the reaction was performed at 90°C for 6h at neutral pH, with 67.7% of the initial CLA being co-precipitated with starch. The precipitates contained amylose-CLA complex exhibiting a V6I-type crystalline structure under X-ray diffraction analysis and a type II polymorph under DSC analysis. Ultrasonic treatment for the re-dispersed starch-CLA complex in water resulted in the reduction of hydrodynamic diameter of the complex particles to 201.5nm. The dispersion exhibited a zeta potential of -27.0mV and remained stable in an ambient storage without forming precipitates for more than 4weeks. PMID:27283663

  11. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  12. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry

    Aitziber Ojanguren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  13. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Arab, Arman; Akbarian, Shahab Aldin; Ghiyasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran) to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  15. Comparative analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

    Lee, B L; New, A L; Ong, C N

    1997-12-19

    This paper describes the analysis of conjugated bile acids in human serum using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis (CE). Samples of healthy subjects and patients with different hepatic diseases were pretreated with a simple preparation procedure using a solid-phase extraction technique. The optimal analytical conditions of both chromatographic methods were investigated for the convenience and reliability for routine analysis. Both HPLC and CE methods were found to be reliable and compatible. The recoveries of nine bile acid conjugates using both methods were generally >85% and reproducibility >90%. The day-to-day variation of retention time was limit of the HPLC method (1 nmol/ml) was five times more sensitive than that of the CE method, the CE method was considered to be more time and cost effective. PMID:9518169

  16. Potentiation of ovarian OCa-1 tumor radioresponse by poly (L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate

    Purpose: It has been shown that paclitaxel (TXL) can strongly enhance tumor cells' sensitivity to radiation. We examined whether the radiosensitizing effect of paclitaxel can be further enhanced when it is delivered systemically as a polymer-drug conjugate that provides enhanced tumor uptake and prolonged release of TXL in the tumor. Methods and Materials: C3Hf/Kam mice bearing 8-mm murine ovarian OCa-1 tumors were treated with i.v.-injected Poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) at an equivalent TXL dose of 80 mg/kg, followed 24 h later by single doses of local radiation ranging from 5 to 15 Gy. To determine how long the radiopotentiation persisted at extended times after PG-TXL administration, mice with OCa-1 tumors were given i.v. PG-TXL and 4, 24, 48, 72, 120, or 168 h later their tumors were irradiated at a dose of 10 Gy. Antitumor activity was determined by delay in tumor growth. Cell cycle distribution was assayed using flow cytometry. Tumor vascular volume was estimated using Tc-99 m-labeled red blood cells. Results: PG-TXL strongly potentiated the radioresponse of the OCa-1 tumor. The enhancement factors ranged from 2.79 to 4.28, depending on radiation dose, when PG-TXL preceded radiation by 24 h. The enhancement factor derived from radiation dose-response curves was as high as 5.13. The radiosensitizing effect of PG-TXL was also dependent on the interval between PG-TXL administration and radiation delivery, with greater enhancement been observed when the interval was decreased. The percentage of G2/M cells was significantly increased to 21.4% 48 h after PG-TXL but declined to a preinjection level of 14.8% 72 h after PG-TXL. PG-TXL only moderately increased the tumor vascular volume by 37% 24 h after PG-TXL administration. Conclusion: PG-TXL markedly potentiated response of OCa-1 tumor to radiation. When compared to literature data obtained from the same tumor model used here, PG-TXL exhibited stronger radiosensitization effect than TXL. Although its

  17. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids

    Vonghia, G; G. Cappiello; F. Giannico; M.A. Colonna; A. Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The g...

  18. Synthesis, and Investigation of the Reactive Oxygen Species of a Novel Cyclicpeptide-2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone-3- mercaptoacetic Acid Conjugate

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a potential anti-cancer agent: Cyclo[Val Lys(DMQ-MA)-Gaba]. The cytotoxic agent conjugated to the N-terminal and the ξ-amino group of lysine of the tripeptide is 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone-3-mercaptoacetic acid (DMQ-MA). By employing the rhodamine B degradation method and ESR spectra, we testify the reactive oxygen species---hydroxyl radicals produced by the drug.

  19. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...

  20. Porphyrin-bile acid conjugates: from saccharide recognition in the solution to the selective cancer cell fluorescence detection

    Králová, Jarmila; Koivukorpi, J.; Poučková, P.; Kejík, Z.; Sievanen, E.; Kolehmainen, E.; Král, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2008), s. 1548-1552. ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : porphyrin -bile acid conjugates * apoptosis * photodynamic therapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.550, year: 2008

  1. c9,t11-Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates steatosis by modulating mitochondrial uncoupling and Nrf2 pathway[S

    Mollica, Maria Pina; Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Cocca, Ennio; Gaita, Marcello; Della-Gatta, Antonio; Marano, Angela; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bergamo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) mixture of cis9,trans11 (9,11-CLA) and trans10,cis12 (10,12-CLA) isomers enhanced the antioxidant/detoxifying mechanism via the activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and improved mitochondrial function, but less is known about the actions of specific isomers. The differential ability of individual CLA iso...

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  3. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    Wang, T; Oh, J J; Lim, J. N.; Hong, J E; Kim, J. H.; Kang, H.S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%), middle (0.37±0.010%), and late stages (0.44±0.020%) showed significant differences (p

  4. Bio molecular Tri conjugates Formed between Gold, Protamine, and Nucleic Acid: Comparative Characterization on the Nano scale

    DNA and RNA micro- and nanoparticles are increasingly being used for gene and si RNA drug delivery and a variety of other applications in bio nano technology. On the nano scale, these entities represent unique challenges from a physicochemical characterization perspective. Here, nucleic acid conjugates with protamine and gold nanoparticles (GNP) were characterized comparatively in the nano range of concentration by UV/Vis Nano Drop spectroscopy, fluorimetry, and gel electrophoresis. Given the intense interest in splice-site switching oligomers (SSOs), we utilized a human tumor cell culture system (HeLa pLuc-705), in which SSO-directed splicing repair up regulates luciferase expression, in order to investigate bioactivity of the bio nano conjugates. Process parameters important for bioactivity were investigated, and the bimolecular nano conjugates were confirmed by shifts in the dynamic laser light scatter (DLLS), UV/Vis spectrum, gel electrophoresis, or sedimentation pattern. The data presented herein may be useful in the future development of pharmaceutical and biotechnology formulations, processes, and analyses concerning protein, DNA, or RNA bio nano conjugates.

  5. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice

    Hue, Jin-Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Jeong, Jae-Hwang; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Lee, Young Ho; Jeong, Seong-woon; Nam, Sang Yoon; Yun, Young Won; Lee, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of diglyceride (DG)-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 22% CLA as fatty acids in C57BL/6J ob/ob male mice. There were four experimental groups including vehicle control, DG, CLA, and DG-CLA. The test solutions of 750 mg/kg dose were orally administered to the mice everyday for 5 weeks. CLA treatments significantly decreased mean body weight in the obese mice throughout the experimental period compared to the control (p < 0.01). All...

  6. ATF3 Mediates Anti-Cancer Activity of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Jihye; Park, Yeonhwa; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of isomers of linoleic acid. CLA increases growth arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells through an isomer-specific manner. ATF3 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and is associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which t10, c12-CLA stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. t10, c12-CLA increased an apo...

  7. Cellular delivery and antisense effects of peptide nucleic acid conjugated to polyethyleneimine via disulfide linkers

    Berthold, Peter R; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    moiety) and further reacted this with a cysteine PNA. The level of modification was determined spectrophotometrically with high accuracy, and the PNA transfection efficiency of the conjugates was evaluated in an antisense luciferase splice-correction assay using HeLa pLuc705 cells. We find that PEI....... Finally, the method can be easily modified to allow for co-conjugation of other small molecules in a high-throughput screening assay that does not require a purification step....

  8. Transport of methylmercury—cysteine conjugate by system L—tpye amino acid transporters and its transportermediated toxicity

    KanaY; KimDK

    2002-01-01

    Methylmercury(MeHg) is widely known for its potent neurotoxicity and the causal substance of Minamata disease.Since the conjugates of MeHg with thiol compounds are easily formed in vivo,the metabolism and transport of glutathione,cysteine and their derivatives are important determinants of tissue distribution and elimination of MeHg.It has been proposed that the amino acid transport system L,which transports large neutral amino acids,is one of the major routes for MeHg mobilization.We have identified two isoforms of system L amino acid transporters:L-type amino acid transkporter-1(LAT1) and LAT2 and found that they transport MeHg as a cysteine-conjugate (MeHg-Cys).We have further found that a classical system L inhibitor BCH[2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid] rescued T24 human bladder carcinoma cells expressing LAT1 form the toxicity of MeHg-Cysl.We concluded that the cytotoxicity of MeHg is mediated by system L transporters.The fact that BCH reduced the toxicity of MeHg-Cys suggests that the high-affinity inhibitors of system L transporters could be a new rationable to avoid MeHg-toxicity.

  9. Synthesis of ciprofloxacin-conjugated poly (L-lactic acid polymer for nanofiber fabrication and antibacterial evaluation

    Parwe SP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sharad P Parwe, Priti N Chaudhari, Kavita K Mohite, Balaji S Selukar, Smita S Nande, Baijayantimala Garnaik Polymer Science and Engineering Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India Abstract: Ciprofloxacin was conjugated with polylactide (PLA via the secondary amine group of the piperazine ring using PLA and 7-(4-(2-Chloroacetyl piperazin-1-yl-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Zinc prolinate, a biocompatible catalyst was synthesized, characterized, and used in ring opening polymerization of L-lactide. Five different kinds of OH-terminated poly(L-lactide (two-, three-, four-, six-arm, star-shaped homopolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dodecanol, glycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol as initiator and zinc prolinate as a catalyst. The structures of the polymers and conjugates were thoroughly characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLA (molecular weight =100,000 and ciprofloxacin conjugated PLA were used for fabrication of nonwoven nanofiber mat (diameter ranges; 150–400 nm having pore size (62–102 nm using electrospinning. The microbiological assessment shows that the release of ciprofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity. The drug-release behavior of the mat was studied to reveal potential application as a drug delivery system. The result shows that the ciprofloxacin release rates of the PLA conjugate nonwoven nanofiber mat could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ciprofloxacin system, based on nonwoven nanofiber mat, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. Keywords: zinc prolinate, ciprofloxacin conjugated polylactides, CP-PLA, electrospinning, nonwoven nanofibers, drug release, antibacterial activity, MDR

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that ER

  11. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugates as carriers for cellular delivery of antisense oligomers

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the merits of a novel delivery strategy for the antisense oligomers based on cell penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugated to a carrier PNA with sequence complementary to part of the antisense oligomer. The effect of these carrier CPP-PNAs was evaluated by using antisense PNA targeting...... splicing correction of the mutated luciferase gene in the HeLa pLuc705 cell line, reporting cellular (nuclear) uptake of the antisense PNA via luciferase activity measurement. Carrier CPP-PNA constructs were studied in terms of construct modification (with octaarginine and/or decanoic acid) and carrier PNA...... length (to adjust binding affinity). In general, the carrier CPP-PNA constructs including the ones with decanoyl modification provided significant increase of the activity of unmodified antisense PNA as well as of antisense octaarginine-PNA conjugates. Antisense activity, and by inference cellular...

  12. Aliphatic acid-conjugated antimicrobial peptides--potential agents with anti-tumor, multidrug resistance-reversing activity and enhanced stability.

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Wang, Xuekun; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-07-28

    Compared with traditional therapeutics, antimicrobial peptides as novel anti-tumor agents have prominent advantages of higher specificity and circumvention of multi-drug resistance. In a previous study, we found that B1, an antimicrobial peptide derived from Cathelicidin-BF15, presented specific anti-tumor activity against several tumor cells. Since aliphatic chain-conjugated peptides have shown ameliorative activity and stability, we conjugated aliphatic acids with different lengths to the amino terminal of B1. All the conjugated peptides exhibited improved anti-tumor activity over B1. Further investigations revealed that the peptides were capable of disrupting the cell membrane, stimulating cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which results in apoptosis. The peptides also acted against multidrug resistant cells and had multidrug resistance-reversing effects. Additionally, conjugation of aliphatic acid enhanced the peptide stability in plasma. In summary, aliphatic acid-modified peptides might be promising anti-tumor agents in the future. PMID:26083110

  13. Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors

    Kazimierska Weronika

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid with proven beneficial influence on health. They show e.g. anticarcinogenic, antiobesity, and antiatherogenic effect. Milk, dairy products and meat of poligastric animals are their most valuable dietary sources, with cis-9, trans-11 CLA (RA - rumenic acid being the predominant isomer. Dietary supplements with CLA became very popular, mainly among the overweight and bodybuilders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the food supplements with conjugated linoleic acid on carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluation of CLA and other fatty acids distribution in their bodies. Animals were divided into four groups depending on the diet supplementation (oil or Bio-C.L.A. (Pharma Nord Denmark given intragastrically and presence or absence of carcinogenic agent (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]antharcene. Animals were decapitated at 21st week of experiment and serum and microsomes were extracted. Results and conclusions The mammary tumours (adenocarcinoma occurred in groups treated with DMBA. Diet enriched with CLA decreased the cancer morbidity (67% in Bio-C.L.A. compared to 88% in oil and delayed the cancer induction (p = 0.0018. There were no differences in body and organs weight. The supplement used in the study was a mixture of several fatty acids with the greatest proportion of CLA isomers: trans-10, cis-12 (33% and cis-9, trans-11 (31%. Both of them were present in tissues but the content of rumenic acid was greater. Dietary supplementation had also significant impact on other fatty acids content, both in serum and in microsomes.

  14. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Amino Acid Conjugates of Cholanic Acid as Antagonists of the EphA2 Receptor

    Alessio Lodola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eph–ephrin system plays a critical role in tumor growth and vascular functions during carcinogenesis. We had previously identified cholanic acid as a competitive and reversible EphA2 antagonist able to disrupt EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and to inhibit EphA2 activation in prostate cancer cells. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a set of cholanic acid derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with a panel of naturally occurring amino acids with the aim to improve EphA2 receptor inhibition. Structure-activity relationships indicate that conjugation of cholanic acid with linear amino acids of small size leads to effective EphA2 antagonists whereas the introduction of aromatic amino acids reduces the potency in displacement studies. The b-alanine derivative 4 was able to disrupt EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction in the micromolar range and to dose-dependently inhibit EphA2 activation on PC3 cells. These findings may help the design of novel EphA2 antagonists active on cancer cell lines.

  15. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals. PMID:26926361

  16. Fatty acid distribution of cord and maternal blood in human pregnancy: special focus on individual trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids

    Enke Uta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition in pregnancy has a crucial impact on the development of the fetus. Dietary trans fatty acids (tFA are known to have adverse health effects, especially during pregnancy. However, the distribution of tFA produced via partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (mainly elaidic acid; t9 differs compared to ruminant-derived tFA (mainly vaccenic acid; t11. Recent findings indicate that they may have different impact on human health. Therefore, in this study, plasma and erythrocytes of mother-child pairs (n = 55 were sampled to investigate the distribution of tFA, including individual trans C18:1 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA in fetal related to maternal lipids; with additional consideration of maternal dairy fat intake. Results Portion of t9 and t11, but also of c9,t11 CLA was higher in maternal than in fetal blood lipids. The portion of t9 in maternal and fetal lipids differed only slightly. In contrast, the portion of fetal t11 was only half of that in maternal blood. This led to a fetal t9/t11-index in plasma and erythrocytes being twice as high compared to the maternal values. A high dairy fat intake resulted in elevated portions of t11 and its Δ9-desaturation product c9,t11 CLA in maternal blood. In contrast, in the respective fetal blood lipids only c9,t11 CLA, but not t11 was increased. Nevertheless, a positive association between maternal and fetal plasma exists for both t11 and c9,t11 CLA. Furthermore, in contrast to t9, t11 was not negatively associated with n-3 LC-PUFA in fetal blood lipids. Conclusions Fetal blood fatty acid composition essentially depends on and is altered by the maternal fatty acid supply. However, in addition to dietary factors, other aspects also contribute to the individual fatty acid distribution (oxidation, conversion, incorporation. The lower portion of fetal t11 compared to maternal t11, possibly results from Δ9-desaturation to c9,t11 CLA and/or oxidation

  17. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... test diets did not differ on any outcome variable: e.g., systolic- and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure (PP), isobaric arterial compliance (AC), distensibility (AD), or volume (AV). In conclusion, diets rich in milk fat and either CLA or VA have no effect on BP or AE indices in...

  18. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  19. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2 have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this study was to determine CLA concentrations during kaymak production. Kaymak was manufactured from cow's milk which was enriched with unfermented cream. Biologically active isomers of CLA in raw milk, cream and kaymak were analyzed using gas chromatography. The method was quick, repeatable and sensitive for the CLA determination of samples. Significant differences were found among the concentrations of both isomer and total CLA during the production process (pNumerosos efectos fisiológicos se atribuyen a los ácidos linoleico conjugados (CLA. Así los isómeros biológicamente activos ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 y trans- 10, cis del ácido linoleico han sido descritos con propiedades anticarcinogénicas, antioxidantes y antiarterioscleróticas. Fuentes relativamente ricas de CLA incluyen alimentos con grasas lácteas tales como el kaymak. El kaymak es una crema concentrada elaborada de leche de búfalo o vaca principalmente en Turquía. El objetivo de este estudio fue la determinación de la concentración de CLA durante la producción de kaymak. El kaymak objeto de estudio fue elaborado a partir de leche de vaca que fue enriquecida con crema no fermentada. Los isómeros biológicamente activos del CLA fueron analizados por cromatografía gaseosa en leche cruda, crema y kaymak. El método empleado fue rápido, reproducible y sensible. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de ambos isómeros y de CLA total durante el proceso de producci

  20. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity

    Suriya Kumari Ramiah; Goh Yong Meng; Tan Sheau Wei; Yeap Swee Keong; Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (H...

  1. A Novel Thin Film Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Soluble Conjugated Polymer: (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol)

    2001-01-01

    A novel soluble conjugated copolymer (propionic acid)-co-(propargyl alcohol) (PA-co-OHP) has been synthesized for the first time using a new palladium acetylide catalyst Pd(PPh3)2 (CoCC(CH3)2OH)2 (PPB). Thin film resistive humidity sensor based on the copolymer doped with HClO-4 was prepared. The impedance of the sensor changed from 103~107 W in 95%~30%RH, and the response of that is very quick (<6 sec.). Preliminary results show the copolymer is a promising humidity sensitive material.

  2. Meta-analysis of nutritional effects on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat of dairy cows

    A. Cappio-Borlino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was carried out on 41 selected studies to obtain more reliable results about the influence of some nutritional factors on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat. Data were analysed with a linear mixed model, including the study as random variable, that highlighted a significant effect on milk CLA content of fat source and the physical form of the lipid supplement used in the diet. The content of fat in the diet and the forage/concentrate ratio seem do not have significant effects.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid intake in humans: a systematic review focusing on its effect on body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

    Salas-Salvadó, J; Márquez-Sandoval, F; Bulló, M

    2006-01-01

    Studies performed on different species show that the consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) leads to a loss of fat and total body weight, reduces the plasma concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol, and has an antiinflammatory effect. This article reviews the clinical trials on human beings that evaluate how mixtures of CLA isomers administered as supplements or CLA-enriched products can affect total body weight, body composition, plasma lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, insulin sensitivity, lipid oxidation, and inflammation. After analyzing the few studies published to date in reduced samples of healthy humans or patients with overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes, we deduce that there is not enough evidence to show that conjugated linoleic acid has an effect on weight and body composition in humans. However, some of these studies have observed that the administration of various CLA isomers has adverse effects on lipid profile (it decreases HDL cholesterol concentration and increases Lp(a) circulating levels), glucose metabolism (glycemia, insulinemia or insulin sensitivity), lipid oxidation, inflammation, or endothelial function. Therefore, long-term randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, need to be made in large samples of patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA isomers before its indiscriminate use in human beings can be recommended. PMID:16864141

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum as source of conjugated linoleic acid: Effect of pH, incubation Temperature and inulin incorporation.

    Carmen Soto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH and temperature, and inulin use, on the growth andthe fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum strain wereevaluated. The best results were obtained at 6.5 pH broth, producing3.2 g/L of biomass and about 20% of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA in the cell lipids. Similar growth was observed with 37 and45ºC, but a low CLA content (10.6% was achieved at 45°C. In thecase of inulin incorporation, a low biomass concentration (1 g/Land low production of CLA (12.4% were observed. These resultssuggest a pH and temperature dependence on CLA production bythe microorganism.

  5. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  6. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2. PMID:23614832

  7. Antibacterial Peptide Nucleic Acid-Antimicrobial Peptide (PNA-AMP) Conjugates

    Hansen, Anna Mette; Bonke, Gitte; Larsen, Camilla Josephine; Yavari, Niloofar; Nielsen, Peter E.; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    )-Tat48-60, BF-2A-RXR, and drosocin-RXR are capable of transporting PNA effectively into E. coli (MICs of 1-4 μM). Importantly, presence of the inner-membrane peptide transporter SbmA was not required for antibacterial activity of PNA-AMP conjugates containing Pep-1-K, KLW-9,13-a, or drosocin-RXR (MICs...

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells using retinoic acid and carotenoic acids: Dependence of performance on the conjugation length and the dye concentration

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fujii, Ritsuko; Ito, Seigo; Koyama, Yasushi; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yanagida, Shozo

    2005-11-01

    Titanium oxide-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated by the use of retinoic acid and carotenoic acids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n = 5-13. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, the photocurrent density and the solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency exhibited the highest values at n = 7, and then decreased toward both sides. The effects of dilution of CA7 with deoxycholic acid were also examined. The above parameters per unit CA7 concentration progressively increased toward the lowest concentration, which is ascribed to the isolated excitation free from singlet-triplet annihilation in the dye molecules on the TiO 2 layer.

  9. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. PMID:21742394

  10. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-polyethylene glycol-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate improves liver-cell aggregation and function in 3-D spheroid culture.

    Chen, Zhanfei; Lian, Fen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yanling; Tang, Nanhong

    2016-01-01

    The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a type of macromolecule material, has been used in spheroidal cell culture and drug delivery in recent years. However, PAMAM is not involved in the study of hepatic cell-spheroid culture or its biological activity, particularly in detoxification function. Here, we constructed a PAMAM-dendrimer conjugate decorated by an integrin ligand: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Our studies demonstrate that RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PAMAM conjugates can promote singly floating hepatic cells to aggregate together in a sphere-like growth with a weak reactive oxygen species. Moreover, RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates can activate the AKT-MAPK pathway in hepatic cells to promote cell proliferation and improve basic function and ammonia metabolism. Together, our data support the hepatocyte sphere treated by RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates as a potential source of hepatic cells for a biological artificial liver system. PMID:27621619

  11. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks.

    Florence, Ana Carolina R; Béal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta C; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O S; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-12-15

    Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics, bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11, C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and α-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally, use of bifidobacteria slightly increased CLA relative content in the conventional fermented milks, after 7 days of storage at 4°C, whereas no difference was seen in organic fermented milks. PMID:22980792

  12. Participation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha in amplification of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in Xenopus laevis.

    Zimmermann, W.; Weissbach, A

    1981-01-01

    Aphidicolin, a known inhibitor of eucaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase alpha, efficiently inhibited amplification of ribosomal DNA during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis. DNA polymerase alpha, but not DNA polymerase gamma, as isolated from ovaries, was sensitive to aphidicolin. DNA polymerase beta was not detectable in Xenopus ovary extracts. Therefore, DNA polymerase alpha plays a major role in ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplification.

  13. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to screen suitable reaction systems for the modification of antioxidants through enzy-matic synthesis. Enzymatic esterification of ascorbic acid with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated as a mod-el. Four organic solvents and five different enzymes were evaluated....... Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans-ferred to an...... ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  14. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  15. Tests for the absorption of 75Se-labelled homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (75Se-HCAT)

    The absorption of selenomethionine Se 75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (75-SE-HCAT) was tested in 46 patients. Retention measurements using (1) an uncollimated gamma camera and (2) a measuring arrangement similar to a human-body counter were compared in order to obtain a quantitative assessment of the absorption capacity of the terminal ileum for bile acids. The retention curve obtained after the oral administration of the 75Se-labelled bile-acid analogue showed a monoexponential decline; in the case of unimpaired absorption, the half-life was greater than 2.5 days. When more than 30 cm of the ileum had been eliminated by inflammatory infection or resection, the measured half-life was below 0.5 days due to malabsorption. We also performed a quantitative determination of the hepatic secretion of 75-Se-HCAT into the gall bladder. If more than 80% of the activity administered is found in the gall bladder, disturbed absorption of bile acids in the terminal ileum can be excluded. Values smaller than 80%, however, do not provide proof of disturbed absorption. (orig.)

  16. Folic acid conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nondestructive separation and detection of ovarian cancer cells from whole blood.

    Liu, Wenting; Nie, Liju; Li, Fulai; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Yonghua; Fu, Fen; Xu, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of early screening strategies, ovarian cancer is the most deadly cause of gynecologic malignancies. This paper describes an effective method for the separation and detection of ovarian cancer cells from female whole blood, using folic acid (FA) conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-FA nanoparticles). The IO nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition and then covalently conjugated with FA. The IO-FA nanoparticles were stably attached to the surface of ovarian cancer cells by coupling to the over-expressed folate receptor (FR), thereby making the cells magnetic. These "magnetic cells" were separated from the complex blood matrix without destruction under a magnetic field. The separation efficiency was as high as 61.3% when the abundance of spiked ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells was as low as 5 × 10(-5)%. We also successfully detected five (5) out of ten (10) metastatic ovarian cancer patients' whole blood. This study suggested the feasibility of early detecting of metastatic ovarian cancer cells, which may potentially improve the ovarian cancers patients' overall survival rate for clinical applications. PMID:26478922

  17. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    Amanda C. Morris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  18. Pyrene appended bile acid conjugates: Synthesis and a structure-gelation property study

    Shreedhar Bhat; Arto Valkonen; Juha Koivukorpi; Anupama Ambika; Erkki Kolehmainen; Uday Maitra; Kari Rissanen

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of novel compounds obtained by combining two types of known organogelators, viz., bile acid alkyl amides and pyrene alkanoic acids, were synthesized and screened for their gelation ability. The 3 esters of 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) of alkylamides of deoxycholic acid (DCA) turned out to be effective in the gel formation with many organic solvents although the gelation has to be triggered by the addition of a charge transfer (CT) agent 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF). The special feature of these molecules is that the organogelation is achieved only after derivatizing the acid moiety of the 1-pyrenealkanoic acids. Additionally, the gelation properties can be fine-tuned by inserting different functional groups at the bile acid side chain. The gels obtained are deep red in colour and optically transparent up to 2% w/v. The SEM studies of the obtained xerogels revealed bundled rod-like morphology without specialized branching.

  19. Control generating of bacterial magnetic nanoparticle-doxorubicin conjugates by poly-L-glutamic acid surface modification

    Guo Lin [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Ji; Zheng Limin, E-mail: linguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-04-29

    By using poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA) to modify the membrane surface of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles (BMPs), (BMP)-doxorubicin conjugates (DBMP-P) could be control generated. The doxorubicin loading ratio could be raised up to 81.7% (w/w) in comparison with that of dual functional linkers. DBMP-P was characterized by transmission electron micrographs, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, magnetic properties, and dynamic light scattering. It is found that increase of the doxorubicin/PLGA modified BMP (PBMP) ratio leads to an increase of the drug loading ratio and a decrease of saturation magnetization. Besides, DBMP-P is sensitive to pH to facilitate drug release, shows enhancement of uptake by cancer cells, and is strongly cytotoxic to HePG2 and MCF-7 cells.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of covalent diphenylalanine nanotube-folic acid conjugates

    León, John Jairo Castillo; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Wu, Kaiyu;

    2014-01-01

    . The surface analysis of PNT-FA indicated the presence of FA aggregates on the surface of PNTs. The covalent interaction between FA and self-assembled PNTs was further investigated using fluorescence microscopy, Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopies. The SERS experiments were...... performed on a large area silver-capped (diameter of 62 nm) silicon nanopillars with an approximate height of 400 nm and a width of 200 nm. The results showed that the PNT-FA synthesis procedure preserves the molecular structure of FA. The PNT-FA conjugate presented in this study is a promising candidate...... for applications in the detection and diagnosis of cancer or tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis and as a carrier nanosystem delivering drugs to malignant tumors that overexpress folate receptors....

  1. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on growth, fatty acid composition and hepatic lipogenesis in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

    Zhan-yu ZHAO; Tian-xing WU; Hong-gang TANG; Ji-ze ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on growth, fatty acid composition and enzyme activity of fatty acid oxidation in the liver of large yellow croaker. We divided 1600 fish (average initial weight 150 g) into 4 groups and reared them in 8 cages. Four dietary treatments were formulated to contain 0%, 1%, 2% and 4% (w/w) CLA, respectively. The fish were fed for 10 weeks ad libitum twice daily. We found that the dietary CLA had no effect on growth, biometric parameters and whole body proximate (P>0.05), but showed some significant effects on the fatty acid composition in both muscle and the liver.The activities oflipogenic enzymes were slightly depressed in fish fed with increasing levels of CLA when compared with control (P>0.05). Dietary CLA supplementation had no effects on liver lipid content, but significantly increased the contents of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content in both muscle and the liver. Dietary CLA inclusion resulted in significant increases of the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers in both tissues (P<0.05). The total accumulation of CLA was higher in the liver (3.83%, w/w) than in muscle (3.77%, w/w) when fed with 4% (w/w) CLA. This study demonstrates that large yellow croakers are capable of absorbing and depositing CLA and long-chain n-3 PUFA in the liver and muscle, showing that this species fed with CLA could be an important human food source for these healthful fatty acids.

  2. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  3. Folic acid conjugated δ-valerolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) based triblock copolymer as a promising carrier for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    Nair K, Lekha; Jagadeeshan, Sankar; Nair S, Asha; Kumar, G S Vinod

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the newly synthesized poly(δ-valerolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(δ-valerolactone) (VEV) copolymer grafted with folic acid would impart targetability and further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX). Here, folic acid conjugated VEV (VEV-FOL) was synthesized by a modified esterification method and characterized using IR and NMR. DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles were synthesized using a novel solvent evaporation method and were obtained with a mean diameter of 97 nm with high encapsulation efficiency and sustained in vitro release profile. Comparative studies of polymer micelles with and without folate for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were done on folate receptor-positive breast cancer cell line, MDAMB231. The intracellular uptake tests showed significant increase in folate micellar uptake when compared to non-folate-mediated micelles. MTT assay followed by apoptosis assays clearly indicated that folate decorated micelles showed significantly better cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.014 µM) and efficiency to induce apoptosis than other treated groups. Moreover, a significant G2/M arrest was induced by DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles at a concentration where free drug failed to show any activity. Thus, our results show that the folic acid-labeled VEV copolymer is a promising biomaterial with controlled and sustainable tumor targeting ability for anticancer drugs which can open new frontiers in the area of targeted chemotherapy. PMID:23990912

  4. Folic acid conjugated δ-valerolactone-poly(ethylene glycol based triblock copolymer as a promising carrier for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    Lekha Nair K

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the newly synthesized poly(δ-valerolactone/poly(ethylene glycol/poly(δ-valerolactone (VEV copolymer grafted with folic acid would impart targetability and further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX. Here, folic acid conjugated VEV (VEV-FOL was synthesized by a modified esterification method and characterized using IR and NMR. DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles were synthesized using a novel solvent evaporation method and were obtained with a mean diameter of 97 nm with high encapsulation efficiency and sustained in vitro release profile. Comparative studies of polymer micelles with and without folate for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were done on folate receptor-positive breast cancer cell line, MDAMB231. The intracellular uptake tests showed significant increase in folate micellar uptake when compared to non-folate-mediated micelles. MTT assay followed by apoptosis assays clearly indicated that folate decorated micelles showed significantly better cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.014 µM and efficiency to induce apoptosis than other treated groups. Moreover, a significant G2/M arrest was induced by DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles at a concentration where free drug failed to show any activity. Thus, our results show that the folic acid-labeled VEV copolymer is a promising biomaterial with controlled and sustainable tumor targeting ability for anticancer drugs which can open new frontiers in the area of targeted chemotherapy.

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  6. Effect of apoptosis on gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC—7901 induced by cis—9,trans—11—conjugated linoleic acid

    Jia-RenLiu; Bing-QingChen; Yan-MeiYang; Xuan-LingWang; Ying-BenXue

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effect of apoptosis on gastric cancer cells(SGC-7901)induced by cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid(c9,t11-CLA)and its possible mechanism in the inhibition of cancer cells growth.

  7. Effects of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Ruminants%日粮添加共轭亚油酸对反刍动物的影响

    袁翠林; 于子洋; 林英庭; 王利华

    2015-01-01

    共轭亚油酸具有抑制脂肪累积、降低胆固醇、促进生长、抗癌、增强机体免疫能力等诸多生理功能,可作为新型功能性饲料添加剂应用于反刍动物饲料中,具有很好的研究价值和应用前景。本文介绍了共轭亚油酸的合成途径,综述了日粮中添加共轭亚油酸对反刍动物乳品质、肉用性能及免疫机能的影响,并对共轭亚油酸的应用方向进行了展望。%Conjugated linoleic acid can inhibit fat accumulation, lower cholesterol, promote growth, anti-cancer, enhance immune ability and so on. It can be used as a new functional feed additives in the ruminant feed, and has a good research value and application prospect. This paper introduced conjugated linoleic acid synthesis approach, the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on ruminants dairy quality, meat quality and immune function were reviewed, and the application direction of conjugated linoleic acid were prospected.

  8. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated that...

  9. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  10. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women

    Objective: This study assessed the effects of combined chromium picolinate (CP) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on energy-restriction and exercise-induced changes in body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid-lipoprotein profile, and blood pressure in overweight, pre-menopausal w...