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Sample records for acid chrome dyes

  1. Synthesis, characterization and dyeing assessment of novel acid azo dyes and mordent acid azo dyes based on 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone on wool and silk fabrics

    DHIRUBHAI J. DESAI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel acid mono azo and mordent acid mono azo dyes were synthesised by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. The dyeing of chrome pre-treated wool and silk fabrics showed better hues on mordented fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in pinkish blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pre-treated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  2. LABORATORY STUDY FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) USING SODIUM METABISULFITE UNDER ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    This report describes the results from RPP-PLAN-32738, 'Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome(VI) to Chrome(I1I) in the Secondary Waste Stream', using sodium metabisulfite. Appendix A presents the report as submitted by the Center for Laboratory Sciences (CLS) to CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The CLS carried out the laboratory effort under Contract Number 21065, release Number 30. This report extracts the more pertinent aspects of the laboratory effort

  3. Investigation of neodymium complex with acid chrome blue K by beta-correction spectrophotometry

    The neodymium complex with acid chrome blue K (ACBK) at pH 10 has been studied in detail by beta-correction spectrophotometry. The cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is useful for increasing the sensitivity and solubility of ligand and complex. The characteristic factors of complex are calculated, for example, complex ratio and stability constant. Results show that Nd(ACBK)3 is formed and its real not apparent molar absorptivity is the first to be determined as follows : ε520 Nd(ACBK)3 = 5.54 x 104 dm3 mol-1 cm-1 at pH 10. In addition, the cumulative stability constant of complex Nd(ACBK)3 is still computed to be 1.72 x 1016 in ionic strength 0.1 M and at temperature 15 deg. (author)

  4. Polarographic behaviour of some acid dyes

    The polarographic behaviour of three acid dyes Crocein Orange G, Acid Alizarin Violet N and Acid Orange 10 in aqueous buffered solutions is presented. It is clear from the obtained results that the half wave potential shifts to more negative values as to be expected for processes that consume protons. The results indicate that the process of reduction is irreversible. The polarogarphic diagrams of the studied dyes one defined irreversible wave. The interpretation of polarographic reduction wave was discussed. The diffusion coefficients of the three dyes were obtained. The aggregation constant in aqueous solution has been calculated in terms of monomer-dimer equilibrium. (author)

  5. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  6. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning. PMID:22421341

  7. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"mM) for...... 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed for...... the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by...

  8. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India); Mandal, Asit Baran, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T{sub s}) and denaturation temperature (T{sub d}) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T{sub s} of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  9. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Highlights: ► Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. ► Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. ► D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. ► D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. ► Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (Ts) and denaturation temperature (Td) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the Ts of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  10. Adsorption of acid dyes on Natural wool yarns

    The adsorption isotherms have been developed for two acid dyes (red and yellow azo dyes) individually on natural wool yarns. The study revealed strong interactions between the effects of solution ph, temperature and initial dye concentration. Equilibrium uptake data were fitted to the Redlich- Peterson isotherm model. The adsorption behaviour approaches Langmuir model at favourable conditions of higher temperature and lower ph for yellow dye. (authors). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Titanium(Ⅳ) Based on Oxidation Discoloration of Acid Chrome Blue K with Hydrogen Peroxide

    XIONG Yan; ZHOU Zhi-rong; WU Fu-hai

    2007-01-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of titanium(IV), based upon the catalytic effect of Ti(IV) on the oxidation of acid chrome blue K (ACBK) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.002 mol/L sulfuric acid, is described. The reaction rate is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of ACBK at 524 nm. The detection limit of the method is 1.01×10-9 g/mL, and the linear range is 0-0.048 mg/L. The influence of acidity, concentration of reactants, reaction time, reaction temperature and for-eign ions is also discussed. The optimum reaction conditions were established and some kinetic parameters determined. The apparent activation energy of the catalytic reaction is 5.32 kJ/mol. The relative standard deviation for the determi-nation of titanium(IV) at the concentration of 0.048 mg/L is calculated to be 1.31% (n = 11). In combination with sol-vent extraction separation, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of trace titanium(IV) in human hair, plant matter, tea and rock samples. The results are in good agreement with the certified values with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.4%-3.5%.

  12. Polarographic and voltammetric study of the Sc(III)-acid chrome blue K complex and determination of trace scandium

    A new system using a polarographic adsorptive wave for determining trace scandium was proposed. In 0.2 mol/L NH4OAc, the Sc(III)-ACBK [1,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfo-1-phenylazo)-3,6-disulfo-naphthalene, called acid chrome blue K] complex emerged a sensitive adsorptive complex wave (Ep' = -0.67V). The molar ratio of Sc(III) to ACBK in the complex was established as 1:2 and the apparent stability constant β2 = 2.7 x 1015. But for Y(III), the molar ratio was 1:1 and β=1.5 x 105. Because of the particularity of Sc complex, the sensitivity and the selectivity of determination Sc is much better than that of other rare earth ions. The detection limits is 1.1 x 10-7 mol/L for oscillopolarography and 2.0 x 10-8 mol/L for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

  13. Reclamation treatment of the chrome leather scrap

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to extract protein and Cr(III) from the chrome leather scrap discarded by leather industry is described.Chrome leather scarp was hydrolyzed under basic condition to remove chromium compound and extract protein. The extracted protein was mixed with substrate and used as feed protein after being dried and ground. The basic residue was treated with sulfuric acid to obtain chrome(III) sulfate which can be used as tanning agent again after adjusting pH with base. The acidic residue was processed and used as flower fertilizer. The safety of the protein powder produced has been by toxicology and nutriology test. This reclamation method has been industrialized.

  14. Utilization from Cement Kiln Dust in Removal of Acid Dyes

    Mohamed E.S.I. Saraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth of industries and day to day changes in human activities has resulted in an increase in the volume and complexity of wastewater to the environment. Textile industry is one of the most water consumers industries of Egypt, thus discharges large amounts of wastewater effluents during processing, especially, in the coloring and washing steps. Cement kiln dust is a solid waste in cement manufacturing. Approximately 2.5-3.0 (6-9% million tons of cement kiln dust is produced annually in Egypt and that cause significant environmental problems. Approach: This study aims to investigate removal of some acid dyes from aqueous solution using cement kiln dust and monitoring the dye in colored cement kiln dust. Solution with 0.4 g L-1 concentration was treated with cement kiln dust until the color of dye disappears. The colored cement kiln residue was separate by filtration and dried. The concentration of dye was measured before and after treatment by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as after washing of colored residue. Also, the colored residue was investigated with, XRD, IR and DSC techniques as well as the loss on ignition at 450°C. Results: The results found that the cement kiln dust has the power to remove all existing acid dyes and the residue has the same color of dye. When colored residue was washed with water, there was no back diffusion of dye in to water. This may be mainly due to chemical reaction that took place between cement kiln dust and dye. Thus analysis such as IR, XRD and DSC are in agreement with these results. Conclusion: CKD is efficient in the processes of dye removal from aqueous solutions. The interaction between acid dye and CKD is fast (just minutes. So, we suggest using spent CKD for dye removal of waste water.

  15. Ethylenediamine modified starch as biosorbent for acid dyes

    This work investigated the sorption performance of the ethylenediamine modified starch (CAS) for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH on adsorption of acid orange 10 (AO10), acid green 25 (AG25) and amido black 10B (AB10B) was evaluated. The sorption kinetics, equilibrium uptake and desorption of the loaded dyes in sodium sulfate solution were studied. It was found that the interaction mechanism was based on electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. The adsorption of AG25 and AB10B followed pseudo-second-order model, whereas AO10 followed both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The best isotherm was Langmuir equation and the capacities followed the sequence AB10B > AG25 > AO10. The different behaviors of individual dyes adsorption on CAS were largely dependent on the number of hydrophilic functional groups, which had strong tendency to form hydrogen bonds with the biosorbent. Dye release in sodium sulfate solutions was determined by the salt concentration and nature of dyes.

  16. Performance variation from triphenylamine- to carbazole-triphenylamine-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Highlights: → We synthesized an organic dye of carbazole-rhodaniline-3-acetic acid-triphenylamine. → A dye-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using this dye with efficiency of 4.64%. → Carbazole donor in the dye molecule provides electron in increasing efficiency. → Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acids play a key role in increasing efficiency. → AC impedance proves this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2. - Abstract: Organic dyes have been synthesized which contain an extra-electron donor (carbazole) and electron acceptors (rhodaniline-3-acetic acid) on triphenylamines (TPA). Photophysical, electrochemical, and theoretical computational methods have categorized these compounds. Nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated using these dye molecules as light-harvesting sensitizers. The overall efficiency of sensitized cells has 4.64% relative to a cis-di(thiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxylate ruthenium (II) (N3 dye)-sensitized device (7.83%) fabricated and measured under the same conditions. Carbazole-electron donation in the dye molecules plays a key role in the increased efficiency. Two rhodaniline-3-acetic acid groups appear to help convey the charge transfer from the excited dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2, leading to a higher efficiency of devices using such a dye. Electrochemical impedance supports this dye's effect on enhancing charge transfer in TiO2 (e-). Computations on this dye compound also indicate the larger charge transfer efficiency in the electronically excited state.

  17. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: The poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode

    Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A new modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of acid chrome blue K (ACBK) at a graphene-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The novel electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of eight β-agonist analytes with high sensitivity. -- Highlights: • Construction of the poly-ACBK/graphene-nafion/GCE. •The modified electrode showed high sensitivity for the analysis of the β-agonists. • A novel method was successfully developed for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork. • Research provided a new method of constructing electrodes for biological analysis. -- Abstract: A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists – clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0–36.0 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58–1.46 ng mL{sup −1} range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples.

  18. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: The poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode

    Graphical abstract: A new modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of acid chrome blue K (ACBK) at a graphene-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The novel electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of eight β-agonist analytes with high sensitivity. -- Highlights: • Construction of the poly-ACBK/graphene-nafion/GCE. •The modified electrode showed high sensitivity for the analysis of the β-agonists. • A novel method was successfully developed for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork. • Research provided a new method of constructing electrodes for biological analysis. -- Abstract: A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists – clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0–36.0 ng mL−1, respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58–1.46 ng mL−1 range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples

  19. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  20. Merocyanine-type dyes from barbituric acid derivatives

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Campodonico, Paola; Abuin, Elsa; Kossanyi, Jean

    2001-05-01

    The preparation and the solvatochromic behavior of two dyes, obtained by condensation of N, N'-dimethylbarbituric acid with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and with 4,4'-bis( N, N-dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone) are described. The latter dye is rather sensitive to the polarity of the medium, and in particular, to the hydrogen-bond-donor ability of protic solvents. The solvatochromism of both compounds is discussed in terms of the π* and ET(30) solvent polarity scales and their differences in behavior interpreted with the aid of semiempirical calculations.

  1. In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent.

    Mohan, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2006-08-21

    Electrochemical treatment of organic pollutants is a promising treatment technique for substances which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. Experiments were carried out to treat acid violet 12 dye house effluent using electrochemical technique for removal color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating conditions. Ruthenium/lead/tin oxide coated titanium and stainless steel were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte and the electrode material on rate of degradation has been critically examined. The results indicate that the electrochemical method can be used to treat dye house effluents. PMID:16730894

  2. Chitosan and chemically modified chitosan beads for acid dyes sorption

    AZLAN Kamari; WAN SAIME Wan Ngah; LAI KEN Liew

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of chitosan and chitosan-EGDE (ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) beads for removing Acid Red 37 (AR 37) and Acid Blue 25 (AB 25) from aqueous solution were examined. Chitosan beads were cross-linked with EGDE to enhance its chemical resistance and mechanical strength. Experiments were performed as a function of pH, agitation period and concentration of AR 37 and AB 25. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively higher than chitosan-EGDE for both acid dyes. This is mainly because cross-linking using EGDE reduces the major adsorption sites -NH3+ on chitosan. Langmuir isotherm model showed best conformity compared to Freundlich and BET. The kinetic experimental data agreed very well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The desorption study revealed that after three cycles of adsorption and desorption by NaOH and HCl, both adsorbents retained their promising adsorption abilities. FT-IR analysis proved that the adsorption of acid dyes onto chitosan-based adsorbents was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan-EGDE beads were favourable adsorbers and could be employed as low-cost alternatives for the removal of acid dyes in wastewater treatment.

  3. Studies on Synthesis and Dyeing Preformance of Acid Dyes Based on 4,7-Dihydroxy-1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dione

    Patel, B. V.; Dasondi, P. H.

    2008-01-01

    Some new azo acid dyes were prepared by coupling various diazotized acid components such as anthranilic acid, sulphanilic acid, laurent acid, peri acid, tobias acid, H-acid, J-acid, gamma acid, sulphotobias acid, 4-aminotoluiene-3-sulphonic acid, 5-sulpho- anthranilic acid, 2-naphthylamine-3,6,8-trisulphonic acid, bronner acid, metanilic acid and cleve acid with 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dione. The dyes were characterized by elemental, IR and TLC analyses. Their dyeing performance...

  4. The quantitative histochemistry of ribonucleic acid using gallocyanin.

    Brown, A; Scholtz, C L

    1979-03-01

    A method for the cytophotometric estimation of ribonucleic acid in tissue sections using gallocyanin-chrome alum is described. The dye obeys Beer's law in gelatin sections. The effect of deoxyribonuclease on the staining of ribonucleic acid is also investigated. The results indicate that this method is of value in the quantitation of ribonucleic acid. PMID:91237

  5. The CHROME Honors Program

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  6. Chromatographic characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings

    Edivaldo E Garcia; Cláudia C.M Kimura; Ariovaldo C Martins; Gisele O Rocha; Jorge Nozaki

    1999-01-01

    Gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were employed for separation and chemical characterization of products isolated from chrome shavings. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the products isolated were peptides of higher molecular weight. Peptides of lower molecular weight and free aminoacids were the main products using sulfuric acid in chrome shavings solubilization. Glycine (17%) , glutamic acid (10.6%) , alanine (9.2%) , and arginine (8.2%) were the principal a...

  7. Carbazole dye with phosphonic acid anchoring groups for long-term heat stability of dye-sensitized solar cells

    In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the binding strength between the dye and TiO2 surface may affect the heat stability of the DSSCs. Carboxylic acids have generally been used as the anchoring groups for the adsorption of dyes on TiO2 surfaces. However, a phosphonic acid anchor is expected to effect more stable bonding to a TiO2 surface because of its tridentate binding capability. In this study, we developed a new carbazole dye that employed a phosphonic acid anchor, MK-94. We studied the effect of the dye anchoring group on the heat stability of DSSCs by comparing MK-94, MK-2 (a carbazole dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group), and Z-907 (a well-known, robust Ru complex dye with a carboxylic acid anchoring group). In the initial performance assessment, the DSSC with MK-94 exhibited a lower short circuit current (jsc) but a higher open circuit voltage (ΔVoc) than MK-2. With respect to heat stability, decreases in jsc and ΔVoc were suppressed with MK-94, and the drop of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was kept within 6% after 504 h of heating. In addition, MK-94 demonstrated the longest electron lifetime and largest charge transfer resistance than the other dyes during the stability test. In contrast, the PCE decreased 27% from the initial value in the DSSC with MK-2. Thus, the phosphonic acid anchor was effective in extending the long-term heat stability of the DSSCs

  8. Sorption of Acid Dyes onto Silica Modified with Cetrltrimethylammonium Cations

    TahirImranQureshi; Dong-IkSong; 等

    2002-01-01

    The sorption behavior of acid dyes onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified silica as a function of pH in the aqueous medium was studied. Single-and multi-solute sorption equilibria of orange Ⅱ(OR), phenol red (PR) and Eriochrome Black T (EBT) were studied at pH 3, unbuffered water pH and pH 11. Sorption behavior of EBT could not be conducted at pH3 due to its aggregation in acidic medium. All the reaction conditions, experimental protocols and techniques remained the same throughout the sorption process. Sorption isotherms for single-solute system were fitted by the Langmuir model, while Langmuir competitive model (LCM) and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with Langmuir model (IAST/Langmuir) were used for the prediction of multisolute competitive sorption. Sorption affinities influenced by the factors like physical interactive forces between the molecules of CTA on silica and sorbate, structural limitations of the dyes based on their geometrical arrangement were investigated. Sorption affinity of OR was found to be higher than that of EBT and PR at all the pH values investigated. Magnitude of the sorption capacities was observed to be higher in acidic medium but lower in alkaline medium. Trends of the sorption affinities in multisolute system were simlar to those in single-solute system but magnitude of the sorption capacities was significantly reduced due to the prevailing competition among the sorbates.

  9. Lung cancer in Yorkshire chrome platers, 1972-97

    Sorahan, T; Harrington, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate mortality from lung cancer in chrome platers, a group exposed to chromic acid.
METHODS—The mortality of a cohort of 1087 chrome platers (920 men, 167 women) from 54 plants situated in the West Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1972-97. All subjects were employed as chrome platers for ⩾3 months and all were alive on 31 May 1972. Mortality data were also available for a cohort of 1163 comparison workers with no known occupational expo...

  10. Properties of a novel acid dye 1-amino-4-[(6-nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)amino]-9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid with anti-UV capability

    2010-01-01

    A novel acid dye acid was synthesized by the condensation reaction between bromamine acid and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole and its anti-UV protection properties were evaluated.The results showed that silk dyed with this dye had very good ultraviolet radiation protection capability and excellent dyeing performance.The UV-absorption mechanism of this dye was also discussed.

  11. ALTERNATIVE TO CHROME ETCHING PROCESSES FOR METALS

    Several industries, including the National Center for Manufacturing Science have initiated programs for chrome abatement. The programs, however, generally focus on chrome reduction by use of existing technologies and do not address the elimination of chrome in pretreatment proces...

  12. Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid

    Lozano-Alvarez, J.; Jauregui-Rincon, J.; Mendoza-Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, G.; Frausto-Reyes, C.

    2009-07-01

    Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

  13. Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid

    Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

  14. Effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye extracted from Curcuma longa L.

    Agustia, Yuda Virgantara; Suyitno, Arifin, Zainal; Sutanto, Bayu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of acidity on the energy level of curcumin dye. The natural dye, curcumin, was synthesized from Curcuma longa L. using a simple extraction technique. The purification of curcumin dye was conducted in a column of chromatography and its characteristics were studied. Next, the purified curcumin dye was added by benzoic acids until various acidities of 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0. The absorbance spectra and the functionality groups found in the dyes were detected by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy level of the dyes, EHOMO and ELUMO was measured by cyclic voltammetry. The best energy level of curcumin dye was achieved at pH 3.5 where Ered = -0.37V, ELUMO = -4.28 eV, Eox = 1.15V, EHOMO = -5.83 eV, and Eband gap = 1.55 eV. Therefore, the purified curcumin dye added by benzoic acid was promising for sensitizing the dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(VI) with chrome azurol S and benzyldimethyllaurylammonium bromide

    Trace quantities of uranium are often determined by spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction of uranyl ions with triphenylmethane dyes, e.g. with chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R, aluminone, or methyl blue. Sensitivity of the methods in which chrome azurol S was used appeared to be 3x104 l.mol-1.cm-1. We have observed that benzyldimethyllaurylammonium bromide (Sterinol ST) is a good reagent, improving the sensitivity in the U(VI) determination by means of chrome azurol S. Previously we had successfully used this reagent for the determination of trace amounts of Be, Al, In and V(IV). (orig./EF)

  16. Chicken feather fibres waste as a low-cost biosorbent of acid Blue 80 dye

    García Sabido, Daniel; López Mesas, Montserrat; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Chicken feathers (CFs), waste from the poultry industry, were tested as biosorbent for colour removal of synthetic coloured water. Biosorption kinetics and isotherms were determined to provide an explanation to the physicochemical behaviour of the biosorption process of C.I. Acid Blue 80 dye on CFs. Up to 80% of the dye was biosorbed at 50°C demonstrating the biosorbent potential of the waste for the removal of organic dyes. Moreover, two mathematical approaches have been used to estimate the...

  17. Removal of Acid Alizarin Black Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption using Zinc Oxide

    Haydar A. Mohammad Salim

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of Acid Alizarin Black (AAB) dye (C.I. 21725) on zinc oxide was investigated in this study. The adsorption was carried out under different operating conditions. The operating conditions were adsorbent dosage (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg), initial dye concentration (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mg/L), pH of solution (2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12) and temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 oC). The removal percentage of dye on ZnO decreases from 67 % to 54 % with increase in initial dye c...

  18. Modification of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria

    Identification of microorganisms capable of utilizing azo dyes have been an area of significant interest due to their role in the treatment of waste water derived from the textile industry. The ability of L. casei LA1133 and L. paracasei LA0471 to modify the azo dye tartrazine was recently document...

  19. Refinement of Aluminum Thermal Chrome

    Refinement of aluminum thermal chrome of the X98.5 mark by a high-temperature annealing in high vacuum is explored experimentally. It is shown that at the temperature of annealing 1150 C during 1...6 hours the content of such interstitial impurity as nitrogen is essentially depressed in chrome, and also the content of aluminum and iron admixtures is noticeably moderated

  20. Removal of some basic dyes by poly (Vinyl Alcohol/ acrylic acid)Hydrogel

    A study has made on the preparation and properties of poly (vinyl alcohol/ acrylic acid) hydrogel for the purpose of removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of dose and monomer concentration on the uptake property of the hydrogel toward dye was studied. The uptake of basic methylene blue-9 dye with PVA/AAc was studied by the batch adsorption technique. The effect of pH on the dye uptake was demonstrated to find out that the suitable pH for maximum uptake occurred at pH 5. It was observed that as the concentration of dye is increased the dye uptake decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of dye by hydrogels increased as the temperature was elevated. The recovery of dye adsorbed is possible by treating the hydrogel with 5% HCl. The results obtained suggested this hydrogel possessed good removal properties towards basic methylene blue-9 dye, and this suggests that such hydrogels could be acceptable for practical uses

  1. The oxidation of acid azo dye AY 36 by a manganese oxide containing mine waste

    Highlights: ► This study looks at the oxidative breakdown of the amine containing dye acid yellow 36 by a Mn oxide containing mine waste. ► The oxidation proceeds by successive one electron transfers between the dye molecule and the Mn oxide minerals. ► The initial decolorization of the dye is rapid, but does not involve the cleavage of the azo bond. -- Abstract: The oxidative breakdown of acid azo dye acid yellow 36 (AY 36) by a Mn oxide containing mine tailings is demonstrated. The oxidation reaction is pH dependent with the rate of decolorization increasing with decreasing pH. The oxidation reaction mechanism is initiated at the amino moiety and proceeds via successive, one electron transfers from the dye to the Mn oxide minerals. The reaction pathway involves the formation of a number of colorless intermediate products, some of which hydrolyze in a Mn oxide-independent step. Decolorization of the dye is rapid and is observed before the cleavage of the azo-bond, which is a slower process. The terminal oxidation products were observed to be p-benzoquinone and 3-hydroxybenzenesulfonate. The reaction order of the initial decolorization was determined to be pseudo fractional order with respect to pH and pseudo first order with respect to dye concentration and Mn tailings’ surface area

  2. Enzyme-mediated bacterial biodegradation of an azo dye (C.I. Acid blue 113): reuse of treated dye wastewater in post-tanning operations.

    Senthilvelan, T; Kanagaraj, J; Panda, R C

    2014-11-01

    "Dyeing" is a common practice used to color the hides during the post-tanning operations in leather processing generating plenty of wastewater. The waste stream containing dye as pollutant is severely harmful to living beings. An azo dye (C.I. Acid Blue 113) has been biodegraded effectively by bacterial culture mediated with azoreductase enzyme to reduce the pollution load in the present investigation. The maximum rate of dye degradation was found to be 96 ± 4 and 92 ± 4 % for the initial concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, respectively. The enzyme activity was measured using NADH as a substrate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was confirmed that the transformation of azo linkage could be transformed into N2 or NH3 or incorporated into complete biomass. Breaking down of dye molecules to various metabolites (such as aniline, naphthalene-1,4-diamine, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 8-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid, 5,8-diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) was confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectra (GC-MS) and mass (electrospray ionization (ESI)) spectra analysis. The treated wastewater could be reused for dyeing operation in the leather processing, and the properties of produced leather were evaluated by conventional methods that revealed to have improved dye penetration into the grain layer of experimental leather sample and resulted in high levelness of dyeing, which helps to obtain the desired smoothness and soft leather properties. PMID:25163883

  3. Application of dyeing acid pH-07 in polyester dyeing%染色酸pH-07在涤纶染色中的应用

    胡啸林; 黄小林; 杨勇

    2011-01-01

    染色酸pH-07为复合型有机酸,在涤纶染色中用作pH调节剂,有很好的安全性和高温染色适用性:其使用效果及染色效果优于冰醋酸;且pH值缓冲能力极强,能确保染浴pH值稳定:染色重现性较优.%Dyeing acid pH-07 is a composite organic acid which is used as pH regulator with good safety and applicability in high-temperature dyeing of polyester. Its effect of utili ing and dyeing are better than acetic acid. Besides that, its buffer capacity of pH value is extremely strong, which can ensure stability of pH value in dye bath and good dyeing reproducibility.

  4. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange. PMID:27082258

  5. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L-1, NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation.

  6. Stable dye-labelled oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates for nucleic acid detection

    Barrett, Lee; Dougan, Jennifer A.; Faulds, Karen; Graham, Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Metallic nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides are used for a number of nucleic acid detection strategies. However, oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to certain conditions associated with DNA detection assays. In this study, we report the synthesis of thiol and thioctic acid-modified oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle (OGNs) conjugates functionalized with a dye label and varying spacer groups. The thioctic acid-modified conjugates exhibit increased stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared to the more commonly used thiol modification. When the dye labelled oligonucleotide nanoparticle conjugates are exposed to the same conditions there is a pronounced increase in the stability for both thioctic acid and thiol modified sequences. These results open up the possibility of simply using a dye label to enhance the stability of oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates in DNA detection assays where the enhanced stability of the conjugate system can be advantageous in more complex biological environments.

  7. Mineralization of sulfonated azo dyes and sulfanilic acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Streptomyces chromofuscus.

    Paszczynski, A; Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Goszczynski, S; Crawford, R L; Crawford, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Five 14C-radiolabeled azo dyes and sulfanilic acid were synthesized and used to examine the relationship between dye substitution patterns and biodegradability (mineralization to CO2) by a white-rot fungus and an actinomycete. 4-Amino-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid and 4-(3-sulfo-4-aminophenylazo)-[U-14C]benzenesulfonic acid were used as representative compounds having sulfo groups or both sulfo and azo groups. Such compounds are not known to be present in the biosphere as natural products. The ...

  8. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    Vijay Kumar Singhal; Balbir Singh Deswal; Bachu Narayan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. Objectives:(1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust,...

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells using retinoic acid and carotenoic acids: Dependence of performance on the conjugation length and the dye concentration

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fujii, Ritsuko; Ito, Seigo; Koyama, Yasushi; Yamano, Yumiko; Ito, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yanagida, Shozo

    2005-11-01

    Titanium oxide-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated by the use of retinoic acid and carotenoic acids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n = 5-13. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, the photocurrent density and the solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency exhibited the highest values at n = 7, and then decreased toward both sides. The effects of dilution of CA7 with deoxycholic acid were also examined. The above parameters per unit CA7 concentration progressively increased toward the lowest concentration, which is ascribed to the isolated excitation free from singlet-triplet annihilation in the dye molecules on the TiO 2 layer.

  10. Skin testing of gallic acid-based hair dye in paraphenylenediamine/paratoluenediamine-reactive patients.

    Choi, Yunseok; Lee, Joon Ho; Kwon, Hyok Bu; An, Susun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to para-phenylenediamine (PPD)/paratoluenediamine (PTD) hair dyes is increasing. Hair dyes utilizing gallic acid (GA) may be a safe alternative. However, pretesting is recommended. We investigated the contact sensitivity to ingredients of a dye product; GA, monoethanolamine thioglycolate (MT), l-cystein and ferrous sulfate, and an appropriate pretest method in 31 patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. An open test was performed with the test dye following the patch test. Subsequently, a use test was performed twice, with a 4-week interval. One subject showed a positive reaction to ferrous sulfate in the patch test. Another subject reacted to the first compound alone in the open test. Thirteen subjects manifesting cutaneous lesions from previous regular hair dyeing, showed reactions at the first use of the test dye; and six had reactions with reduced severity at the second test. GA and MT are safe for use in ACD patients reactive to PPD and/or PTD. For predicting contact allergy to hair dyes, the open test appeared to be a better pretest method than the patch test. PMID:26663148

  11. A method for concentrating organic dyes: colorimetric measurements of nitric oxides and sialic acids.

    Lalezari, Parviz; Lekhraj, Rukmani; Casper, Diana

    2011-09-01

    A new method for extraction and concentration of organic dyes that uses a reagent composed of a nonionic detergent mixed with an alcohol is described. We have observed that water-soluble organic dyes are also soluble in nonionic detergents and can be extracted by adding salt, which separates the dye-detergent component from the aqueous phase. We have also found that mixing nonionic detergents with alcohols markedly reduces their viscosity and produces stable, free-flowing, and effective reagents for color extraction. On the basis of these observations, we used a mixture of Triton X-100 and 1-butanol and observed that water-soluble natural and synthetic chromophores, as well as dyes generated in biochemical reactions, can be extracted, concentrated, and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Trypan blue and phenol red are used as examples of synthetic dyes, and red wine is used as an example of phenolic plant pigments. Applications for quantification of nitric oxides and sialic acids are described in more detail and show that as little as 0.15 nmol of nitric oxide and 0.20 nmol of sialic acid can be detected. A major advantage of this method is its ability to concentrate chromophores from dye-containing solutions that otherwise cannot be measured because of their low concentrations. PMID:21605540

  12. Ozonation of acid yellow 17 dye in a semi-batch bubble column

    A semi-batch bubble column was used to evaluate the effect of ozonation on the removal of acid yellow 17 dye from water. Results indicate that ozonation is very effective at removing acid yellow 17 dye from synthetic textile wastewater. The ozone consumed to apparent dye removal ratio ranged from 2 to 15,000 mg ozone per mg of dye decolorized and was dependent on both ozonation time and apparent dye concentration. The biodegradability of the dye wastewater was evaluated by monitoring changes in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) with respect to chemical oxygen demand (COD). Results indicate that the wastewater biodegradability increased with an increase in ozonation time. Film theory was used to kinetically model the gas-liquid reactions occurring in the reactor. Modeling results indicated that during the first 10-15 min of ozonation, the system could be characterized by a fast, pseudo-first-order regime. With continued ozonation, system kinetics transitioned through a moderate then to a slow regime. Successful modeling of this period required use of a kinetic equation corresponding to a more inclusive condition. Model results are presented

  13. Application of Polyaniline Nano Composite for the Adsorption of Acid Dye from Aqueous Solutions

    Baseri, J.Raffiea; P. N. Palanisamy; P. Sivakumar

    2012-01-01

    In this research, Polyaniline coated sawdust (Polyaniline nano composite) was synthesized via direct chemical polymerization and used as an adsorbent for the removal of acid dye (Acid Violet 49) from aqueous solutions. The effect of some important parameters such as pH, initial concentration of dye, contact time and temperature on the removal efficiency was investigated in batch adsorption system. The adsorption capacity of PAC was high (96.84 %) at a pH of 3-4. The experimental data fitted w...

  14. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  15. Removal of Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using Radiation Synthesized (2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate/Acrylic acid) Hydrogels

    Acrylic acid/2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate super absorbent hydrogels (AAc/ HEMA) were prepared by γ-radiation copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid (AAc). Characterization of AAc/HEMA hydrogel was done by FTIR, TGA, SEM and XRD. The swelling properties were studied as a function of time, ph and irradiation dose. The diffusion behavior of water into these hydrogels followed the Fickian character at all investigated irradiation doses. The adsorption of Direct Congo Red and Direct Blue dyes onto the AAc/ HEMA hydrogel was studied. Physico-chemical parameters like dye concentration, solution ph and temperature were varied to characterize the adsorption phenomenon. Experimental data were modeled by Freundlich isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters ( ΔHo, ΔGo and ΔSo ) were evaluated for the dyes adsorbent systems, which suggest that the adsorption process is a typical physical process and endothermic in nature

  16. Removal of cationic dyes by poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels in aqueous solutions

    Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid (poly(AAm-co-AAc)) hydrogels prepared by irradiating with γ-radiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and uptake of some cationic dyes such as Safranine-O (SO) and Magenta (M). Poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels irradiated at 8.0 kGy have been used for swelling and diffusion studies in water and cationic dye solutions. The maximum swellings in water, and SO, and M solutions observed are 2700%, 3500%, and 4000%, respectively. Diffusions of water and cationic dyes within hydrogels have been found to be non-Fickian in character. Adsorption of the cationic dyes onto poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels is studied by the batch adsorption technique. The adsorption type was found Langmuir type in the Giles classification system. The moles of adsorbed dye for SO and M per repeating unit in hydrogel (binding ratio, r) have been calculated as 3834x10-6 and 1323x10-6, respectively. These results show that poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as cationic dyes

  17. Low-Chrome/Chrome Free Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers

    Gasifiers are containment vessels used to react carbon-containing materials with oxygen and water, producing syngas (CO and H2) that is used in chemical and power production. It is also a potential source of H2 in a future hydrogen economy. Air cooled slagging gasifiers are one type of gasifier, operating at temperatures from 1275-1575 C and at pressures of 400 psi or higher. They typically use coal or petroleum coke as the carbon source, materials which contain ash impurities that liquefy at the gasification temperatures, producing liquid slag in quantities of 100 or more tons/day, depending on the carbon fed rate and the percent ash present in the feedstock. The molten slag is corrosive to refractory linings, causing chemical dissolution and spalling. The refractory lining is composed of chrome oxide, alumina, and zirconia; and is replaced every 3-24 months. Gasifier users would like greater on-line availability and reliability of gasifier liners, something that has impacted gasifier acceptance by industry. Research is underway at NETL to improve refractory service life and to develop a no-chrome or low-chrome oxide alternative refractory liner. Over 250 samples of no- or low-chrome oxide compositions have been evaluated for slag interactions by cup testing; with potential candidates for further studies including those with ZrO2, Al2O3, and MgO materials. The development of improved liner materials is necessary if technologies such as IGCC and DOE's Near Zero Emissions Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Plant are to be successful and move forward in the marketplace

  18. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  19. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5α was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters. PMID:26062529

  20. Studies on Synthesis and Dyeing Preformance of Acid Dyes Based on 4,7-Dihydroxy-3,8-di-α-naphthylazo-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-Dione

    Patel, B. V.; Dasondi, P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Some new azo acid dyes were prepared by coupling various diazotized acid components such as anthranilic acid, sulphanilic acid, laurentacid, peri acid, tobias acid, H-acid, J-acid, gamma acid, sulphotobias acid,4-aminotoluiene-3-sulphonic acid, 5-sulpho- anthranilic acid, 2-naphthylamine-3,6,8-trisulphonic acid, bronner acid, metanilic acid and cleve acid with 4,7-dihydroxy-3,8-di-α-naphthylazo-1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dione. The dyes were characterized by elemental, IR and TLC analyses. Their...

  1. Membrane-Inspired Acidically Stable Dye-Sensitized Photocathode for Solar Fuel Production.

    Click, Kevin A; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Chen, Weilin; Wu, Yiying

    2016-02-01

    Tandem dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPECs) for water splitting are a promising method for sustainable energy conversion but so far have been limited by their lack of aqueous stability and photocurrent mismatch between the cathode and anode. In nature, membrane-enabled subcellular compartmentation is a general approach to control local chemical environments in the cell. The hydrophobic tails of the lipid make the bilayer impermeable to ions and hydrophilic molecules. Herein we report the use of an organic donor-acceptor dye that prevents both dye desorption and semiconductor degradation by mimicking the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of lipid bilayer membranes. The dual-functional photosensitizer (denoted as BH4) allows for efficient light harvesting while also protecting the semiconductor surface from protons and water via its hydrophobic π linker. The protection afforded by this membrane-mimicking dye gives this system excellent stability in extremely acidic (pH 0) conditions. The acidic stability also allows for the use of cubane molybdenum-sulfide cluster as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst. This system produces a proton-reducing current of 183 ± 36 μA/cm(2) (0 V vs NHE with 300 W Xe lamp) for an unprecedented 16 h with no degradation. These results introduce a method for developing high-current, low-pH DSPECs and are a significant move toward practical dye-sensitized solar fuel production. PMID:26744766

  2. An NMR study of merocyanine-type dyes derived from barbituric acid

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Flores, Patricio; Guerrero, Juan; Villarroel, Luis

    2004-06-01

    The 13C NMR of two solvatochromic dyes derived from a barbituric acid acceptor and dimethylaminophenyl donor fragments, compound 1 and the related merocyanine 2, were recorded in various solvents. The observed chemical-shift variations were used to interpret their structural differences and solvatochromic behavior in solution.

  3. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Clark, Daniel D.

    2007-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  4. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  5. Streamlining Book Requests with Chrome

    Dr. Rachel Schulkins; Joseph Schulkins

    2015-01-01

    This article starts by examining why a Chrome Extension was desired and how we saw it making the workflow for requesting new items both easier and more accurate. We then go on to outline how we constructed our extension, looking at the folder structure, third party scripts and services that combine to make this achievable. Finally, the article looks at how the extension is regulated and plans for future development.

  6. Streamlining Book Requests with Chrome

    Dr. Rachel Schulkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article starts by examining why a Chrome Extension was desired and how we saw it making the workflow for requesting new items both easier and more accurate. We then go on to outline how we constructed our extension, looking at the folder structure, third party scripts and services that combine to make this achievable. Finally, the article looks at how the extension is regulated and plans for future development.

  7. Determination of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls and surface area of lignin by cationic dye adsorption

    Sipponen, Mika Henrikki; Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Littunen, Kuisma; Pastinen, Ossi; Laakso, Simo

    2014-01-01

    A new colorimetric method for determining the surface-accessible acidic lignin hydroxyl groups in lignocellulose solid fractions was developed. The method is based on selective adsorption of Azure B, a basic dye, onto acidic hydroxyl groups of lignin. Selectivity of adsorption of Azure B on lignin was demonstrated using lignin and cellulose materials as adsorbents. Adsorption isotherms of Azure B on wheat straw (WS), sugarcane bagasse (SGB), oat husk, and isolated lignin materials were determ...

  8. Removal of rhodamine B (a basic dye) and thoron (an acidic dye) from dilute aqueous solutions and wastewater simulants by ion flotation.

    Shakir, Kamal; Elkafrawy, Ahmed Faouzy; Ghoneimy, Hussein Fouad; Elrab Beheir, Shokry Gad; Refaat, Mamdoh

    2010-03-01

    The present work deals with removal, by ion flotation, of two dyes: a basic dye (rhodamine B (RB)) and an acidic one (thoron (TH)) from dilute aqueous solutions and simulated wastewaters. These dyes are widely used for analytical and biological staining purposes. Besides, RB is commonly used in dyeing of various industrial products. Therefore, wastewaters emanating from chemical and radiochemical laboratories, and biomedical and biological research laboratories may be contaminated with RB and TH. Ion flotation of these dyes has been investigated over a wide range of pH using the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) and the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collectors. Successful removals could be achieved for RB and TH with the anionic collector, NaLS, and the cationic collector, CTAB, respectively. In addition to the effects of pH and type of collector on the efficiency of removal of each dye, the effects of collector and dye concentrations, frother dosage, ionic strength, bubbling time period and presence of foreign salts were investigated and the optimal removal conditions have been established. Removals exceeding 99.5 % and 99.9% could be achieved for RB and TH, respectively. The results obtained are discussed with respect to dissociation of dye, type of collector, ionic strength and sign and magnitude of charge of added foreign ions. Kinetics of flotation were also studied. Further studies demonstrate that under optimum conditions the developed flotation processes can be applied for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewaters simulated to those generated at dyeing industries and radiochemical laboratories. PMID:19942250

  9. Binding of phenazinium dye safranin T to polyriboadenylic acid: spectroscopic and thermodynamic study.

    Ankur Bikash Pradhan

    Full Text Available Here, we report results from experiments designed to explore the association of the phenazinium dye safranin T (ST, 3,7-diamino-2,8-dimethyl-5-phenylphenazinium chloride with single and double stranded form of polyriboadenylic acid (hereafter poly-A using several spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that the dye binds to single stranded polyriboadenylic acid (hereafter ss poly-A with high affinity while it does not interact at all with the double stranded (ds form of the polynucleotide. Fluorescence and absorption spectral studies reveal the molecular aspects of binding of ST to single stranded form of the polynucleotide. This observation is also supported by the circular dichroism study. Thermodynamic data obtained from temperature dependence of binding constant reveals that association is driven by negative enthalpy change and opposed by negative entropy change. Ferrocyanide quenching studies have shown intercalative binding of ST to ss poly-A. Experiments on viscosity measurements confirm the binding mode of the dye to be intercalative. The effect of [Na⁺] ion concentration on the binding process suggests the role of electrostatic forces in the complexation. Present studies reveal the utility of the dye in probing nucleic acid structure.

  10. Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Acid Yellow 36 Dye by Pinecone

    Amir Sheikh Mohammadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Dyes have significant role in environmental problems, due to their toxic effects on the food chain and sources of water. The purpose of this research was to study the adsorption of acid yellow 36 dye onto pinecone using batch system. Materials & Methods: This research was performed at laboratory scale and batch system. Equilibrium isotherms were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models. Also kinetic studies were done by three models of pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and intra-particle diffusion. Results: The maximum adsorption was achieved at pH 5.0, adsorbent dose 0.7 g/l and contact time 20 min. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (mg/g increased with increasing initial dye concentration. The Langmuir model (R2=0.99 provided the best fit for the experimental data. The adsorption kinetics were studied and best fit was achieved by pseudo- second order model (R2= 0.96. Conclusions: According to the results obtained of equilibrium and kinetic studies on the adsorption of acid yellow 36, pinecone can be a suitable and efficient adsorbent in the removal of yellow acid 36 dye from industrial wastewater.

  11. Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Chloroacetic Acid Modified Ferula Communis Based Adsorbent: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    Salih, Shameran Jamal

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This research aimed to propose an alternative cheap and abundantly available adsorbent (Ferula communis) for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions. Chloroacetic acid modified Ferula communis (MFC) shows a great potential for the removal of basic red 9 dyes (BR9) from aqueous solution with the effects of solution capacity under pH, temperature, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration condition on BR9 removal were examined. The adsorption equilibrium d...

  12. Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (φ) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

  13. Time resolved fluorescence anisotropy of basic dyes bound to poly(methacrylic acid in solution

    Oliveira Hueder Paulo M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of atactic poly(methacrylic acid, PMAA, with molecular weights in the range of (1.6 to 3.4 x 10(5 g mol-1, and labeled with the fluorescent dyes 9-aminoacridine or Nile blue were studied by photophysical measurements as a function of solvent viscosity and polarity. The conformational behavior of the PMAA chain segments around the fluorescent probe was reported by the change in the rotational diffusion of the dyes. Ethylene glycol swells the polymer chain compared with the more contracted conformation of PMAA in 50% water/ethylene glycol. The change in the rotational relaxation time of the dye bound to PMAA with the decrease of water content in the solvent mixture indicates a progressive expansion of polymer chain to a more open coil form in solution.

  14. Ruthenium(II) multi carboxylic acid complexes: chemistry and application in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Nasouti, Fahimeh; Sousaraei, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    Novel ruthenium multi carboxylic complexes (RMCCs) have been synthesized by using ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4btec) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) as photosensitizers for titanium dioxide semiconductor solar cells. The complexes were characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ICP and CHN analyses. The reaction details and features were then described. SEM analysis revealed that the penetration of dyes into the pores of the nanocrystalline TiO2 surface was improved by increasing the number of btec units. The solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency of complexes shows that the number of attached carboxylates on a dye has an influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized electrode. An incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 13% at 510 nm was obtained for ruthenium complexes with three btec units. PMID:24500312

  15. The stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their impact on microbial phospholipid fatty acid profiles.

    Imran, Muhammad; Shaharoona, Baby; Crowley, David E; Khalid, Azeem; Hussain, Sabir; Arshad, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the stability of structurally different azo dyes in soil and their impact on the microbial community composition by analyzing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Sterile and non-sterile soils were amended with three azo dyes, including: Direct Red 81, Reactive Black 5 and Acid Yellow 19 at 160mgkg(-1) soil. The results showed that the azo dyes were quite stable and that large amounts of these dyes ranging from 17.3% to 87.5% were recoverable from the sterile and non-sterile soils after 14 days. The maximum amount of dye was recovered in the case of Direct Red 81. PLFA analysis showed that the azo dyes had a significant effect on microbial community structure. PLFA concentrations representing Gram-negative bacteria in dye-amended soil were substantially less as compared to the PLFA concentration of Gram-positive bacteria. Acid Yellow 19 dye had almost similar effects on the PLFA concentrations representing bacteria and fungi. In contrast, Reactive Black 5 had a greater negative effect on fungal PLFA than that on bacterial PLFA, while the opposite was observed in the case of Direct Red 81. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their effects on soil microbial community composition. PMID:26074308

  16. Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    Saied Bashiri; Gholam Hossein Safari; Abdeltif Amrane; Mohammad Noori Sepehr; Mansur Zarrabi; Mohammad Reza Samarghandi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the e...

  17. Removal of Congo Red and Acid Yellow 36 Dye Using Orange Peel and Rice Husk as Absorbent

    K. N. Ranjini; W.A. Wan-Nurdiyana

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have identified the capability of agricultural wastes as absorbents to remove different types of pollutants including dyes. This study represents the use of orange peel (OP) and rice husk (RH) to remove two types of dye, Congo Red (CR) and Acid Yellow 36 (AY 36) dye and provides simple comparison between granular form of OP and RH and activated form of OP and RH. Both types of dyes are toxic and can cause severe problems to the environment. Factor such as absorbent dosage was...

  18. Viscoelasticity Studies for Chrome-Free Leather

    Chrome-free leather such as glutaraldehyde-tanned leather behaves very differently from chrome-tanned leather. Information regarding its viscoelasticity has not been reported. Hysteresis and stress relaxation are two essential properties associated with viscoelasticity. We have designed a cyclic ...

  19. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  20. Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies on Adsorption of Acid Red 18 (Azo-Dye) Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) from Aqueous Solution

    Shirmardi, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; MAHVI, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are one of the synthetic dyes that are used in many textile industries. Adsorption is one of the most effective techniques for removal of dye-contaminated wastewater. In this work, efficiency of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as an adsorbent for removal of Acid Red 18 (azo-dye) from aqueous solution was determined. The parameters affecting the adsorption process such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration were studied. Experimental results have sh...

  1. Le chrome en milieu marin

    Chiffoleau, Jean-francois

    1994-01-01

    Le présent document constitue une synthèse des connaissances sur le cycle biogéochimique du chrome. Les sources naturelles et anthropiques sont étudiées, les échanges entre les différents compartiments géochimiques sont évalués, avec une attention particulière portée à la quantification des apports aussi bien des fleuves que de l'atmosphère au milieu marin. Les niveaux de concentration dans ces compartiments sont évalués, et montrent que l'on rencontre dans certaines régions des contamination...

  2. Chrome recycling from leather solid wastes

    Leather processing is one of the industrial activities that generate chromium bearing wastes in different forms, one of them is chrome shavings which contributes about 10% of the quantum raw skins /hides, and causes on burning dangerous human hazardous. Hydrolysis processes by different alkalis such as (LiOK KOH, NaOH) have been applied to recover chrome from solid wastes. The extent of hydrolysis was studied as a function of alkalis concentrations, in presence and absence of reducing agents, shaking time and temperature. Hydrolysis process exhibits 99%, 98% and 97%, chrome recovery for LiOH, KOH and NaOH respectively. The recovered chrome has been used in retaining process, examined through visual and mechanical tests of leather samples. The evaluation of the tanning process with recovered chrome gave acceptable results

  3. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  4. A time-dependent, two-step binding mode of the nitro dye flavianic acid to trypsin in acid media

    Schneedorf J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes bind to proteins causing selective coprecipitation of the complexes in acid aqueous solution by a process of reversible denaturation that can be used as an alternative method for protein fractionation. The events that occur before precipitation were investigated by equilibrium dialysis using bovine trypsin and flavianic acid as a model able to cause coprecipitation. A two-step mode of interaction was found to be dependent on the incubation periods allowed for binding, with pronounced binding occurring after 42 h of incubation. The first step seems to involve hydration effects and conformational changes induced by binding of the first dye molecule, following rapid denaturation due to the binding of six additional flavianate anions to the macromolecule.

  5. Adsorption of acid and basic dyes by sludge-based activated carbon:Isotherm and kinetic studies

    李鑫; 王广智; 李伟光; 王萍; 宿程远

    2015-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the adsorption of an acid dye (Acid Orange 51) and a basic dye (Safranine) from aqueous solutions by the sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC). The results show that the adsorption of Acid Orange 51 decreases at high pH values, whereas the uptake of Safranine is higher in neutral and alkaline solutions than that in acidic conditions. The adsorption time needed for Safranine to reach equilibrium is shorter than that for Acid Orange 51. The uptakes of the dyes both increase with temperature increasing, indicating that the adsorption process of the dyes onto SBAC is endothermic. The equilibrium data of the dyes are both best represented by the Redlich−Peterson model. At 25 °C, the maximum adsorption capacities of SBAC for Acid Orange 51 and Safranine are 248.70 mg/g and 525.84 mg/g, respectively. The Elovich model is found to best describe the adsorption process of both dyes, indicating that the rate-limiting step involves the chemisorption. It can be concluded that SBAC is a promising material for the removal of Acid Orange 51 and Safranine from aqueous solutions.

  6. Adsorption of and acidic dye from aqueous solution by surfactant modified bentonite

    The aim of this paper is to study the adsorption of an acidic dye S. Y. 4 GL (i.e: Supranol yellow 4GL) from aqueous solution on inorgano-organo clay. Bentonite is a kind of natural clay with good exchanging ability. By exchanging its inter lamellar cations with Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and hydroxy aluminic or chromium poly cations, the properties of natural bentonite can be greatly improved. (Author)

  7. Remediation of textile azo dye acid red 114 by hairy roots of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and assessment of degraded dye toxicity with human keratinocyte cell line.

    Jha, Pamela; Jobby, Renitta; Desai, N S

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation has proven to be the most desirable and cost effective method to counter textile dye pollution. Hairy roots (HRs) of Ipomoea carnea J. were tested for decolourization of 25 textile azo dyes, out of which >90% decolourization was observed in 15 dyes. A diazo dye, Acid Red 114 was decolourized to >98% and hence, was chosen as the model dye. A significant increase in the activities of oxidoreductive enzymes was observed during decolourization of AR114. The phytodegradation of AR114 was confirmed by HPLC, UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The possible metabolites were identified by GCMS as 4- aminobenzene sulfonic acid 2-methylaniline and 4- aminophenyl 4-ethyl benzene sulfonate and a probable pathway for the biodegradation of AR114 has been proposed. The nontoxic nature of the metabolites and toxicity of AR114 was confirmed by cytotoxicity tests on human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). When HaCaT cells were treated separately with 150μgmL(-1) of AR114 and metabolites, MTT assay showed 50% and ≈100% viability respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry data showed that, as compared to control, the cells in G2-M and death phase increased by 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively on treatment with AR114 but remained unaltered in cells treated with metabolites. PMID:26971029

  8. Synthesis of New Azo Dyes and Copper(II) Complexes Derived from Barbituric Acid and 4-Aminobenzoylhydrazone

    GUP, Bülent KIRKAN and Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    Four new azo dyes, L1, L2, L3, and L4, were prepared by linking benzaldehyde p-aminobenzoylhydrazone (3) and p-hydroxybenzaldehyede p--aminobenzoylhydrazone (4) to barbituric acid and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid through diazo-coupling reactions. Reactions of the azo-dyes with copper chloride and bidentate ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline, produced mixed-ligand dinuclear complexes with general stoichiometry [Cu2L(phen)2]Cl2 (7, 8, 9, and 10). The structures of both azo dyes and their compl...

  9. Nano-dyeing

    Ning Cui-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing nanofibers is a frontier of both modern textile engineering and nanotechnology. This paper suggest a feasible method for dyeing nanofibers with a natural red (Roselle Calyx by bubble electrospinning. Reactive dye (Red S3B and acid dye (Red 2B were also used in the experiment for comparison. The dyeing process was finished during the spinning process.

  10. Detection of acid moisture in photovoltaic modules using a dual wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye

    Asaka, Takashi; Iwami, Kentaro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro; Masuda, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The formation of acetic acid via the penetration of moisture into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) in photovoltaic (PV) modules is cited as the main reason for PV modules’ degradation. Currently, there is no effective method for detecting acetic moisture in PV modules. We proposed a simple method for detecting acid moisture in PV modules using a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye that measures pH by the ratio of the intensities of two peaks in the fluorescence spectra of the dye. We detected the pH change caused by acetic acid with the change in the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectra of the dried dye. Furthermore, we observed that the dry fluorescent dye is heat resistant to withstand the lamination process for the manufacturing of PV modules, and has good long-term durability.

  11. Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Elementary Processes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Deuterated Amino-Phenyl Acid Dyes on TiO2

    Sergei Manzhos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first computational study of the effects of isotopic substitution on the operation of dye-sensitized solar cells. Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of deuteration on light absorption, dye adsorption dynamics, the averaged over vibrations driving force to injection (∆Gi and regeneration (∆Gr, as well as on promotion of electron back-donation in dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid adsorbed in monodentate molecular and bidentate bridging dissociative configurations on the anatase (101 surface of TiO2. Deuteration causes a red shift of the absorption spectrum of the dye/TiO2 complex by about 5% (dozens of nm, which can noticeably affect the overlap with the solar spectrum in real cells. The dynamics effect on the driving force to injection and recombination (the difference between the averaged <∆Gi,r> and ∆Gi,requil at the equilibrium configuration is strong, yet there is surprisingly little isotopic effect: the average driving force to injection <∆Gi> and to regeneration <∆Gr> changes by only about 10 meV upon deuteration. The nuclear dynamics enhance recombination to the dye ground state due to the approach of the electron-donating group to TiO2, yet this effect is similar for deuterated and non-deuterated dyes. We conclude that the nuclear dynamics of the C-H(D bonds, mostly affected by deuteration, might not be important for the operation of photoelectrochemical cells based on organic dyes. As the expectation value of the ground state energy is higher than its optimum geometry value (by up to 0.1 eV in the present case, nuclear motions will affect dye regeneration by recently proposed redox shuttle-dye combinations operating at low driving forces.

  12. Ion beams replace chrome plating

    Metal ion implantation is the process of altering surface properties by bombarding with high-energy metal ions. Because the process does not produce a coating, dimensions and bulk properties of the part remain unchanged, and implanted surfaces have no problems with adhesion, residual stress, or poor microstructure. Implanted surfaces can provide wear and/or corrosion resistance comparable with, or superior to, chrome plating. Furthermore, it is a relatively low-temperature process, which enables treatment of materials such as plastics, aluminum, and low-alloy steel. Furthermore, the performance of coatings can be improved by bombarding with ions during or after the coating process. Specifically, high-energy ions applied during deposition have been shown to reduce the required temperature for physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems, overcoming one of the major obstacles to replacing chromium plating with PVD coatings. This article will review the latest advances in metal-ion implantation equipment, with particular reference to economics and applications

  13. Clouding in fatty acid dispersions for charge-dependent dye extraction.

    Garenne, David; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-15

    The clouding phenomenon in non-ionic surfactant systems is a common feature that remains rare for ionic detergents. Here, we show that fatty acid (negatively charged) systems cloud upon cooling hot dispersions depending on the concentration or when adding excess guanidine hydrochloride. The clouding of these solutions yields the formation of enriched fatty acid droplets in which they exhibit a polymorphism that depends on the temperature: upon cooling, elongated wormlike micelles transit to rigid stacked bilayers inside droplets. Above this transition temperature, droplets coalesce yielding a phase separation between a fatty acid-rich phase and water, allowing extraction of dyes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. Positively charged and zwitterionic dyes were sequestered within the droplets (and then in the fatty acid-rich upper phase) whereas the negatively charged ones were found in both phases. Our results show an additional case of negatively charged surfactant which exhibit clouding phenomenon and suggest that these systems could be used for extracting solutes depending on their charge and lipophilicity. PMID:26828279

  14. Hexavalent-Chrome Free Coatings Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The replacement of hexavalent chrome [Cr (VI)] in the processing of aluminum for high-reliability electronics applications in the aviation and aerospace sector...

  15. Enhancement of acidic dye biosorption capacity on poly(ethylenimine) grafted anaerobic granular sludge

    Sun, Xue-Fei, E-mail: xfsun06@gmail.com [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang, E-mail: wsg@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cheng, Wen [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan, Maohong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Tian, Bing-Hui [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Bao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Developing a novel biosorbent with high capacity is crucial to remove dyes from waters in an efficient way. This study demonstrated that porous anaerobic granular sludge could be grafted with polyethylenimine (PEI), which definitely improved the sorption capacity towards Acid Red 18 (AR18) removal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study revealed that the PEI modification introduced a large number of amino groups on the surface of sludge, and the amino groups played an important role in the adsorption of dye molecule. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the film diffusion was the rate-limiting step. The equilibrium data were well fitted Langmuir model, with a maximum AR18 uptake of 520.52 mg/g. Removal of AR18 decreased with the increasing pH and the maximum color removal was observed at pH 2.0. The sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was found to be less than 8 for the biosorption of AR 18, which suggested that the biosorption processes of dye molecule onto modified anaerobic granules could be taken place by physical adsorption. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as {Delta}G{sup 0}, {Delta}H{sup 0} and {Delta}S{sup 0}, were also calculated, which indicated that the present system was spontaneous and endothermic process.

  16. POTENTIAL USE OF WOOL WASTE AS ADSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF ACID DYES FROM WASTEWATER

    BUCIŞCANU Ingrid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, great amounts of raw wool are treated as waste and raise disposal problems. In the sustainable development context , wool is regarded as a biodegradable renewable resource and due to its complex chemical composition and fiber morphology, can find different useful applications. It is the aim of this paper to investigate the potential use of raw wool waste as a non-conventional adsorbent for Acid Red 337(AcR ,currently used for leather and wool dyeing. Two wool-based adsorbents were prepared, namely scoured coarse wool (Wool-S and wool activated with alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide (Wool-A. Adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, pH and treatment time were factors taken in consideration for the assessment of the sorbate-adsorbent interaction. The removal efficiency (R % is mainly dependent on the solution pH and on the activation treatment applied to wool: at pH 3, the removal efficiency reaches the highest values of 42% on Wool-S and 99% on Wool-A. The adsorption rate is slow and needs almost 6 h to reach equilibrium. The experimental data best fitted the Langmuir equilibrium adsorption model, which proves that the adsorbent possess surface active sites to which the dye sorbate binds in monomolecular layer. Raw wool waste is a potential cheap, biodegradable and effective adsorbent for colored wastewater treatment.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of acrylamide-acrylic acid hydrogels and adsorption of some textile dyes

    Acrylamide (AAm)-acrylic acid (AAc) hydrogels have been prepared at AAm initial compositions of 15%, 20% and 30%. AAm-AAc monomer mixtures have been irradiated in a 60Co-γ source at different doses and percent conversions have been determined gravimetrically. 100% conversion of monomers into hydrogels was achieved at 8 kGy dose. These hydrogels were swollen in distilled water at pH 3.03, 4.18, 4.68, 5.05, 5.30, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0. The results of swelling tests at pH 8.0 indicated that poly(AAm-AAc) hydrogels prepared from solution containing 15% (mol%) AAm showed maximum % swelling as 3000%. Poly(AAm-AAc) hydrogels have been considered for the removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions. Among the two common textile dyes tested, Janus Green B (JGB) has showed the highest adsorption capacity while Congo Red (CR) was not adsorbed by these hydrogels. Adsorption isotherms were constructed for JGB and poly(AAm/AAc) gel systems. It is concluded that cross-linked poly(AAm/AAc) hydrogels can be successfully used in the purification of waste water containing certain textile dyes

  18. Study of application properties of novel trisazo hetero bi-functional reactive dyes based on j-acid derivatives for cotton

    Three novel trisazo hetero bi-functional reactive dyes based on J-acid derivatives were prepared using the diazonium salt of [4-(4-sulphophenylazo-)-2,5-dimethylazobenzene-2-sulphonic acid] and a hetero bi-functional coupling component, derived from 1-hydroxy-6-aminonapthalene-3-sulphonic acid (J-acid), 1-hydroxy-6- methylaminonapthalene-3-sulphonic acid (methyl J-acid), and 1-hydroxy-6-aminonaphthalene-3,5-disulphonic acid (sulpho J-acid). On balance, the dye derived from sulpho J-acid displayed the most attractive set of technical properties, building up and fixing more efficiently than those derived from J-acid and methyl J-acid. In addition, the sulpho J-acid based dye offered better migration and, therefore, level dyeing and ease of wash off. (author)

  19. Effect of Deoxycholic Acid on the Performance of Liquid Electrolyte Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Perylene Monoimide Derivative

    Mikroyannidis, John A.; Rajnish Kurchania; Ball, Richard J.; Sharma, Ganesh D.; Roy, Mahesh S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of coadsorption with deoxycholic acid (DCA) on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on perylene monoimide derivative (PCA) as sensitizer and liquid electrolyte had been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics under illumination and incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the DSSCs showed that the coadsorption of DCA with the PCA dye results in a significant improvement in short circuit photocurrent and slight increase in the open circuit phot...

  20. Effectiveness of Alkali-Acid Treatment in Enhancement the Adsorption Capacity for Rice Straw: The Removal of Methylene Blue Dye

    Nady A. Fathy; El-Shafey, Ola I.; Khalil, Laila B.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of alkali-acid modification in enhancement the adsorption capacity of rice straw (RS) for removing a basic dye was studied. The obtained adsorbents were characterized by slurry pH, pHPZC, iodine number, methylene blue number, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) was described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Effects of contact time, initial concentration of MB dye, pH of solution, adsorbent dose, salt concentrat...

  1. Studies on photo-electro-chemical catalytic degradation of acid scarlet 3R dye

    LI; Mingyu; XIONG; Lin; CHEN; Yunyun; ZHANG; Na; ZHANG; Yua

    2005-01-01

    A new type of photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed.Cathode and anode of the new reactor were made of high-purity graphite and titanium dioxide electrode respectively.A saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was used as the reference electrode.Under the condition of ultraviolet radiation and anodic bias-voltage, acid scarlet 3R was degraded by the process of photoelectrocatalysis with titanium dioxide electrode in anodic compartment, while it was degraded by electrogenerated Fenton's reagent and hydrogen peroxide through reducing dissolved oxygen with graphite electrode in catholyte.The new reactor made the best use of photogenerated holes and photogenerated charge on the anode of the new reactor, which achieved the purpose of degrading acid scarlet 3R in the cathodic and anodic compartments simultaneously, I.e."two electrodes and double effect".The experimental results showed that, compared with other photoelectrocatalysis reactors ("two electrodes and single effect" reactor), the new reactor has obviously enhanced the degradation of acid scarlet 3R dye.With the concentration of the dye being 30 mg·L-1 in water, under the operating conditions that when the inert supporting electrolyte concentration was 0.02 mol·L-1 sodium sulfate, initial solution pH=3, and cathodic potential -Ec=0.66 V, the highest decolorizing efficiency of 92% was accomplished in cathodic compartment,and that of 60% in anodic compartment.

  2. The effect of high-energy radiation on aqueous solution of Acid Red 1 textile dye

    The effect of high-energy radiation on Acid Red 1 (AR1) azo-dye solution was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. Doses in the order of 10 kGy cause complete decolouration of the 10-3-10-4 mol dm-3 solutions; however, for complete mineralization doses higher by 1-2 order of magnitude are needed. Hydrated electrons and H · atom are more effective in fading reaction, while the ·OH radicals have higher efficiency in mineralization. The HO2·/O2·- radical-radical anion pair is rather inefficient in fading reaction

  3. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  4. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs.

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively. PMID:27043871

  5. Adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 and Direct Violet-51 Dyes from Textile Wastewater by Using Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal

    The presence of synthetic dyes in textile industry wastewater lead to deterioration of precious fresh water resources, making the need to remove dyes crucial for environmental protection. Recently, different techniques have been employed to remove these dyes from water resources. Among them, biosorption has gained tremendous popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and inexpensive method. In this study, the removal potential of two acid dyes, i.e. yellow-73 and direct violet-51, was assessed from textile effluent samples using iron modified corncob charcoal. The adsorption efficiency ranged between 93.93 97.96 % and 92.2 - 95.4 % for acid yellow-73 and direct violet-51, respectively. Furthermore, study highlights optimum parameters for successful adsorption of these dyes, such as stirring time (numbers), pH (numbers), temperature (numbers), and adsorbent dosage (numbers). Keeping in consideration these findings, we recommend the use of Iron Doped Corncob Charcoal (IDCC) as a low-cost, efficient alternative for wastewater treatment, primarily minimizing the detrimental effects of hazardous dyes. (author)

  6. 聚酸性铬蓝K薄膜修饰电极的制备及其应用%Preparation and application of poly(acid chrome blue K)film modified electrode

    周谷珍; 汪澜; 孙元喜

    2014-01-01

    本文利用循环伏安法(CV)研究了聚酸性铬兰K薄膜修饰电极(PACBKE)的制备方法,讨论了缓冲体系及支持电解质的种类、浓度、扫描速率等因素对电极制备的影响.研究了神经递质多巴胺在PACBKE上的电化学行为,建立了测定多巴胺(DA)的新方法. DA浓度在5.3×10-6~5.3×10-4 mol/L范围内与氧化峰电流呈良好线性关系,线性回归方程和线性相关系数分别为:i p (µA)=2.78×104C(mol/L)+1.17, r=0.9994,检出限可达3.2×10-7 mol/L.利用该法对样品进行定量分析,样品回收率范围为95.6%~103.3%,8次平行分析结果的相对标准偏差为1.9%,满足微量分析的要求.%This paper studied the Preparation of Poly(Acid Chrome Blue K)Film Modified Electrode (PACBKE)by using cyclic voltammetric method. The voltammetric behavior of dopamine and cyclic voltammetric determination of dopamine has been studied at the PACBKE. The peak current was proportional to the concentration of dopamine in the range of 5.3 × 10-6~5.3 × 10-4 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L. The linear regress equation was ip (µA)=2.78×104C(mol/L)+1.17, and the linear correlation coffcient was 0.999 4. The recycling rate is from 95.6% to 103.3%. It has been successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of dopamine in real samples, the relative standard deviation of eight samples analysis results was less than 1.9%.

  7. Dye-sensitized photopolymerization of N,N -methylenebisacrylamide by initiation with eosin-ascorbic acid system

    Parthasarathy Tigulla; Uma Vuruputuri

    2004-03-01

    The dye-sensitized photopolymerization of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) in aqueous medium initiated by eosin-ascorbic acid (AH2) was studied at 25°C. The polymerization takes place only at higher concentration of AH2 (> 10-3 mol/L) and its rate increases rapidly as [AH2] is increased. The rate of polymerization is proportional to [MBA] and [AH2]. Kinetic results indicate that semi-quinone (DH) dye radical and semi-oxidized form () of ascorbic acid are unable to initiate polymerization. Formation of H2O2 is proposed and confirmed. A suitable mechanism is proposed in accordance with experimental results obtained.

  8. Syntheses of 2-substituted 1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinones (bromaminic acid analogues) – precursors for dyes and drugs

    Malik, Enas M; Younis Baqi; Müller, Christa E.

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives play a prominent role in medicine and also in textile industry. Bromaminic acid (1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid) is an important precursor for obtaining dyes as well as biologically active compounds through the replacement of the C4-bromo substituent with different (ar)alkylamino residues. Here we report methods for the synthesis of bromaminic acid analogues bearing different substituents at the 2-position of the anthraquinone core. 1-Aminoanthraqu...

  9. Determination of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls and surface area of lignin by cationic dye adsorption.

    Sipponen, Mika Henrikki; Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Littunen, Kuisma; Pastinen, Ossi; Laakso, Simo

    2014-10-01

    A new colorimetric method for determining the surface-accessible acidic lignin hydroxyl groups in lignocellulose solid fractions was developed. The method is based on selective adsorption of Azure B, a basic dye, onto acidic hydroxyl groups of lignin. Selectivity of adsorption of Azure B on lignin was demonstrated using lignin and cellulose materials as adsorbents. Adsorption isotherms of Azure B on wheat straw (WS), sugarcane bagasse (SGB), oat husk, and isolated lignin materials were determined. The maximum adsorption capacities predicted by the Langmuir isotherms were used to calculate the amounts of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyl groups. WS contained 1.7-times more acidic hydroxyls (0.21 mmol/g) and higher surface area of lignin (84 m(2)/g) than SGB or oat husk materials. Equations for determining the amount of surface-accessible acidic hydroxyls in solid fractions of the three plant materials by a single point measurement were developed. A method for high-throughput characterization of lignocellulosic materials is now available. PMID:25033327

  10. Mechanism of azo dye degradation by ionizing radiation. Degradation of sulfanilic acid azochromotrop and its parent compounds in aqueous solution

    Complete text of publication follows. Mechanistic studies were made on ·OH radical and hydrated electron reaction with Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop (SPADNS) as model azo dye. SPADNS contains 4,5-dihydroxynaphtalene 2,7-disulfonic acid part and 4-sulfophenylazo group. To establish the details of the reaction mechanism the reactions of two simpler molecules without 4-sulfophenylazo part were also studied: one of them contained one (in position 4, II), the other two (in positions 4 and 5, III) -OH groups. ·OH radicals react with these molecules with radical addition to the naphthalene 2,7-disulfonic acid part. The adduct cyclohexadienyl type radical may decay in radical-radical reactions, or undergoes a (pH dependent) water elimination to naphthoxy radical, radical decay takes place on the ms timescale. ·OH radical addition on the azo bond in dyes has low importance. Degradation efficiencies are 0.6-0.8. The hydrated electron in the case of the two simpler molecules reacts with the rings, while in the case of dye with the azo bond. Electron scavenging is followed by protonation, this reaction in the case of II and III yields cyclohexadienyl, while with the dye hydrazo radical. The efficiency of degradation with II and III is 0.2-0.6, while for the dye it is close to 1.

  11. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels (∼1000 mg/L, ∼2000 mg/L, ∼3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  12. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents

    Highlights: • Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged PMOs. • Phosphonic acid loaded PMOs as adsorbent for cationic and anionic dyes. • Due to electrostatic interaction the adsorbent has high dye adsorption capacity. • π–π stacking interaction between benzene and dye enhances adsorption capacity. • Intraparticle diffusion played a dominant role in the adsorption process. - Abstract: Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π–π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles

  13. Utilization of chemically modified citrus reticulata peels for biosorptive removal of acid yellow-73 dye from water

    Textile effluents contain several varieties of natural and synthetic dyes, which are non-biodegradable. Acid Yellow-73 is one of them. In this research work, adsorptive removal of this dye was investigated using chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels, in batch mode. It was noted that adsorption of dye on Citrus reticulata peels increased by increasing contact time and decreased in basic pH conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models were followed by equilibrium data, but the first isotherm fitted the data better, showing that chemisorption occurred more as compared to physiosorption, showing maximum adsorption capacity 96.46 mg.g-1.L-1. The thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of Acid Yellow-73 on chemically modified Citrus reticulata peels was favorable in nature, following pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  14. Synthesis and application of new mordent and disperse azo dyes based on 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone

    BHARAT C. DIXIT

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel mordent and disperse azo dyes were prepared by the coupling of various diazo solutions of aromatic amines with 2,4-ihydroxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analyses as well as IR and NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been iscussed in terms of structural property relationship. The dyeing assessment of all the dyeswas evaluated on wool and polyester textile fibers. The dyeing of chrome treated (i.e., chrome mordented wool and polyesters was also monitored. The results show that a better hue was obtained on mordented fibers. The results of the anti-bacterial properties of the chrome dyes revealed that the toxicity of these dyes against bacteria is fairly good.

  15. Interaction between toxic azo dye C.I. Acid Red 88 and serum albumins

    Naveenraj, Selvaraj [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Solomon, Rajadurai Vijay; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam [School of Chemistry, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Asiri, Abdullah M. [The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, P.O. Box 80203 (Saudi Arabia); Anandan, Sambandam, E-mail: sanand@nitt.edu [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Serum albumin-toxic dye interaction studies will be of paramount importance in the field of toxicology due to its relation towards the distribution and transportation of dye in blood. In this regard, the binding between C.I. Acid Red 88 (AR88) and serum albumins (HSA and BSA) was investigated by using combination of spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence results revealed that AR88 interact with serum albumins through the combination of static and dynamic quenching mechanism. The distance “r” between serum albumin and AR88 was obtained according to the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. Synchronous fluorescence and CD spectral results showed alterations in the microenvironment and conformation of serum albumins. The molecular docking method is also employed to understand the interaction of AR88 with serum albumins. All these studies confirm that BSA has more affinity towards AR88 than that of HSA which suggests that AR88 is more easily transported in the body of bovid than human and so it is more hazardous to bovids. -- Highlights: • AR88 interacts with serum albumin through the combination of both static and dynamic quenching mechanism. • The binding site of AR88 in serum albumins is nearer to tryptophan moiety. • Circular Dichroism spectra showed that AR88 alters α-helicity of serum albumin. • This interaction study could be greatly imperative for further investigations in toxicology.

  16. Synthesis and luminescence properties of dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid films

    Dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)–tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TTA) films have been prepared. Rhodamine 6G, known as laser dyes, can be spontaneously doped by immersing the DNA–TTA film in rhodamine 6G-acetonitrile solutions. It is surmised that rhodamine 6G monomers and dimers diffuse within the hydrophobic TTA sites, and then monomers presumably intercalate between adjacent base pairs of DNA. Optical absorption spectra reveal that rhodamine 6G molecules in the sample undergo an unusual transformation from the dimer state to the monomer state with the elapse of time. Rhidamine 6G molecules doped in DNA–TTA show enhanced photostability and concentration quenching than those in PMMA. The environment, conformation and chemical stability of rhodamine 6G are different between DNA–TTA and PMMA, and are presumably modified by the intercalation. - Highlights: ► Rhodamine 6G can be spontaneously doped into DNA films by the immersion method. ► Rhodamine 6G molecules undergo an unusual transformation from the dimer to monomer state. ► Rhodamine 6G molecules in DNA films show enhanced photostability and concentration quenching than those in PMMA.

  17. Synthesis and luminescence properties of dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid films

    Kitazawa, N., E-mail: nkita@nda.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan); Aroonjaeng, W.; Aono, M.; Watanabe, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)-tetradecyltrimethylammonium (TTA) films have been prepared. Rhodamine 6G, known as laser dyes, can be spontaneously doped by immersing the DNA-TTA film in rhodamine 6G-acetonitrile solutions. It is surmised that rhodamine 6G monomers and dimers diffuse within the hydrophobic TTA sites, and then monomers presumably intercalate between adjacent base pairs of DNA. Optical absorption spectra reveal that rhodamine 6G molecules in the sample undergo an unusual transformation from the dimer state to the monomer state with the elapse of time. Rhidamine 6G molecules doped in DNA-TTA show enhanced photostability and concentration quenching than those in PMMA. The environment, conformation and chemical stability of rhodamine 6G are different between DNA-TTA and PMMA, and are presumably modified by the intercalation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhodamine 6G can be spontaneously doped into DNA films by the immersion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhodamine 6G molecules undergo an unusual transformation from the dimer to monomer state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhodamine 6G molecules in DNA films show enhanced photostability and concentration quenching than those in PMMA.

  18. Photodegradation of Dye Acid Orange 67 by Titanium Dioxide in the Presence of Visible Light and UV Light

    Rachita Mehta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes containing different functionalities has been reviewed using TiO2 as photocatalyst in aqueous solution under solar and UV irradiation. The mechanism of the photodegradation depends on the radiation used. Kinetic analyses indicate that the photodegradation rates of azo dyes can usually be approximated as pseudo-first-order kinetics for both degradation mechanisms, according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, and substrate concentration. The application of novel treatment methods encompasses investigations of advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s, which are characterized by production of the hydroxyl radical (OH as a primary oxidant. In this work, we investigated the photocatalytic oxidative degradation and discoloration of acid dye and dye intermediates using light (UV/visible/semiconductor catalyst by optimizing the operational parameters to ensure the rapid and complete transformation of the toxic organic compounds to benign chemicals. The results showed that efficiency of dye degradation is much better when light source is UV in comparison to Visible.

  19. Effect of different conditions and gamma irradiation on the dyeing affinity of natural and synthetic fabrics for cinnamic Acid derivative as a new application

    Cinnamic acid derivative; cinnamic acid,α-cyano-p dimethylamino-ethyl ester (CCDE) was used as a dye for different textile fabrics such as wool, nylon, polyester and wool/ polyester blend. The factors that may affect the dyeing process such as usual additives (carriers and dispersing agents), solvent, ph, dyeing temperature, dyeing time, CCDE concentration and irradiation dose were studied. The results of colour strength measurements indicate that irradiation prior to dyeing has no significant effect on the dye ability of nylon, polyester and wool/polyester blend. However, irradiation of wool fabrics prior to dyeing leads to slight improvement in the dye ability comared to the unirradiated fabric. Also, the dyeing affinity in the terms of colour strength was found to depend on the ph of the medium, in which the highest colour strength was achived at ph 4. Meanwhile, it was found that the solvents and usual dyeing additives have a significant effect on the dye ability. In this regard, the highest colour stringht was obtained by using benzyl alcohol (BA) and a carrier agent

  20. Thermochromic Properties of Mixture Systems of Octadecylphosphonic Acid and Fluoran Dye

    Tsutsui, Kyoji; Yamaguchi, Takehito; Sato, Kiyotaka

    1994-10-01

    We have examined the thermochromic behavior of thin films formed by mixing a fluoran dye (FD: 2‧-( o-chloroanilino)-6‧-di- n-butylaminospiro[isobenzofuran-1(3 H),9‧-[9 H]xanthene]-3-one) and octadecylphosphonic acid (P18). The coloring and discoloring states were revealed to be controllable by changing the rate of cooling from the colored mixture liquid ( 100°C); quenching at 0°C maintained the solidified colored state, yet discoloring occurred after slow cooling at the rate of 4°C/min. We confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra that the solidified colored state is produced by formation of the supramolecules, in which seven molecules of P18 and one molecule of FD combined, whose aggregates are in a lamellar structure. In the discoloring state, the supramolecule is decomposed to P18 and FD due to the fractional crystallization of P18.

  1. Biodegradability of terephthalic acid in terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater

    2003-01-01

    As the characteristic pollutant, terephthalic acid(TA)was in charge of 40%-78% of the total COD of terylene artificial silk printing and dyeing wastewater(TPW-water). The studies on biodegradability of TA were conducted in a serial of activated sludge reactors with TPW-water. TA appeared to be readily biodegradable with removal efficiency over 96.5% under aerobic conditions, hardly biodegradable with removal efficiency below 10% under anoxic conditions and slowly biodegradable with a turnover between 31.4% and 56.0% under anaerobic conditions. TA also accounted for the majority of BOD in TPW-water. The process combined by anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic activated sludge reactor was suitable for TA degradation and TPW-water treatment. Further, the aerobic process was essentially much more effective than the anaerobic or anoxic one to degrade TA in TPW-water.

  2. Holographic gratings recorded in poly(lactic acid)/azo-dye films

    Cambiasso, Javier; Goyanes, Silvia; Ledesma, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    Diffraction gratings were recorded in biodegradable polymer films of poly(lactic acid) doped with the photoisomerisable azo-dye (Disperse Orange 3). It is shown that the diffraction efficiency of the recorded grating can be improved by 220% via an all-optical treatment. This all-optical treatment consists of a pre-irradiation of the sample with the writing laser beam at high power during a short period of time, preventing damage of the material, followed by a much longer inscription at relatively low power. Furthermore, it is shown that the addition of a small amount of 0.05 wt% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes to the photoresponsive polymer increases the maximum diffraction efficiency as well as the remanent efficiency by 20%. Finally, this last photoresponsive nano-composite is also sensitive to the pre-irradiation treatment.

  3. Interface Modification of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Pivalic Acid to Enhance the Open-circuit Voltage

    Li, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Pivalic acid (PVA) was used as a new coadsorbent to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to modify the interface between the TiO2 films and electrolyte. The addition of PVA improved the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of devices by 8% by enhancing the open-circuit voltage. Copyright © 2009 The Chemical Society of Japan.

  4. Electron beam process for decoloration of reactive and acid dyes in aqueous solution in presence of H2O2

    In this study, degradation and decoloration of reactive and acid commercial dyes (C.I. Reactive Black 5 and C.I. Acid Red 151) in water under the irradiation with electron beams were investigated. Both dyes in aqueous solutions with the concentration of 100 ppm were irradiated at different doses of 1, 3, 6 and 9 k Gy. The changes of the absorption spectra, degree of decoloration, p H, and chemical oxygen demand were analyzed. In addition to the influence of the absorbed dose the hydrogen peroxide additions on RB 5 dye are discussed. The experimental results show that the reactive and acid dyes in aqueous solutions can be effectively degradiated by irradiation with the electron beam. The absorption bands for RB 5 and AR151 decreased rapidly at 1 k Gy irradiation dose and disappeared almost completely at 9 k Gy. Also the degree of decoloration of RB 5 solution at 1 k Gy dose and with the concentrations of H2O2 up to 5mmo1/L was higher than 99.78%. Due to the production of organic and inorganic acidic anions the p H decreased during the irradiation.

  5. Formic acid enhanced effective degradation of methyl orange dye in aqueous solutions under UV-Vis irradiation.

    Wang, Jingjing; Bai, Renbi

    2016-09-15

    Developing efficient technologies to treat recalcitrant organic dye wastewater has long been of great research and practical interest. In this study, a small molecule, formic acid (FA), was applied as a process enhancer for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye as a model recalcitrant organic pollutant in aqueous solutions under the condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration at the ambient temperature of 25 °C. It was found that the decolouration of the dye solutions can be rapidly achieved, reducing the time, for example, from around 17.6 h without FA to mostly about less than 2 h with the presence of FA. The mineralization rate of MO dye reached as high as 81.8% in 1.5 h in the case of initial MO dye concentration at 25 mg L(-1), which is in contrast to nearly no mineralization of the MO dye for a similar system without the FA added. The study revealed that the generation of the H2O2 species in the system was enhanced and the produced OH radicals effectively contributed to the degradation of the MO dye. Process parameters such as the initial concentration of MO dye, FA dosage and solution pH were all found to have some effect on the degradation efficiency under the same condition of UV-Vis light irradiation and air aeration. The MO dye degradation performance was found to follow a first-order reaction rate to the MO dye concentration in most cases and there existed a positive correlation between the reaction rate constant and the initial FA concentration. Compared to the traditional H2O2/UV-Vis oxidation system, the use of FA as a process-enhancing agent can have the advantages of low cost, easy availability, and safe to use. The study hence demonstrates a promising approach to use a readily available small molecule of FA to enhance the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants, such as MO dye, especially for their pre-treatment. PMID:27258621

  6. Investigation of a modified gallocyanin chrome alum staining technique in cytology compared to thionine and haematoxylin as nuclear stains.

    Schulte, E

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the staining characteristics of a modified Gallocyanin-chrome alum stain as compared to the original gallocyanin stain. Thionine, haematoxylin and the Feulgen reaction were used as controls. Tissue imprints of rabbit liver and spleen and smears of human venous blood were stained and controlled microscopically. Nuclear extinction was measured with the image analysis system IBAS 2000. Both GCA variants were examined by spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. The most striking difference between the GCA variants is the short staining time required for the modified stain (4 min) as compared to the original method (24 h). Both stains are stoichiometric for nucleic acids; the staining pattern, hue and intensity of nuclear colour and spectrophotometric and chromatographic data were absolutely consistent for both GCA-stains. These results and preliminary data from the analysis of the structure of the dye molecules seem to indicate that the molecular structure of the modified GCA is not changed by treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid. Differences in the staining kinetics might be due to differences in solubility. As nuclear chromatin texture after GCA staining is well appropriate for computerized image analysis the modified GCA-stain can be recommended as a simple and reproducible nuclear stain for automated feature extraction in cytology. PMID:2471227

  7. Fluorescence turn-on recognition of chiral amino acids using dye incorporated β-CD functionalized AuNPs assembly

    An assembly of dye incorporated β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized AuNPs for the fluorescent probing of chiral amino acids is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing a high extinction coefficient function can be used as excellent fluorescent quenchers in AuNP–fluorophore system. Inclusion of fluorescein (FL) into β-cyclodextrin (βCD) makes energy transfer to occur through the donor and quencher nearby. This energy transfer switches off by virtue of the analyte induced release of FL from β-CD cavity, which results in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched dye. Analysis suggests that the assembly of AuNPs–βCDs–FL is effective as a turn-on fluorescent probe for the chiroselective optical discrimination between D,L-tryptophan, D,L-phenyl alanine and D,L-tyrosine. The detection limits for analyzing L-tryptophan, L-phenyl alanine and L-tyrosine were found to be 0.59, 1.2 and 1.5 μM respectively. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching AuNP–βCD–dye assembly via energy transfer. • Energy transfer from dye to AuNPs is a SET process. • Fluorescence turn-on detection of amino acids by the competitive binding method. • Chiroselective discrimination between enantiomeric amino acids

  8. Fluorescence turn-on recognition of chiral amino acids using dye incorporated β-CD functionalized AuNPs assembly

    Aswathy, B., E-mail: aswathybv@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An assembly of dye incorporated β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized AuNPs for the fluorescent probing of chiral amino acids is presented. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possessing a high extinction coefficient function can be used as excellent fluorescent quenchers in AuNP–fluorophore system. Inclusion of fluorescein (FL) into β-cyclodextrin (βCD) makes energy transfer to occur through the donor and quencher nearby. This energy transfer switches off by virtue of the analyte induced release of FL from β-CD cavity, which results in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched dye. Analysis suggests that the assembly of AuNPs–βCDs–FL is effective as a turn-on fluorescent probe for the chiroselective optical discrimination between D,L-tryptophan, D,L-phenyl alanine and D,L-tyrosine. The detection limits for analyzing L-tryptophan, L-phenyl alanine and L-tyrosine were found to be 0.59, 1.2 and 1.5 μM respectively. - Highlights: • Fluorescence quenching AuNP–βCD–dye assembly via energy transfer. • Energy transfer from dye to AuNPs is a SET process. • Fluorescence turn-on detection of amino acids by the competitive binding method. • Chiroselective discrimination between enantiomeric amino acids.

  9. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  10. Dodecylsulfate and dodecybenzenesulfonate intercalated hydrotalcites as adsorbent materials for the removal of BBR acid dye from aqueous solutions

    Mohamed Bouraada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two modified layered double hydroxides (HT have been synthesized by intercalating both sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS surfactants into Mg-Al layered double hydroxides using the calcination–rehydratation method. The prepared materials HT-SDS and HT-SDBS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis and BET. The obtained materials were used for Brilliant Blue R (BBR dye removal from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters such as kinetic, pH, sorption isotherm and temperature. Sorption experiments of acid dye BBR from aqueous solution by HT-SDS and HT-SDBS were investigated in the batch system. Kinetic studies indicate that the sorption of BBR follows the pseudo-second-order model. Sorption capacities of HT-SDS (357.1 mg/g for BBR dye were much higher than those of HT-SDBS (204.1 mg/g. The intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides with SDS and SDBS could possibly be used to remove anionic dyes of relatively high concentrations, whereas HT-CO3 may only be used to remove anionic dyes of low concentrations.

  11. Removal of Congo Red and Acid Yellow 36 Dye Using Orange Peel and Rice Husk as Absorbent

    K. N. Ranjini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have identified the capability of agricultural wastes as absorbents to remove different types of pollutants including dyes. This study represents the use of orange peel (OP and rice husk (RH to remove two types of dye, Congo Red (CR and Acid Yellow 36 (AY 36 dye and provides simple comparison between granular form of OP and RH and activated form of OP and RH. Both types of dyes are toxic and can cause severe problems to the environment. Factor such as absorbent dosage was studied. Batch absorption studies were conducted at 27˚C with constant stirring at 150 rpm for 2 hours and absorbent dosage of 0.2 to 1.0 g. The results showed that the activated form of OP and RH had the highest removal percentage of CR and AY 36 dyeswhich were up to 100% removal. This study indicates that OP and RH could be employed as low cost materials for the removal of textile dyes from effluents.

  12. Adsorption of Acid Orange 8 Dye from Aqueous Solution Onto Unmodified and Modified Zeolites

    Tharcila Colachite Rodrigues Bertolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of the acid dye Acid Orange 8 (AO8 onto unmodified and modified zeolites from coal fly ash and bottom ash was evaluated. The coal fly ash and bottom ash used in the synthesis of the zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in the Thermoelectric Complex Jorge Lacerda, located in the Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the largest coal burning thermoelectric complex of Latin America. The modified zeolites were modified using the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The zeolitic materials were characterized predominantly as hydroxysodalite and NaX. The kinetics studies indicated that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetics. Linear and non-linear regression methods were used to determine the best fit of equilibrium data. The Freundlich model was better adjusted to the experimental data for all systems studied. The parameters of adsorption isotherms were used to predict the design of the equipment for performing adsorption discontinuous single stage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.764 

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate, Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, and Enrofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Acid Dyes

    Ayman A. Gouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolones antibiotics: gemifloxacin mesylate (GMF, moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MXF, and enrofloxacin (ENF in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the basic drugs and acid dyes, namely, bromocresol green (BCG, bromocresol purple (BCP, bromophenol blue (BPB, bromothymol blue (BTB, and methyl orange (MO in acidic buffer solutions. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 420, 408, 416, 415, and 422 nm for BCG, BCP, BPB, BTB, and MO, respectively, for GMF; at 410, 415, 416, and 420 nm for BCP, BTB, BPB, and MO, respectively, for MXF; and at 419 and 414 nm for BCG and BTB, respectively, in case of ENF. The analytical parameters and their effects are investigated. Beer’s law was obeyed in the ranges 1.0–30, 1.0–20, and 2.0–24 μg mL−1 for GMF, MXF, and ENF, respectively. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of the studied drugs in pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference methods showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  14. Synthesis of Citric-Acrylate Oligomer and its in-Situ Reaction with Chrome Tanned Collagen (hide powder)

    The purpose of this study was to formulate the new combined system of acrylic and citric acids, which has been prepared by free radical polymerization and esterification reaction at the same time to form citric acrylate (CAC) oligomer through ester linkage and low molecular weight (Mw 2241), in compared with polyacrylic acid. The chemical structure and the reaction mechanism of this oligomer were confirmed by different spectroscopic tools (1H, 13C-NMR, ATR-IR), gel permeation chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA). The problem of the effect of the masking agents in the chrome tanning of the collagen and the pickling of the hide has been approached from the study of the hydrothermal and mechanical properties, using this new eco-friendly oligomer, which was carried out in-situ treated/grafted chrome tanned collagen (hide powder), and pickled hide. The microemulsion grafting copolymerization of (CAC) using 2.2-azo-bis isobutyronitrile (ABIN), via direct coupling reaction, onto the chrome tanned collagen showed that the free amino groups of the collagen were considered to be a potential site for the in-situ reaction with (CAC) oligomer. Also, using of citric-acrylate (CAC) oligomer, during chrome tanning of leather, instead of the traditional strong acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric and formic) resulted in significant improvement in chrome exhaustion and physical properties

  15. Acidity control of plasma-chemical oxidation: applications to dye removal, urban waste abatement and microbial inactivation

    Electric discharges burning in humid air at atmospheric pressure over aqueous solutions induce acid effects in the liquid phase resulting from the formation of nitric acid and peroxynitrous acid as transient precursor. These acid effects affect the degradation mechanisms of organic wastes and the relevant kinetic rates; therefore they thus must be controlled (e.g. using buffers). Nitrogen reactive species such as peroxynitrous acid or its salt are directly concerned with both acid effects as precursor to nitric acid, and strong oxidizing properties E0(ONO2H/NO2) = 2.02 V/SHE. Illustrating examples are given in the case of an organic dye (Alizarin S) removal and the gliding discharge treatment of urban wastewaters. Additional arguments are presented to explain the biocidal effect of humid air discharges.

  16. Batch coparative study of sorptive study of sorptive properties of two varieties of almond peels for bezanyl red (acid dye) from synthetic aqueous solutions

    BENAISSA, H.; Boumediene, M

    2012-01-01

    The ability of two varieties (hard and soft) of almond peels, as inexpensive sorbents for the removal of bezanyl red (acid dye) from synthetic aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques, (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry), the dye sorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherm have been investigated in batch conditions. The in...

  17. Photo-catalytic decolourisation of toxic dye with N-doped titania: A case study with Acid Blue 25

    Dhruba Chakrabortty; Susmita Sen Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Dyes are one of the hazardous water pollutants.Toxic Acid Blue 25,an anthraquinonic dye,has been decolourised by photo-catalysing it with nitrogen doped titania in aqueous medium.The photo catalyst was prepared from 15% TiCl3 and 25% aqueous NH3 solution as precursor.XRD and TEM revealed the formation of well crystalline anatase phase having particle size in the nano-range.BET surface area of the sample was higher than that of pure anatase TiO2.DRS showed higher absorption of radiation in visible range compared to pure anatase TiO2.XPS revealed the presence of nitrogen in N-Ti-O environment.The experimental parameters,namely,photocatalyst dose,initial dye concentration as well as solution pH influence the decolourisation process.At pH 3.0,the N-TiO2 could decolourise almost 100% Acid Blue 25 within one hour.The influence of N-TiO2 dose,initial concentration of Acid Blue 25 and solution pH on adsorption-desorption equilibrium is also studied.The adsorption process follows Lagergren first order kinetics while the modified Langmuir-Hinselwood model is suitably fitted for photocatalytic decolourisation of Acid Blue 25.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAW AND MODIFIED SAWDUST FOR THEIR USE AS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID DYE

    Jivan Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate the physical characteristics of sawdust relative to its use as an adsorbent for removal of an acid dye (Orange G from aqueous solutions. The raw sawdust was sieved to have a uniform size and was activated by sulphuric acid by refluxing the content at 60 oC for 4 h. Surface morphology and surface functional groups of both raw and modified sawdust samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR, and elemental analysis. All these analyses displayed significant change in the structure of the sawdust. The data obtained from batch adsorption experiments for the removal of the selected dye confirmed that adsorption characteristics of the modified sawdust were better than those of raw sawdust.

  19. Syntheses of 2-substituted 1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinones (bromaminic acid analogues – precursors for dyes and drugs

    Enas M. Malik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (AQ derivatives play a prominent role in medicine and also in textile industry. Bromaminic acid (1-amino-4-bromoanthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid is an important precursor for obtaining dyes as well as biologically active compounds through the replacement of the C4-bromo substituent with different (aralkylamino residues. Here we report methods for the synthesis of bromaminic acid analogues bearing different substituents at the 2-position of the anthraquinone core. 1-Aminoanthraquinone was converted to its 2-hydroxymethyl-substituted derivative which, under different reaction conditions, yielded the corresponding carbaldehyde, carboxylic acid, and nitrile derivatives. The latter was further reacted to obtain 1-amino-2-tetrazolylanthraquinone. Subsequent bromination using bromine in DMF led to the corresponding bromaminic acid derivatives in excellent isolated yields (>90% and high purities. Alternatively, 1-amino-4-bromo-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone could be directly converted to the desired 2-substituted bromaminic acid analogues in high yields (85–100%. We additionally report the preparation of bromaminic acid sodium salt and 1-amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone directly from 1-aminoanthraquinone in excellent yields (94–100% and high purities. The synthesized brominated AQs are valuable precursors for the preparation of AQ drugs and dyes.

  20. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure. PMID:26745322

  1. Catalytic decolorization of Acid blue 29 dye by H2O2 and a heterogeneous catalyst

    Ibrahim A. Salem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The montmorillonite K10-Cu(IIethylenediamine (MMTK10-Cu(en2 catalyst has been prepared by intercalation of copper-ethylenediamine [Cu(en2]2+ complex onto the montmorillonite K10. The intercalation process is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements. The decolorization of the Acid blue29 was conducted using MMTK10-Cu(en2 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The effect of reactants concentrations and the temperature on the decolorization efficiency was studied. It was found that the efficiency of decolorization process increases with increasing the concentration of H2O2 and the dye and the temperature. The results indicated that complete removal of AB29 was achieved in 15 min when the concentrations of H2O2 and AB29 were 0.4 and 5 × 10−5 M respectively and 0.1 g of the catalyst at 30 °C. The activation parameters of the decolorization process were determined. Two possible mechanisms were proposed.

  2. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.10434

    Luana Marcele Chiarello

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes

  3. Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of a macro-fungus for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 (AR44) dye

    This study focuses on the possible use of macro-fungus Agaricus bisporus to remove Acid Red 44 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of pH, biomass amount, contact time and temperature to determine the decolorization efficiency of biosorbent. The highest dye removal yield was achieved at pH 2.0. Equilibrium occurred within about 30 min. Biosorption data were successfully described by Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of biosorbent material was found as 1.19 x 10-4 mol g-1. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption of Acid Red 44 onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction and surface structure of biosorbent, respectively. Finally the proposed biosorbent was successfully used for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 in synthetic wastewater conditions.

  4. Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of a macro-fungus for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 (AR44) dye

    Akar, Tamer, E-mail: takar@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Tosun, Ilknur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Kaynak, Zerrin [Program of Chemistry, Vocational School of Higher Education, Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey); Kavas, Emine; Incirkus, Gonul; Akar, Sibel Tunali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Campus of Meselik, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This study focuses on the possible use of macro-fungus Agaricus bisporus to remove Acid Red 44 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of pH, biomass amount, contact time and temperature to determine the decolorization efficiency of biosorbent. The highest dye removal yield was achieved at pH 2.0. Equilibrium occurred within about 30 min. Biosorption data were successfully described by Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of biosorbent material was found as 1.19 x 10{sup -4} mol g{sup -1}. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption of Acid Red 44 onto fungal biomass was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction and surface structure of biosorbent, respectively. Finally the proposed biosorbent was successfully used for the decolorization of Acid Red 44 in synthetic wastewater conditions.

  5. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa; Nadafi Kazem; Mesdaghinia Alireza; Nabizadeh Ramin; Younesian Masood; Rafiee Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29) by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of rea...

  6. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change. - Highlights: • Jute fibers were grafted by PAAc followed by immobilization with chitosan. • The treated Jute fibers were used as dye adsorbent from wastewater. • The different factors which affect the adsorption process were studied. • The higher adsorption capacity was achieved at low pH. • The treated Jute fibers can be used for three times after regeneration processes

  7. Equilibrium and kinetics studies for the adsorption of direct and acid dyes from aqueous solution by soy meal hull

    This paper deals with the application of Soy Meal Hull (SMH), an agricultural by-product, for the removal of direct and acid dyes from aqueous solutions. Four textile dyes, C.I.Direct red 80 (DR80), C.I.Direct red 81 (DR81), C.I.Acid blue 92 (AB92) and C.I.Acid red 14 (AR14) were used as model compounds. Physical characteristics of SMH such as surface area, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were obtained. The surface area of SMH was found to be 0.7623 m2/g and the presence of functional groups such as hydroxyl, amine and carbonyl groups were detected. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, contact time and SMH doses were elucidated at 20 ± 1 deg. C. Results show that the pH value of 2 is favorable for the adsorption of all four dyes. The data evaluated for compliance with the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherm models. It was found that data for DR80 and DR81 fitted well with Langmuir isotherm, for AB92, BET isotherm is preferred, while for AR14, the Freundlich isotherm is the most applicable. The adsorption capacities of SMH for DR80, DR81, AB92 and AR14 were, 178.57, 120.48, 114.94 and 109.89 mg/g of adsorbent, respectively. Also, adsorption kinetics of dyes was studied and the rates of sorption were found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics with good correlation (R 2 ≥ 0.9977). Maximum desorption of ≥99.8% was achieved for DR80, DR81 and AB92 and 86% for AR14 in aqueous solution at pH 10. Based on the data of present investigation, one could conclude that the SMH being a natural, eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent with relatively large adsorption capacity might be a suitable local alternative for elimination of dyes from colored aqueous solutions

  8. Biosorption of the metal-complex dye Acid Black 172 by live and heat-treated biomass of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1: Kinetics and sorption mechanisms

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Bing [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Li, Gang [Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, 325006 Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Sheng [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Crowley, David E., E-mail: crowley@ucr.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhao, Yu-Hua, E-mail: yhzhao225@zju.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum amount of Acid Black 172 sorption was about 2.98 mmol/g biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine groups played a major role in the biosorption of Acid Black 172. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reasons of increased dye sorption by heat-treated biomass were proposed. - Abstract: The ability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to adsorb Acid Black 172 was studied to determine the kinetics and mechanisms involved in biosorption of the dye. Kinetic data for adsorption fit a pseudo-second-order model. Increased initial dye concentration could significantly enhance the amount of dye adsorbed by heat-treated biomass in which the maximum amount of dye adsorbed was as high as 2.98 mmol/g biomass, whereas it had no significant influence on dye sorption by live biomass. As treated temperature increased, the biomass showed gradual increase of dye sorption ability. Experiments using potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that amine groups (NH{sub 2}) played a prominent role in biosorption of Acid Black 172. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that heat treatment of the biomass increased the permeability of the cell walls and denatured the intracellular proteins. The results of biosorption experiments by different cell components confirmed that intracellular proteins contributed to the increased biosorption of Acid Black 172 by heat-treated biomass. The data suggest that biomass produced by this strain may have application for removal of metal-complex dyes from wastewater streams generated from the dye products industry.

  9. Biosorption of the metal-complex dye Acid Black 172 by live and heat-treated biomass of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1: Kinetics and sorption mechanisms

    Highlights: ► The maximum amount of Acid Black 172 sorption was about 2.98 mmol/g biomass. ► Amine groups played a major role in the biosorption of Acid Black 172. ► The reasons of increased dye sorption by heat-treated biomass were proposed. - Abstract: The ability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to adsorb Acid Black 172 was studied to determine the kinetics and mechanisms involved in biosorption of the dye. Kinetic data for adsorption fit a pseudo-second-order model. Increased initial dye concentration could significantly enhance the amount of dye adsorbed by heat-treated biomass in which the maximum amount of dye adsorbed was as high as 2.98 mmol/g biomass, whereas it had no significant influence on dye sorption by live biomass. As treated temperature increased, the biomass showed gradual increase of dye sorption ability. Experiments using potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that amine groups (NH2) played a prominent role in biosorption of Acid Black 172. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that heat treatment of the biomass increased the permeability of the cell walls and denatured the intracellular proteins. The results of biosorption experiments by different cell components confirmed that intracellular proteins contributed to the increased biosorption of Acid Black 172 by heat-treated biomass. The data suggest that biomass produced by this strain may have application for removal of metal-complex dyes from wastewater streams generated from the dye products industry.

  10. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  11. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    Shen, Yongjun; Lei, Lecheng; Zhang, Xingwang; Ding, Jiandong

    2014-11-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants, two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized. The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics, energy transfer efficiency, the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation. The results showed that under the same AC input power, the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better. Under the same AC input power, the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV. The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A, while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A. The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW, respectively. The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J, which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J). To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7), the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.02 × 10-9 mol/L and 0.61 × 10-9 mol/L, respectively. In the point-to-plate reactor, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge, which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L). The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7 × 10-2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5 × 10-2 mmol/L). The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid, maleic anhydride, p-benzoquinone, phenol, benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride, coumarin and 2-naphthol. Proposed degradation pathways were

  12. Biodegradation of Acid Anthraquinone Dye in a Facultative-aerobic Process: Kinetics and Products

    LI Yin; LI Zai-lei

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of an anthraquinone dye blue 324 in a facultative-aerobic (F-A) system was investigated. Kinetic parameter study showed that higher Vmax coupled with more recalcitrant chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found in the facuitative biofilm reactor (FBR) than in the aerobic reactor (AR). Results of the product analyses indicated that most of dye molecular could be facultatively broken down into simple intermediates, which would be further degraded under subsequent aerobic condition. The main metabolites in each reactor were detected by infrared (FT-IR) and high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Comparison of the toxicities among the dye and its metabolites was conducted, surprisingly, the colorless intermediates from FBR possessed less inhibitory than original dye and the median effective luminescence concentration (EC50) in 15 min for aerobic effluent could not be detected, showing that hardly toxic products existed in the aerobic process effluent.

  13. Application of Acidic Treated Pumice as an Adsorbent for the Removal of Azo Dye from Aqueous Solutions:kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies

    Saied Bashiri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as anefficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal ofAR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99 and Langmuir (r2>0.99 isotherm models.Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99 and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98 models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer.Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89 % regeneration for AR14 and AR18,respectively.

  14. Analytical properties of gaize- and silicate glue-based xerogels modified with Chrome Azurol S

    A method was proposed for the synthesis of silicic acid xerogels based on opoka aluminosilicate (Gaize) and silicate glue. The physicochemical properties of xerogels were studied. The complexation of Be(II) with immobilized Chrome Azurol S was studied by electronic absorption and diffuse-reflection spectrometry and solid-phase spectrophotometry. Test procedures were developed for determining Be(II) and Al(III) in waters and soils

  15. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose. PMID:27150762

  16. PHOTOTHERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLACK CHROME - A POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTING FACTOR

    Driver, P.; Mccormick, P.

    1981-01-01

    By a review of the electrochemistry of the electrodeposition of black chrome, it has been possible to identify a previously unrecognised factor which is almost certain to contribute to the photothermal degradation of black chrome. Methods have been proposed for reducing or eliminating the effects of these photothermally sensitive constituents.

  17. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  18. Response surface optimization of acid red 119 dye from simulated wastewater using Al based waterworks sludge and polyaluminium chloride as coagulant.

    Moghaddam, S Sadri; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Arami, M

    2011-04-01

    In this research, the performance of Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) and Polyaluminium Chloride sludge (PACS) as coagulants for acid red 119 (AR119) dye removal from aqueous solutions were compared. The sample of PACS was collected from "Baba Sheikh Ali" water treatment plant (Isfahan, Iran) where PAC is used as a coagulant in the coagulation/flocculation process. A response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the simple and combined effects of the operating variables including initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration and to optimize the operating conditions of the treatment process. Results reveal that the optimal conditions for dye removal were initial pH 3.42, coagulant dosage of 4.55 g dried PACS/L and initial dye concentration of 140 mg/L for PACS, while the optimal initial pH, coagulant dosage and initial dye concentration for PAC were 3.8, 57 mg/L and 140 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 94.1% and 95.25% was observed for PACS and PAC, respectively. Although lower amount of PAC in comparison with PACS was needed for specific dye removal, the reuse of PACS as a low-cost material can offer some advantages such as high efficiency for AR119 dye removal and economic savings on overall water and wastewater treatment plant operation costs. PMID:21216522

  19. Unsymmetrical Heptamethine Dyes for NIR Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Thomas Geiger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven unsymmetrical heptamethine dyes with carboxylic acid functionality were synthesized and characterized. These near-infrared dyes exhibit outstanding photophysical properties depending on their heterocyclic moieties and molecular structure. As proof of principle, the dyes were used as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most promising dye, an overall conversion efficiency of 1.22% and an almost colorless solar cell were achieved.

  20. NASA TEERM Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Projects

    Kessel, Kurt R.; Rothgeb, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders. The technical stakeholders have agreed that this protocol will focus specifically on Class 3 coatings. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), depots, and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain that increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes, some labeled no differently and intermingled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance of lead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the reliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free terminations, termination finishes, or circuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers, suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers 2. Incompatibility of lead-free processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead-free alloys) with other materials in the system 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint reliability

  1. Monopolar Electro-Coagulation Process for Azo Dye C.I. Acid Red 18 Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Ghasem Azarian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of wastewaters containing an untreated dye results in aesthetic problems and an increase in gases solubility, which causes light transmission inhibition into water bodies. In spite of advantages of physicochemical and biological methods, these processes produce huge amounts of sludge, toxic by-products and require several oxidant chemicals. By contrast, electrochemical processes because of their high versatility, high efficiency and eco-friendly properties are more acceptable. In the present study, the removal of azo dye Acid Red 18 and chemical oxygen demand (COD from synthetic wastewater by monopolar (EC process was investigated and key parameters such as operating time, current density (CD, initial pH and energy, and electrode consumption were optimized. It was found that the process had a very good efficiency in the removal of both COD and color; for the iron electrode, the maximum amounts of color and COD removal were 99.5% and 59.0%, respectively. An operating time of 45 min, pH of 7 and CD of 1.2 mA/cm2 was selected as the optimized condition. The optimization of variables is extremely crucial as it results in a decrease in costs, energy and electrode consumption. Overall, the iron electrode used less energy than the aluminum electrode and was more acceptable for use in this process due to economical reasons. The findings of UV/vis spectra illustrated that the structures of this dye were removed by the process. In comparison with traditional methods such as aerobic and anaerobic systems, the EC process is a suitable alternative for the treatment of wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  2. Ammonium-Functionalized Hollow Polymer Particles As a pH-Responsive Adsorbent for Selective Removal of Acid Dye.

    Qin, Yan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Changwen; Chen, Dong; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a novel type of ammonium-functionalized hollow polymer particles (HPP-NH3(+)) with a high density of ammonium groups in the shell has been specially designed and synthesized. Benefiting from both the high surface area and from the high density of positively charged ammonium groups, the as-prepared HPP-NH3(+) can serve as a selective adsorbent for the removal of negatively charged acid dye (e.g., methyl blue a-MB). The equilibrium adsorption data of a-MB on the HPP-NH3(+) were evaluated using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, and Langmuir isotherm exhibited a better fit with a maximum adsorption capacity of 406 mg/g. Most importantly, because of the presence of dual functional groups (ammonium and carboxyl groups), the HPP-NH3(+) showed a significant pH-dependent equilibrium adsorption capacity, which increased dramatically from 59 mg/g to 449 mg/g as the solution pH decreased from 9 to 2. This uniqueness makes the dye-adsorbed HPP-NH3(+) can be facilely regenerated under mild condition (in weak alkaline solution, pH 10) to recover both a-MB and the HPP-NH3(+), whereas the recovery of conventional adsorbents is commonly performed under particularly severe conditions. The regenerated HPP-NH3(+) can be reused for dye removal and the dye removal efficiency remained above 98% even after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Because of its high adsorption capacity, pH-sensitivity, easy regeneration, and good reusability, the HPP-NH3(+) has great potential for the application in the field of water treatment, controlled drug release, and pH-responsive delivery. PMID:27302068

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of sildenafil citrate in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation using some chromotropic acid azo dyes

    Issa, Y. M.; El-Hawary, W. F.; Youssef, A. F. A.; Senosy, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    Two simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of the drug sildenafil citrate (SC), Viagra, in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations, through ion-associate formation reactions (method A) with mono-chromotropic acid azo dyes, chromotrope 2B (I) and chromotrope 2R (II) and ion-pair reactions (method B) with bi-chromotropic acid azo dyes, 3-phenylazo-6-o-carboxyphenylazo-chromotropic acid (III), bis-3,6-(o-hydroxyphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (IV), bis-3,6-(p-N,N-dimethylphenylazo)-chromotropic acid (V) and 3-phenylazo-6-o-hydroxyphenylazo-chromotorpic acid (VI). The reaction products, extractable in methylene chloride, were quantitatively measured at 540, 520, 540, 570, 600 and 575 nm using reagents, I-VI, respectively. The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. Beer's plots were linear in the concentration ranges 3.3-87.0, 3.3-96.0, 5.0-115.0, 2.5-125.0, 8.3-166.7 and 0.8-15.0 μg mL -1 with corresponding molar absorptivities 1.02 × 10 4, 8.34 × 10 3, 6.86 × 10 3, 5.42 × 10 3, 3.35 × 10 3 and 2.32 × 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 using reagents I-VI, respectively. The limits of detection and Sandell's sensitivities were calculated. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets (Vigoran) and the recovery study reveals that there is no interference from the common excipients that are present in tablets. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using Student's t- and F-tests at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

  4. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome... introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works resulting from the production of chrome pigments....

  5. Ponceau 6R dye decoloration and chromate reduction simultaneously in acid medium

    Seddique M. Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degradation efficiency and kinetic degradation reaction of Ponceau 6R dye using potassium chromate have been investigated under various experimental conditions: different concentrations of H2SO4 and temperatures. The immediate change of the red coloration (λmax = 518 nm to colorless was observed after addition of inorganic oxidizing agent (K2CrO4 into the protonated form of Ponceau 6R dye after 48 h. This observation could be attributed to the highest oxidized form of this dye obtained (the quinoid one, which undergoes a hydrolysis reaction to produce p-hydroquinone (H2Q by a mechanism similar to Schiff-base hydrolysis. The cationic form of this matrix is a crucial feature for the hydrolysis process. A kinetic model for oxidation of Ponceau 6R by the combination of chromate was developed based on experimental results. The observed kinetic reaction coefficient was determined and correlated as a function of UV spectral intensity of Ponceau 6R at 518 nm. The degradation rate follows pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dye concentration.

  6. Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO{sub 3} semiconductor catalyst

    Qamar, M. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Hayat, K. [Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yamani, Z.H. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Laser Research Laboratory, Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hooshani, K. [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 741, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-30

    Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO{sub 3} semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), and potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants.

  7. Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst

    Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and potassium bromate (KBrO3). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants.

  8. Percolation-type behavior in black chrome selective solar films

    The optical constants (n and k) and dc resistivity have been measured for black chrome particulate solar absorbing coatings for the purpose of defining the applicability of various inhomogeneous medium theories in the description of the black chrome optical response. It has been shown that percolation-type behavior does exist in the films and hence of the various theories, only those exhibiting percolation at the 0.3 packing fraction value determined for the black chrome films are applicable. The two valid approaches are an effective medium theory first proposed by Bruggeman and a modified Maxwell Garnett theory which includes a particle shape distribution

  9. Quality Improvement of Chrome-Diamond Coatings on Flowing Chrome Plating

    Belyaev, V. N.; Koslyuk, A. Yu; Lobunets, A. V.; Andreyev, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The research results of the process of flowing chrome plating of internal surfaces of long-length cylindrical articles with the usage of electrolyte with ultra-dispersed diamonds when continuous article rotation, while chromium-plating, are presented. During experiments the following varying technological parameters: electrolyte temperature and article frequency rotation were chosen, and experimental samples were obtained. Estimation of porosity, micro-hardness, thickness of chrome coatings and uniformity were performed as well as the precipitation structure by the method of scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the use of ultra-dispersed diamonds and realization of the scheme with rotation of detail-cathode when flowing chromium-plating allows one to increase servicing characteristics of the coating due to the decrease of grains size of chrome coating and porosity, and due to the increase of micro-hardness, so confirming the efficiency of using the suggested scheme of coating application and the given type of ultra-dispersed fillers when chromium-plating.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cell with poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile)-based gel polymer electrolyte

    Highlights: ► A nontoxic, easily synthesized poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) showed suitable transmittance for dye-sensitized solar cell. ► A cell with relatively large active area fabricated with this polymer material showed acceptable efficiency. ► The gel polymer matrix affected the charge recombination, I3− diffusion, double layer capacitance, and electron lifetime in the cell. - Abstract: A non-conducting, nontoxic poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAA) was prepared and used as a supporting matrix for the electrolyte of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). DSSCs of active area 0.80 cm × 1.10 cm fabricated with PAA, 0.5 M LiI, 0.05 M I2, 0.5 M 3-tert-butylpyridine, and 0.1 M 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent showed an average solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.61% under simulated sunlight illumination of 100 mW cm−2, AM 1.5. The effects of the gel polymer matrix on the electrochemical properties of DSSCs were studied using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Relative to the non-gel reference cells, the results showed a decrease in charge recombination, ionic diffusion, and double layer capacitance and an increase in electron lifetime. These results could play an important role in determining the future direction for the development of high-performance gel polymer electrolytes.

  11. Novel acid mono azo dye compound: Synthesis, characterization, vibrational, optical and theoretical investigations of 2-[(E)-(8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)-diazenyl]-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid

    Saçmacı, Mustafa; Çavuş, Hatice Kanbur; Arı, Hatice; Şahingöz, Recep; Özpozan, Talat

    2012-11-01

    Novel acid mono azo dye, 2-[(E)-(8-hydroxyquinolin-5yl)-diazenyl]-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HQD), was synthesized by coupling diazonium salt solution of 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (DMA) with 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This dye was characterized by UV-vis, IR & Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. The normal coordinate analysis of HQD was also performed to assign each band in vibrational spectra. DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) calculations were employed to optimize the geometry, to interpret NMR spectra, to calculate and to determine the stable tautomeric structure of the compound. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to investigate intramolecular interactions. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase IR & Raman spectra were assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. UV-vis spectroscopic technique was employed to obtain the optical band gap of HQD. The analysis of the optical absorption data revealed the existence of direct and indirect transitions in the optical band gaps. The optical band gaps of HQD have been found 1.95 and 1.90 eV for direct and indirect transitions, respectively.

  12. Amplified spontaneous emission from PicoGreen dye intercalated in deoxyribonucleic acid lipid complex

    Pradeep, C.; Vallabhan, C. P. G.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-12-01

    DNA as a genetic biomolecule is more commonly referred to in life sciences, genetics, and microbiology. With the development of ‘DNA photonics’, it has shown tremendous applicability as an optical and photonic material. In this letter, we introduce a novel dye PicoGreen as a lasing medium in which DNA not only acts as a host matrix but also functions as a fluorescence enhancer. A dramatic increase in the fluorescence led us to the observation of optical amplification in dye doped DNA thin films. We also indicate the possible tunability of the output emission in the green-yellow region. With the obtained results, we have enough reasons to lead to the development of DNA-based bio-lasers.

  13. Comparison of wet and dry chrome etching with the CORE-2564

    Buck, Peter D.; Grenon, Brian J.

    1994-02-01

    Chrome masks have traditionally been wet etched in an acidic solution of cerric ammonium nitrate. The etchant is commonly sprayed on the mask while the mask is slowly rotated, using an APT-914 or equivalent processor. While this process is well-understood, relatively trouble- free and inexpensive, the isotropic nature of wet etching results in an undercut of the chrome relative to the resist etch mask of approximately equals 150 nm per edge. Compensation for the undercut, in order to maintain control of the mean critical dimension (CD), is done by adjusting the printed feature size such that the undercut grows the printed feature to the desired final size. This sizing can be performed by manipulating the computer aided design database, which can be expensive and time consuming. In this paper, we present a comparison of wet and dry chrome etch processes using plates printed with the CORE-2564 in OCG-895 i resist. The differences in CD performance and resolution are illustrated.

  14. A Long-Wavelength Fluorescent Squarylium Cyanine Dye Possessing Boronic Acid for Sensing Monosaccharides and Glycoproteins with High Enhancement in Aqueous Solution

    Hiroyuki Nakazumi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence sensing of saccharides and glycoproteins using a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye (“SQ-BA” is characterized in terms of synthetic, fluorometric, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In our previous work, this newly synthesized dye was successfully applied to the separation and quantification of Gram-positive bacteria by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF; however, the fundamental properties of the dye and its saccharide complexes still required elucidation, as presented in this paper. The dye itself forms nonemissive, soluble aggregates in aqueous solution. With the addition of a monosaccharide, the dye aggregate dissociates to form an emissive monomer accompanied by the formation of a cyclic cis-diol ester with long-wavelength emission (lex = 630 nm, lem = 660 nm. A very large fluorescence enhancement factor of 18× was observed for the sensing dye as a fructose complex at pH 10, yielding a limit of detection of 10 mM fructose. The relative order of fluorescence enhancement of SQ-BA with other monosaccharides was found to be: fructose > ribose > arabinose ≈ galactose > xylose > mannose > rhamnose > fucose ≈ glucose; and apparent affinity constants of 102.80, 102.08 and 100.86 M−1 were determined for fructose, ribose and glucose, respectively. Formation of the emissive complexes occurred within minutes, proving the kinetics of the sugar-dye interactions to be suitable for on-column labeling methods in CE-LIF. Furthermore, the sensing dye was successfully applied to glycoproteins, mucin type I–S and type III, which were detected with high sensitivity in batch aqueous solution as a result of the sugar-selective boronic acid-diol esterification as well as hydrophobic interactions.

  15. A Long-Wavelength Fluorescent Squarylium Cyanine Dye Possessing Boronic Acid for Sensing Monosaccharides and Glycoproteins with High Enhancement in Aqueous Solution

    Saito, Shingo; Massie, Tara L.; Maeda, Takeshi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Colyer, Christa L.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence sensing of saccharides and glycoproteins using a boronic acid functionalized squarylium cyanine dye (“SQ-BA”) is characterized in terms of synthetic, fluorometric, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. In our previous work, this newly synthesized dye was successfully applied to the separation and quantification of Gram-positive bacteria by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF); however, the fundamental properties of the dye and its saccharide complexes still required elucidation, as presented in this paper. The dye itself forms nonemissive, soluble aggregates in aqueous solution. With the addition of a monosaccharide, the dye aggregate dissociates to form an emissive monomer accompanied by the formation of a cyclic cis-diol ester with long-wavelength emission (λex = 630 nm, λem = 660 nm). A very large fluorescence enhancement factor of 18× was observed for the sensing dye as a fructose complex at pH 10, yielding a limit of detection of 10 μM fructose. The relative order of fluorescence enhancement of SQ-BA with other monosaccharides was found to be: fructose > ribose > arabinose ≈ galactose > xylose > mannose > rhamnose > fucose ≈ glucose; and apparent affinity constants of 102.80, 102.08 and 100.86 M−1 were determined for fructose, ribose and glucose, respectively. Formation of the emissive complexes occurred within minutes, proving the kinetics of the sugar-dye interactions to be suitable for on-column labeling methods in CE-LIF. Furthermore, the sensing dye was successfully applied to glycoproteins, mucin type I–S and type III, which were detected with high sensitivity in batch aqueous solution as a result of the sugar-selective boronic acid-diol esterification as well as hydrophobic interactions. PMID:22778592

  16. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  17. Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you still struggle with remembering your password? Is this despite our many attempts to help you: “Train your Brain: Don't put your password on paper!" (article here), “Creativity@CERN” (article here) and “Maths to the rescue!" (article here)? Then you might have considered the “save your password” features in Chrome, Firefox or Internet Explorer… these features remember your Facebook, CERN, Twitter, Amazon and ebay passwords. But be careful: it might be easy for someone to read them!   If enabled, Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and others can remember the password of specific sites after you’ve logged in to those sites the first time. As the passwords are, however, stored in plain text, they can still be read out by anyone with access to that computer. In Chrome, just type “chrome://settings/passwords” and click the password you want to reveal. Or in F...

  18. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME SUPPRESSANTS & CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium...

  19. Optically transparent hydrogels from an auxin-amino-acid conjugate super hydrogelator and its interactions with an entrapped dye.

    Reddy, Amarendar; Sharma, Aashish; Srivastava, Aasheesh

    2012-06-11

    Low-molecular-weight organic hydrogelators (LMHGs) that can rigidify water into soft materials are desirable in various applications. Herein, we report the excellent hydrogelating properties of a simple synthetic auxin-amino-acid conjugate, naphthalene-1-acetamide of L-phenylalanine (1-NapF, M(w)=333.38 Da), which gelated water even at 0.025 wt %, thereby making it the most-efficient LMHG known. Optically transparent gels that exhibited negligible scattering in the range 350-900 nm were obtained. A large shift from the theoretical pK(a) value of the gelator was observed. The dependence of the minimum gelator concentration (MGC) and the gel-melting temperatures on the pH value indicated the importance of H-bonding between the carboxylate groups on adjacent phenylalanine molecules in the gelator assembly. FTIR spectroscopy of the xerogels showed a β-sheet-like assembly of the gelator. Variable-temperature (1)H NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that π stacking of the aromatic residues was also partly involved in the gelator assembly. TEM of the xerogel showed the presence of a dense network of thin, high-aspect-ratio fibrillar assemblies with diameters of about 5 nm and lengths that exceeded a few microns. Rheology studies showed the formation of stable gels. The entrapment of water-soluble dyes afforded extremely fluorescent gels that involved the formation of J-aggregates by the dye within gel. A strong induced-CD band established that the RhoB molecules were interacting closely with the chiral gelator aggregates. H-bonding and electrostatic interactions, rather than intercalation, seemed to be involved in RhoB binding. The addition of chaotropic reagents, as well as increasing the pH value, disassembled the gel and promoted the release of the entrapped dye with zero-order kinetics. PMID:22532500

  20. Chrome-plating of titanium alloys and their performance

    The impact of technological parameters by electrochemical chrome-plating of titanium alloys on their mechanical properties, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, antifriction characteristics, hydridation and hydrogen distribution in the base and coating is studied. The evaluation of the alloys and coatings overgrowing with microorganisms is given. The rational compositions of solutions and regimes of titanium alloys treatment by their multiple (up to 6 times) chrome-plating are determined

  1. The study of dyeing of hydrolyzed polyester fibers: investigation of dyeing behaviour of hydrolyzed polyester fibers lipase

    Polyester (PET) is one of the hydrophobic fibers. Disperse dyes are the most important dyestuff for dyeing of this fibers. Dyeing can be applied by carrier, H T and the thermo fix methods. In this research, hydrolyzed polyester fibers by lipase in different conditions are dyed by disperse and ionic dyes in using various methods. The results of dyeing by disperse dyes show that the enzymatic hydrolysis increases the surface rate of dyeing but being non-effective on final adsorption of dyes. On the contrary dyeing with ionic dyes indicated that no adsorption of these dyes (acid and cationic dyes) takes place on hydrolyzed fibers

  2. Development of a pH sensor based on a nanostructured filter adding pH-sensitive fluorescent dye for detecting acetic acid in photovoltaic modules

    Asaka, Takashi; Itayama, Tomohiro; Nagasaki, Hideaki; Iwami, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Hara, Yukiko; Masuda, Atsushi; Umeda, Norihiro

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid formed via the hydrolysis of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as an encapsulant in photovoltaic (PV) modules causes a decrease in the conversion efficiency of such modules by grid corrosion. Here, a nondestructive and simple optical method for evaluating the condition of PV modules is proposed. This method uses a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive fluorescent dye to detect acetic acid in PV modules using a change in pH. The change in pH induced by the formation of acetic acid is detected by the change in the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of two peaks of the dye. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye showed sensitivity for small amounts of acetic acid such as that produced from EVA. Furthermore, a membrane filter dyed with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye was confirmed to detect acetic acid in aged EVA after a damp-heat test (85 °C, 85%) for 5000 h in PV modules.

  3. Photo-induced interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots with cyanine dyes.

    Abdelbar, Mostafa F; Fayed, Tarek A; Meaz, Talaat M; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2016-11-01

    The photo-induced interaction of three different sizes of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) with two monomethine cyanine dyes belonging to the thiazole orange (TO) family has been studied. Positively charged cyanines interact with QDs surface which is negatively charged due to capping agent carboxylate ions. The energy transfer parameters including Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv, number of binding sites, n, quenching sphere radius, r, the critical energy transfer distance, R0, and energy transfer efficiencies, E have been calculated. The effect of structure and the number of aggregating molecules have been studied as a function of CdTe QDs particle size. Combining organic and inorganic semiconductors leads to increase of the effective absorption cross section of the QDs which can be utilized in novel nanoscale designs for light-emitting, photovoltaic and sensor applications. A synthesized triplet emission of the studied dyes was observed using CdTe QDs as donors and this is expected to play a potential role in molecular oxygen sensitization and in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. PMID:27267278

  4. Determination of europium(3) in the presence of Chrome Azurol S by alternating-current polarography

    The behavior of Eu(3) ions are studied by alternating-current polarography in the presence of a triphenylmethane dye Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in an ammonia buffer solution in a wide range of pH and concentrations. The mechanism of CAS reduction at a dropping mercury electrode is suggested. The studies performed by the saturation curve method and by the method of isomolar series indicate that the ratio of components in the complex formed is 1 : 1. The determination limit for Eu(3) in a 0.1 M NH4Cl solution (pH 7.0) in the presence of CAS is 2.2 x 10-6 M

  5. Functionalization of cubic mesoporous silica SBA-16 with carboxylic acid via one-pot synthesis route for effective removal of cationic dyes.

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-En; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that a high density of COOH groups loading, up to 60mol% based on silica, is successfully incorporated into SBA-16 via a one-pot synthesis route, which involves co-condensation of carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CES) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) templated by Pluronic F127 and P123 in an acidic medium. A variety of characterization techniques are performed to confirm quantitative incorporation of carboxylic groups into ordered cubic mesostructures. These functionalized materials are used to effectively remove two cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and phenosafranine (PF) with the maximum adsorption capacities of 561 and 519mgg(-1), respectively, at pH 9. The zeta potential results reveal that the electrostatic interactions between cationic dye molecule and negatively charged surface of the adsorbent play a crucial role in their high adsorption capacities. For a binary component system consisting of MB and PF, competitive adsorption of these two dyes is observed with adsorption capacity values slightly lower than those of the corresponding single dye systems. The dye adsorbed material can be easily regenerated by simple acid washing and be reused for five times with MB removal efficiency still up to 98.6%, showing its great potentials in environmental remediation. PMID:26906434

  6. A comparative investigation on adsorption performances of mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste rubber tire and activated carbon for a hazardous azo dye-Acid Blue 113

    Research highlights: → The system is cheap, efficient and fast for the removal of dyes from waters. → Higher adsorption capacity is due to higher mesoporous volume of the adsorbent. → The rate determining step of the adsorption process is particle diffusion. - Abstract: A mesoporous carbon developed from waste tire rubber, characterized by chemical analysis, FTIR, and SEM studies, was used as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of a hazardous azo dye, Acid Blue 113. Surface area, porosity, and density were determined. The adsorption of the dye over the prepared adsorbent and a commercial activated carbon was achieved under different pH, adsorbate concentration, sieve size, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process follow first order kinetics and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative. By percolating the dye solution through fixed-bed columns the bulk removal of the Acid Blue 113 was carried out and necessary parameters were determined to find out the percentage saturation of both the columns. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting 0.1 M NaOH through the column.

  7. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Lee HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic.Methods: PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA. To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD.Results: Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm, and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was

  8. The preparation of cervical scrape material for automated cytology using gallocyanin chrome-alum stain.

    Eason, P J; Tucker, J H

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for preparing cervical scrape specimens for automated analysis on the Cerviscan prescreening system. In order to reduce the cellular clumping found in cervical scrape material, cells are collected in suspension, syringed to disaggregate the cell clumps, and then pipetted onto a glass to give a monolayer of cells. The cells are then stained with gallocyanin chrome-alum to give the required quantitation of nucleic acid content, using a rapid staining procedure. Experimental results are given which show that specimens prepared by this method are more suitable for automated analysis than the conventional Papanicolaou stained preparation. PMID:86562

  9. A highly efficient single chambered up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell for treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7-containing wastewater.

    Thung, Wei-Eng; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ridwan, Fahmi; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Single chambered up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UFML MFC) was developed to study the feasibility of the bioreactor for decolorization of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and electricity generation simultaneously. The performance of UFML MFC was evaluated in terms of voltage output, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency by varying the concentration of AO7 in synthetic wastewater. The results shown the voltage generation and COD removal efficiency decreased as the initial AO7 concentration increased; this indicates there is electron competition between anode and azo dye. Furthermore, there was a phenomenon of further decolorization at cathode region which indicates the oxygen and azo dye are both compete as electron acceptor. Based on the UV-visible spectra analysis, the breakdown of the azo bond and naphthalene compound in AO7 were confirmed. These findings show the capability of integrated UFML MFC in azo dye wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity generation. PMID:26342340

  10. ESR investigations of radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate in aqueous emulsion onto chrome-tanned pig skin

    Upon γ-irradiation at 77 K of the aqueous emulsions of methyl methacrylate embedded into chrome-tanned pig skins there are formed only the radicals of collagen and of 2-el-2-methylopropionic acid methyl ester. The presence of water in the system increases markedly the radiation yield of collagen radicals. During gradual heating up the polymerization reactions start and the macro-radical of growing polymer is observed. Chromium does not participate in the processes of initiation and grafting. (author)

  11. Infra Red Dye and Endostar Loaded Poly Lactic Acid Nano Particles as a Novel Theranostic Nanomedicine for Breast Cancer.

    Zhang, Qian; Du, Yang; Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Li, Yaqian; Li, Xiaofeng; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been proven to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and is utilized as an anticancer drug. While free drugs can display limited efficacy, nanoscaled anticancer drugs have been fabricated and proven to possess superior therapeutic effects. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a FDA-approved biomaterial displaying excellent biocompatibility and low toxicity. In this study, Endostar-loaded PLA nanoparticles (EPNPs) were first prepared, and a near-infrared (NIR) dye, IRDye 800CW, was conjugated to the surface for detecting nanoparticle biodistribution through fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) using an orthotopic breast tumor mouse model. The antitumor efficacy of EPNPs was examined using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and immunohistology. To further improve the antitumor effects, we combined EPNPs with zoledronic acid monohydrate (ZA), which is known to decrease the tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and inhibit tumor progression. We found that EPNPs decreased human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability by inhibiting tumor growth gene expression more significantly than free Endostar in vitro. In vivo, EPNPs displayed better tumor growth inhibitory effects compared with free Endostar, and the combination of EPNPs with ZA exhibited more significant antitumor effects. As confirmed by CD31 and CD11b immunohistochemistry, the combination of EPNPs and ZA showed synergistic effects in reducing tumor angiogenesis and TAM accumulation in tumor regions. Taken together, this study presents a novel and effective form of nanoscaled Endostar for the treatment of breast cancer that displays synergistic antitumor effects in combination with ZA. PMID:27280247

  12. Sequential study on reactive blue 29 dye removal from aqueous solution by peroxy acid and single wall carbon nanotubes: experiment and theory

    Jahangiri-Rad Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process was optimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. The optimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for color removal (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  13. Sequential study on Reactive Blue 29 Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Peroxy Acid and Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes: Experiment and Theory

    Mahsa Jahangiri-Rad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of anthraquinone dye released to the environment come from antrapogenic sources. Several techniques are available for dyes' removal. In this study removal of reactive blue 29 (RB29 by an advanced oxidation process sequenced with single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated. Advanced oxidation process wasoptimized over a period of 60 minutes by changing the ratio of acetic acid to hydrogen peroxide, the compounds which form peroxy acid. Reduction of 20.2% -56.4% of reactive blue 29 was observed when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide/acetic acid/dye changed from 344/344/1 to 344/344/0.08 at different times (60, 120 and 180 min. Theoptimum ratio of acetic acid/hydrogen peroxide/dye was found to be 344/344/0.16 over 60 min. The resultant then was introduced for further removal by single wall carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs as adsorbent. The adsorption of reactive blue 29 onto SWCNTs was also investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms were determined and the results revealed that the adsorption of RB29 onto SWCNTs was well explained by BET model and changed to Freundlich isotherm when SWCNTs was used after the application of peroxy acid. Kinetic study showed that the equilibrium time for adsorption of RB 29 on to SWCNT is 4 h. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorbent capacity and the effect of solution pH on the removal of reactive blue29. The pseudo-second order kinetic equation could best describe the sorption kinetics. The most efficient pH for colorremoval (amongst pH=3, 5 and 8 was pH= 5. Further studies are needed to identify the peroxy acid degradation intermediates and to investigate their effects on SWCNTs.

  14. The coating layer structure of commercial chrome plates

    Highlights: • AES and XPS depth profiling analysis were used in the experiment. • The detailed coating layer structure of the commercial chrome plate was obtained. • Peak fitting method was used to investigate the chemical states of Cr in the coating. - Abstract: The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the commercial chrome plate coating layer with the thickness of dozens of nanometers have been observed. To investigate the detailed structure of the coating layer, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with the low energy Ar+ sputtering technique have been employed. Through careful analysis of experimental data, it can be obtained that the coating layer of commercial chrome plates is composed of four layers from top to bottom with different compositions

  15. The coating layer structure of commercial chrome plates

    Chen, Sheng, E-mail: chen_sheng@baosteel.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • AES and XPS depth profiling analysis were used in the experiment. • The detailed coating layer structure of the commercial chrome plate was obtained. • Peak fitting method was used to investigate the chemical states of Cr in the coating. - Abstract: The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the commercial chrome plate coating layer with the thickness of dozens of nanometers have been observed. To investigate the detailed structure of the coating layer, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with the low energy Ar{sup +} sputtering technique have been employed. Through careful analysis of experimental data, it can be obtained that the coating layer of commercial chrome plates is composed of four layers from top to bottom with different compositions.

  16. Investigations on the growth, optical, thermal, dielectric, and laser damage threshold properties of crystal violet dye-doped potassium acid phthalate single crystal

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Influence of crystal violet dye with different concentration on potassium acid phthalate single crystal grown by conventional method has been studied. No change has been observed in the structure, whereas changes have been observed in the external morphology of the crystal when the dyes are incorporated in the crystal lattice. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show the onset decomposition temperatures to be at 302, 285, 284, and 285 °C for pure, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol% crystal violet-doped potassium acid phthalate crystals, respectively. The dielectric measurement was carried out on the grown crystals as a function of frequency at various temperatures. In addition, strong luminescent emission bands at 638, 648, and 640 nm were observed in which the relative intensity was found to be reversed as a result of doping concentration. The laser damage threshold value significantly increased for dye-doped crystal in comparison with pure crystal which may make it suitable for the solid-state dye laser applications.

  17. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  18. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto chrome-tanned pig skins

    Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto chrome-tanned pig skins was carried out by irradiation with 60Co γ-rays. The grafted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) chains were isolated by acid hydrolysis of the collagen backbone in order to characterize the graft copolymers. Proof of grafting was obtained through the detection of amino acid endgroups in the isolated grafts by reaction with ninhydrin. The grafting yield of MMA in aqueous emulsion was found to be higher than that for pure MMA and MMA in acetone. The degree of grafting increases with increasing monomer concentration in emulsion and reaches maximum at radiation dose ca 15 kGy. The yield of grafting is very high. The present paper reports the physical properties of chrome-tanned pig skins after graft polymerization with MMA in emulsion. Modified leathers are more resistant against water absorption and abrasion in comparison with unmodified ones. They have more uniform structure over the whole surface, greater thickness and stiffness. The mechanism of some of the processes occurring during radiation grafting of MMA in water emulsion on tanned leathers has been also suggested and discussed. (author)

  19. Analytical and electrochemical evaluation of the in vitro corrosion behavior of nickel-chrome and cobalt-chrome casting alloys for metal-ceramic restorations.

    Yfantis, Constaninos; Yfantis, Dimitrios; Anastassopoulou, Jane; Theophanides, Theophilos

    2007-03-01

    In this study we examined the hypothesis based on relevant literature survey that the in vitro corrosion behavior of a Cobalt-chrome dental casting alloy for metal-ceramic restorations is better than that of a Nickel-chrome dental casting alloy. The corrosion released metal ions were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Moreover, the specimens were electrochemically tested by linear polarization. The statistical analysis of the results showed statistically significant differences in corrosion rates of Nickel-chrome alloy and Cobalt-chrome alloy calculated by analytical and electrochemical measurements. The hypothesis was confirmed and the results showed that the corrosion rates of the Cobalt-chrome alloy were lower than that of the Nickel-chrome alloy. PMID:17378457

  20. Facile Preparation of Phosphotungstic Acid-Impregnated Yeast Hybrid Microspheres and Their Photocatalytic Performance for Decolorization of Azo Dye

    Lan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotungstic acid (HPW-impregnated yeast hybrid microspheres were prepared by impregnation-adsorption technique through tuning pH of the aqueous yeast suspensions. The obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, respectively. FE-SEM and EDS ascertain that the HPW has been effectively introduced onto the surface of yeast, and the resulting samples retain ellipsoid shape, with the uniform size (length 4.5 ± 0.2 μm, width 3.0 ± 0.3 μm and good monodispersion. XRD pattern indicates that the main crystal structure of as-synthesized HPW@yeast microsphere is Keggin structure. TG-DTA states that the HPW in composites has better thermal stability than pure HPW. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR elucidates that the functional groups or chemical bonds inherited from the pristine yeast cell were critical to the assembling of the composites. UV-Vis shows that the obtained samples have a good responding to UV light. The settling ability indicates that the hybrid microspheres possess an excellent suspension performance. In the test of catalytic activity, the HPW@yeast microsphere exhibits a high photocatalytic activity for the decoloration of Methylene blue and Congo red dye aqueous solutions, and there are a few activity losses after four cycles of uses.

  1. Specific excitonic interactions in the aggregates of hyaluronic acid and cyanine dyes with different lengths of methine group.

    Tobata, H; Sagawa, T

    2016-03-01

    The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of three types of cyanine dyes with different lengths of methine group (3,3'-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide, DTDC; 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide, DTC; and 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide, DTTHC) in an aqueous solution were compared with and without hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a helical structure. DTDC forms chiral H- and J-aggregates, whereas DTC and DTTHC are unable to form any aggregates. DTDC also forms H- and J-aggregates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate (PA) with a random-coil structure; however, the PA-DTDC aggregates exhibit no chirality. These results suggest that the chirality of HA-DTDC aggregates is induced by the helical structure of HA. In 2.4 vol% and 10 vol% methanol, HA-DTDC aggregates displayed different patterns of temperature dependence, whereas no aggregation was observed in 30 vol% methanol. The solubility of DTDC in a mixed solvent of water and methanol is generally improved by the addition of methanol, which prevents the aggregation of DTDC. PMID:26815728

  2. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    Xue, Tianshan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhang, Zhang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadumar786@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Zhanhu [Integrated Composites Laboratory, Dan F Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn{sub 2}Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers.

  3. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn2Al-NO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn2Al-NO3 LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn2Al-NO3 LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn2Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn2Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn2Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers

  4. Radiation Crosslinking of a Mixture of Poly vinyle Alcohol Methacrylic acid and 2-Hydroxy ethyle Methacrylate to Removal of Pollutant Dyes from its Aqueous Solution

    Hydrogels based on poly vinyle alcohol methacrylic acid/ 2-hydroxy ethyle methacrylate [P(PVA-MAAc/HEMA)] were synthesized by gamma-radiation. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results of the adsorption studies reveals the higher adsorption capacity of P(PVA-MAAc/ HEMA), hydrogel for the removal of methylene blue and xylenol orange dyes from aqueous solution.

  5. Refinement in black chrome for use as a solar selective coating

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Black chrome is significant as a solar selective coating because the current extensive use of black chrome in the electroplating industry as a durable decorative finish makes black chrome widely available on a commercial scale and potentially low in cost as a solar selective coating. Black-chrome deposits were modified by underplating with dull nickel or by being plated on rough surfaces. Both of these procedures increased the visible absorptance. There was no change in the infrared reflectance for the dull-nickel - black-chrome combination from that reported for the bright-nickel - black-chrome combination. However, the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on rough surfaces indicated a slight decrease in infrared reflectance. As integrated over the solar spectrum for air mass 2, the reflectance of the dull-nickel - black-chrome coating was 0.077, of the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on a 0.75-micron (30-microinch) surface was 0.070, of the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating plated on a 2.5 micron (100-microinch) surface was 0.064. The corresponding values for the bright-nickel - black-chrome coating on a 0.0125-micron (0.5-microinch) surface, two samples of black nickel, and two samples of Nextrel black paint were 0.132, 0.123, 0.133, and 0.033, respectively.

  6. Chrome induced nasal septal perforation-An occupational hazard

    Krishna, N. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    86 patients, working in a chemical factory dealing with Chrome manufacturing job, were referred by Health Inspectai to F S 1 S Hospital O PD 32 patients out of above were found to be having Nasal septal perforation and were recommended to Medical Board for consideration of compensation as cases of Occupational hazard

  7. Photometric determination of molybdenum in standard chrome-plating electrolyte

    A method of photometric determination of molybdenum is considered regarding the chrome-plating electrolytes (Cr-Mo coverage). The following features are found to underlie the method: the ability of molybdenum (unlike chromium) to escape codeposition with Mg(OH)2 residue, reduction of Mo(6) to Mo(5) and Mo(4) and formation of colored thiocyanate complexes. 5 refs

  8. PROCESSING CHROME TANNERY EFFLUENT TO MEET BEST AVAILABLE TREATMENT STANDARDS

    To satisfy stream discharge requirements at its Winchester, N.H., chrome tan shearling tannery, the A. C. Lawrence Leather Co., Inc. selected primary and secondary systems that are unique as applied to tannery effluent treatment in the United States. Primary clarification is acco...

  9. Study of the reasons of chrome-plated steel embrittlement

    To study the reasons of embrittement, the mechanical characteristics and hydrogen content in high-strength steel (tensile strength approximately 2O0 kgf/mm2) during electrolytic chrome-plating from a standard electrolyte (60 μm), heating (200 deg, 2 hrs) and aging (20 deg, 7 days) of the chrome-plated samples have been tested. The hydrogen content in the steel base after chromium removal is measured using the method of vacuum extraction at a temperature of 400 deg. The results obtained permit to describe the mechanism of the decrease in service characteristics of chrome-plated steel. The presence of brittle and low-tensile chromium on the sample surface results in the formation of cracks in it under loading. The cracks are concentrators of strains, i.e. in the presence of chromium the work of crack initiation decreases. Therefore, mechanical characteristics of samples with chromium on the surface turn out to be lower than those in the chromium absence. Hydrogen accumulation in the steel base reduces the work of crack propagation the greater the lower hydrogen content is. Hence, mechanical characteristics of chrome-plated samples have the least magnitude at the highest hydrogen content in the steel base

  10. A systematic investigation of solar collector chrome black surfaces

    A study has been made of a series of mild steel samples electroplated with a chrome black surface. The technique of Rutherford backscatterng of alpha particles in the 2.5 mev range was used to try to further elucidate the findings of recent workers concerning the actual structure of the surface and to determine the Cr-O ratios with depth

  11. REACTIONS OF CHROME TANNERY SLUDGE WITH ORGANIC AND MINERAL SOILS

    Chrome tannery sludge applied to agricultural land may have benefits in terms of added N for crop growth. An experiment was designed to compare tannery waste with commercial N fertilizer and investigate the potential of the waste as an alternative or supplement to commercial fert...

  12. Humic acid adsorption onto cationic cellulose nanofibers for bioinspired removal of copper( ii ) and a positively charged dye

    Sehaqui, H.

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Waste pulp residues are herein exploited for the synthesis of a sorbent for humic acid (HA), which is a major water pollutant. Cellulose pulp was etherified with a quaternary ammonium salt in water thereby introducing positive charges onto the surface of the pulp fibers, and subsequently mechanically disintegrated into high surface area cellulose nanofibers (CNF). CNF with three different charge contents were produced and their adsorption capacity towards HA was investigated with UV-spectrophotometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, and ζ-potential measurements. Substantial coverage of the CNF surface with HA in a wide pH range led to a reversal of the positive ζ-potentials of CNF suspensions. The HA adsorption capacity and the kinetics of HA uptake were found to be promoted by both acidic pH conditions and the surface charge content of CNF. It is suggested that HA adsorption onto CNF depends on electrostatic interactions between the two components, as well as on the conformation of HA. At pH ∼ 6, up to 310 mg g-1 of HA were adsorbed by the functionalized CNF, a substantially higher capacity than that of previously reported HA sorbents in the literature. It is further shown that CNF-HA complexes could be freeze-dried into "soil-mimicking" porous foams having good capacity to capture Cu(ii) ions and positive dyes from contaminated water. Thus, the most abundant natural polymer, i.e., cellulose could effectively bind the most abundant natural organic matter for environmental remediation purpose.

  13. Oleic acid-assisted exfoliated few layer graphene films as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Highlights: ► Few layer graphene was obtained by liquid exfoliation in oleic acid (OLA). ► The concentration of exfoliated few layer graphene is as high as 1.3 mg/mL. ► OLA-assisted graphite (OLA-G) film has high catalytic activity. ► A power conversion efficiency of 3.56% can be gained by DSSCs with the counter electrode of OLA-G film. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a facile sonication method to exfoliate graphite into few layer graphene with a high concentration of 1.3 mg/mL in oleic acid (OLA). The exfoliations of natural graphite in oleylamine (OA) and trioctylphosphine (TOP) are investigated as a comparison. The few layer graphene dispersion in OLA and the graphite nanoparticles in OA are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The exfoliated graphene dispersion in OLA (OLA-G) and graphite dispersion in OA (OA-G) are fabricated into a film on the FTO substrate by the doctor-blading method. The morphology and catalytic activity in the redox couple regeneration of all the graphite films are examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammograms. The OLA-G films on FTO glass with few layer graphene flakes shows better catalytic activity than the OA-G films. The energy conversion efficiency of the cell with the OLA-G film as counter electrode reached 3.56%, which is 70% of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the sputtering-Pt counter electrode under the same experimental condition.

  14. TUNGSTOPHOSPHORIC ACID HETEROGENIZED ONTO NH4ZSM5 AS AN EFFICIENT AND RECYCLABLE CATALYST FOR THE PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF DYES

    Candelaria Leal Marchena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials based on tungstophosphoric acid (TPA immobilized on NH4ZSM5 zeolite were prepared by wet impregnation of the zeolite matrix with TPA aqueous solutions. Their concentration was varied in order to obtain TPA contents of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% w/w in the solid. The materials were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, FT-IR, 31P MAS-NMR, TGA-DSC, DRS-UV-Vis, and the acidic behavior was studied by potentiometric titration with n-butylamine. The BET surface area (SBET decreased when the TPA content was raised as a result of zeolite pore blocking. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the solids modified with TPA only presented the characteristic peaks of NH4ZSM5 zeolites, and an additional set of peaks assigned to the presence of (NH43PW12O40. According to the Fourier transform infrared and 31P magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, the main species present in the samples was the [PW12O40]3- anion, which was partially transformed into the [P2W21O71]6- anion during the synthesis and drying steps. The thermal stability of the NH4ZSM5TPA materials was similar to that of their parent zeolites. Moreover, the samples with the highest TPA content exhibited band gap energy values similar to those reported for TiO2. The immobilization of TPA on NH4ZSM5 zeolite allowed the obtention of catalysts with high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange dye (MO in water, at 25 ºC. These can be reused at least three times without any significant decrease in degree of degradation.

  15. Extremely enhanced photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells by sintering mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes with crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Chou, Ya-Hui; Liu, Jin-Yan

    2016-04-01

    The study presents a significant improvement on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through incorporating the crystalline titania chelated by acetic acid (TAc) into the mesoporous TiO2 photoanodes. The effects of TAc on the blocking layer, mesoporous TiO2 layer, and post-treatment have been investigated. The TAc blocking layer displays compact construction, revealing superior response time and resistance to suppress dark current compared to the blocking layer made from titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP). The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs with the TAc treatment can reach as high as 10.49%, which is much higher than that of pristine DSSCs (5.67%) and that of DSSCs treated by TTIP (7.86%). We find that the TAc incorporation can lead to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and the increase of dye adsorption. The result may be attributed to the fact that the TAc possesses high crystallinity, exposed (101) planes, and acid groups chelated on surface, which are favorable for dye attachment and strong bonding at the FTO/TiO2 and the TiO2/TiO2 interfaces, These improvements result in the remarkable increase of photocurrent and thereby that of power conversion efficiency.

  16. Synthesis, characterisation of polyaniline-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite and its application for removal of an acid violet 19 dye

    Patil, Manohar R.; Khairnar, Subhash D.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The present work deals with the development of a new method for the removal of dyes from an aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite. It is synthesised in situ through self-polymerisation of monomer aniline. Photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out for cationic acid violet 19 (acid fuchsine) dye using PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like catalyst dose, contact time and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 20 mg/l, adsorbent dose 6 gm/l, pH 7. The EDS technique gives elemental composition of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. The SEM and XRD studies were carried for morphological feature characteristics of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer) gives magnetic property of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite; also FT-IR analysis gives characteristics frequency of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. Besides the above studies kinetic study has also been carried out.

  17. Synthesis and properties of peptide nucleic acid labeled at the N-terminus with HiLyte Fluor 488 fluorescent dye.

    Hnedzko, Dziyana; McGee, Dennis W; Rozners, Eriks

    2016-09-15

    Fluorescently labeled peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are important tools in fundamental research and biomedical applications. However, synthesis of labeled PNAs, especially using modern and expensive dyes, is less explored than similar preparations of oligonucleotide dye conjugates. Herein, we present a simple procedure for labeling of the PNA N-terminus with HiLyte Fluor 488 as the last step of solid phase PNA synthesis. A minimum excess of 1.25equiv of activated carboxylic acid achieved labeling yields close to 90% providing a good compromise between the price of dye and the yield of product and significant improvement over previous literature procedures. The HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled PNAs retained the RNA binding ability and in live cell fluorescence microscopy experiments were brighter and significantly more photostable than PNA labeled with carboxyfluorescein. In contrast to fluorescein-labeled PNA, the fluorescence of PNAs labeled with HiLyte Fluor 488 was independent of pH in the biologically relevant range of 5-8. The potential of HiLyte Fluor 488-labeling for studies of PNA cellular uptake and distribution was demonstrated in several cell lines. PMID:27430566

  18. High Temperature Brush Seal Tuft Testing of Selected Nickel-Chrome and Cobalt-Chrome Superalloys

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration, load and friction are directly measured and accurate wear measurements are possible. Previously reported research using this facility showed excellent data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data and dynamic rig tests. This paper is an update of the ongoing research into the tribology of brush seals. The effects of wire materials processing on seal wear and the tribological results for three journal coatings are discussed. Included in the materials processing were two nickel-chrome superalloys each processed to two different yield strengths. The results suggest that seal wear is dependent more on material composition than processing conditions.

  19. Absorption and Quantum Chemical studies on some DYES as Corrosion Inhibitors on Mild Steel in Acidic Medium / Thabo Peme

    Peme, Thabo

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of some selected dyes namely Sunset yellow (SS). Amaranth (AM). Allura red (AR). Tartrazine(TZ) and Fast green (FG) on mild steel in 0.5M HCI was studied at 30-60°C using weight loss, electrochernical and quantum chemical methods. Quantum calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the reactivities and selectivities of four (4) of the studied dyes. The effects of inhibitor concentration on the inhibition efficiency h...

  20. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  1. Determination of a solvent hydrogen-bond acidity scale by means of the solvatochromism of pyridinium-N-phenolate betaine dye 30 and PCM-TD-DFT calculations.

    Cerón-Carrasco, José P; Jacquemin, Denis; Laurence, Christian; Planchat, Aurélien; Reichardt, Christian; Sraïdi, Khadija

    2014-05-01

    Empirical parameters of solvents describing their hydrogen-bond (HB) acidity (e.g., the Kamlet-Taft α parameter) are often difficult to determine for new solvents because they are not directly related to a single definition process. Here, we propose a simple method based on one probe, the betaine dye 30, and one reference process, the solvatochromism of this dye, measured by its first electronic transition energy, ET(30). These ET(30) values are calculated within the time-dependent density functional theory framework, using a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). The part of ET(30) values that is not included in the PCM calculation is taken as the HB component of the measured ET(30) values, allowing us to deduce a solvent HB acidity parameter α1. The validity of this simple model is assessed by good linear correlations between α1 and a variety of solute properties mainly depending on the solvent's HB acidity. The quality of fit observed with α1 is at least comparable with that obtained by previous solvent HB acidity scales. The simplicity of our method is illustrated by the determination of α1 and of its companion, the electrostatic solvent parameter ES, for some new green solvents derived from glycerol. PMID:24702635

  2. The synthesis of thermite chrome-silicon steels

    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович

    2013-01-01

    The present paper shows the basic solutions of the problem of obtaining chrome-silicon steels examines the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting materials. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources and simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to develop the technology ...

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on chrome-tanned sheepskin

    Effect of 60 γ-radiation on chrome-tanned, blue-stock sheepskin was investigated. Radiation was applied between 0.35-10.5 Mrad and the resultant physical and mechanical changes were observed. Radiation did not change the water adsorption capability of leather but caused significant reductions in shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. The correlations between dose and radiation hazards were determined. (author)

  4. Tribology; Cold rolling mill roll; Hard chrome; Surface texturing.

    José Lucio Gonçalves Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the tribological behavior of surface modifications often used in cold rolling mill rolls. Different surface modifications were carried out on samples produced from a fragment of the rolling mill roll: i texturing; ii chromium plating; iii texturing with subsequent hard chrome plating; iv and hard chrome plating with subsequent texturing. Before the surface modifications the samples were heat treated and ground on both faces. Wear tests were performed using a reciprocating movement of a ball over flat configuration under a load of 9.8 N. It is observed that there is no significant change in the coefficient of friction as a function of surface modification. Surface texturing increases the wear of the counter body, while the hard chromium coating reduces it. The addition of hard chromium coating promotes the formation of a tribolayer on the counter body consisting of chromium and oxygen. On the other hand, for the samples without hard chrome coating, the tribolayer consists of iron and oxygen

  5. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal=Tratamento de soluções de corantes ácidos por adsorção em farelo de soja

    Davi Eduardo Roza; Gabriela Spengler; Ivonete Oliveira Barcellos; Luana Marcele Chiarello

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color) on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to...

  6. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals)

    D. E. Saveliev; I. A. Blinov

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome) as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome s...

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of acid dye using Ni-TiO2 with the energy supplied by solar cell: mechanism and economical studies.

    Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Pirkarami, Azam; Soleimani, Majid; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2013-05-30

    This paper reports an investigation into the effect of a number of operating factors on the removal of Acid Red 88 from an aqueous solution through photoelectrocatalysis: photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, pH, bias potential, and electrolyte concentration. The photocatalyst was Ni-TiO2 applied in suspension to the solution to achieve a larger catalyst surface area. The optimum values for photocatalyst dose, dye concentration, and electrolyte concentration turned out to be 0.6 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), and 5 mg L(-1), respectively. Also, the best pH was found to be 7, and bias potential proved to be best at 1.6 V. The aqueous solution was characterized for its COD and TOC. Photocatalyst efficiency was evaluated using SEM and XRD techniques. The characterization of the post-treatment product using FT-IR, HPLC, and GC-MS studies revealed intermediate compounds. A pathway was proposed for the degradation of the dye. The energy required by the experiment was supplied by solar cells, meaning the money that would have otherwise been spent on electricity was saved. Cost analysis was also done for the treatment process. PMID:23562912

  8. Fabrication of graphene–TiO$_2$ nanocomposite with improved photocatalytic degradation for acid orange 7 dye under solar light irradiation

    VENKATA RAMANA POSA; VISWADEVARAYALU ANNAVARAM; ADINARAYANA REDDY SOMALA

    2016-06-01

    In this study, photodegradation of the non-biodegradable azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) was selected as modal target in aqueous solution using graphene–TiO$_2$ (GR–TiO$_2$) hybrid nanocomposite, was well investigatedand elucidated. The crystal phase, special surface area, microscopic analysis of the GR–TiO$_2$ and also, chemical state of the photocatalysts were studied by powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauere Emmette Teller (BET) method andphotoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). During photocatalysis, the GR–TiO$_2$ nanocomposite improved photocatalytic performance compared with that of pure TiO$_2$ towards AO7 organic azo-dye degradation. The reusability test ofphotocatalytic activity was also examined. A conceivable reaction mechanism was suggested and nattered on the basis of tentative effects. Therefore, the GR–TiO$_2$ nanomaterial can be widely used as a photocatalyst for treatingthe organic dye contaminant in the field of environmental protection.

  9. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min. PMID:27086271

  10. Adsorptive Properties of Dyes to Cellulosic Sheet and Discoloration of Dye Solution by UV-ray Irradiation

    Zhou Yu; Iida Ikuho; Minato Kazuya; Kurosu Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The adsorptive properties and selectivity of dyes and water molecules to cellulosic sheet, dependence of adsorptive properties of dyes on the concentration of dye solution, and discoloration of the dye solution due to the UV-ray irradiation were determined for 18 kinds of commercial dyes. The results are as follows: 1) the adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulose sheet differed greatly, but did not depend on the dye types such as acidic, basic and so on; 2) adsorptive properties of dyes to cellulosic sheet depended on the concentration of dye solution and were classified into 4 types: concentration-independent, increasing or decreasing with dye concentration, and having a maximum. This classification was irrelevant to the dye types; 3) the irradiation of UV-ray did not cause significant discoloration of dye solution itself, which suggested that wood components as well as dye molecules influence the discoloration of wood.

  11. [Rapid screening of 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Wang, Pingya; Zhou, Yong; Dai, Yifei; Huang, Li; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2015-08-01

    An analytical method was established for the simultaneous determination of 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS). The analytes in fishery products were extracted with ethyl alcohol containing 20% (v/v) ammonia water and 10% (v/v) water. Then the extract solution was purified according to amination adsorbent matrix dispersion method. The compounds were separated by an Eclipse Plus-C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as the mobile phases, and measured by UPLC-Q-TOF MS with electrospray ionization in negative mode. As a result, the limits of quantification ( LOQs, S/N = 10) of the target compounds were 20-100 µg/kg in fishery products. The 28 analytes behaved linearly in wide-range with the correlation coefficients more than 0. 991 as well as the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas less than 5.61% (n = 6). The average recoveries of the 28 analytes spiked at three levels were ranged from 70. 24% to 106. 47% with RSDs of 5.62%-9.65% (n = 6). This method can be applied to the analysis of the 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products due to its fastness, simplicity and relatively high sensitivity. PMID:26749858

  12. Black chrome on commercially electroplated tin as a solar selecting coating

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The reflectance properties of black chrome electroplated on commercially electroplated tin were measured for various black chrome plating times for both the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar region and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the black chrome plated on commercially electroplated tin is obtained for a black chrome plating time of between one and two minutes.

  13. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    P. Murugakoothan; S. Ananth; P. Vivek; T. Arumanayagam

    2014-01-01

    A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- ...

  14. New azo dyes as colored isoelectric point markers for isoelectric focusing in acidic pH region

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Trávníček, Martin; Šlais, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2005), s. 53-59. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4031201; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1447; GA AV ČR IAA4031302 Keywords : ampholytic dyes * pI markers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  15. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  16. Nanotubular Halloysite Clay as Efficient Water Filtration System for Removal of Cationic and Anionic Dyes

    Zhao, Yafei; Abdullayev, Elshad; Lvov, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    Halloysite nanotubes, chemically similar to kaolinite, are formed by rolling of kaolinite layers in tubes with diameter of 50 nm and length of ca. 1 μm. Halloysite has negative SiO2 outermost and positive Al2O3 inner lumen surface, which enables it to be used as potential absorbent for both cationic and anionic dyes due to the efficient bivalent adsorbancy. An adsorption study using cationic Rhodamine 6G and anionic Chrome azurol S has shown approximately two times better dye removal for halloysite as compared to kaolinite. Halloysite filters have been effectively regenerated up to 50 times by burning the adsorbed dyes. Overall removal efficiency of anionic Chrome azurol S exceeded 99.9% for 5th regeneration cycle of halloysite. Chrome azurol S adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of ionic strength, temperature and pH. For cationic Rhodamine 6G, higher ionic strength, temperature and initial solution concentration were favorable to enhanced adsorption with optimal pH 8. These results indicate a potential to utilize halloysite for the removal of ionic dyes from environmental waters.

  17. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of acid Orange 52 dye biosorption by Paulownia tomentosa Steud. leaf powder as a low-cost natural biosorbent.

    Deniz, Fatih; Saygideger, Saadet D

    2010-07-01

    The biosorption of Acid Orange 52 onto the leaf powder of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied in a batch adsorption system to estimate the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters as a function of solution pH, biosorbent concentration, dye concentration, biosorbent size, temperature and contact time. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for modeling the biosorption equilibrium. The experimental equilibrium data could be well interpreted by the Temkin and Langmuir isotherms with maximum adsorption capacity of 10.5 mg g(-1). In order to state the sorption kinetics, the fits of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic studies indicated that this system was exothermic process. The results revealed that P. tomentosa leaf powder could be an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of wastewater containing Acid Orange 52. PMID:20194017

  18. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS

    The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

  19. Dyeing Performance of Soybean Fiber Treated with Low Temperature Plasma

    WANG Li-ming; SHEN Yong; DING Ying; ZHANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    The soybean fiber was treated with low temperature plasma and the dyeing performance of the treated soybean fiber was also researched. The results show that the speed of dyeing and the percentages of balance dyeing have a sharp increase after being treated. So the dyeing temperature and the dosage of acid can be reduced without damaging the bulk fiber structure.

  20. Treatments to enhance properties of chrome-free (wet white) leather

    Production of chrome-free or wet white leather, predominantly for upholstery leather, is fast approaching that which has been traditionally tanned with chrome. Recycling of auto parts, specifically the car seats, is driving the momentum towards this type of leather. Wet white leathers are sometime...

  1. Selective coating for solar panels. [using black chrome and black nickel

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The energy absorbing properties of solar heating panels are improved by depositing a black chrome coating of controlled thickness on a specially prepared surface of a metal substrate. The surface is prepared by depositing a dull nickel on the substrate, and the black chrome is plated on this low emittance surface to a thickness between 0.5 micron and 2.5 microns.

  2. Green route for the utilization of chrome shavings (chromium-containing solid waste) in tanning industry.

    Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2002-03-15

    Chromium-containing wastes from various industrial sectors are under critical review. Leather processing is one such industrial activity that generates chromium-bearing wastes in different forms. One of them is chrome shavings, and this contributes to an extent of 10% of the quantum of raw skins/hides processed, amounting to 0.8 million ton globally. In this study, the high protein content of chrome shavings has been utilized for reduction of chromium(VI) in the preparation of chrome tanning agent. This approach has been exploited for the development of two products: one with chrome shavings alone as reducing agent and the other with equal proportion of chrome shavings and molasses. The developed products exhibit more masking due to the formation of intermediate organic oligopeptides. This has been corroborated through the spectral, hydrolysis, and species-wise distribution studies. The formation of these organic masking agents helps in chrome tanning by shifting the precipitation point of chromium to relatively higher pH levels. Hence, the developed products find use as chrome tanning agents for leather processing, thus providing a means for better utilization of chrome shaving wastes. PMID:11944695

  3. Hysteresis and Stress Relaxation Studies for a Fibrous Collagen Material: Chrome-free Leather

    Animal hides are the most valuable coproduct of the meat industry, and most of those hides are converted into leather. Due to concerns over the use and disposal of chrome-tanned leather, the leather industry is now facing increasing scrutiny over its use of chrome as a tanning agent. The use of no...

  4. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair ...

  5. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Lee HY; Jeong YI; Choi KC

    2011-01-01

    Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair ...

  6. Dodecylsulfate and dodecybenzenesulfonate intercalated hydrotalcites as adsorbent materials for the removal of BBR acid dye from aqueous solutions

    Mohamed Bouraada; Mohand Said Ouali; Louis Charles de Ménorval

    2016-01-01

    Two modified layered double hydroxides (HT) have been synthesized by intercalating both sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) surfactants into Mg-Al layered double hydroxides using the calcination–rehydratation method. The prepared materials HT-SDS and HT-SDBS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis and BET. The obtained materials were used for Brilliant Blue R (BBR) dye removal from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to ad...

  7. Monopolar Electro-Coagulation Process for Azo Dye C.I. Acid Red 18 Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Ghasem Azarian; Davood Nematollahi; Ali Reza Rahmani; Kazem Godini; Mohammad Bazdar; Hassan Zolghadrnasab

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of wastewaters containing an untreated dye results in aesthetic problems and an increase in gases solubility, which causes light transmission inhibition into water bodies. In spite of advantages of physicochemical and biological methods, these processes produce huge amounts of sludge, toxic by-products and require several oxidant chemicals. By contrast, electrochemical processes because of their high versatility, high efficiency and eco-friendly properties are more acceptable. I...

  8. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  9. Optimizing the Dyeing Process of Alkali-Treated Polyester Fabric with Dolu Natural Dye

    M.F. Shahin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to optimize the process of dyeing polyester (PET fabric with natural dyes. Polyester has been first treated with NaOH solution in order to study its impact on the dyeability to the natural dye. The required and used colour component was extracted from a natural plant, namely: Rhubarb; Rheum officinale. The chemical structure of the used colouring matter is observed to have all the characteristics of a typical disperse dye. The colour strength of PET fabric was noticed to increase as a result of alkali treatment which may be attributed to the alteration in the hydrophobicity of polyester fibre. The most effective parameters that may affect the dye uptake of the natural dye on alkali-treated PET fabric and the final dyeing properties including dye bath pH, dyeing temperature and time were studied in details. The behaviour of the selected and used natural dye was found to be similar to that of disperse dyes. Addition of salicylic acid to the dye bath accelerated the rate of dyeing and subsequently higher colour strength was attained. Non- ionic dispersing agent was also used to ensure better dyeing uniformity and higher dispersion stability of dye liquor.

  10. The effect of chrome adhesion layer on quartz resonator aging.

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2011-03-01

    This SAND report documents a late start LDRD designed to determine the possible aging effects of a quartz resonator gold adhesion layer. Sandia uses quartz resonators for applications. These applications require a very stable frequency source with excellent aging (low drift) characteristics. These parts are manufactured by one of our qualified vendors outside Sandia Laboratories, Statek Corp. Over the years we, Sandia and the vendor, have seen aging variations that have not been completely explained by the typical mechanisms known in the industry. One theory was that the resonator metallization may be contributing to the resonator aging. This LDRD would allow us to test and analyze a group of resonators with known differentiating metallization and via accelerated aging determine if a chrome adhesion layer used to accept the final gold plating may contribute to poor aging. We worked with our main vendor to design and manufacture a set of quartz resonators with a wide range of metallization thickness ratios between the chrome and gold that will allow us determine the cause of this aging and which plating thickness ratios provide the best aging performance while not degrading other key characteristics.

  11. Microchip electrophoresis with background electrolyte containing polyacrylic acid and high content organic solvent in cyclic olefin copolymer microchips for easily adsorbed dyes.

    Wei, Xuan; Sun, Ping; Yang, Shenghong; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Li, Fengyun; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-07-29

    Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75μm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%. PMID:27371017

  12. Preparation of high exhaust chrome from leather shavings and hydrocarbons with its application in leather processing for green tanning technology

    The use of chrome in tanning has made the remarkable advances to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of heavy metal containing solid wastes and toxic effluents. To solve the environmental issues we emphasized on the development of high exhaust chrome complex from chrome containing leather wastes that could minimize the toxic effluents up to negligible limit. Therefore in the synthetic process of chrome tanning material, the chrome shavings and the hydrocarbons have been utilized as a reductant as well as the potential masking intermediates. These chrome tanning materials have been prepared using leather shavings alone in product A, partial replacement of shavings by hydrocarbons for product B and then replacement of hydrocarbons by molasses for product C. The materials have been employed for the tanning of goat skins parallel to the commercial basic chromium sulfate (BCS). (author)

  13. Investigation of Iron Powder, Hydrogen Peroxide and Iron Hydrogen Peroxide for Removal of Acid Yellow Powder 36 Dye from Aqueous Solutions

    Sardar, M.; A Sheikh Mohammadi; A.R Yazdanbakhsh; H Mohammad; M Zarabi

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: A great part of organic compounds cause more pollution in natural  waters meet, are chemical dye material. Azo dyes have more usage in different industries. Azo dyes not only give undesirable dye to the water but also have mutation potential and carcinogenesis effects in human and cause the production of toxic substances in water environments.The purpose of this study is investigation of iron powder, hydrogen peroxide and iron powder-hydrogen peroxide pro...

  14. Radiation induced copolymerization of binary monomers system(styrene/acrylic acid) and its application in removal of some heavy metals and dyes from aquatic solutions

    Radiation-induced coploymerization of binary monomer system styrene/acrylic acid (Sty/AAc) using direct radiation technique has been investigated. The appropriate reaction conditions such as solvent, commonomer concentration, commonomer composition and irradiation dose at which the coplymerization process was carried out successfully were selected. The effect of different parameters on the conversion percent of the commonmer into coplomer was studied by gravimetric method. It was found that, using methanol/distilled water as a cosolvent with composition 80/20 wt% enhanced the copolymerization process. The conversion (%) of the commonomer was increased with increasing radiation dose. Some properties of the coplymer such as wate uptake, thermal stability, surface topography were investigated. The improvement in such properties of the prepared coplymers was observed which makes possible uses in some practical applications such as in the removal of some heavy metals and dyes from wastewater. the prepared copolymer has good chemical and thermal stability where as the styrene content lead to increase the swelling behaviour. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the coplymer is ordered in the sequence of Bp2+>Cu2+>Ni2+. The possibility of the removal of three classes of dyes from aqueous solutions; namely wegocet yellow 4GL (direct yellow 44), congo red (diect red 28). Remacryl blue 3G (basic blue3) and xylene blue *acid blue 7 was studied. It could be concluded that the Sty/AAc copolymer with composition 20/80 wt % can be used as a contrilled water retainer for carrying of some substance in aquatic fields involving environmental treatments. Also, it could be concluded that the most important parameter affecting the swelling behaviour and characteristic of the prepared copolymer are the type of conversion due to chemical treatment, the pH of the medium and coonstituents of the prepared copolymer

  15. Monoazo and diazo dye decolourisation studies in a methanogenic UASB reactor

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Pinheiro, H. M.; Ferra, M .I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed anaerobic bacterial consortia have been show to reduce azo dyes and batch decolourisation tests have also demonstratedthat predominantly methanogenic cultures also perform azo bond cleavage. The anaerobic treatment of wool dyeing effluents, which contain acetic acid, could thus be improved with a better knowledge of methanogenic dye degradation. Therefore, the decolourisation of two azo textile dyes, a monoazo dye (Acid Orange 7, AO7) and a diazo dye (Direct Red 254, DR254), was investi...

  16. LACTOSE TO NATURALIZE TEXTILE DYES

    Jalal Isaad

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.

  17. Performance evaluation of two black nickel and two black chrome solar collectors

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test program was based on the evaluation of four unique solar collectors described below: (1) black nickel collector surface with a desiccant drying bed, (2) black nickel collector surface without a desiccant drying bed, (3) black chrome collector surface with a dessicant drying bed, and (4) black chrome collector surface without a desiccant drying bed. The test program included three distinct phases: Initial performance evaluation, natural environmental aging, and post-aging performance evaluation. Results of Phase III testing conclusively indicated a higher normalized efficiency for Black Chrome surfaces when compared to Black Nickel.

  18. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some new 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide derivatives for dyeing polyester fabrics

    Abd El-Galil M. Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dibenzobarallene was used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of 2-(3-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl-3,4,4a,5,10,10a-hexahydro-1H-5,10-benzenobenzo[g]phthalazine-1,4-dione (2. The previous compound was coupled with the appropriate diazonium chloride to give the corresponding 4-arylazo-2-naphthol derivatives 3a–l. Also, nitration, nitrosation and bromination of compound 2 afforded the corresponding nitro, nitroso and bromo derivatives 4–6, respectively. The synthesized compounds were established and evaluated as antibacterial agents. The results showed clearly that compounds 2, 3a, 3c, 3d, 3g, 3i, 4, 5 and 6 exhibited interesting high activities compared with reference drugs. Also, these compounds were applied to polyester as disperse dyes in which their color measurement and fastness properties were evaluated.

  19. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal

  20. Hard chrome and molybdenum coatings produced by physical vapour deposition

    Coatings of solid solutions of carbon or nitrogen in chromium or molybdenum were prepared by cathodic magnetron sputtering. Carbon or nitrogen was introduced either through the gas phase by reactive sputtering or by direct sputtering of sintered composite targets. Chemical and structural analyses of films revealed the formation of supersaturated solid solutions for carbon or nitrogen concentrations of up to several weight per cent. The nitride and carbide phases predicted from the binary diagrams were not observed. The Cr-C and Mo-C coatings showed hardnesses of up to 2500 HV. The hardnesses of Mo-N and Cr-N reached 3000 HV. The wear and corrosion resistance of these coatings, which showed a dense structure, was superior to that of electrolytic hard chrome. (Auth.)

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in bronzes with chrome azurol S

    Some remarks on the spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in bronzes using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) are given. The determination was performed at pH=6.5 and 10.0 using hexamethylene-tetramine and ammoniacal buffers, respectively. It was demonstrated that the determination of Be with CAS at pH=10.0 is slightly less sensitive, but it has two advantages which are important in obtaining reliable results. First, is the shorter time to reach the equilibrium between Be and CAS, and second, is lower pH sensitivity so that a better precision of the results at pH=10.0 overcompensate the slightly lower sensitivity at this pH in comparison with that at pH=6.5. (Author)

  2. Failure Mechanisms in High Chrome Oxide Gasifier Refractories

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    2011-04-01

    Gasification is a high-temperature, high-pressure chemical process used to convert a carbon feedstock into CO and H2 (syngas) for use in power generation and the production of chemicals. It is also a leading candidate as a source of hydrogen in a hydrogen economy and is one of several technologies expected to see increased use in advanced fossil fuel power systems in the future. Gasification is being evaluated because of its high efficiency, its ability to capture CO2 for sequestration or reuse in other applications, and its potential for carbon feedstock fuel flexibility. At the heart of the gasification process is a gasifier, a high pressure chemical reaction vessel used to contain the interactions between carbon and water in a shortage of oxygen, producing syngas. The gasifier is lined with high chrome oxide materials to protect the containment vessel. Gasifiers are complex systems, and failure of the refractories used to line them was identified by industry as a limitation to their reliability and availability and to their increased use. NETL researchers have examined spent high-Cr2O3 (over 90 pct Cr2O3) refractories from numerous gasifiers to determine in-service failure mechanisms. This analysis revealed that premature failure of the high chrome oxide refractories was related to ash in the carbon feedstock, which liquefies during gasification and interacts with the refractories, leading to wear by chemical dissolution or spalling (structural and chemical). A discussion of this postmortem wear of spent refractory materials and of thermodynamic modeling used to explain microstructural changes leading to wear are explained in this article. This information will serve the basis to develop improved performance refractory materials.

  3. pH-Insensitive FRET voltage dyes.

    Maher, Michael P; Wu, Nyan-Tsz; Ao, Hong

    2007-08-01

    Many high-throughput ion channel assays require the use of voltage-sensitive dyes to detect channel activity in the presence of test compounds. Dye systems employing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between 2 membrane-bound dyes are advantageous in combining high sensitivity, relatively fast response, and ratiometric output. The most widely used FRET voltage dye system employs a coumarin fluorescence donor whose excitation spectrum is pH dependent. The authors have validated a new class of voltage-sensitive FRET donors based on a pyrene moiety. These dyes are significantly brighter than CC2-DMPE and are not pH sensitive in the physiological range. With the new dye system, the authors demonstrate a new high-throughput assay for the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family. They also introduce a novel method for absolute calibration of voltage-sensitive dyes, simultaneously determining the resting membrane potential of a cell. PMID:17517905

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of trace uranium with Eriochrome Azurol B and Chrome Azurol S in the presence of the cationic surfactant Septonex

    Procedures for the spectrophotometric determination of UO22+ with Eriochrome Azurol B and Chrome Azurol S in the presence of the cationic surfactant Septonex have been developed from studies of the complex equilibria in solution, and simplex and single-factor optimization. They are suitable for the determination of UO22+ in drinking, surface and waste waters after prior separation with tri-n-octylamine in benzene or Freon 113 from 4M hydrochloric acid and stripping with 0.3M hydrochloric acid. (author)

  5. Study on Microstructure and Slag Corrosion Mechanism of High Chrome Bricks for Gasifier

    2006-01-01

    Research was focused on slag corrosion mechanism of high chrome bricks used for different types of gasifier by comparing the structure of high chrome bricks for petroleum coke gasifier and water-coal slurry gasifier with slag corroded testing brick and water coal slurry gasifier through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination and X-ray diffraction. Results show that for high chrome brick used for petroleum coke gasifier, corrosion is mainly caused by Cr2O3 in the brick and V2O5 in molten slag and liquid phase generation at low temperature; for high chrome brick used for water-coal slurry gasifier, corrosion is caused by dissolution of Cr2O3 in molten slag and corrosion of ZrO2. For LIRR-HK95 brick, it performs better petroleum coke corrosion resistance than the others due to the optimal composition and structure.

  6. Magnetic microphases in chrome-spinels from alpine-type ultramafic rocks, Central Urals

    Sherendo, T. A.; Mitrofanov, V. Ya.; Martyshko, P. S.; Vazhenin, V. A.; Pamyatnykh, L. A.; Alekseev, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The ore and accessory chrome-spinels from metamorphosed dunites of the Cr-bearing Klyuchevskoi alpine-type ultramafic massif are studied. As a result of use of thermomagnetic analysis in the range of 4-900 K, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetic-force microscopy, secondary magnetic Fe3+-enriched microphases chaotically distributed in the primary nonmagnetic mineral were revealed for the first time in accessory chrome-spinels. It was established that the metamorphosed accessory chrome-spinels produce the magnetic properties of the host rocks and the primary nonmagnetic chrome-spinels forming ore bodies remains almost unaltered. This originates the contrast of magnetic properties between the ore body and host rocks and provides the geomagnetic anomaly in the ore-hosting zone.

  7. The elements sorption of chrome sub-group with iron hydroxide (III)

    For the conditions determination of elements apportionment and concentration of chrome sub-group was investigated their sorption with iron hydroxide (III) in dependence from ph solution and from concentration of those metals

  8. Application of Nuclear methods in the chrome bed prospecting from Casimba sector, Pinares de Mayari

    A study for chrome determination in Casimba sector, Pinares de Mayari, was carried out using nuclear geophysical methods: and spectrometry neutron-gamma capture. For this purpose Cs 137 and Am-Be sources were used

  9. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  10. The (Un)Reliability of NVD Vulnerable Versions Data: an Empirical Experiment on Google Chrome Vulnerabilities

    Nguyen, Viet Hung; Massacci, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    NVD is one of the most popular databases used by researchers to conduct empirical research on data sets of vulnerabilities. Our recent analysis on Chrome vulnerability data reported by NVD has revealed an abnormally phenomenon in the data where almost vulnerabilities were originated from the first versions. This inspires our experiment to validate the reliability of the NVD vulnerable version data. In this experiment, we verify for each version of Chrome that NVD claims vulnerable is actually...

  11. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    D. E. Saveliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  12. Nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea by Raman spectroscopy.

    Li, Xiao-Li; Sun, Chan-Jun; Luo, Liu-Bin; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was first adopted for rapid detecting a hazardous substance of lead chrome green in tea, which was illegally added to tea to disguise as high-quality. 160 samples of tea infusion with different concentrations of lead chrome green were prepared for Raman spectra acquirement in the range of 2804 cm(-1)-230 cm(-1) and the spectral intensities were calibrated with relative intensity standards. Then wavelet transformation (WT) was adopted to extract information in different time and frequency domains from Raman spectra, and the low-frequency approximation signal (ca4) was proved as the most important information for establishment of lead chrome green measurement model, and the corresponding partial least squares (PLS) regression model obtained good performance in prediction with Rp and RMSEP of 0.936 and 0.803, respectively. To further explore the important wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed. Finally, 8 characteristic wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green were obtained and a more convenient and fast model was also developed. These results proved the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea quality control. PMID:26508516

  13. The effect of ligand substitution and water co-adsorption on the adsorption dynamics and energy level matching of amino-phenyl acid dyes on TiO2.

    Manzhos, Sergei; Segawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    We perform a comparative theoretical analysis of adsorption of dyes NK1 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)penta-2,4-dienoic acid) and NK7 (2E,4E-2-cyano-5-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)penta-2,4-dienoic acid) on clean and water-covered anatase (101) surfaces of TiO(2). Ligand substitution away from the anchoring group changes the energy level matching between the dye's LUMO and the oxide's conduction band. Monodentate binding and bidentate binding configurations of the dyes to TiO(2) are found to have similar adsorption energies even though the injection from the bidentate mode is found to dominate. Water has a strong effect on adsorption, inducing deprotonation and affecting strongly and differently between the dyes the energy level matching, leading to a shut-off of the injection from NK7 of bidentate adsorption configuration. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show a strong effect of nuclear motion on energy levels, specifically, increasing the driving force for injection in the monodentate regime. PMID:22194034

  14. High exhaust chrome complex using chrome tanned tannery, solid wastes and common hydrocarbons as reductants and masking agents to minimize the liquid and solid wastes: tanning and environmental impact studies

    Still no alternate of chrome tanning has been found to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of very toxic liquid and solid wastes. Therefore we emphasized to develop an efficient process for the synthesis of high exhaust chrome complex that could minimize the both liquid and solid wastes up to very low limit. In this research, chrome shavings and raw organic compounds have beneficially utilized as a reductant as well as potential masking agents providing a comprehensive close loop. Two chrome tanning materials have been developed using leather shavings with molasses in product A and replacement of molasses by other organic compounds for chrome complex B. These materials have also been employed for the tanning of goatskins parallel to the commercial BCS from the market. The comparative studies revealed that, the quality of leather made from product B is either better or comparable with the conventional tanning material. The chrome contents in leather have been increased with the simultaneous decreased in spent chrome liquor. Hence the exhaustion rate of chrome complex B has been noted up to 95%. While the physical characteristics of resulted leather from product A and B have been found comparable to that of conventional tanned leather. Therefore this methodology would not only reduce liquid and solid wastes but also provide quality leather and economically multi benefits. (author)

  15. Process Modification in Dye and Dye Intermediates – Acid Dyes

    Nelson F. Parmar; Shah, B H

    2013-01-01

    ‘Process Modification’ refers to the development of radical technologies for the miniaturization of process plants while achieving the same production objective as in bulky conventional processes. The goal is to bring down the plant size by 10-1000 times by replacing large, expensive and energy-intensive equipment or processes with ones that are smaller, less costly and more efficient. Hybridization of multiple unit operations and processes into a single compact device is the rule of thumb fo...

  16. Process Modification in Dye and Dye Intermediates – Acid Dyes

    Nelson F. Parmar, B. H. Shah

    2013-01-01

    ‘Process Modification’ refers to the development of radical technologies for the miniaturization of process plants while achieving the same production objective as in bulky conventional processes. The goal is to bring down the plant size by 10-1000 times by replacing large, expensive and energy-intensive equipment or processes with ones that are smaller, less costly and more efficient. Hybridization of multiple unit operations and processes into a single compact ...

  17. Interactions of Enolizable Barbiturate Dyes.

    Schade, Alexander; Schreiter, Katja; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Spange, Stefan

    2016-04-11

    The specific barbituric acid dyes 1-n-butyl-5-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl) barbituric acid and 1-n-butyl-5-{4-[(1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-(3 H)-ylidene)methyl]phenyl}barbituric acid were used to study complex formation with nucleobase derivatives and related model compounds. The enol form of both compounds shows a strong bathochromic shift of the UV/Vis absorption band compared to the rarely coloured keto form. The keto-enol equilibria of the five studied dyes are strongly dependent on the properties of the environment as shown by solvatochromic studies in ionic liquids and a set of organic solvents. Enol form development of the barbituric acid dyes is also associated with alteration of the hydrogen bonding pattern from the ADA to the DDA type (A=hydrogen bond acceptor site, D=donor site). Receptor-induced altering of ADA towards DDA hydrogen bonding patterns of the chromophores are utilised to study supramolecular complex formation. As complementary receptors 9-ethyladenine, 1-n-butylcytosine, 1-n-butylthymine, 9-ethylguanidine and 2,6-diacetamidopiridine were used. The UV/Vis spectroscopic response of acid-base reaction compared to supramolecular complex formation is evaluated by (1) H NMR titration experiments and X-ray crystal structure analyses. An increased acidity of the barbituric acid derivative promotes genuine salt formation. In contrast, supramolecular complex formation is preferred for the weaker acidic barbituric acid. PMID:26945529

  18. Characterisation and application of new carboxylic acid-functionalised ruthenium complexes as dye-sensitisers for solar cells

    Duprez, Virginie; Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    A series of ruthenium complexes with and without TiO2, anchoring carboxylic acid groups have been synthesised and characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), UV-vis and luminescence. These complexes were adsorbed on thin films of the wide band-gap semiconductor anatase and were tested as...

  19. Mechanism of flotation of ionic associates of heteropoly acids and dyes. Colloid formation in molybdosilicate-chrompyrazol 1 system

    Colloid formation in a molybdosilicic acid-Chrompyrazol 1 system, applied to determination of small amounts of silicon, was studied using an ultramicroscope with a coherent monochromatic source of polarized light. The average particle size and colloid system parameters (coagulation rate constant, retardation factor, energy barrier value) were found

  20. Synthesis, characterization and applications of some novel mordent and heterocyclic disperse dyes on polyester and wool fibers

    Hitendra Mangubhai Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The novel mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes were prepared by coupling of various diazo solution of aromatic amines with 1-[(2-butyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-yl]-1-(4-hydroxyphenylmethanone. The resultant mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral studies. The UV-visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structural property relationship. The dyeing assessment of all the mordent and disperse heterocyclic dyes was evaluated on wool and polyester textile fibers. The results of antibacterial studies of chrome pretreated fabrics revealed that the toxicity of mordented dyes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis bacteria was fairly good.

  1. Characterisation of chrome-spinel grains in ilmenite concentrates using combined EPMA imaging and analysis methods

    Full text: The production of clean ilmenite concentrates from some mineral sands deposits is hampered by the presence of chromium-containing minerals. The majority of the chromium occurs in separate chrome-spinel grains, so in principal they can be separated from ilmenite grains by physical concentration procedures. However, in practice, the separation is difficult because the physical properties of the chrome-spinel grains, such as specific gravity, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility, are similar to those of ilmenite grains. The situation is further complicated by a) the chrome-spinels have a relatively wide range of compositions due to varying amounts of Mg, Al, Fe and Cr in solid solution, and, b) chemical weathering of both the ilmenite and chrome spinels in the deposits, which involves oxidation and leaching of iron. Both these factors modify the composition ranges of the minerals and influence their subsequent separation characteristics. In mineral sands deposits in which the chrome-spinel population falls into chemically and magnetically 'tight' populations, effective separation treatments have been developed. These usually involve roasting under various conditions to increase the magnetic susceptibility of Fe2O3-FeTiO3 solid solutions, enabling the removal of chromium-bearing spinel from ilmenite concentrates through magnetic separation. In areas such as the Murray Basin region of Eastern Australia however, previous characterisation testwork by CSIRO Minerals have demonstrated that the chrome-spinel populations are highly variable often exhibiting a broad range of composition. Individual chrome-spinel grain types can span the entire compositional spectrum from close to ideal chromite (FeCr2O4) to almost pure MgAl2O4. The effect of various roasting regimes on the magnetic separation characteristics of these complex spinels is largely unknown. In this paper we describe the application of EPMA imaging techniques developed at CSIRO Minerals to quantify

  2. High sensitive radiochromic dye and its application

    Characteristics of various functional dyes and related compounds for a chemical radiochromic dosimeter are outlined. Chemical radiochromic dosimeters using new functional leuco dyes and high sensitive acid generators dissolved in chloroform and ethanol can be used over the absorbed dose range in 0.1-30 Gy. Plastic films with dissolved those dyes and functional materials, and with microcapsules included leuco dyes and organic solvent are applied to the routine dosimeter for the measurements of absorbed doses of γ-irradiation (60 Gy-1.2KGy), which is potentially useful for food and blood irradiation fields. (author)

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  4. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  5. Hair dye poisoning

    Hair dye poisoning occurs when someone swallows dye or tint used to color hair. This article is for ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. ... aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene diamines ...

  6. 植物多酚与铬离子形成新型鞣剂的研究进展%Development of New Tanning Agent Made of Plant Polyphenols and Chrome Ions

    潘红英; 王华; 陈武勇

    2009-01-01

    由于环保的要求,寻找一种替代纯铬鞣的新型鞣剂或鞣法显得极有必要,而植物鞣剂作为一种天然鞣剂能够满足要求.本文主要论述两种不同的方法使植鞣荆降解,然后进行植铬结合鞣.一种是植物鞣剂先酸化降解,因为酸化降解产物具有还原、蒙囿以及与金属离子络合的作用,与Cr(Ⅵ)发生氧化还原作用,形成新的铬鞣剂.另外一种是植物多酚被氧化降解改性,进行植铬结合鞣.通过这些方法既减少了铬的用量,又有较好的鞣革性能.%Due to the environmental requirements, searching for an alternative new tannage or method of tanning to the pure chrome is necessary. Vegetable tannin can meet the needs as a natural tannage. In this paper, primarily summarizes two different ways to modify vegetable tannin, then the modified products can be applied to the vegetable tannin-chrome combination tannage. Vegetable tannin is degraded by the acid. The degradation products have a better masking ability, and have good complex properties with the metal ions. Chromium (Ⅵ)can be reduced to produce chrome tanning agent by the product which can be obtained by hydrolyzing hydrolysable tannin . The plant polyphenols can be modified by the oxidization degradation. The oxidization degradation products can be applied to the vegetable tannin-chrome combination tannin. Using these methods can not only reduce the amount of chrome, but also have better tanned leather property.

  7. "Dye Removal from Effluents of Textile Industries by ISO9888 Method and Membrane Technology"

    M Gholami; S. Nasseri; MR Alizadeh Fard; A.Mesdaghinia; F Vaezi; A. Mahvi; K Naddaffi

    2001-01-01

    Dye removal from effluents of textile industries of Iran was investigated through biodegradabilitymethod and membrane technology . Basic, reactive,disperse and acidic dyes were selected, based onusage rate in Iran. The Zahen - Welenze method (ISO 9888) was applied to study the biodegradabilityof dyes. Results showed the final COD and dye removal (%R) as (%61,% 57), (%73, %76), (%25, %14),and (%32, %8) for acidic, basic, reactive and disperse dyes, respectively. Also, the ADMI value ininfluent...

  8. #The #impact of ultrasonic-assisted dyeing on ecological parameters

    Ojstršek, Alenka; Fakin, Darinka

    2012-01-01

    The main contribution of our research was to compare the impact of the conventional dyeing process and the power ultrasonic technique on dye-bath exhaustion and, consequently, on dye-bath effluents during the dyeing of four dissimilar fabrics (cotton, viscose, wool and polyamide) using chemically-different dyestuffs (reactive, direct, acid and 1:1 metal complex) at two concentrations, regarding different operational parameters, in order toestimate the environmental impact of numerous paramete...

  9. Biodegradation of bioaccessible textile azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Martins, Maria Adosinda; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Santos, Isabel; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Lima, Nelson

    2000-01-01

    Azo dyes are important chemical pollutants of industrial origin. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups for lignin degrading fungi, such as 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol), were synthesised using different aminobenzoic and aminosulphonic acids as diazo components. The inocula of the best biodegradation assays were obtained from a pre-growth medium (PAM), containing one of the synthesised dyes. The results of the dye biodegradation assays were eval...

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. Evaluate the ability of hexavalent chrome free pretreated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals, and maintain that seal while being subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Assess the performance of trivalent chromium pretreatments against a known control hexavalent chrome pretreatment before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. It is known that environmental testing causes a decrease in shielding effectiveness when hexavalent chrome pretreatments are used (Alodine 1200s). Need to determine how shielding effectiveness will be affected with the use of hexavalent chrome free pretreatments. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings. The formation of corrosion will be evaluated between the mating surfaces and gasket to assess the corrosion resistant properties of the pretreatments, comparing the hexavalent control to the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments.

  12. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  13. The decolorization and mineralization of Acid Orange 6 azo dye in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    The comparison of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), i.e. ultraviolet (UV)/TiO2, O3, O3/UV, O3/UV/TiO2, Fenton and electrocoagulation (EC), is of interest to determine the best removal performance for the destruction of the target compound in an Acid Orange 6 (AO6) solution, exploring the most efficient experimental conditions as well; on the other hand, the results may provide baseline information of the combination of different AOPs in treating industrial wastewater. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in the effects of individual and combined ozonation and photocatalytic UV irradiation, both O3/UV and O3/UV/TiO2 processes exhibit remarkable TOC removal capability that can achieve a 65% removal efficiency at pH 7 and O3 dose = 45 mg/L; (2) the optimum pH and ratio of [H2O2]/[Fe2+] found for the Fenton process, are pH 4 and [H2O2]/[Fe2+] = 6.58. The optimum [H2O2] and [Fe2+] under the same HF value are 58.82 and 8.93 mM, respectively; (3) the optimum applied voltage found in the EC experiment is 80 V, and the initial pH will affect the AO6 and TOC removal rates in that acidic conditions may be favorable for a higher removal rate; (4) the AO6 decolorization rate ranking was obtained in the order of O3 3/UV = O3/UV/TiO2 3 = Fenton 3/UV 3/UV/TiO2 for 30 min of reaction time

  14. Inline detection of Chrome degradation on binary 193nm photomasks

    Dufaye, Félix; Sippel, Astrid; Wylie, Mark; García-Berríos, Edgardo; Crawford, Charles; Hess, Carl; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Brochard, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long periods. However, these 193nm binary photomasks can be impacted by a phenomenon of chrome oxidation leading to critical dimensions uniformity (CDU) degradation with a pronounced radial signature. If not detected early enough, this CDU degradation may cause defectivity issues and lower yield on wafers. Fortunately, a standard cleaning and repellicle service at the mask shop has been demonstrated as efficient to remove the grown materials and get the photomask CD back on target.Some detection methods have been already described in literature, such as wafer CD intrafield monitoring (ACLV), giving reliable results but also consuming additional SEM time with less precision than direct photomask measurement. In this paper, we propose another approach, by monitoring the CDU directly on the photomask, concurrently with defect inspection for regular requalification to production for wafer fabs. For this study, we focused on a Metal layer in a 90nm technology node. Wafers have been exposed with production conditions and then measured by SEM-CD. Afterwards, this photomask has been measured with a SEM-CD in mask shop and also inspected on a KLA-Tencor X5.2 inspection system, with pixels 125 and 90nm, to evaluate the Intensity based Critical Dimension Uniformity (iCDU) option. iCDU was firstly developed to provide feed-forward CDU maps for scanner intrafield corrections, from arrayed dense structures on memory photomasks. Due to layout complexity and differing feature types, CDU monitoring on logic photomasks used to pose unique challenges.The selection of suitable feature types for CDU monitoring on logic photomasks is no longer an issue, since the transmitted intensity map gives all the needed information, as shown in this paper. In this study, the photomask was heavily degraded after more than 18,000 300

  15. Photo-oxidation. Of the system chrome hexavalent-4-chlorophenol

    As a proposal to eliminate highly toxic chemical components derived from industrial waste, the researchers study the behavior of the compound hexavalent chromium / 4-chlorophenol system when subjected to photo degradation in a photo-reactor compound parabolic cylinder (CPC) to scale pilot. The effect is analyzed in order to determine the operation conditions to reach the highest degradation levels possible. The analyzed variables were pH, concentration of catalyst (TiO2), time of recirculation and the relation of initial concentrations among polluting agents. The factor that most influences the levels of removal reached is the pH, which has a different effect for each of the pollutants. This implies that, theoretically, you cannot adopt a unique group of operation parameters to favor the degradation of both however, in the practice; high levels of degradation of both pollutants are obtained in the optimal point of operation of the chrome. It is also observed that the catalyst concentration does not influence the degradation of the polluting agents significantly, at least for the initial concentrations studied. The recirculation time is closely related to the kinetics of degradation of each polluting agent. Elevated degradation levels are reached in a short time for 4-chlorophenol, while more prolonged recirculation times are required for hexavalent chromium. The relation of initial concentrations of the polluting agents also exerts an opposite effect on the degradation levels reached for each polluting agent; the hexavalent chromium reduction is favored with high initial concentrations of 4-chlorophenol, whereas the oxidation of 4-chlorophenol is favored with high initial hexavalent chromium concentrations, which suggests some synergy between the oxidation-reduction reactions of 4-chlorophenol and hexavalent chromium. Finally, a 97% hexavalent chromium reduction and a 94.9% oxidation of 4-chlorophenol were obtained

  16. The decolorization and mineralization of Acid Orange 6 azo dye in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    Hsing, H.-J. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, P.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw; Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 25 Wu-Shin Street, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2007-03-06

    The comparison of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), i.e. ultraviolet (UV)/TiO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}/UV, O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2}, Fenton and electrocoagulation (EC), is of interest to determine the best removal performance for the destruction of the target compound in an Acid Orange 6 (AO6) solution, exploring the most efficient experimental conditions as well; on the other hand, the results may provide baseline information of the combination of different AOPs in treating industrial wastewater. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in the effects of individual and combined ozonation and photocatalytic UV irradiation, both O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} processes exhibit remarkable TOC removal capability that can achieve a 65% removal efficiency at pH 7 and O{sub 3} dose = 45 mg/L; (2) the optimum pH and ratio of [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] found for the Fenton process, are pH 4 and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] = 6.58. The optimum [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [Fe{sup 2+}] under the same HF value are 58.82 and 8.93 mM, respectively; (3) the optimum applied voltage found in the EC experiment is 80 V, and the initial pH will affect the AO6 and TOC removal rates in that acidic conditions may be favorable for a higher removal rate; (4) the AO6 decolorization rate ranking was obtained in the order of O{sub 3} < O{sub 3}/UV = O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} < EC < Fenton; (5) the ranking of TOC removal efficiency of selected AOPs was in the order of O{sub 3} = Fenton < EC < O{sub 3}/UV < O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} for 30 min of reaction time.

  17. Development of technology of complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy with utilization of off grade raw materials

    A. Mekhtiev; Ye. Shabanov; А. Issagulov; S. Baissanov; А. Baissanov; D. Issagulova

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on obtaining a complex aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy (FASCh) from Karaganda high-ash coals and high-carbon ferrochromefines were carried out. A method for smelting low-carbon ferrochrome using aluminum-silicon-chrome alloy as a reductant is suggested.

  18. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20...

  19. 40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory. 425.10 Section 425.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.10...

  20. Preliminary Results on the Use of Leather Chrome Shavings for Air Passive Sampling

    D. Sanjuán-Herráez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new passive sampler based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE layflat tube filled with chrome shavings from tannery waste residues was evaluated to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs in indoor and outdoor areas. VOCs were directly determined by head space-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS without any pretreatment of the sampler and avoiding the use of solvents. Limit of detection values ranging from 20 to 75 ng sampler−1 and good repeatability values were obtained for VOCs under study with relative standard deviation values from 2.8 to 9.6% except for carbon disulfide for which it was 22.5%. The effect of the amount of chrome shavings per sampler was studied and results were compared with those obtained using empty LDPE tubes, to demonstrate the capacity of chrome shavings to adsorb VOCs.

  1. Improvement of uptake of chrome tan on hide protein by basic oxides

    Three basic oxides were used to improve uptake of chrome tan as well as shrinkage temperature of the tanned leather. In addition, the skin quality is one of the most important factors taking into consideration. Three basic oxides, named magnesium oxide, manganese oxide and sodium bicarbonate. The process was optimized taking into the account the shaking rate, chrome concentration (%), initial ph, basic oxides concentration, temperature and contact time. The optimum conditions for exhaustion, fixation, shrinkage temperature as well as skin quality showed that agitation rate of 150 rpm, chrome concentration of 16%, initial ph of 2.5, basic oxide concentration of 4% magnesium oxide, temperature of 35 degree C and contact time of 24 hr. The best results obtained are 88% exhaustion, 90.03% fixation and 109 degree C shrinkage temperature in aqueous medium

  2. Fatigue and deformation of HVOF sprayed WC-Co coatings and hard chrome plating

    A challenge facing the finishing industry is to replace chrome plating since this technology has negative environmental and health effects. In the case of tungsten carbide and chrome carbide coatings, HVOF and detonation spray technologies have proven to be cleaner and more effective. In this paper, the results of a comparative investigation involve a detailed analysis of fatigue and deformation of two groups of AISI 4340 steel specimens. One group sprayed with HVOF WC-Co coating and the other group was plated with hard chrome. Rotating beam fatigue tests were performed on the coated and uncoated specimens. Optical and SEM microscopy were used to evaluate the fracture morphology. The fatigue life distributions of coated AISI 4340 steel specimens demonstrated that the HVOF coated specimens exhibited higher fatigue lives compared to the uncoated specimens

  3. CHROME MINING COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF TURKEY IN TERMS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: SECTORAL STRENGTHS, PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Ali Rıza İNCE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Chrome mining which has an important place in the Turkish mining industry, analyzed and determined features that can provide a competitive advantage, and also aimed to identifing the existing problems.İn this study qualititive study has done.İn this context, literatüre review was done and descriptive method is used.The first section reviews recent discussions about strategic management approach and its features. The second section includes competetion and competitiveness.İn the context, swot analysis technique, the most preferred method, was utilized for assesing the competetion.And then, swot analysis is done chrome mining lastly, strategic evaluation is done in the context of assesments and analysis for chrome mining and various suppestions have been made about the strategic sense.

  4. Fatigue and deformation of HVOF sprayed WC-Co coatings and hard chrome plating

    Ibrahim, A. [State University of New York at Farmingdale, Farmingdale, Route 110, Lupton Hall, Room 182, Farmingdale, NY 11735 (United States)], E-mail: ahmed.ibrahim@farmingdale.edu; Berndt, C.C. [James Cook University, School of Engineering, Townsville, Qld 4811 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    A challenge facing the finishing industry is to replace chrome plating since this technology has negative environmental and health effects. In the case of tungsten carbide and chrome carbide coatings, HVOF and detonation spray technologies have proven to be cleaner and more effective. In this paper, the results of a comparative investigation involve a detailed analysis of fatigue and deformation of two groups of AISI 4340 steel specimens. One group sprayed with HVOF WC-Co coating and the other group was plated with hard chrome. Rotating beam fatigue tests were performed on the coated and uncoated specimens. Optical and SEM microscopy were used to evaluate the fracture morphology. The fatigue life distributions of coated AISI 4340 steel specimens demonstrated that the HVOF coated specimens exhibited higher fatigue lives compared to the uncoated specimens.

  5. Preparation of mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 composite nanofiber membranes having adsorption capacity for indigo carmine dye

    Xu, Ran; Jia, Min; Li, Fengting; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Bingru; Qiao, Junlian

    2012-03-01

    Mesoporous poly (acrylic acid)/SiO2 (PAA/SiO2) composite nanofiber membranes functionalized with mercapto groups were fabricated by a sol-gel electrospinning method, and their adsorption capacity for indigo carmine was investigated. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. SEM and TEM observation results showed that the PAA/SiO2 fibers had diameters between 400-800 nm and mesopores with an average pore size of 3.88 nm. The specific surface area of the mesoporous nanofiber membranes was 514.89 m2/g. The characteristic peaks for mercapto group vibration in FTIR and Raman spectra demonstrated that the mercapto groups have been incorporated into the silica skeleton. The adsorption isotherm data of indigo carmine on the membranes fit well with Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated was 523.11 mg/g. It was found that the removal rate of indigo carmine by the membranes reached a maximum of 98% in 90 min and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The high adsorption capacity of PAA/SiO2 nanofiber membrane makes it a promising adsorbent for indigo carmine removal from the wastewater.

  6. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  7. 40 CFR 425.30 - Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.30 Section 425.30 Protection of... FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.30 Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory....

  8. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry

    Vijay Kumar Singhal

    2015-01-01

    . All workers were washing hands with soap in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating industry, respectively. Only 27.27% and 37.50% of the workers were using masks in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. No worker was using protective clothing or barrier cream in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry. 40.65% and 12.50% workers were using protective clothing and barrier cream in the chrome plating industry. Conclusion: Workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating are at a great risk of skin and mucous membrane disorders including chrome holes and nasal septum perforation. Protective measures and awareness of the management and workers about the exposure hazards and safeguarding against them will be useful public measures to prevent these occupational hazards among workers engaged in these processes.

  9. Effects of interaction of folic acid with uranium (VI) and basic triphenylmethane dyes on resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their analytical applications

    In pH 4.2-4.8 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, folic acid (FA) could react with uranium (VI) to form a 2:1 anionic chelate which further reacted with some basic triphenylmethane dyes (BTPMD) such as Ethyl Violet (EV), Methyl Violet (MV) and Crystal Violet (CV) to form 1:2 ion-association complexes. As a result, not only the absorption spectra were changed, but also the intensities of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) were enhanced greatly and the new RRS spectra were observed. The maximum RRS wavelengths were located at 328 nm for EV system, 325 nm for MV system and 328 nm for CV system. The fading degree (ΔA) and RRS intensities (ΔI) of three systems were different. Under given conditions, the ΔA and ΔI were all directly proportional to the concentration of FA. The linear ranges and the detection limits of RRS methods were 0.0039-5.0 μg mL-1 and 1.2 ng mL-1 for EV system, 0.0073-4.0 μg mL-1 and 2.2 ng mL-1 for MV system, 0.014-3.5 μg mL-1 and 4.7 ng mL-1 for CV system. The RRS methods exhibited higher sensitivity, so they are more suitable for the determination of trace FA. The optimum conditions, the influencing factors and the effects of coexisting substances on the reaction were investigated. The method can be applied to the determination of FA in serum and urine samples with satisfactory results. The structure of the ternary ion-association complex and the reaction mechanism were discussed in this work

  10. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Imer Haziri; Muhamed Zogaj; Fatgzim Latifi; Jetmira Abeshi; Dorjana Beqiraj; Luljeta Dhaskali; Enkelejda Ozuni

    2011-01-01

    A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21...

  11. Application of molecular simulation to investigate chrome(III)-crosslinked collagen problems

    Molecular dynamics simulation with a modified CHARMM (Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics) force field was carried out to investigate the properties of chrome-tanned collagen in comparison with chrome-free collagen under hydrated and dehydrated conditions. An attempt has been made to explain the microcosmic origins of the various properties of the chromium(III)-crosslinked collagen. The present simulation describes the clear crosslinking topology of polychromiums to peptide chains, identifies the linking site and the capacity of the linkage, explains why the efficiency is not 100% in a practical tanning process and provides a new viewpoint on the crosslinking of the polychromium with the side chains of the collagen. (paper)

  12. Optimization of two-low salt chrome tanning processes without float

    Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís; Costa, Jose; Banaszak, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop at pilot plant level two systems of pickle-tanning that would reduce both the amount of waste water and its content in chrome and chlorides while obtaining leathers that are commercially acceptable. In the first one, the effect of the variation of the final tanning temperature as well as the system of adding the basificant in the formulation of a chrome tanning without float were studied. A 87 percent reduction of the residual float was obtained with this ...

  13. Research Status of Chrome-free Tanning%铬鞣剂的研究现状

    陶亮亮; 李鹏; 侯宏波; 李宁宁; 陈磊; 李琛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了无铬金属鞣剂、植物鞣剂、改性戊二醛鞣剂、嗯唑烷鞣剂、有机膦鞣剂、纳米鞣剂等无铬鞣剂的研究现状和应用前景。%The chrome-free tanning agents, such as inorganic compounds tanning agent, vegetable tanning agent, modified glutaraldehyde tanning agent, oxzaolidine tanning agent, organic phosphonium tanning agents and nano-tanning agents, were introduced in this paper. And, the current research and application prospect of chrome-free tanning agent were discussed.

  14. Non-destructive evaluation for high chrome Fe-based steels by using a magnetic sensor

    This paper presents a non-destructive evaluation for high chrome Fe-based steels by using a magnetic sensor. In order to make clear the fundamental magnetic properties related to tensile strain damage and fatigue damage, the magnetic measurement apparatus, which can measure the magnetic flux density and the magnetic field strength by B-coil and H-coil, was developed. And then the relationships between the damages and the measured magnetic properties are shown to discuss the capability of a non-destructive testing for high chrome Fe-based steels. (author)

  15. Nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea by Raman spectroscopy

    Xiao-Li Li; Chan-Jun Sun; Liu-Bin Luo; Yong He

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was first adopted for rapid detecting a hazardous substance of lead chrome green in tea, which was illegally added to tea to disguise as high-quality. 160 samples of tea infusion with different concentrations of lead chrome green were prepared for Raman spectra acquirement in the range of 2804 cm−1–230 cm−1 and the spectral intensities were calibrated with relative intensity standards. Then wavelet transformation (WT) was adopted to extract information in different time and...

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in air by a sensitised chrome azurol S reaction

    Although many spectrophotometric reagents for beryllium are known, their sensitivities do not approach that provided by the fluorimetric method using morin. A spectrophotometric method of comparable sensitivity is reported wherein addition of cetylpyridinium bromide considerably enhances the colour intensity of the beryllium - Chrome Azurol S complex. EDTA serves as a suitable masking agent for eliminating interferences from commonly associated ions. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with the morin method. Similar sensitisation of the beryllium - Chrome Azurol S system by polyoxyethylene dodecylamine and poly(vinyl alcohol) has been reported. (author)

  17. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dyes, followed by aerobic transfo...

  18. Facile water-stability evaluation of metal-organic frameworks and the property of selective removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

    Qi, Zhao-Peng; Yang, Ji-Min; Kang, Yan-Shang; Guo, Fan; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2016-06-01

    A facile and universal method was developed to evaluate the relative water stability of porous MOFs and morphological evolution was achieved by controlling the volume ratio of DMF and H2O. The relative water stability of the studied MOFs is in the order HKUST-1 > MOF-505 ∼ UMCM-150 > NOTT-101 > DUT-23(Cu) > [Zn2(BPnDC)2(DABCO)] ∼ [Cu3(TPTrC)2(DABCO)] > MOF-5. In addition, DUT-23(Cu) [Cu6(BTB)4(BPY)3] (H3BTB = 4,4',4''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoic acid, BPY = 4,4'-bipyridine) nanoparticles obtained with a volume ratio of DMF and H2O of 18 : 2 show excellent adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) (814 mg g(-1)) with high selectivity compared with methyl orange, rhodamine B, and acid chrome blue K dyes due to the size and the electrostatic repulsion effects in aqueous solution. PMID:27139895

  19. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4′-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  20. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4'-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  1. Adsorption of anionic dyes on ammonium-functionalized MCM-41

    Investigations were conducted in a batch reactor system to study the adsorption behavior of four anionic dyes (Methyl orange (MO), Orange IV (OIV), Reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), and Acid fuchsine (AF)) on ammonium-functionalized MCM-41 (NH3+-MCM-41) from aqueous medium by varying the parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and competitive anions. Dye adsorption was broadly independent of initial dye concentration. The intraparticle diffusion model was the best in describing the adsorption kinetics for the four anionic dyes on NH3+-MCM-41. The adsorption data for the four dyes were well fitted with the Langmuir model. The electrostatic interaction was considered to be the main mechanism for the dye adsorption. Finally, it was observed that the anion of soft acid inhibited the adsorption capacity significantly

  2. Natural Dye Extracts of Areca Catechu Nut as dye Sensitizer for Titanium dioxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    P. Murugakoothan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using titanium dioxide nano particles sensitized by a new natural dye extracted from areca catechu nut. The natural dye extract contains tannin which is rich in gallotannic acid. The pure titanium dioxide nano particles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and were sensitized by the natural dye to yield photo anode material. The Powder X-Ray Diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X- Ray spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies of pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 were carried out to analyze their structural, optical, functional group, compositional and morphological details. The dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated using TiO2 nano particles coated on FTO glass plate which is sensitized by the natural dye as photo anode and platinum coated FTO as counter electrode. The natural dye sensitized solar cell showed a solar light energy to electron conversion efficiency of 0.76 %.

  3. Desenvolupament d'un plugin per a Chrome per xifrar/desxifrar correus utilitzant Gmail

    Martín Toral, Boris

    2016-01-01

    L'objecte del treball final de carrera és desenvolupar un plugin o extensió per a Chrome per a poder xifrar/desxifrar missatges utilitzant el correu web de Gmail. S'adjunta memòria, presentació virtual i codi font de l'extensió desenvolupada.

  4. CHROME: An Approach to Teaching the Concept of Inter-Functional Cooperation in Services Organizations

    Johnson, Lester W.

    2010-01-01

    When teaching a services course (e.g., Services Marketing) it is essential that students understand that marketing/management, operations and human resource management within the service organization be fully coordinated. One useful acronym used to remind students of this need is "CHROME", standing for Communications, Human Resources,…

  5. Selection of the Chrome Reduction Bacteria in the Waste of Tanning Leather Industries by Ozonization Method

    Selection of the chrome reduction bacteria in the waste of tanning leather industries by ozonization method has been done. The objectives of this research was to obtain isolate bacteria from the waste with chrome contain, so that expected can be used for chrome bioremediation agent for arrange to improved the waste treatment for tanning leather industries. Selection of bacteria in the waste was carried out by ozonization method with time variation 0 to 210 minutes by time interval 15 minutes. Isolation bacteria was carried out was grown on the BHI media for 24 hours at 37°C temperature. So be inoculated by streak plate method on the TBX, MC, EA, CTM and BP media. Characterization of bacteria was done by saw the colonies morphology, sel morphology and biochemical characterization. So, identification of isolate bacteria by matching profile method. The result of this research can be obtained 5 isolate bacteria BCR1, BCR2, BCR3, BCR4 and BCR5 with the different phenotypic character. From the five isolate can be selected resistance ozon isolate until 180 minutes time ozonization were BCR 2, were identified belong to the genus of Bacillus. The examination results showed that the isolate bacteria be able to reduction of the chrome concentration in the waste of tanning leather industries by 71.03 %. Efficiency. (author)

  6. Study on creep-fatigue evaluation of chrome-molybdenum steel

    Though chrome-molybdenum steel has quite different basic material properties from austenitic stainless steel, the life fraction rule based on an advanced ductility exhaustion theory proposed for SUS304 is able to give proper prediction for creep-fatigue life of chrome-molybdenum steel. The applicability of the present evaluation method to chrome-molybdenum steel is validated by both mechanical study and micro-structural observation. The mechanism of creep-fatigue failure of Mod.9Cr-1Mo(NT) is one of the most controversial subjects among researchers. However, it is clarified in this report that creep-fatigue damage of this material under actual loading conditions is dominated by creep-cavitation of grain boundaries as same way as that of austenitic stainless steel. Furthermore, for the life reduction of low cycle fatigue of chrome-molybdenum steel with compression-side strain hold, both effects of mean stress and oxide-wedge are denied and it is insisted that the acceleration of fatigue-crack propagation is occurred by oxide-progress location and its thickness. (author)

  7. Spectrophotometric study of the reaction of zirconium with chrome Azurol S and fluoride

    A relatively simple and convenient procedure for the determination of small amounts of fluoride has been established. It is based on the decrease in absorbance when fluoride is added to a solution of the zirconium-Chrome Azurol S complex. Microgram amounts of fluoride can be determined with an error of better than about 2%. Some practical applications are presented. (author)

  8. Significant Influences of Elaborately Modulating Electron Donors on Light Absorption and Multichannel Charge-Transfer Dynamics for 4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl)benzoic Acid Dyes.

    Wang, Erfeng; Yao, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqiang; Shao, Guosheng; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

    2016-07-20

    4-(Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylethynyl)benzoic acid (BTEBA) as a promising electron acceptor has been used in the highly efficient organic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) recently. Because of its strong electron-deficient character, BTEBA could bring forth a remarkable decline in the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and further reduce the energy gap of dye molecules significantly. In this contribution, two metal-free organic dyes WEF1 and WEF2 were synthesized by simply combining BTEBA with two slightly tailored electron-releasing moieties: 4-hexylphenyl substituted indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (IDT) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene[2',1':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene (CPDTDT), which were screened rationally from an electron-donor pool via computational simulation. With respect to those of WEF1, WEF2-sensitized solar cells demonstrate a far better short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC) and open-circuit photovoltage (VOC), resulting in a ∼50% improved power conversion efficiency of 10.0% under irradiance of 100 mW cm(-2) AM1.5G sunlight. We resorted to theoretical calculations, electrical measurements, steady-state, and time-resolved spectroscopic methods to shed light on the fatal influences of elaborately modulating electron donors on light absorption, interfacial energetics, and multichannel charge-transfer dynamics. PMID:27331621

  9. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  10. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal=Tratamento de soluções de corantes ácidos por adsorção em farelo de soja

    Davi Eduardo Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes.Neste trabalho, testou-se o potencial emprego do adsorvente natural à base de farelo de soja, proveniente da extração de óleo vegetal, no tratamento de soluções contendo os corantes ácidos: amarelo Erionyl RXL, marinho Erionyl R e vermelho Erionyl A-3B, empregados no tingimento de fibras poliamídicas. Para tanto, foram realizados estudos de adsorção em diferentes condições de temperatura, concentração de adsorvente, pH e mistura de cores (bicromia e tricromia em soluções de corantes produzidas em laboratório. O farelo de soja mostrou uma ótima capacidade de remoção de cor, principalmente nas soluções de corantes com pH’s 4 e 6 à 60ºC contendo 10 g L-1. Considerando que os valores de eficiência na adsorção ficaram entre 74 e 99%, dependendo do corante e das condições de tratamento, o farelo de soja mostrou-se um material alternativo para a adsorção dos corantes ácidos.

  11. RECHERCHE DES MECANISMES MICROSTRUCTURAUX QUI REGISSENT LES PROPRIETES MACROSCOPIQUES DE DEPOTS DE CHROME : INFLUENCE DES PARAMETRES D'ELABORATION

    Durut, Frédéric

    1999-01-01

    DES REVETEMENTS SONT EFFECTUES A PARTIR D'UN BAIN DE CHROME HEXAVALENT STANDARD (250 G/L CRO 3, 2,5 G/L H 2SO 4) A DENSITE DE COURANT CONSTANTE (40 A/DM 2), LA TEMPERATURE DE CHROMAGE VARIANT ENTRE 25 ET 75\\C. LES DEPOTS DE CHROME SONT CARACTERISES D'UN POINT DE VUE MICROSTRUCTURAL, MORPHOLOGIQUE ET MECANIQUE. AU-DESSOUS DE 40\\C, LE CHROME SE DEPOSE PAR GERMINATION CONTINUE, LA STRUCTURE EST EQUIAXE NON TEXTUREE. AU-DESSUS DE 40\\C, DES NANOGRAINS SE DEVELOPPENT PAR CROISSANCE DE GERMES. C'EST...

  12. Effect of electron withdrawing unit for dye-sensitized solar cell based on D-A-π-A organic dyes

    Highlights: • To gain the red-shifted absorption spectra, withdrawing unit was substituted in dye. • By the introduction of additional withdrawing unit, LUMOs level of dye are decreased. • Decreasing LUMOs level of dye caused the red-shifted absorption spectra of dye. • Novel acceptor, DCRD, showed better photovoltaic properties than cyanoacetic acid. - Abstract: In this work, two novel D-A-π-A dye sensitizers with triarylamine as an electron donor, isoindigo and cyano group as electron withdrawing units and cyanoacetic acid and 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene) rhodanine as an electron acceptor for an anchoring group (TICC, TICR) were designed and investigated with the ID6 dye as the reference. The difference in HOMO and LUMO levels were compared according to the presence or absence of isoindigo in ID6 (TC and ID6). To gain insight into the factors responsible for photovoltaic performance, we used density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Owing to different LUMO levels for each acceptor, the absorption band and molar extinction coefficient of each dye was different. Among the dyes, TICR showed more red-shifted and broader absorption spectra than other dyes and had a higher molar extinction coefficient than the reference. It is expected that TICR would show better photovoltaic properties than the other dyes, including the reference dye

  13. Indirect extraction-spectrophotometric determination of 2-(thiocyanomethylthiol)benzothiazole in chrome tanning liquors after its breakdown to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.

    Hinojosa Reyes, Laura; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz

    2002-03-01

    The simple extraction-spectrophotometric procedure is proposed in this work for the determination of 2-(thiocyanomethylthiol)benzothiazole (TCMTB) in chrome tanning liquors after its breakdown to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). The sample (50mul) was 4-fold diluted with deionized water and the conversion of TCMTB to MBT was obtained with cysteine (400 mul, 0.1 moll(-1)) in alkaline conditions (pH 10). After acidification to pH 2.5 (100 mul phosphoric acid, 2 moll(-1)), the extraction was carried out with 800 mul of ethyl acetate, containing 0.2% of beta-mercaptoethanol and absorbance was measured at 324 nm with the cut-off filter 295 nm. To avoid possible errors due to MBT presence in the sample, this same sample was taken for blank, but the reagents were added in form of one acid solution (omitting the conversion step). The calibration range was 10-120 mugml(-1) of TCMTB with the regression coefficient 0.9999, the quantitation limit was 2.80 mugml(-1) and the within day precision was 3.34 and 0.20%, respectively, for 10 and for 100 mugml(-1) of TCMTB. The results obtained in the analysis of the three industrial liquor samples by the proposed procedure were in a good agreement with the results obtained using liquid chromatography method. PMID:18968524

  14. Dyeing of Polypropylene Fibers with Vat Dyes

    LIU Hang; ETTERS J. Nolan; LEONAS Karen K

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene fibers have been extensively used in a variety of products, including carpets and upholstery, due to their non-absorbency, good weather resistance, good resistance to microorganisms and so on. Because of their hydrophobic and highly crystalline nature, those well-established conventional dyeing processes are difficult to apply to unmodified polypropylene. Colors of polypropylene fibers are primarily obtained by mass coloration which has the disadvantages of limited number of colors available and difficulties in inventory control due to the rapidly changing color needs of the market. In this paper, the use of vat dyes to dye polypropylene fabrics is investigated. Seventeen vat dyes were screened and factors influencing uptake of dyes by polypropylene fabrics were studied.

  15. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    Nataša Ž. Šekuljica; Nevena Ž. Prlainović; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Milena G. Žuža; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Dušan Ž. Mijin; Zorica D. Knežević-Jugović

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal cond...

  16. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  17. Modified Dye for Water-Fast Ink-Jet Printing

    Zheng Qingkang(郑庆康); Zhu Puxin(朱谱新); Wu Dacheng(吴大诚); Lewis DM.

    2001-01-01

    A quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue was synthesized by Converting 3-chloro-2-hydroxy- propyalkyldimethylammonium chlorides into its epoxide derivatives, then attaching an amino acid to the epoxide derivatives synthesized a quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue. Modified dyes were prepared by the ionotropy of anionic dyes with the quaternary ammonium compound containing amino acid residue. It was discovered that the modified dyes exhibited an excellent pH controllable solubility. These modified dyes have good water solubility at pH> 8.0, but they were water insoluble at pH < 6.5. On the printing paper, modified dyes in water-based ink-jet print ink could convert to water insoluble form and give prints excellent water fastness.

  18. Electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye on the boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of phosphate ions: Effect of current density, pH, and chloride ions

    The electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye (AB-210) on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) was investigated under different pH conditions. The best performance for the AB-210 oxidation occurred in alkaline phosphate solution. This is probably due to oxidizing agents such as phosphate radicals and peroxodiphosphate ions, which can be electrochemically produced with good yields on the BDD anode, mainly in alkaline solution. Under this condition, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was higher than that obtained from the model proposed by Comninellis. Electrolyses performed in phosphate buffer and in the presence of chloride ions resulted in faster COD and color removals in acid and neutral solutions, but in alkaline phosphate solution, a better performance in terms of TOC removal was obtained in the absence of chloride. Moreover, organochloride compounds were detected in all electrolyses performed in the presence of chloride. The AB-210 electrooxidation on BDD using phosphate as supporting electrolyte proved to be interesting since oxidizing species generated from phosphate ions were able to completely degrade the dye without producing organochloride compounds.

  19. CASTING OF DETAILS OF WEAR-RESISTANT CHROME CAST IRONS FOR CHROMIC MILLS IN COMBINED MOLDS AND CHILLS

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative wear resistance of chrome cast irons of eutectic composition is determined in laboratory and industry conditions. Complex alloyed eutectic cast iron with increased wear resistance and mechanical characteristics is developed.

  20. Study of the effect of temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation on chrome-tanned leather ageing

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Since leather is strongly affected by three main environmental parameters: temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, this piece of research focuses on the effect that these three factors have on chrome-tanned leather ageing. Chrome tanned leathers were exposed to weathering effects in a climatic chamber in order to identify the most important variables affecting this weathering process and also to check for any possible interactions. Both a multilevel centralized factorial experimental...

  1. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  2. A New Generation of Glycoconjugated Azo Dyes Based on Aminosugars

    Lorenzo Guazzelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The third generation of glycoconjugated azo dyes (GADs was prepared linking monoazo dyes to 6-amino-6-deoxy-d-galactose or 6′amino-6′-deoxylactose through mixed amido-ester connections. The complementary conjugation reactions were studied using the succinyl derivative of either the acetal protected aminosugar or the azo dye. Target “naturalized” GADs were obtained after acid hydrolysis of the acetal protecting groups present on the sugar moiety.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids, peptides and proteins. CIII. Mass transfer resistances in ion-exchange and dye-affinity chromatography of proteins.

    Johnston, A; Hearn, M T

    1990-07-20

    Adsorption equilibria and rate kinetics have been investigated for the binding of several proteins, with different molecular geometries, to several ion-exchange and dye-affinity chromatographic resins with varying pore size and protein accessibilities. The pore geometry was shown to play a significant role in the protein capacity and loadability of both the ion-exchange and dye-affinity resins. For example the Fractogel HW75-Cibacron Blue F3GA affinity sorbent had the greatest capacity for the small protein, lysozyme, compared to the other Fractogel HW-Cibacron Blue F3GA sorbents, and similarly, the ion-exchange resins, such as DEAE-Fractogel 65, bound more human serum albumin (HSA), as opposed to the larger protein, ferritin. The apparent diffusion of protein from the bulk phase to the ligands/ionic sites was calculated to be considerably restricted when the pore to protein size ratio was small, as is the case of DEAE Fractogel 65/ferritin system, and the dye-affinity Fractogel HW55/HSA system. In these circumstances, pore diffusivity was calculated to be up to 100-fold smaller than bulk diffusivity. PMID:2229222

  4. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  5. A study on the removal of color in dyeing wastewater using electron beam irradiation

    In this research, experiments of electron beam irradiation have been carried out for the wastewater from different types of dye industry, and for the reactive dye, for the acid dye and for the disperse dye which are commercially widely used with respect to industrial dyeing process. At the electron beam irradiation dose of 2.34KGy, the efficiency of color removing was higher than that of usual chemical treatment for the reactive dye and for the acid dye. Wastewater from printing dye industry showed the highest measuring value of color among the wastewater from different types of dye industries, which are polyester, cotton T/C, printing, yarn dyeing, and nylon dye industry. Electron beam irradiation tests have been performed for the wastewater from different types of dye industries. Color removing rates by electron beam irradiation were higher than those by general chemical treatment for the wastewater from cotton T/C dye industry and from yarn dyeing industry, and whose dispersive dye contents are low. EA (electron beam irradiation + activated sludge) process and CA (chemical treatment + activated sludge) process have been tested for removing color and organic substance in wastewater from different types of dye industries. EA process showed better results in color removing rate for the wastewater from cotton T/C dye industry and yarn dyeing industry. However, CA process showed better results in color removing rate for the wastewater from polyester, printing, and nylon dye industry. CA process were predominant in CODMn removal rates compare to EA process for the wastewater from different types of dye industries. However, both CA and EA processes showed less than 80mg/L of BOD5, which is the legal effluent guideline. (author)

  6. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has

  7. Characteristics of the chrome-tanned sheep leather treated by radiation-induced graft of BA

    The characteristics of the chrome-tanned sheep leather treated by radiation-induced graft of BA is presented. Using the method of radiation-induced graft of BA instead of the chrome-retanning, the leather has been obviously improved not only in the surface, such as the brightness, fullness, uniformity of the thickness but also in the physical characteristics such as retaining of tensile strength, decreasing of water absorption after being immersed in water for 2h, and 24h, enhancement of tearing strength and stitch tear strength. Although the air permeability and water vapor permeability are a bit worse than the control, however is still in the range of the standard issued by Light Industry Ministry of China

  8. Condensation locale de l'hydrogène dans le chrome

    P. PERETTO; Teisseron, G.; Berthier, J.

    1983-01-01

    Des expériences de corrélation angulaire perturbées effectuées sur des noyaux de hafnium actifs dilués dans une matrice de chrome montrent que la sonde peut piéger plusieurs atomes d'hydrogène. Cet effet est expliqué par l'influence de l'impureté de hafnium qui transforme localement le caractère répulsif des interactions entre atomes d'hydrogène dissous dans le chrome en une interaction très attractive. L'amas d'hydrogène subit une transformation à la température T ≃ 550 K. La transition est ...

  9. Use of nuclear techniques in the characterization of chrome black solar absorber surfaces

    A set of electrodeposited chrome black solar absorbers has been subjected to ion beam analysis in an attempt to determine the concentration depth profiles of the major elemental constituents. Chromium distributions were obtained using the 52Cr(p,γ)53Mn nuclear reaction, which is resonant at E = 1005.2 keV. The possibility was investigated of inferring oxygen distributions from the γ-ray lineshapes (measured with a Ge(Li) detector) of the direct capture reaction 16O(p,γ)17F. Concentration profiles were also obtained for fluorine and sodium contaminants in some chrome blacks. Complete experimental details are given of the various nuclear techniques used. The results of these measurements are discussed in terms of the microscopic physical features of the selective surfaces and are related to the known photothermal properties of the surfaces

  10. Microstructure and properties of high chrome steel roller after laser surface melting

    Laser surface melting of high chrome steels was achieved by a 5 kW continuous wave CO2 laser. The microstructure of the laser surface-melted steels was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry, and the hardness profiles were determined by a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution was studied by electrochemical corrosion equipment. The large carbides of high chrome steels are completely dissolved and ultrafine dendrites of austenite with submicroscopic M23C6 carbides precipitation are formed in the melted zone. The austenite in the melted zone has a high tempering stability. The corrosion resistance of the laser surface-melted steels is significantly improved due to the dissolution of carbides and the increase of the alloying elements in the solid solution as well as the large amount of austenite.

  11. Penetration and dissolution of refractory of magnetite - chrome by fayalite slag

    Magnesium-chrome refractory have been used with success at high temperatures in different metallurgist processes, such as iron and steel, cement industry and non ferrous pyro metallurgist processes. In particular in the smelting, in the processes of reforming of raffinate of copper. Those materials have good characteristics in relation with the use and the requirements of heat shock resistance. However, they represent an important problem for the environment. The aim of this research was to investigate the interactions between the slag generated in the converter Peirce-Smith in copper and Magnesium-chrome refractory bricks. The infiltration events and chemical attacks in the refractory material caused by the slag formed during the copper conversion process have been studied by means of the development of the different laboratory tests at temperatures of until 1300 celsius degrade.

  12. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  13. Study of the weathering variables on chrome-tanned leather ageing

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Castell, Joan Carles; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    Since upholstery leather is considered a very high-tech product, a long service life is expected by the costumer. However, this type of leather can undergo extreme environmental conditions that may cause premature ageing. This work deals with the study of the effect of temperature, relative humidity, and UV radiation on leather ageing. Leathers with chrome tannage were exposed to weathering effects using a climatic chamber in order to identify the most important variables affecting this we...

  14. Quantitative chemical microdetermination of beryllium with chrome azurol by the ring-oven technique

    A method for determination of beryllium in minerals and rocks is described. Because of the toxicity of beryllium the method is designed for determination of 1-10 ng of Be. The sample is fused with sodium carbonate and sodium tetraborate. Interfering metals are masked with EDTA. Be is determined by the Weisz ring-oven method with Chrome Azurol. The relative error is 10%. (Author)

  15. Radiation-initiated graft polymerization of methyl acrylate onto chrome-tanned sheepskin

    Radiation grafting method was applied to obtain leather-polymer composite. Grafting of methyl acrylate onto chrome-tanned, bluestock sheepskin was investigated under the initiatory effect of 60Co radiation of 0.20 11.50 Mrad. The percent of grafting was determined and water adsorption and shrinkage temperature measurements were carried out. It was shown that 2-4 Mrad is convenient to produce leather-polymer composite. (author)

  16. A simple method for the use of gallocyanin-chrome alum as an electron strain.

    Sandritter, W; Riede, U; Kiefer, G

    1981-03-01

    A method has been elaborated for the demonstration of DNA in the electron microscope. The method uses glutaraldehyde fixed tissue pieces from which RNA has been removed by incubation with RNase. DNA is stained by gallocyanin-chrome alum in the tissue block. Embedding and cutting is done in the usual manner. The method is based on histochemical observations at the light microscope level which show sufficient specificity and a good stoichiometry of the staining reaction. PMID:6163861

  17. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Imer Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg. Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21 mg/kg (Hg; 0.01-0.16 mg/kg (Pb; nd - 0.002 (Cd, and 0.01-0.03 (Cr mg/kg wet weight. The results collected from this monitoring process revealed that these groups of cultivated fish species show low levels of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and chrome (Cr. This monitoring process is very important to safeguard the health of Tirana consumers.

  18. Ni–Mo–Co ternary alloy as a replacement for hard chrome

    Srivastava, Meenu, E-mail: meenu_srivas@yahoo.co.uk; Anandan, C.; Grips, V.K. William

    2013-11-15

    Hard chrome is the most extensively used electroplated coating in the aerospace and automotive industries due to its attractive properties such as high hardness and excellent wear resistance. However, due to the health risks associated with the use of hexavalent chromium baths during electroplating, there is a need to identify an alternative to this coating. In this study a nickel–molybdenum alloy with cobalt as the alloying element has been developed. The coating was characterized for its micro hardness, wear resistance, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The coating was also subjected to heat treatment at temperatures in the range of 200°–600 °C. It was observed that the micro hardness of Ni–Mo–Co (730 KHN) alloy coating under optimized conditions is apparently quiet similar to that of the most probable substitute Co–P (745 VHN) and hard chrome (800 VHN) coatings. The tribological properties like the wear rate and coefficient of friction of the 400 °C heat treated Ni–Mo–Co coating were noticed to be better compared to hard chrome coating. The electrochemical impedance and polarization studies showed that the corrosion resistance of heat treated Ni–Mo–Co alloy was better than as-deposited Ni–Mo–Co and Ni–Mo coating.

  19. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Tariq, Saadia R. [Department of Chemistry, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Shah, Munir H., E-mail: munir_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shaheen, Nazia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-09-30

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  20. High temperature brush seal tuft testing of metallic bristles versus chrome carbide

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1996-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration a direct measurement of load and friction is made. Accurate wear rate measurements are possible due to the known contact pressure. Previously reported baseline research using this facility showed good data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data. This paper extends and expands the database for candidate brush seal materials. A series of tuft tests were completed to evaluate the performance of five high temperature superalloy wires sliding against plasma sprayed nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. Wire materials were either nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys. Good corroboration of the tuft results with dynamic seal rig tests was observed; giving additional confidence in the tuft test as a screening and development tool.

  1. Ni–Mo–Co ternary alloy as a replacement for hard chrome

    Hard chrome is the most extensively used electroplated coating in the aerospace and automotive industries due to its attractive properties such as high hardness and excellent wear resistance. However, due to the health risks associated with the use of hexavalent chromium baths during electroplating, there is a need to identify an alternative to this coating. In this study a nickel–molybdenum alloy with cobalt as the alloying element has been developed. The coating was characterized for its micro hardness, wear resistance, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The coating was also subjected to heat treatment at temperatures in the range of 200°–600 °C. It was observed that the micro hardness of Ni–Mo–Co (730 KHN) alloy coating under optimized conditions is apparently quiet similar to that of the most probable substitute Co–P (745 VHN) and hard chrome (800 VHN) coatings. The tribological properties like the wear rate and coefficient of friction of the 400 °C heat treated Ni–Mo–Co coating were noticed to be better compared to hard chrome coating. The electrochemical impedance and polarization studies showed that the corrosion resistance of heat treated Ni–Mo–Co alloy was better than as-deposited Ni–Mo–Co and Ni–Mo coating.

  2. Comparative statistical analysis of chrome and vegetable tanning effluents and their effects on related soil

    Two tanning units of Pakistan, namely, Kasur and Mian Channun were investigated with respect to the tanning processes (chrome and vegetable, respectively) and the effects of the tanning agents on the quality of soil in vicinity of tanneries were evaluated. The effluent and soil samples from 16 tanneries each of Kasur and Mian Channun were collected. The levels of selected metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer under optimum analytical conditions. The data thus obtained were subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Most of the metals exhibited considerably higher concentrations in the effluents and soils of Kasur compared with those of Mian Channun. It was observed that the soil of Kasur was highly contaminated by Na, K, Ca and Mg emanating from various processes of leather manufacture. Furthermore, the levels of Cr were also present at much enhanced levels than its background concentration due to the adoption of chrome tanning. The levels of Cr determined in soil samples collected from the vicinity of Mian Channun tanneries were almost comparable to the background levels. The soil of this city was found to have contaminated only by the metals originating from pre-tanning processes. The apportionment of selected metals in the effluent and soil samples was determined by a multivariate cluster analysis, which revealed significant differences in chrome and vegetable tanning processes.

  3. Vitrification of high chrome oxide nuclear waste in iron phosphate glasses

    A simulated high level waste (HLW) containing 4 mass% chrome oxide, whose overall composition is representative of the high chrome oxide wastes at Hanford WA USA, was easily vitrified in a phosphate glass at temperatures ranging from 1150 deg. C, for waste loadings of 55 mass%, to 1250 deg. C for waste loadings of 75 mass%. Even at these high waste loadings, these wasteforms had an excellent chemical durability. The best chemical durability was achieved when the O/(Si + P) atomic ratio was between 3.5 and 3.8. These wasteforms were also resistant to crystallization although trace amounts of crystalline Cr2O3 were present in wasteforms containing more than 70 mass% HLW. It is concluded that up to 45 mass% of the total HLW at Hanford, especially that containing as high as 4.5 mass% chrome oxide, could be directly vitrified into an iron phosphate glass, that meets all of the current chemical durability requirements by simply adding 25-35 mass% P2O5 to the waste and melting the mixture at 1150-1250 deg. C for a few (<6) hours

  4. Wastage characteristics of high-chrome steels under sodium-water reaction

    For the development of a once-through unit type steam generator for an FBR, materials having a high mechanical strength at elevated temperatures and resistivity against stress corrosion cracking are needed for its heat transfer tubes. Although high-chrome steels meet these requirements, their durability under sodium-water reaction was not clear. The present experimental study was conducted to clarify this. The experiment simulated the micro-leak and the small leak events under the accidental conditions. In the micro-leak experiment, a test section with an artificial hole was installed under sodium, and steam was ejected from the hole. A self-wastage rate was determined from the time required to leak hole enlargement. In the small leak experiment, steam was ejected from a hole of one tube toward a target tube. A wastage rate was determined from the time required to the penetration of the target tube. The results reveal that the high-chrome steels have durability equivalent to or better than that of the steels currently being adopted for the heat transfer tubes of the steam generators. No appreciable difference was found among three high-chrome steels studied. (author)

  5. Treatment of Direct Blending Dye Wastewater and Recycling of Dye Sludge

    Ming-Li Li; Xin-Hui Xu; Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD), was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV) and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto th...

  6. Removal of dyes from textile wastewater by chemical coagulation

    Janezcko, Marta; GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan

    2006-01-01

    Dye removal mechanisms from textile effluents has been studied by means of surface charge measurempents and image analysis of floc sludge (size, shape, sedimentation properties). Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 1 commercial dyes have been tested as simulated effluent water solutions treated with synthetic primary coagulants.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of textile azo dyes derivatives of methoxyphenols

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.

    1999-01-01

    Azo dyes are used extensively in the textile and dyestuff industries and effluents from these industrial processes are usually resistant to biological treatment. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups such as guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and 2,6--dimethoxyphenol, for lignin-degrading fungus were synthesized using aminobenzoic and aminosulfonic acids as diazocomponents.

  8. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-01

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η = 4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm2, an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm2) compared to diphenylamine based device.

  9. Bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)₂ comprising thiophene-2-acetonitrile as π-spacer and malonic acid as electron acceptor for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

    Reddy, Gachumale Saritha; Ramkumar, Sekar; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2015-06-15

    Two new bi-anchoring organic sensitizers of type D-(π-A)2 comprising the identical π-spacer (thiophene-2-acetonitrile) and electron acceptor (malonic acid) but different aryl amine as electron donors (diphenylamine and carbazole) were synthesized, characterized and fabricated metal free dye-sensitized solar cell devices. The intra molecular charge transfer property and electrochemical property of these dyes were investigated by molecular absorption, emission, cyclic voltammetric experiments and in addition, quantum chemical calculation studies were performed to provide sufficient driving force for the electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 which leads to efficient charge collection. Among the fabricated devices, carbazole based device exhibits high current conversion efficiency (η=4.7%) with a short circuit current density (JSC) 15.3 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photo voltage (VOC) of 0.59 V and a fill factor of 0.44 under AM 1.5 illumination (85 mW/cm(2)) compared to diphenylamine based device. PMID:25801442

  10. Investigation of Changes in the Microscopic Structure of Anionic Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylic acid) Microgels in the Presence of Cationic Organic Dyes toward Precisely Controlled Uptake/Release of Low-Molecular-Weight Chemical Compound.

    Kureha, Takuma; Shibamoto, Takahisa; Matsui, Shusuke; Sato, Takaaki; Suzuki, Daisuke

    2016-05-10

    Changes in a microscopic structure of an anionic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgel were investigated using small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). The scattering profiles of the microgels were analyzed in a wide scattering vector (q) range of 0.07 ≤ q/nm(-1) ≤ 20. In particular, the microscopic structure of the microgel in the presence of a cationic dye rhodamine 6G (R6G) was characterized in terms of its correlation length (ξ), which represents the length scale of the spatial correlation of the network density fluctuations, and characteristic distance (d*), which originated from the local packing of isopropyl groups of two neighboring chains. In the presence of cationic R6G, ξ exhibited a divergent-like behavior, which was not seen in the absence of R6G, and d* was decreased with decreasing the volume of the microgel upon increasing temperature. At the same time, the amount of R6G adsorbed per unit mass of the microgel increased upon heating. These results suggested that a coil-to-globule transition of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) chains in the present anionic microgel occurred because of efficiently screened, thus, short ranged electrostatic repulsion between the charged groups, and hydrophobic interaction between the isopropyl groups in the presence of cationic R6G. The combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction between the cationic dye and the microgel affected the separation and volume transition behavior of the microgel. PMID:27101468

  11. Efeitos de agentes oxidantes e oxigênio dissolvido na descoloração do azo corante acid orange 7 por fotólise e fotocatálise Effects of oxidant agents and dissolved oxygen on the decolorization of acid orange 7 azo dye by photolysis and photocatalysis

    Adriana Campano Lucilha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The decolorization of acid orange 7 azo dye by photolysis and photocatalysis by ZnO was investigated in the presence of oxidants such as NaClO3, NaBrO3, NaIO4, and K2S2O8 in an open reactor at 30 ºC. The decolorization was relatively fast at lower oxidants concentrations and slow rate at larger concentrations, except for persulfate in the photocatalysis. Concerning photolysis the rate constant enhanced gradually, except for chlorate, outreaching the obtained values by photocatalysis, at higher concentrations. The air saturation decreased the rate constant in both processes and indicated that the azo dye can be decolorized without dissolved oxygen in persulfate medium.

  12. Applications of lac dye using different mordants on leather

    Lac dye aleuritic acid extracted from seed lac. when applied onto leather, using post-mordanting process showed good results. Among acetic acid, formic acid and alum, acetic acid at 0.1 M concentration proved to be the best mordant and gave excellent colour fastness to washing, light and rubbing and good tensile strength. (author)

  13. Electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Rathi, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Novel porphyrin and triphenylamine based organic dyes with different electron-donating moieties, ??-bridging units and cyanoacetic acid as an acceptor (D-??-A) were characterised for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. The electrochemical and spectroscopic properties of the dyes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Raman, ATR-FTIR, UV-Vis, fluorescence and XPS. The UV-Vis spectra of all the dyes displayed maximum absorbances in the range 400-500 nm. ATR-FTIR and Raman spe...

  14. Dyes Waste Treatments

    Siew-Teng Ong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyes waste represent one of the problematic groups of pollutants because their presence can be easily identified by the human eye and they are not easily biodegradable. This literature review paper highlights and provides an overview of dyes waste treatments for 3 years period, from 2008–2010. The noteworthy treatment processes for dyes waste include biological treatment, catalytic oxidation, filtration, sorption process and combination treatments.

  15. WATERLESS DYEING [REVIEW

    DEVRENT Nalan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry is believed to be one of the biggest consumers of water. Water consumption and exhaustion in dyeing textile materials in conventional methods is an important environmental problem. The cost of waste water treatment will cause a prominent problem in the future as it does today. Increasing consideration of ecologic consequences of industrial processes as well as legislation enforcing the avoidance of environmental problems have caused a reorientation of thinking and promoted projects for replacement of conventional technologies. One of these new technologies is dyeing in supercritical fluids. Dyeing with supercritical carbon dioxide is a favourable concept considering the value of water as a natural resource and the cost of waste water treatment. This dyeing method offers many advantages over conventional aqueous dyeing: During this dyeing process no water is used, therefore there is no waste water problem, no other chemicals are required; the carbon dioxide can be recycled; the dystuff which is not adsorbed on the substrate can be collected and reused; The necessary energy consumption in this process is relatively lower than is needed to heat water in conventional methods of dyeing. Due to unnecessary of drying process, it helps to save both energy and time; and dyeing cycle is shorter compared with traditional methods. In addition carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-flammable. Supercritical fluid, supercritical dyeing, disperse dyestuffs, solid-fluid equilibrium

  16. Natural Dye Extracted from Vitex negundo as a Potential Alternative to Synthetic Dyes for Dyeing of Silk

    Narayana Swamy, Venkataramanappa; Gowda, Kurikempanadoddi Ninge; Sudhakar, Rajagopal

    2016-04-01

    Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile material has been gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of the increasing awareness of issues concerning the environment, ecology and pollution control. The present paper investigates extraction of natural dye from leaves of the plant Vitex negundo, which is an abundant, cheap, and readily available agricultural by-product. Water extracts from V. negundo was used to dye silk fabrics. Optimum extraction conditions included pH 9, duration 120 min, and temperature 90 °C. Optimum dyeing conditions included dyeing pH 5 and duration of 60 min. Potash alum, tannic and tartaric acid were used as mordants, all of which are benign to human health and the environment. Color strength and color coordinates in terms of L*, a*, b*, C, and h were examined. A range of shades were obtained when fabrics were dyed with different mordants and mordanting techniques. The extracted dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were found to be lower than the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed silk fabrics showed acceptable fastness properties and were also found to possess antibacterial activity. It can be concluded that the abundantly available agricultural by-product V. negundo has great potential to be effectively utilized as a natural dye for silk.

  17. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  18. Experimental study on acid dye wastewater treatment by electrochemical oxidation%电化学氧化法处理酸性染料废水的试验研究

    周剑; 丁燕燕

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation process was used to treat acid dye wastewater, the influences of reaction time, current density, pH value, space between electrode plates and some other factors on pollutants removal were investigated. The results showed that, with IrO2-SnO2-TiO2/Ti electrode plate as anode, titanium mesh as cathode, the removal rates of CODo and ammonia nitrogen reached 71.88% and 100% respectively after 120 min of reaction under the condition that the current density was 8.0 A/dm2, the pH value was 6.0 and the space between electrode plates was 30 mm. Therefore, electrochemical oxidation is an effective and stable process for acid dye wastewater treatment.%采用电化学氧化法处理酸性染料废水,考察了反应时间、电流密度、反应pH值、极板间距等因素对染料废水中污染物的去除效能的影响.结果表明,以IrO2-SnO2-TiO2/Ti极板为阳极,以钛网极板为阴极,在电流密度为8.0 A/dm2,pH值为6.0,极板间距为30 mm的条件下,反应120 min后CODCr和氨氮的去除率分别为71.88%、100%.电化学氧化法是处理酸性染料废水的一种高效稳定的方法.

  19. Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activity and spectrophotometric and dyeing properties of some novel azo disperse dyes based on naphthalimides.

    Shaki, Hanieh; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel disperse dyes containing azo group were synthesized through a diazotization and coupling process. The 4-amino-N-2-aminomethylpyridine-1,8-naphthalimide was diazotized by nitrosylsulphuric acid and coupled with various aromatic amines such as N,N-diethylaniline, N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-methylindole. Chemical structures of the synthesized dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), elemental analysis, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric data of all dyes were evaluated in various solvents with different polarity. Eventually, the dyes were applied on polyamide fabrics in order to investigate their dyeing properties. The fastness properties of the dyed fabrics such as wash, light, and rubbing fastness degrees were measured by standard methods. Moreover, the color gamut of the synthesized dyes was measured on polyamide fabrics. Results indicated that some of the synthesized dyes were able to dye polyamide fabrics with deep shades. They had very good wash and rubbing fastness degrees and moderate-to-good light fastness on polyamide fabrics. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized dyes were evaluated in soluble state and on the dyed fabrics. The results indicated that dye 2 containing N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline as coupler had the highest activity against all the bacteria and fungi used. PMID:25967675

  20. Enhanced Aqueous Solubility of Long Wavelength Voltage-Sensitive Dyes by Covalent Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol

    Patrick, Michael J.; Ernst, Lauren A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Thai, Dung; Salama, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Long wavelength voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) called Pittsburgh (PGH) dyes were recently synthesized by coupling various heterocyclic groups to a styryl-thiophene intermediate forming extended, partially rigidized chromophores. Unlike most styryl VSDs, dyes with a sulfonic acid anchor directly attached to the chromophore showed no solvatochromic absorption shifts. The limited water solubility of many long wavelength VSDs requires the use of surfactants to transport the dye through aqueous med...

  1. Rapid dye adsorption via surface modification of TiO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Kim, Boeun; Park, Se Woong; Kim, Jae-Yup; Yoo, Kicheon; Lee, Jin Ah; Lee, Min-Woo; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, BongSoo; Kim, Honggon; Han, Sunghwan; Son, Hae Jung; Ko, Min Jae

    2013-06-12

    A facile method for increasing the reaction rate of dye adsorption, which is the most time-consuming step in the production of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), was developed. Treatment of a TiO2 photoanode with aqueous nitric acid solution (pH 1) remarkably reduced the reaction time required to anchor a carboxylate anion of the dye onto the TiO2 nanoparticle surface. After optimization of the reaction conditions, the dye adsorption process became 18 times faster than that of the conventional adsorption method. We studied the influence of the nitric acid treatment on the properties of TiO2 nanostructures, binding modes of the dye, and adsorption kinetics, and found that the reaction rate improved via the synergistic effects of the following: (1) electrostatic attraction between the positively charged TiO2 surface and ruthenium anion increases the collision frequency between the adsorbent and the anchoring group of the dye; (2) the weak anchoring affinity of NO3(-) in nitric acid with metal oxides enables the rapid coordination of an anionic dye with the metal oxide; and (3) sufficient acidity of the nitric acid solution effectively increases the positive charge density on the TiO2 surface without degrading or transforming the TiO2 nanostructure. These results demonstrate the developed method is effective for reducing the overall fabrication time without sacrificing the performance and long-term stability of DSSCs. PMID:23679678

  2. Gamma irradiation of natural dyes

    Dyes play an important role in textile industry. Synthetic dyes of various classes are normally used for dyeing fabrics. Recently, considerable attention is focussed on the use of natural dyes all over the world in the context of German ban on some of synthetic azo dye due to their allergenic or carcinogenic potential. However natural dyes and their solution in aqueous medium show microbial contamination on storage. The present study deals with effect of gamma radiation on the microbial load, tinctorial value and dye uptake of natural dyes. (author)

  3. Aqueous Processes for Dyeing Generic, Unmodified Polypropylene Fiber

    Murari L. Gupta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid leuco vat dyeings of polypropylene (PP fabrics in combinations of a trichromatic series of colorants (red, yellow and blue plus an orange were performed in order to determine the compatibility of the component colorants in the developed single stage, batch exhaust dyeing process reported earlier. Cross-section micrographs of dyed fibers revealed the absence of "ring-dyeing". Tensile tests and X-ray crystallinity results confirmed that the developed dyeing process did not significantly alter the tensile strength and modulus of the dyed PP textiles. PP fabrics dyed with simulated, continuous acid vat dyeing processes (pad-steam and pad-dry heat demonstrated good color yields and levelness with adequate fastness to crocking, washing and dry cleaning.

  4. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  5. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    Zee, van der F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo

  6. Oxazine laser dyes

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  7. Methyl green-pyronin Y staining of nucleic acids: studies on the effects of staining time, dye composition and diffusion rates

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H O

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of the methyl green-pyronin Y procedure as a differential histological stain more than 100 years ago, the method has become a histochemical procedure for differential demonstration of DNA and RNA. Numerous variants of the procedure have been suggested, and a number of...... hypotheses have been put forward concerning kinetics and binding mechanisms. Using both filter paper models containing DNA, RNA or heparin and histological sections, we have attempted to evaluate the kinetics of staining and the role of staining time for methyl green and pyronin Y by applying the dyes...... individually, simultaneously and sequentially. The results are presented as color charts approximating the observed staining patterns using a computerized palette. Our results indicate unequivocally that the differential staining is not time-dependent, but that it is dictated by the relative concentrations of...

  8. Graft polymerization using radiation-induced peroxides and application to textile dyeing

    To improve the dyeing affinity of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber, surface treatment by radiation-induced graft polymerization was performed. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylic acid (AA) and styrene (St) were used as the monomers. The grafting yields as a function of storage time after irradiation were examined. Although the grafting yield of St after the sulfonation processing was quite low compared with those of MMA and AA, it was successfully dyed to a dark color with a cationic dye. Some acid dyes can dye the grafted fiber with AA. The acid dye is distributed to the amorphous domains of the AA grafted fiber. The dyeing concentration depended on the grafting yield, and the higher the grafting yield the darker the dye color.

  9. Graft polymerization using radiation-induced peroxides and application to textile dyeing

    Enomoto, Ichiro, E-mail: enomoto.ichiro@iri-tokyo.j [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC Bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan); School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kudo, Hisaaki [School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Soeda, Shin [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC Bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To improve the dyeing affinity of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber, surface treatment by radiation-induced graft polymerization was performed. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylic acid (AA) and styrene (St) were used as the monomers. The grafting yields as a function of storage time after irradiation were examined. Although the grafting yield of St after the sulfonation processing was quite low compared with those of MMA and AA, it was successfully dyed to a dark color with a cationic dye. Some acid dyes can dye the grafted fiber with AA. The acid dye is distributed to the amorphous domains of the AA grafted fiber. The dyeing concentration depended on the grafting yield, and the higher the grafting yield the darker the dye color.

  10. Characterization and performance of carbonaceous materials obtained from exhausted sludges for the anaerobic biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange II

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbonaceous materials were prepared from exhausted sludge materials. • High surface area and good physicochemical properties were achieved. • Utilization of waste sludge materials and mixed anaerobic cultures were used in a continuous anaerobic UPBR system (upflow packed bed biological reactor). • Effective treatment of dye contaminated wastewater in a cheapest and environmental friendly method was demonstrated. - Abstract: This work presents the preliminary study of new carbonaceous materials (CMs) obtained from exhausted sludge, their use in the heterogeneous anaerobic process of biodecolorization of azo dyes and the comparison of their performance with one commercial active carbon. The preparation of carbonaceous materials was conducted through chemical activation and carbonization. Chemical activation was carried out through impregnation of sludge-exhausted materials with ZnCl2 and the activation by means of carbonization at different temperatures (400, 600 and 800 °C). Their physicochemical and surface characteristics were also investigated. Sludge based carbonaceous (SBC) materials SBC400, SBC600 and SBC800 present values of 13.0, 111.3 and 202.0 m2/g of surface area. Biodecolorization levels of 76% were achieved for SBC600 and 86% for SBC800 at space time (τ) of 1.0 min, similar to that obtained with commercial activated carbons in the continuous anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor (UPBR). The experimental data fit well to the first order kinetic model and equilibrium data are well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. Carbonaceous materials show high level of biodecolorization even at very short space times. Results indicate that carbonaceous materials prepared from sludge-exhausted materials have outstanding textural properties and significant degradation capacity for treating textile effluents

  11. Degradação de corantes ácidos por processos oxidativos avançados usando um reator com disco rotatório de baixa velocidade Acid dyes degradation by advanced oxidation processes using a low-speed rotating disk reactor

    Vilson Bedim Vianna; Alexandre Rodrigues Tôrres; Eduardo Bessa Azevedo

    2008-01-01

    Three technologies were tested (TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, and TiO2/H2O2/UV) for the degradation and color removal of a 25 mg L-1 mixture of three acid dyes: Blue 9, Red 18, and Yellow 23. A low speed rotating disc reactor (20 rpm) and a H2O2 concentration of 2.5 mmol L-1 were used. The dyes did not significantly undergo photolysis, although they were all degraded by the studied advanced oxidation processes. With the TiO2/H2O2/UV process, a strong synergism was observed (color removal reached 100%). P...

  12. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 thin films for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    An amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG), consisting of a PEAA backbone and PEG side chains was synthesized via an esterification reaction. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transformed infrared analysis demonstrated esterification between carboxylic acid of PEAA and hydroxyl group of PEG. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA increased from 11.3 to 12.8 nm upon using a more polar solvent with a higher affinity for poly(acrylic acid), while the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA disappeared with PEG grafting, indicating structural change to an amorphous state. Mesoporous TiO2 thin films were synthesized via a sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG graft copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The hydrophilically-preformed TiO2 nanoparticles were selectively confined in the hydrophilic PEG domains of the graft copolymer, and mesoporous TiO2 thin films were formed, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of TiO2 films was tunable by varying the concentrations of polymer solutions and the amount of preformed TiO2. A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with PEAA-g-PEG templated TiO2 film exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 3.8% at 100 mW/cm2, which was greater than that of commercially-available paste (2.6%) at a similar film thickness (3 μm). The improved performance was due to the larger surface area for high dye loading and organized structure with good interconnectivity. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG) graft copolymer is synthesized. • Amphiphilic PEAA-g-PEG acts as a structure directing agent. • Mesoporous TiO2 thin films are prepared by sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG template. • Efficiency of DSSC with templated TiO2 is greater than with commercial TiO2 paste

  13. Degradation of the azo dye Acid Red 1 by anodic oxidation and indirect electrochemical processes based on Fenton's reaction chemistry. Relationship between decolorization, mineralization and products

    Highlights: • Degradation of Acid Red 1 by anodic oxidation, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton • Quicker and similar decolorization by electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton due to oxidation with ●OH in the bulk • Almost total mineralization by photoelectro-Fenton with Pt or BDD due to fast photolysis of products by UVA light • Detection of 11 aromatic products, 15 hydroxylated compounds, 13 desulfonated derivatives and 7 carboxylic acids • Release of NH4+, NO3− and SO42− ions, and generation of persistent N-products of low molecular mass - Abstract: Solutions of 236 mg dm−3 Acid Red 1 (AR1), an azo dye widely used in textile dying industries, at pH 3.0 have been comparatively treated by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) at constant current density (j). Assays were performed with a stirred tank reactor equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation from O2 reduction. The main oxidizing agents were hydroxyl radicals produced at the anode from water oxidation in all methods and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between generated H2O2 and 0.5 mmol dm−3 Fe2+ in EF and PEF. For each anode, higher oxidation power was found in the sequence AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF. The oxidation ability of the BDD anode was always superior to that of Pt. Faster and similar decolorization efficiency was achieved in EF and PEF owing to the quicker destruction of aromatics with hydroxyl radicals produced in the bulk. The PEF process with BDD was the most potent method yielding almost total mineralization due to the additional rapid photolysis of recalcitrant intermediates like Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes under UVA irradiation. The increase in j always enhanced the decolorization and mineralization processes because of the greater production of hydroxyl radicals, but decreases the mineralization current efficiency. A total of 11 aromatic

  14. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer. PMID:26498969

  15. Effect of chrome plating on coupling losses in a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor

    Time constant of decay of coupling current was measured on cable-in-conduit conductors which consist of twelve Nb3Sn strands with chrome plating. The time constant measurement was performed by observing exponential decrease of induced coupling current in conductors. The measured time constant of conductor composed of bare strands was 4.5 times larger than that of the single strand, in case that a void fraction of conductor was 30%. However, the time constant of conductor composed of strands with chrome plating of more than 2 μm thickness was equal to that of the single strand. These results show that chrome plating on strands is effective for decrease of coupling losses in Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

  16. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. PMID:26894843

  17. CHROME MINING COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS OF TURKEY IN TERMS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: SECTORAL STRENGTHS, PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Ali Rıza İNCE; Yücel EROL

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Chrome mining which has an important place in the Turkish mining industry, analyzed and determined features that can provide a competitive advantage, and also aimed to identifing the existing problems.İn this study qualititive study has done.İn this context, literatüre review was done and descriptive method is used.The first section reviews recent discussions about strategic management approach and its features. The second section includes competetion and competitiveness.İn the...

  18. Interstitial pneumonia caused by inhalation of fumes of nickel and chrome.

    Hisatomi, Keiko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Seki, Masafumi; Ide, Mioko; Sugiyama, Kanako; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Seiko; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2006-11-01

    Two male industrial painters were admitted to hospital with dry cough and dyspnoea on exertion following a tank coating operation using a high-temperature spray paint consisting of a nickel-chromium alloy. Both patients showed hypoxaemia, peripheral leukocytosis, high levels of serum cytokines and bilateral ground-glass opacities on a chest CT scan. They were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia caused by inhalation of nickel and chrome fumes and successfully treated with corticosteroid. These are rare cases of interstitial pneumonia associated with nickel/chromium inhalation. PMID:17052314

  19. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  20. Selection and application of C18200 chrome copper for the OHTE confinement test helical coil

    The selection and qualification of copper for the OHTE confinement test helical coil (H-coil) was a crucial step in the success of this new experiment. Previous problems encountered at General Atomic Company with close tolerance machined parts made from high strength copper were identified. The design criteria included selecting a material with minimal warpage during machining, an electrical conductivity >80% IACS, and a yield strength of at least 241 Mpa (35 ksi). The investigation of candidate materials and testing samples led to selection of a material that fully met all requirements. The C18200 chrome copper forged plates were supplied by the Ampco Metal Division of Ampco-Pittsburgh Corporation

  1. Preliminary Results on the Use of Leather Chrome Shavings for Air Passive Sampling

    D. Sanjuán-Herráez; L. Chabaane; Tahiri, S.; A. Pastor; de la Guardia, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new passive sampler based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) layflat tube filled with chrome shavings from tannery waste residues was evaluated to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor and outdoor areas. VOCs were directly determined by head space-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) without any pretreatment of the sampler and avoiding the use of solvents. Limit of detection values ranging from 20 to 75 ng sampler−1 and good repeatability values were obtained for ...

  2. Phase stability of chrome-carbide Ni--Cr coatings in low-oxygen environments

    The thermal stability of the phases in chrome-carbide-based, wear-resistant coatings, applied by plasma and detonation gun (D-gun) devices, was investigated for applications in low-oxygen environments. It was found that current coatings using the Cr3C2 carbide in a Ni--Cr binder decomposed to lower carbides, and consumed Cr from the binder upon long-term exposure at elevated temperature. Two new coatings based on the Cr23C6 carbide were found to have excellent thermal stability, as well as excellent wear properties

  3. Four Station Knee Simulator Wear Testing Comparing Titanium Niobium Nitride with Cobalt Chrome

    Blunn GW, M. R. M.

    2013-01-01

    A new non-destructive method was applied in order to assess bone integrity. The method is based on measurement of bHypersensitivity to an orthopaedic implant was first published in 1966 and since then, in sensitive patients, is known to cause serious problems in joint replacement surgery. Titanium niobium nitride (TiNbN) can act as a surface coat for knee arthroplasty to “hide” the cobalt chrome (CoCr) femoral component beneath, therefore affording an immunoprivileged state. The aim of this s...

  4. RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF AN ALLOYING OF THE FUSED COATINGS RECEIVED FROM THE SUPERFICIAL ALLOYED WIRE BY BORON WITH IN ADDITIONALLY APPLIED ELECTROPLATED COATING OF CHROME AND COPPER

    V. A. Stefanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Researches on distribution of chrome and copper in the fused coating received from the superficial alloyed wire by boron with in additionally applied electroplated coating of chrome and copper were executed. The structure of the fused coating consists of dendrites on which borders the boride eutectic is located. It is established that the content of chrome in dendrites is 1,5– 1,6 times less than in the borid; distribution of copper on structure is uniformed. Coefficients of digestion of chrome and copper at an argon-arc welding from a wire electrode with electroplated coating are established. The assimilation coefficient for chrome is equal to 0,9–1,0; for copper – 0,6–0,75.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation for creep damage of high-chrome steels by using a magnetic sensor

    This paper presents a non-destructive evaluation of creep damage for high-chrome steels by using a magnetic sensor. The developed magnetic sensor, which can measure the magnetic flux density, B, and the magnetic field strength, H, by B-coil and H-coil, is applied to make clear magnetic properties related to material changes with creep damage. The measured magnetic properties show the material changes of creep damages, and these results are discussed for the capability of a non-destructive evaluation for high-chrome steels. (author)

  6. Fong's: Saving Water in Dyeing

    2009-01-01

    @@ In an effort to save the precious water resource and reduce the environmental impact, Fong's Industries Group along with its member companies, namely "Fong's National", "THEN", "Goller" and "Fong's Water Technology" provide an ecological dyeing solution to reduce the water consumption drastically through their innovative technologies covering the processes from yarn dyeing to piece dyeing and recycling of discharge after dyeing and finishing.

  7. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  8. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics.

    Al-Etaibi, Alya M; Alnassar, Huda S; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated. PMID:27367659

  9. Synthesis, Structural Evaluation and Applications of Vinylsulfone Based Azo Reactive Dyes

    In this work, three novel vinylsulfone based azo reactive dyes were successfully synthesized by successive condensations, diazotization and coupling reaction steps using reactive acids i.e. H-acid, J-acid and gamma-acid respectively. Synthesized dyes were applied with 3% dye (stock) solutions on the mill scoured; bleached and desized cotton fabric by exhaust method of dyeing. UV- visible absorption spectroscopic properties of the azo dyes were recorded among wavelength range (400-800 nm), prepared in double distilled water as lambda/sub max/. The prepared dyes were purified with physico- chemical method and characterized by means of different analytical techniques i.e. FT-IR and ESI-MS-MS to evaluate their chemical structures and molecular mass. (author)

  10. Practice research on acid dye printing of flocked nylon%锦纶植绒布的酸性染料印花实践研究

    彭志忠

    2015-01-01

    针对锦纶绒毛植绒布存在的印制效果、色泽均匀性及色牢度不理想等问题,对锦纶植绒布印花前进行预处理,结合印花染料的选择、色浆的配制及工艺条件的优化,确定了印花生产工艺。生产实践表明,印花后的锦纶绒毛植绒布具有清晰的印花图案和较高的色牢度,减少了印花图案的疵点,提高了印花制品的质量。%Flocked nylon has been pretreated before printing for such problems of flocked nylon as unsatisfactory printing effect, color uniformity and fastness. The printing process was determined by combinations of selecting printing dyes, preparing pastes and optimizing the process conditions. Production practice showed that flocked nylon after printing exhibited distinct printed patterns and high color fastness, which reduced the defects of printed patterns and improved the quality of printing products.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of Sc in eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) - phosphatidyl choline system

    Eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) is used as a color reagent to determine Sc in the presence of phosphatidyl choline, eta = 3.7 * 104 (4.5 * 104). This method has been connected to extraction separation to determine Sc in the presence of rare earth elements, and good results have been obtained. Phosphatidyl choline(PC) is a biochemical reagent, which can be used as a surfactant. It has been reported that chrome azurol S(CAS) can be used to determine Be in the presence of PC but it has not been reported that eriochrome cyanine R(ECR) and CAS can been used to determine Sc in the presence of PC. This paper has put forward a method by which Sc can be determined. ECR (CAS) has been used as a color reagent and PC as a surfactant. Conditional experiments have been made and this method has been connected to extraction separation. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) extracts Sc from rare earth elements to make a determination and good results have been obtained

  12. Waste Treatment of Chrome Residue of Chromium Recovery Process Using Calcium Carbonate

    The aim of the research was to apply the precipitation technology for the treatment of aqueous wastes of leather tanning industries. The chrome liquid wastes taken was the effluent from the residue of the chromium recovery process using magnesium oxide. The precipitant used was calcium carbonate. The experiments was performed by adjusting the concentration of calcium carbonate from 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm, 250 ppm, 300 ppm, 350 ppm to 400 ppm. The stirring speed was varied from 50 rpm, 75 rpm, 100 rpm, 125 rpm, 150 rpm, 175 rpm to 200 rpm. The time of mixing was varied from 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, 120 minutes, 150 minutes, 175 minutes and 200 minutes. The result from the experiments lead to the best condition obtained were the concentration of precipitant was 300 ppm, flow rates of mixing was 125 rpm and time of mixing was 60 minutes. At this condition the separations efficiency of chrome obtained was 99.985%. (author)

  13. "Dye Removal from Effluents of Textile Industries by ISO9888 Method and Membrane Technology"

    M Gholami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Dye removal from effluents of textile industries of Iran was investigated through biodegradabilitymethod and membrane technology . Basic, reactive,disperse and acidic dyes were selected, based onusage rate in Iran. The Zahen - Welenze method (ISO 9888 was applied to study the biodegradabilityof dyes. Results showed the final COD and dye removal (%R as (%61,% 57, (%73, %76, (%25, %14,and (%32, %8 for acidic, basic, reactive and disperse dyes, respectively. Also, the ADMI value ininfluent and effluent wastewater were (4063, 1768, (271, 111, (2359, 2211 and (2073, 966, respectivelyfor 4 types of dyes. Four types of selected membranes were: (PPT NF (MWCO= 300Da, (PWB NF(MWCO= 600Da, (TFC RO (MWCO=50Da and UF (MWCO= 20KDa. Results with membranesfor maximum %R were %93, %76 and > %95, with NF300, NF600 and RO (for all types of dyes, respectively, demonstrating the high removal potential of reverse osmosis membrane.

  14. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions

    Thabo Peme; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Indra Bahadur; Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Mwadham M. Kabanda; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase...

  15. Studies of effect of heterocyclic dyes in photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: NaLS-ascorbic acid system

    K R Genwa; Anju Chouhan

    2004-11-01

    The photogalvanic effect has been studied in three systems using photogalvanic cells and NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur A, NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur B, NaLS-ascorbic acid-azur C systems. The photopotential and photocurrent generated by these systems are 770.0, 971.0, 623.0 mV and 160.0, 185.0, 145.0 A respectively. The effects of different parameters on the electrical outputs of the cell have been observed and current-voltage characteristics of the cell studied, and a mechanism has been proposed for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cells. The conversion efficiencies for azur A, azur B and azur C are 0.5461, 0.9646 and 0.4567% and storage capacity 110, 135 and 95 min respectively.

  16. [Natural dyes and dyeing from the XVIIth century to the birth of synthetic dyes].

    Viel, Claude

    2005-01-01

    After historical considerations on the state and evolution of French dyeing industry in the end of the XVIIth century to the beginning of XIXth, we find this presentation a résumé of the different states of tissues dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing were very brought forward the end of the XVIIIth century before that synthetic dyes appeared in the second half of the XIXth century. PMID:16358458

  17. Effect of current imbalance on stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor consisting of chrome-plated strands

    The effect of an unbalanced current distribution in a conductor consisting of chrome plated strands on stability was investigated using a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) consisting of 27 NbTi chrome-plated strands. In addition, the quench behavior when a non-uniform current distribution was produced in the conductor was studied from the experimental results. Moreover, impedance of the chrome-plated strands was measured using the sample conductor. The results show that the stability is determined by the largest strand current when it is sufficiently large otherwise by the transport current when it is not high enough. It was found that it took a long time to make the conductor quench from the onset of the normal transition of the strand carrying the large current. This is explained by the good diffusivity of the coolant temperature in the conductor's cross section. Since the ramp-rate limitation cannot probably take place if the coolant temperature is diffused well in the conductor's cross section, it is expected the ramp-rate limitation can be prevented using this effect. It is also shown that the chrome-plated strands come into contact with one another with uniform transverse conductance on the order of 103 S/m. (author)

  18. 麦草碱木质素三甲基季铵盐对酸性染料溶液的絮凝性能影响%Flocculability of Trimethy Quaternary Ammonium Salt of Wheat-alkali-lignin for Acid Dye Solution

    姜贵全; 任世学; 丁志刚

    2012-01-01

    The trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt of wheat-alkali-lignin was synthesized in the Mannich reaction using wheat straw alkali lignin as raw material which is extracted from black liquo of paper and pulp industry. The decolorization rate of the trimethy quaternary ammonium salt of wheat-alkali-lignin was detected by Acid Black ATr dye, Acid red B, and Orange G in aqueous solu- tion to evaluate flocculation function. The results showed that decolorization rate of 0. 15g/L Acid Black ATY dye with pH values of 2 in aqueous solution increased with increasing concentration of the trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt of wheat-alkali-lignin between 0 -3500 mg/L; the decolorization rate of 0. 15g/L Acid Black ATr dye increased with decreasing pH value between 1 -4 when the concentration is 2884 mg/L. There were similar results for Orange GG and Acid Red B dye. According to the above conclusions and the structure of the trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt of wheat-alkali-lignin and the acid dye, the flocculation mechanism was that there was hydrogen bonds to attract the ammonium ion from the trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt of wheat-alkali-lignin and sulfonate from the acid dye, and acid dye particles played a "bridging" role, then acid dye was netted and swept by alkali lignin with the three- dimensional network structure.%以从造纸黑液中提取的麦草碱木质素为原料,通过曼尼希反应合成麦草碱木质素三甲基季铵盐,以脱色率为指标检测其对酸性黑ATT、酸性橙GG和酸性红B的絮凝性能。实验结果表明:对于0.1g/l酸性黑ATT溶液,pH为2,麦草碱木质素三甲基季铵盐使用浓度在O-3500mg/l范围内时,脱色率随浓度增大而升高;麦草碱木质素三甲基季铵盐使用浓度为2884mg/l时,在pH为1~4范围内,脱色率随pH降低而增加。酸性橙GG和酸性红B也有类似的规律。由上述结论结合麦草碱木质素三甲基季铵盐和酸性染料的结构特点

  19. Synthesis of Malononitrile-Condensed Disperse Dyes and Application on Polyester and Nylon Fabrics

    Yusuf Y. Lams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An active methylene compound, malononitrile, was introduced into the structures of a series of disperse dyes previously prepared by coupling phloroglucinol, barbituric acid, and α and β-naphtho to 4-amino-3-nitrobenzaldehyde. The dyes were purified by recrystallization from ethanol. The purity of the dyes was examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and the dyes were characterized by visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The malononitrile-condensed dyes produced deeper colours and shades with better fastness to wash, light, and perspiration on application to polyester and nylon fabrics when compared to their uncondensed analogue.

  20. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    Liu Guangfei [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Jing, E-mail: wangjingbio@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China); Lu Hong; Jin Ruofei; Zhou Jiti; Zhang Long [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road No. 2, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-11-15

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L{sup -1}, the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  1. Effects of reduction products of ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization of azo dyes

    The mediated effects of reduction products of some ortho-hydroxyl substituted azo dyes on biodecolorization were investigated. The results indicated that the addition of reduction products could effectively accelerate dye decolorization by Shigella sp. QRZ-1. The best accelerating effect was obtained with the addition of reduction products of Acid Red 14 (AR14), resulting in an over 3-fold increase in decolorization efficiency of many azo dyes. In sequencing batch reactor experiments, the accelerating effect of reduction products of AR14 was more obvious (1.5-fold) during the startup of the system. When the dye concentration was increased to 500 mg L-1, the accelerated decolorization efficiency was still maintained around 95%. The presence of AR14 in the feed enhanced the decolorization performance of anaerobic sludge, indicating that the strategy may be beneficial for practical application. 1-Naphthol-2-amino-4-sulfonic acid, which is one of the reduction products of AR14, may function as redox mediator to speed up azo dye biodecolorization.

  2. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions

    Thabo Peme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS, Amaranth (AM, Allura Red (AR, Tartrazine (TZ and Fast Green (FG, for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I− ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  3. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms. PMID:26364631

  4. RESEARCH OF PROCESS OF AN ALLOYING OF THE FUSED COATINGS RECEIVED FROM THE SUPERFICIAL ALLOYED WIRE BY BORON WITH IN ADDITIONALLY APPLIED ELECTROPLATED COATING OF CHROME AND COPPER

    V. A. Stefanovich; Borisov, S. V.; A. V. Stefanovich

    2015-01-01

    Researches on distribution of chrome and copper in the fused coating received from the superficial alloyed wire by boron with in additionally applied electroplated coating of chrome and copper were executed. The structure of the fused coating consists of dendrites on which borders the boride eutectic is located. It is established that the content of chrome in dendrites is 1,5– 1,6 times less than in the borid; distribution of copper on structure is uniformed. Coefficients of digestion of chro...

  5. Study on Corn Pollen Tube Import Path via GeneFinder^(TM) Nucleic Acid Dye%GeneFinder^(TM)核酸染料对玉米花粉管通道导入路径的研究

    刘芳; 黄立楠

    2012-01-01

    Pollen tube pathway was direct translation technology which useed plant antilogous egg cells or fertilized egg cells as the transformation object.It was a distinctive transgenic technology. This test added GeneFinderTM nucleic acid dye to exogenous DNA, after introduction exogenous DNA,ultraviolet imager showed the light different comparison of corn filament at different stage, which could observe the deformation path of exogenous DNA at different stage, so this way provided another new testing way to study introduction path of exogenous DNA.%花粉管通道法是一种借助于植物自身卵细胞或受精卵为转化对象的直接转化技术,是一种颇具特色的转基因技术。本试验将GeneFinder^(TM)核酸染料加入外源DNA中,通过紫外成像仪对外源DNA导入后不同时期玉米花丝在亮度上的对比差异来观察外源DNA不同时间段所通过的路径变化,因而为研究外源DNA导入路径提供了一种新的试验方法。

  6. Fabrication of hybrid magnetic Sr5xBa3x(PO4)3(OH)/Fe3O4 nanorod and its highly efficient adsorption performance for acid fuchsin dye

    Yin, Xiaoju; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    The hybrid magnetic Sr5xBa3x(PO4)3(OH)/Fe3O4 (SBPF) nanorod was prepared and characterized using different techniques, such as SEM, EDS, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, XRD, and FT-IR. Adsorption studies of acid fuchsin (AF) from aqueous solution with respect to the pH, temperature, time, initial dye concentration, and sorbent dosage were investigated. The Freundlich adsorption model was applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The maximal AF uptake by SBPF was 1590 mg/g in the test. Kinetics parameters of the adsorption process indicated that it followed the pseudo-second order equation, and the maximum sorption capacity calculated from the pseudo-second-order rate equation was 909 mg/g which was close to the experimental value. Adsorption thermodynamics study indicated the spontaneous nature and exothermic of the adsorption process. The removal of AF was attributed to the hydrogen bond and ionic interactions. Moreover, SBPF was easily recovered, and the adsorption capacity was approximately 97.7% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used five times.

  7. [Determination of the nucleic acids in pig embryonic kidney cells by magnetic cytaphoresis].

    Chikov, V M; Maksimova, E V

    1989-01-01

    Gallocyanine-chrome alum-stained pig embryonic kidney cells have paramagnetic properties. They move under the influence of gradient magnetic field (magnetophoresis). The velocity of magnetophoresis is proportional to the content of nucleic acids in cells. This allows to estimate the content of nucleic acids per cell dry weight by magnetophoresis and analytical centrifugation. PMID:2473104

  8. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  9. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  10. Structural and mechanical properties of nanostructured metalloceramic coatings on cobalt chrome alloys

    A functionally graded nanocrystalline metalloceramic coating on cobalt-chrome alloys was investigated with thin-film x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, and scratch adhesion testing. The gradual transition in bonding from metallic to predominantly covalent along with a nanocrystalline grain structure provides a unique material system with excellent strength, toughness, and adhesion properties. XRD analysis of the (CrTiN) coating suggests a cubic sodium chloride phase structure with a=4.2169±0.0035 Aa. Nanoindentation measurements of the coating result in a hardness of 27 GPa and Young's modulus of 320 GPa. The graded metallic/covalent nature of the coating with high plasticity also results in excellent film/substrate adhesion as shown by an average critical force of 44±5 N in scratch testing

  11. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Pretreatments Only Interim Test Report

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems. The overall objective of the collaborative effort between NASA TEERM and ESA is to test and evaluate coating systems (pretreatments, pretreatments with primer, and pretreatments with primer and topcoat) as replacements for hexavalent chrome coatings in aerospace applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing promising coatings identified from previous NASA, ESA, Department of Defense (DOD), and other project experience. Additionally, several new materials will be analyzed according to ESA-identified specifications.

  12. A comparative analysis of five chrome green pigments based on different spectroscopic techniques

    A detailed study of five chrome-based green pigments belonging to a large pigment collection at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Austria has been performed. The samples were analyzed and compared using the two X-ray methods--X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction, and the two optical methods--Raman spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The composition differences between the similarly denoted samples of the collection were determined and the significant sensitivity differences of the investigated methods to specific compounds have been established. This relative discrepancy of the obtained results depending on the technique used proved once again the need of a combined use of the investigated methods

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium with Chrome Azurol s in aqueous streams of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    A sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric method for the determination of zirconium is developed. The method is based on the formation of stable bluish violet colour complex with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) with maximum absorption at 598 nm. The complex formed obeys Beer's law in the range of 1-7 μg/mL. Under optimum conditions, the sensitivity of the proposed method, (i.e. the detection limit), molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values are 2.42 μg/mL, 3.93 x103 L.Mol-1.cm-1 and 2.54 x 10-4 μg/cm2 respectively. Relative standard deviation is less than 2% and correlation coefficient is 0.997. The present method is highly sensitive, selective, rapid and simple. It can be applied for the direct determination of zirconium in environmental, industrial, water and nuclear reprocessing samples. (author)

  14. Rapid Dye Regeneration Mechanism of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Jeon, Jiwon; Park, Young Choon; Han, Sang Soo; GODDARD, William A.; Lee, Yoon Sup; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-01-01

    During the light-harvesting process of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the hole localized on the dye after the charge separation yields an oxidized dye, D^+. The fast regeneration of D^+ using the redox pair (typically the I^–/I_(3)^– couple) is critical for the efficient DSSCs. However, the kinetic processes of dye regeneration remain uncertain, still promoting vigorous debates. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine that the inner-sphere electron-transfer pathway provi...

  15. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI)

  16. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:27486044

  17. Removal of Dye from Textile Wastewater Using Plant Oils Under Different pH and Temperature Conditions

    A. S. Mahmoud; Abdel E. Ghaly; M. S. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of five plant oils (cottonseed, olive, canola sunflower and used cooking oil) for the removal of dye from textile wastewater was evaluated. The study revealed that the dye removal efficiency increased as the temperature was increased. Under low pH, both the oil and dye split into two components each. Neither one of the oil components joined with either one of the dye components. However, the observed reduction in the absorbance under acidic conditions can be attributed to th...

  18. Laser dye technology

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the product. ...

  1. Near-infrared thermochromic diazapentalene dyes

    Qian, Gang [Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Zhi Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-03-22

    A series of 2,5-diazapentalene containing dyes with tunable energy gaps are visible and near-infrared halochromic towards various acids and their protonated counterparts represent a new class of thermochromic materials with the near-infrared absorption being switched on at room temperature and off above 50 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Dyes with high affinity for polylactide

    Liang He; Shu Fen Zhang; Bing Tao Tang; Li Li Wang; Jin Zong Yang

    2007-01-01

    Attempts were made to develop dyes with high affinity for polylactide as an alternative to the existent commercial disperse dyes.The dyes synthesized according to the affinity concept of dye to polylactide exhibited excellent dyeing properties on polylactide compared with the commercial disperse dyes.

  3. Hair care and dyeing.

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  4. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Hammond, P.R.; Atkins, R.L.; Henry, R.A.; Fletcher, A.N.

    1978-07-25

    The invention provides a dye laser comprising a lasing solution of a 7-substituted azaquinolone-2 in which the aza nitrogen occupies at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions. The 7-substituent is hydroxy, alkoxy, amino or substituted amino. Substituents may be attached to other ring positions. The present lasing compounds are aza analogs of corresponding quinolone compounds and, hence, are named ''azaquinolone'' compounds. The dye lasers lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  5. Biomimetic Dye Aggregate Solar Cells

    Marek, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A biomimetic self-assembling dye, which forms aggregates that mimic the natural light-harvesting system of special photosynthetic active bacteria, has been investigated towards its applicability to solar cells. This fully synthetic dye, self-assembles to orderly structured nano- to micrometer sized rod-shaped aggregates, which might improve solar cells based on conventional organic dyes. In order to use the full potential of the dye aggregates, the self-assembly needed to be controlled and a ...

  6. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  7. Removal of some dyes from industrial effluents by polymeric materials and gamma-irradiation

    The radiolysis of two basic dyes (Astrazon Red 6B and Astrazon Blue BG-200%), was investigated as a function of dye concentration, pH, irradiation dose and dose rate. It was found that the Astrazon Red 6B dye showed more radiation degradation than the Astrazon Blue BG-200% dye. Combining irradiation with the conventional treatment enhanced the degree of degradation. Addition of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide showed this enhancement, while nitrogen showed no change. A pH drop was observed and maybe attributed to the degradation of the dye molecules to lower molecular weight compounds such as organic acids. Experiments on the adsorption or exchange the dyes onto GAC, some polymeric ion exchange resins and polymeric membranes were carried out showing that GAC had the highest adsorption capacity. By combined treatment of irradiation and adsorption, the total removal of these toxic dyes was achieved. (author)

  8. Role of heterocyclic dye (Azur A) as a photosensitizer in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage: NaLS-ascorbic acid system

    Genwa, K.R.; Chouhan, Anju [Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur (India). Department of Chemistry

    2006-09-15

    Photogalvanic effect was studied in a photogalvanic cell containing NaLS-ascorbic acid and Azur A as a surfactant, reductant and photosensitizer, respectively. The photopotential and photocurrent generated by this system were 770mV and 160{mu}A, respectively. The effect of different parameters like pH, diffusion length, electrode area, light intensity, temperature, etc. on the electrical output of the cell were observed, current-voltage characteristics of the cell have also been studied and mechanism has been proposed for the generation of photocurrent in photogalvanic cell. The observed conversion efficiency and storage capacity for this system were 0.5461 and 110.0min, respectively. (author)

  9. Effect of boric acid composition on the properties of ZnO thin film nanotubes and the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Rahman, M.Y.A., E-mail: mohd.yusri@ukm.edu.my; Roza, L.; Umar, A.A., E-mail: akrajas@ukm.edu.my; Salleh, M.M.

    2015-11-05

    The effect of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) composition at constant concentration of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) on the morphology, thickness, elemental composition, optical absorption, structure, photoluminescence of ZnO nanotubes has been investigated. The performance of the DSSC utilizing the ZnO samples has also been studied. It was found that the structure, thickness, elemental composition, optical absorption and morphology of ZnO nanostructure are significantly affected by the concentration of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}. The diameter and thickness of ZnO nanotubes decreases as the composition of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} increases. The DSSC utilizing ZnO nanotubes synthesized at 2 wt. % H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} performs the highest J{sub SC} and η of 2.67 mA cm{sup −2} and 0.29%, respectively. The highest performance of the device is due to the highest optical absorption of ZnO nanotubes sample and lowest charge interfacial resistance. - Graphical abstract: Nyquist plots of the DSSCs utilizing ZnO nanotubes prepared at various boric acid compositions. - Highlights: • Boron was doped into ZnO films by adding H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} into the growth solution. • Diameter and thickness of ZnO nanotubes decreases with the composition of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}. • The DSSC performs the highest J{sub SC} and η of 2.67 mA cm{sup −2} and 0.29%, respectively. • This is due to high specific surface area and low charge interfacial resistance.

  10. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO2-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation

  11. Novel organic dyes based on phenyl-substituted benzimidazole for dye sensitized solar cells

    Saltan, Gözde Murat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Dinçalp, Haluk, E-mail: haluk.dincalp@cbu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Celal Bayar University, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey); Kıran, Merve; Zafer, Ceylan [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Erbaş, Seçil Çelik [Celal Bayar University, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yunus Emre, 45140 Manisa (Turkey)

    2015-08-01

    Two new sensitizers derived from benzimidazole core for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were designed and synthesized as D–π–A structures, in which two phenyl-substituted benzimidazole group, a phenyl ring and a cyanoacrylic acid were used as the electron donor, π-conjugated linkage and the electron acceptor, respectively. Effect of methoxy- and N,N-dimetylamino- moieties attached to the phenyl groups of benzimidazole were investigated by means of optical and photovoltaic measurements. The compounds exhibit broad absorption maximum at 387 nm with the tail extending up to 500 nm on TiO{sub 2}-coated thin film. The longer wavelength absorption band around 360 nm and the much longer decay components could be attributed to the existence of charge transfer state of the dyes in solutions. DSSC device fabricated by using methoxy substituted dye (BI5a) as a sensitizer shows much better incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 64% giving cell efficiency of 2.68%. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Long decay times suggest the delayed fluorescence caused by the existence of ICT. • The best solar energy conversion efficiency was obtained for BI5a dye (2.68%). • More fluorescent BI5a dye gives higher photocurrent generation.

  12. Treatment of Direct Blending Dye Wastewater and Recycling of Dye Sludge

    Ming-Li Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD, was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto the BSD material approached to 39.36 mg/g. The sorption of EV changed little with pH from 3 to 12 while it increased with increasing levels of electrolyte. A dye wastewater sampled from Jinjiang Chemicals was treated, and the color removal rate was more than the COD removal rate. In addition, the cationic dye-BSD sludge was utilized as a colorant fill-in coating. The light stability and thermal stability of the colorant was measured and exhibited good features. This work provided a simple and eco-friendly method for dye wastewater treatment with recycling of waste.

  13. Retinal tolerance to dyes

    Lüke, C; Lüke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W.; Kirchhof, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function.

  14. Levitated droplet dye laser

    Azzouz, H.; Alkafadiji, L.; Balslev, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating...

  15. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  16. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  17. Dye laser principles with applications

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  18. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized

  19. Degradation of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater by Underwater Electrical Discharge Processes

    D. Kim, S.; I. Jang, D.; J. Lim, B.; B. Lee, S.; S. Mok, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Electrical discharge treatments of synthetic dyeing wastewater were carried out with two different systems: underwater pulsed electrical discharge (UPED) and underwater dielectric barrier discharge (UDBD). Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) and Acid Red 4 (AR4) were used as model contaminants for the synthetic wastewater. The performance of the aforementioned systems was compared with respect to the chromaticity removal and the energy requirement. The results showed that the present electrical discharge systems were very effective for degradation of the dyes. The dependences of the dye degradation rate on treatment time, initial dye concentration, electrical energy, and the type of working gas including air, O2, and N2 were examined. The change in the initial dye concentration did not largely affect the degradation of either RB4 or AR4. The energy delivered to the UPED system was only partially utilized for generating reactive species capable of degrading the dyes, leading to higher energy requirement than the UDBD system. Among the working gases, the best performance was observed with O2. As the degradation proceeded, the concentration of total dissolved solids and the solution conductivity kept increasing while pH showed a decreasing trend, revealing that the dyes were effectively mineralized.

  20. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  1. Molecular simulation study of the effects of inorganic anions on the properties of chrome-crosslinked collagen

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with a modified CHARMM force field was performed to study the effects of various anions (ClO4−, Cl−, HPO42−, SO42−, CNS− and HCOO−) on the structure, stability and crosslinking properties of chrome-crosslinked collagen. Calculated results clearly indicate that the crosslinking quality can be improved through selecting the right kind of anion. The utilization of polychromiums could be fine tuned by varying the type of anion. Perchlorate ions can further stabilize chrome-tanned collagen by hydrogen-bonding interactions. The considerable numbers of hydrogen bonds formed from the sulfate ions and the hydroxyl bridges of polychromium effectively stabilize the four chromium-olation structure during the crosslinking process. (paper)

  2. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa; Graciela M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar; Leticia López-Martínez; Guillermo González-Sánchez; Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez; Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in t...

  3. Optimization of parameters for dye removal by electro-oxidation using Taguchi Design

    Mani Nandhini; Balasubramanian Suchithra; Ramanujam Saravanathamizhan; Dhakshinamoorthy Gnana Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to treat the dye house effluent using electro-oxidation and to analyse the result using Taguchi method. L16 orthogonal array was applied as an experimental design to analyse the results and to determine optimum conditions for acid fast red dye removal from aqueous solution. Various operating parameters were selected to study the electro-oxidation for the colour removal of the effluent. The operating parameter such as dye concentration, reaction time, so...

  4. Fabrication of Electrospun Polyamide-6/Chitosan Nanofibrous Membrane toward Anionic Dyes Removal

    Mozhdeh Ghani; Ali Akbar Gharehaghaji; Mokhtar Arami; Negar Takhtkuse; Babak Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    Nanofibrous filter media of polyamide-6/chitosan were fabricated by electrospinning onto a satin fabric substrate and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and water contact angle (WCA). Anionic dye removal capability of the filter was investigated for Solophenyl Red 3BL and Polar Yellow GN, respectively, as acidic and direct dyes were investigated with respect to solution parameters (pH and initial dye concentration) and membrane...

  5. Experimental Study of Dye Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Technologies of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

    Mohammad Fadhil Abid; Mumtaz Abdulahad Zablouk; Abeer Muhssen Abid-Alameer

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of soluti...

  6. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Abid Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer Abeer Muhssen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH ...

  7. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Abid, Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk, Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer, Abeer Muhssen

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of soluti...

  8. Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes

    李戎; 陈东辉

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes have been widely used these years.Because of the special optical performance, conventional CCM systems seem to be unable to predict the recipes of fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes. In order to enhance the functions of CCM systems, the optical properties of fluorescent dyes in their absorption region were investigated. It has been found that there was a fixed maximum absorption wavelength for each fluorescent dyes whatever its concentration is. Both absorption region and maximum absorption wavelength of the dyes in solution are the same to those in fabric, and that the absorption is directly proportional to the concentration of the dye. So the optical properties obtained in solutions cna be applied for describing the optics performance of fluorescent dyes in fabrics.

  9. Public hygiene and polluting dyes

    Release of dyes and pigments in textile effluents has been subjected to considerable criticism by the public and the media. Therefore, textile and dye-manufacturers are facing many problems to keep their business running smoothly. Various legislation have been enforced in different countries, not only to protect the environment but also to safe-guard the health and safety of the workers and consumers. The treatment of the effluents naturally involves finances, which ultimately disturbs the economy of the whole industry. To minimize the adverse financial and ecological implications, the dye users are being advised, through different media, to select dyestuffs which may not be harmful, to use various effluents, to optimize the use of dyes and modify dyeing and working techniques. The present article presents several aspects of textile-processing, including dye-selection with various new chromophores, utilization of new blends of fibres and application of revised techniques for fixing dyes. (author)

  10. Dye adsorption on TiO{sub 2} electrodes studied using modulated photocurrent measurements

    Ghamgosar, Pedram; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit, E-mail: gerrit.boschloo@kemi.uu.se

    2014-06-02

    An in-situ modulated photocurrent technique to study kinetics of dye adsorption and to determine binding constants of dye molecules on the TiO{sub 2} surface is presented. An AC-photocurrent signal is measured, when a TiO{sub 2} electrode is in contact with the dye bath, containing an inert salt for increased conductivity, upon excitation with on/off modulated light. This method provides relatively rapid results and is very useful for comparative studies. Organic dyes (D149, D5, D35) and ruthenium complexes (N719, Z907, black dye) were investigated and the effect of a coadsorbant in the dye bath (deoxycholic acid) was also analyzed. - Highlights: • A rapid method for in-situ study of dye-adsorption in dye-sensitized solar cells • Dye adsorption follows the Langmuir isotherm when an inert salt is added to the dye bath. • A series of organic and metal–organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells is analyzed.

  11. Dye adsorption on TiO2 electrodes studied using modulated photocurrent measurements

    An in-situ modulated photocurrent technique to study kinetics of dye adsorption and to determine binding constants of dye molecules on the TiO2 surface is presented. An AC-photocurrent signal is measured, when a TiO2 electrode is in contact with the dye bath, containing an inert salt for increased conductivity, upon excitation with on/off modulated light. This method provides relatively rapid results and is very useful for comparative studies. Organic dyes (D149, D5, D35) and ruthenium complexes (N719, Z907, black dye) were investigated and the effect of a coadsorbant in the dye bath (deoxycholic acid) was also analyzed. - Highlights: • A rapid method for in-situ study of dye-adsorption in dye-sensitized solar cells • Dye adsorption follows the Langmuir isotherm when an inert salt is added to the dye bath. • A series of organic and metal–organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells is analyzed

  12. CHANGE OF MORPHOLOGY OF THE CARBON CHROME-MOLYBDENUM STEEL STRUCTURE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL TREATMENT

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature-temporal parameters of thermal treatment on changing of structure and characteristics of carbon chrome-molybdenum steel is studied. It is shown that there are considerable areas with granular morphology of cementite in metal structure after high-temperature tempering, what provides lowering of microhardness of steel by 25%, and after medium-temperature tempering there are no essential structural changes.

  13. CHANGE OF MORPHOLOGY OF THE CARBON CHROME-MOLYBDENUM STEEL STRUCTURE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL TREATMENT

    V. A. Lutsenko; N. I. Anelkin; T. N. Golubenko; Shcherbakov, V. I.; O. V. Lutsenko; L. A. Drobyshevskij

    2016-01-01

    Influence of temperature-temporal parameters of thermal treatment on changing of structure and characteristics of carbon chrome-molybdenum steel is studied. It is shown that there are considerable areas with granular morphology of cementite in metal structure after high-temperature tempering, what provides lowering of microhardness of steel by 25%, and after medium-temperature tempering there are no essential structural changes.

  14. Underwater current leakage between encapsulated NiChrome tracks: Implications for strain-gauges and other implantable devices

    Vanhoestenberghe, A.; Bickerton, S.; Taylor, S. J. G.; Donaldson, N. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of experiments aimed at identifying a suitable polymer for the encapsulation of thin-film strain gauges for underwater applications (with a view of using it in an instrumented bone fusion nail). The leakage currents across grooves cut (using a laser) in thin films of NiChrome over borosilicate glass were studied for encapsulated samples, immersed in water at 37 °C. The selected encapsulants were five silicone rubbers (of both medical and engineering grades), produced by...

  15. Spectrophotometric Microdetermination of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(VI) with Chrome Azurol-S in Presence of Cationic Surfactant

    Upase, A. B.; A. B. Zade; P. P. Kalbende

    2011-01-01

    Cationic surfactant, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide (CDMEAB), sensitize the color reactions of Th(IV) and U(VI) with chrome azurol-S(CRAS). Formation of water soluble deeply colored ternary complexes of metal ions show large bathochromic shift. Same stoichiometric composition of ternary complexes with 1:2:4 molar ratio (M-CRAS-CDMEAB) have been observed for both the metal ions and are responsible for enhancement in molar absorptivities and sensitivities at shifted wavelength. The ternary ...

  16. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating work...

  17. Employing fly ash and FCC catalyser waste in recovering chrome (III) from liquid effluent emitted by tanneries

    Jeceny Amaya; Andrés Tristancho; Francisco José Sánchez Castellanos

    2010-01-01

    The present work studies the possibility of using two solid industrial wastes TERMOPAIPA's fly ash and ECOPETROL's alkaline hydrothermal treatments for obtaining zeolytic structures having better propierties; waste catalyser was calcined for eliminatin surface coke. Solids were characterised following treatment including DRX, BET area and CEC. A colorimetric method was standardised for determining chrome in solution; a response surface experimental design was implemented for finding optimum r...

  18. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Furukawa, Shoji, E-mail: furukawa@cse.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan); Iino, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomohisa; Kukita, Koudai; Yamauchi, Shoji [Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka-shi, Fukuoka-ken 820-8502 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  19. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such as the dye of red-cabbage, curcumin, and red-perilla. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using the mixture of red-cabbage and curcumin was about 0.6% (light source: halogen lamp), which was larger than that of the solar cells using one kind of dye. It was also found that the conversion efficiency was about 1.0% for the solar cell with the oxide semiconductor film fabricated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) whose molecular weight was 2,000,000 and red-cabbage dye. This indicates that the cost performance (defined by [conversion efficiency]/[cost of dye]) of the latter solar cell (dye: red-cabbage) is larger by more than 50 times than that of the solar cell using Ruthenium complex, even if the effect of the difference between the halogen lamp and the standard light source is taken into account.

  20. Dynamic material property of the sinter-forged Cu-Cr alloys with the variation of chrome content

    Vacuum interrupters are used in various switch-gear components such as circuit breakers, distribution switches, contactors. The electrodes of a vacuum interrupter are manufactured of sinter-forged Cu-Cr material for good electrical and mechanical characteristics. Since the closing velocity is 1∼2m/s and impact deformation of the electrode depends on the strain-rate at the given velocity, the dynamic material property of the sinter-forged Cu-Cr alloy is important to design the vacuum interrupter reliably and to identify the impact characteristics of a vacuum interrupter accurately. This paper is concerned with the dynamic material properties of sinter-forged Cu-Cr alloy for various strain rates. The amount of chrome is varied from 10 wt% to 30 wt% in order to investigate the influence of the chrome content on the dynamic material property. The high speed tensile test machine is utilized in order to identify the dynamic property of the Cu-Cr alloy at the intermediate strain-rate and the split Hopkinson pressure bar is used at the high strain-rate. Experimental results from both the quasi-static and the high strain-rate up to the 5000 /sec are interpolated with respect to the amount of chrome in order to construct the Johnson-Cook and the modified Johnson-Cook model as the constitutive relation that should be applied to numerical simulation of the impact behavior of electrodes

  1. Employing fly ash and FCC catalyser waste in recovering chrome (III from liquid effluent emitted by tanneries

    Jeceny Amaya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the possibility of using two solid industrial wastes TERMOPAIPA's fly ash and ECOPETROL's alkaline hydrothermal treatments for obtaining zeolytic structures having better propierties; waste catalyser was calcined for eliminatin surface coke. Solids were characterised following treatment including DRX, BET area and CEC. A colorimetric method was standardised for determining chrome in solution; a response surface experimental design was implemented for finding optimum removal conditions. The most efficient adsorbent was fly ash treated with increased NaOH concentration; optimum condictions for removing chrome were: 58 minutes at 36ºC, 5.9 pH and 31% w/v solid removal. When reused, it was found that the two batches of treated fly ash became saturated following 6 cycles of use, whilst original ash and FCC Catalyser became saturated the second time they were used. Four de-absorbent agents were used for recovering chrome from adsorbent product H2SO4 0.6M being the best. Field trials showed that removal efficiency became reduced by the effect of other contaminantsm depending on the solution's initial concentration.

  2. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  3. Dye incorporation in polyphosphate gels: synthesis and theoretical calculations

    Del Nero Jordan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described theoretical calculations on the electronic structure and optical properties of the dyes crystal violet and malachite green based in semiempirical methods (Parametric Method 3 and Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap / Spectroscopic - Configuration Interaction and the synthesis of a new hybrid material based upon the incorporation of these dyes in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The samples are nearly transparent, free-standing thick films. The optical properties of the entrapped dyes are sensitive to chemical changes within the matrix caused either by gel aging or external stimulli such as exposition to acidic and basic vapors that can percolate within the matrix. Our theoretical modeling is in good agreement with the experimental results for the dyes.

  4. Plantas Tintureiras Dye Plants

    Maria do Carmo Serrano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma vasta bibliografia, até ao séc. XVIII, sobre plantas produtoras de corantes naturais, sendo que apenas um número limitado foi utilizado no tingimento de têxteis antigos, devido à capacidade de resistência à lavagem e ao desvanecimento. O cultivo de plantas ou a sua existência no mundo silvestre tiveram uma enorme importância sócio-económica para muitas comunidades espalhadas pelo mundo e pelas intensas trocas comerciais que geraram. A extracção dos corantes era feita a partir de diferentes partes de plantas ou árvores. Nalgumas plantas eram utilizadas as folhas, enquanto noutras se aproveitavam as flores, as raízes, os frutos, troncos ou sementes. Os corantes podiam ser extraídos através de processos complexos que envolviam diversas operações como maceração, destilação, fermentação, decantação, precipitação, filtração, etc. Neste âmbito, são apresentadas algumas das plantas cultivadas em Portugal e em muitos outros países europeus e que foram usadas em tinturaria. Este trabalho pretende ser um contributo para obstar à perda de conhecimentos das condições de cultivo e da forma como se maximizava a produção de corantes.A vast bibliography exists, until the 18th cen-tury, on natural dyes obtained from plants, but only one limited number was used in the dyeing of old textiles, due to capacity of resistance to wash and light fading. The culture of plants or its existence in the wild world had an enormous economical importance for many communities spread for the world, and the intense commercial exchanges that had generated. The extraction of dyes was done from different parts of plants or trees. In some plants was used the leaves, others, only the roots, the fruits, trunks or seeds. The dyes could be extracted through complex processes that involved various operations as maceration, distillation, fermentation, decantation, precipitation, filtration, etc. In this scope, some of the plants cultivated in

  5. Dye removal from textile dye wastewater using recycled alum sludge.

    Chu, W

    2001-09-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh alum dosage, of which one third of the fresh alum can be saved. The back-diffusion of residued dye from the recycling sludge is detected but is easily controlled as long as a small amount of fresh alum is added to the system. The use of RAS is not recommended for the removal of hydrophilic dyes, since the high solubility characteristics of such dyes can cause deterioration in the water quality during recycling. PMID:11487111

  6. Synthesis of azo pyridone dyes

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of all colorants which are used nowdays are azo dyes and pigments, and among them arylazo pyridone dyes (and pigments have became of interest in last several decades due to the high molar extinction coefficient, and the medium to high light and wet fastness properties. They find application generally as disperse dyes. The importance of disperse dyes increased in the 1970s and 1980s due to the use of polyester and nylon as the main synthetic fibers. Also, disperse dyes were used rapidly since 1970 in inks for the heat-transfer printing of polyester. The main synthetic route for the preparation of azo dyes is coupling reaction between an aromatic diazo compound and a coupling component. Of all dyes manufactured, about 60% are produced by this reaction. Arylazo pyridone dyes can be prepared from pyridone moiety as a coupling component, where substituent can be on nitrogen, and diazonim salts which can be derived from different substituted anilines or other heterocyclic derivatives. In addition, arylazo dyes containing pyridone ring can be prepared from arylazo diketones or arylazo ketoesters (obtained by coupling β-diketones or β-ketoesters with diazonim salts by condensation with cyanoacetamide. Disazo dyes can be prepared by tetrazotizing a dianiline and coupling it with a pyridone or by diazotizing aniline and coupling it with a dipyridone. Trisazo dyes can be also prepared by diazotizing of aniline and coupling it with a tripyridone or by hexazotizing a trianiline and coupling it with a pyridone. The main goal of this paper is to give a brief review on the synthesis of arylazo pyridone dyes due to the lack of such reviews. In addition, some properties of arylazo pyridone dyes as light fastness and azo-hydrazon tautomerism are disccused.

  7. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  8. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  9. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration

    Abid Mohammad Fadhil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  10. Experimental Study of Dye Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Membrane Technologies of Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration

    Mohammad Fadhil Abid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO and nanofiltration (NF membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration?=?65 mg/L, feed temperature?=?39?C and pressure?=?8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising.

  11. Experimental study of dye removal from industrial wastewater by membrane technologies of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.

    Abid, Mohammad Fadhil; Zablouk, Mumtaz Abdulahad; Abid-Alameer, Abeer Muhssen

    2012-01-01

    Currently, biological method has been utilized in the treatment of wastewater -containing synthetic dyes used by textile industries in Iraq. The present work was devoted to study the operating feasibility using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems as an alternative treatment method of wastewater discharged from Iraqi textile mills. Acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes were selected, based on the usage rate in Iraq. Effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, feed temperature, dissolved salts and operating pressure on permeate flux and dye rejection were studied. Results at operating conditions of dye concentration = 65 mg/L, feed temperature = 39°C and pressure = 8 bar showed the final dye removal with RO membrane as 97.2%, 99.58% and 99.9% for acid red, reactive black and reactive blue dyes, respectively. With NF membrane, the final dye removal were as 93.77%, 95.67%, and 97% for red, black and blue dyes, respectively. The presence of salt (particularly NaCl) in the dye solution resulted in a higher color removal with a permeate flux decline. It was confirmed that pH of solution had a positive impact on dye removal while feed temperature showed a different image. A comparison was made between the results of dye removal in biological and membrane methods. The results showed that membrane method had higher removal potential with lower effective cost. The present study indicates that the use of NF membrane in dye removal from the effluent of Iraqi textile mills is promising. PMID:23369335

  12. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Rasmussen, Torben Bygvraa; Hansen, Michael Rosenlund Søndertoft; Nilsson, Daniel; Mortensen, N. Asger

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...... sandwiched between two glass substrates. The devices are defined in the 1-10 mum thick polymer film by photolithography, nanoimprinting or by electron beam lithography, and the lid is bonded using adhesive polymer bonding....

  13. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  14. Enzymatic dyeing of wood

    Zille, Andrea; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the “in situ” enzymatic dyeing of pinewood samples using a Trametes villosa laccase, in a batchwise process at low temperature and mild pH. Laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) is a multicopper oxidase, which reduces oxygen to water and simultaneously performs one-electron oxidation of many aromatic substrates such as phenols and aromatic amines. The resulting aryloxy radicals undergo further non-enzymatic reactions forming coloured dimeric, oligomeric and polymeric molecules....

  15. Microwave Assisted Dyeing of Polyester Fabrics with Disperse Dyes

    Mohamed Hilmy Elnagdi; Morsy Ahmed El-Apasery; Saleh Mohammed Al-Mousawi

    2013-01-01

    Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative...

  16. Mid-term survivorship and clinical outcomes of cobalt-chrome and oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Petis, Stephen M.; Vasarhelyi, Edward M.; Lanting, Brent A.; Howard, James L.; Naudie, Douglas D.R.; Somerville, Lyndsay E.; McCalden, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The choice of bearing articulation for total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is amenable to debate. We compared mid-term patient-reported outcomes and survivorship across 2 different bearing articulations in a young patient cohort. Methods We reviewed patients with cobalt-chrome or oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene who were followed prospectively between 2004 and 2012. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to determine predicted cumulative survivorship at 5 years with all-cause and aseptic revisions as the outcome. We compared patient-reported outcomes, including the Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Short-form 12 (SF-12) scores. Results A total of 622 patients were followed during the study period. Mean follow-up was 8.2 (range 2.0–10.6) years for cobalt-chrome and 7.8 (range 2.1–10.7) years for oxidized zirconium. Mean age was 54.9 ± 10.6 years for cobalt-chrome and 54.8 ± 10.7 years for oxidized zirconium. Implant survivorship was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.9%–97.1%) for cobalt-chrome and 98.7% (95% CI 98.0%–99.4%) for oxidized zirconium on highly crosslinked polyethylene for all-cause revisions, and 97.2% (95% CI 96.2%–98.2%) for cobalt-chrome and 99.0% (95% CI 98.4%–99.6%) for oxidized zirconium for aseptic revisions. An age-, sex- and diagnosis-matched comparison of the HHS, WOMAC and SF-12 scores demonstrated no significant changes in clinical outcomes across the groups. Conclusion Both bearing surface couples demonstrated excellent mid-term survivorship and outcomes in young patient cohorts. Future analyses on wear and costs are warranted to elicit differences between the groups at long-term follow-up. PMID:26812409

  17. 分散染料上染涤纶的研究%Study of disperse dyes in dyeing polyester fabrics

    王江波; 张兆谈; 罗敏亚

    2014-01-01

    The properties of dye and fiber are very important factors in the process of dyeing polyester with disperse dye. Temperature, concentration of H+, and additives affects the dyeing quality of fiber, and influences of those three factors on polyester dyed with disperse dye were discussed, and the mechanism was investigated. The results show that setting temperature has great influence on polyester dyeing, and uneven heat treatment is one major reason for colored spot;appropriate concentration of acetic acid and levelling agent are important factors for satisfactory dyeing performance;the polyester dyed with disperse dyes performed poorly in tolerating high temperature washing, and most dye escaped from fiber after several high temperature washing.%分散染料上染涤纶的过程中,染料性质和纤维特性是很重要的因素。温度、染液中H+浓度、助剂都会影响到纤维的性质,从这3个方面研究了对分散染料上染涤纶的影响,并探讨了影响机理。结果表明,定型温度对分散染料上染涤纶有很大的影响,不均匀的热处理是造成涤纶色花的原因之一;适宜浓度的醋酸和匀染剂是涤纶取得良好染色性能的重要因素;分散染料染色涤纶织物不耐高温水洗,经过数次高温水洗,会有大部分染料逸出。

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Analysis of Resins from Different Cardanol Based Dyes

    Das, Tapan K

    2014-01-01

    Cardanol(Cashew phenol) is subjected to diazotisation with Aniline and m-Toluidine to get monomers like Cardanol based dye from Aniline (CBDFA) and Cardanol based dye from m-Toludine (CBDFT). Such monomers have been condensed with formaldehyde in presence of acid catalyst to form resins. The resins have been characterized by FTIR spectra and their thermal behaviour have been studied.

  19. 离子对-超高效液相色谱串联质谱多反应监测快速测定肉制品中的酸性橙Ⅱ、酸性橙Ⅲ、酸性橙AGT%Fast Determination of Three Acid Orange Dyes: Acid Orange Ⅱ, Acid Orange Ⅲ and Acid Orange AGT in Meat Products by Ion-pair Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    张水锋; 林珍珍; 陈小珍; 张东雷; 曹慧; 王立世

    2012-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)测定肉制品中酸性橙Ⅱ、酸性橙Ⅲ、酸性橙AGT的快速分析方法.用含5%氨水的乙腈溶液对样品进行提取,采用弱阴离子交换柱富集净化,在ESI负离子源模式下采用多反应监测(MRM)模式进行检测.通过在流动相中加入离子对试剂乙酸二己基铵(DHAA),使目标物在C18色谱柱上实现了分离,并有效改善了目标组分的离子化效率,使监测离子对更加稳定,确保了检测结果的稳定性和灵敏度.该方法分析时间小于6 min,线性范围为5.0 ~ 300 μg/L,相关系数(r)大于0.999,检出限(LOD,S/N=3)为20.0 ~ 50.0 μg/kg,定量下限(LOQ,S/N=10)为70.0~170.0μg/kg,方法回收率为83% ~ 89%,精密度RSD≤7.5%.该方法快速、灵敏,适用于肉制品中3种酸性橙污染物的检测与确证.%A method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry ( UPLC - MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of three industrial acid dyes, namely acid orange II , acid orange HI and acid orange AGT, in meat products. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile ( containing 5% ammonia) , cleaned up and enriched with WAX solid phase extraction(SPE) cartridge, and then analyzed by UPLC -MS/MS under the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. All the analytes were successfully detected in negative ion mode by adding an ion-pair reagent of dihexylammonium acetate (DHAA) to the mobile phase in 6 min. The calibration curves were linear between 5.0 μg/L and 300 μg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r) were more than 0. 999. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3 ) and the limits of quantitation ( LOQ, S/N = 10) were in the range of 20. 0 -50. 0 μg/kg and 70. 0 -170. 0 μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 83% - 89% , and relative standard deviations ( RSD, n - 3 ) were no more than 7. 5% . The method was simple, effective and sensitive, and was

  20. 腐植酸及其盐对磷酸二铵着色的实验研究%Experimental Study on Dyeing Diammonium Phosphate with Humic Acid and Its Salt

    查坐统; 王志刚; 杨婉玲

    2016-01-01

    We take the wet process phosphoric acid、humic acid and its salts as raw materials,take the american jiajie diammonium phosphate products as reference,and do the dyeing evaluation experiment according to the process conditions of the traditional method of production of diammonium phosphate.This experiment has studied the different types of humic acid and its salts’s solubleness in concentrated phosphoric acid,washing liquid and water resistance;did the ammonia neutralization reaction experiment under the con-dition of different varieties and amount of the colorant.Based on these experiments,we have finished the spray granulation experiments.Experimental study showed that the suitable adding method of the humic acid colorant in the ammonium phosphate production system is that it is formulated in the 10% concentration of a-queous solution,then adding to the phosphate or washing liquid;the product of 0.15% dosage of the ESM-1 colorant is the best,and it’s color is mostly closed to the american jiajie diammonium phosphate products, adding the ESM-1 type colorant doesn’t impact it’s product nutrient,and we can get superior diammonium phosphate product.%以湿法磷酸和腐植酸及其盐类为原料,并以美国嘉吉公司棕褐色磷酸二铵(DAP)产品为参照,按照传统法生产 DAP 的工艺条件进行着色评价实验。先后研究了不同类别的腐植酸及其盐在浓磷酸、洗涤液和水中的溶解性能;进行不同着色剂种类、用量条件下磷酸通氨中和反应实验,并在此基础上进行喷浆造粒实验。研究表明:腐植酸类着色剂在 DAP 生产系统中的适宜添加方式为先将其配制为10%的水溶液,然后再添加到磷酸或洗涤液中;0.15%用量的 ESM-1着色剂产品效果最佳,其颜色最接近美国嘉吉公司的棕褐色 DAP 产品;添加 ESM-1型着色剂对产品养分的影响不大。