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Sample records for acid carbonates

  1. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for

  2. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  3. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  4. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  5. Synthesis of carbon-13-labeled tetradecanoic acids.

    Sparrow, J T; Patel, K M; Morrisett, J D

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of tetradecanoic acid enriched with 13C at carbons 1, 3, or 6 is described. The label at the carbonyl carbon was introduced by treating 1-bromotridecane with K13CN (90% enriched) to form the 13C-labeled nitrile, which upon hydrolysis yielded the desired acid. The [3-13C]tetradecanoic acid was synthesized by alkylation of diethyl sodio-malonate with [1-13C]1-bromododecane; the acid was obtained upon saponification and decarboxylation. The label at the 6 position was introduced by coupling the appropriately labeled alkylcadmium chloride with the half acid chloride methyl ester of the appropriate dioic acid, giving the corresponding oxo fatty acid ester. Formation of the tosylhydrazone of the oxo-ester followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride gave the labeled methyl tetradecanoate which, upon hydrolysis, yielded the desired tetradecanoic acid. All tetradecanoic acids were identical to unlabeled analogs as evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography and infrared or NMR spectroscopy. These labeled fatty acids were used subsequently to prepare the correspondingly labeled diacyl phosphatidylcholines. PMID:6631228

  6. Adsorption of acetic acid on different carbons

    K. Ouattara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a double environmental aspect, on one hand, decline of the cost of the waste water treatment thanks to a cheap adsorbing, on the other hand, the valuation of coconut shells.The acetic acid was used as adsorbent because the knowledge of the size of its molecule (21 Å2 allows characterizing studied carbons.The model of Langmuir describes well the isotherms of adsorption on the various types of studied carbons. It stands out in this study that the capacity of adsorption of inactivated carbon grain (CNAG COCO doubles practically if this one is reduced in powder. Besides, the inactivated carbon powder (CNAP COCO and the activated carbon grain (CAG COCO have the same capacity of adsorption. So, the specific surfaces of the CNAP COCO and CAG COCO are identical: SL = 77 m2/g while that of the CNAG is only 32 m2/g. The use of inactivated carbon powder can be thus recommended to treat waste water opposite the inactivated grain carbon which isn’t of real interest.

  7. Distinguishing between carbonate and non-carbonate precipitates from the carbonation of calcium-containing organic acid leachates

    Santos, Rafael; Chiang, Yi Wai; Elsen, Jan; Van Gerven, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Two organic acids were trialled for the extraction of calcium from steelmaking blast furnace slag for the purpose of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production: succinic and acetic acids. While the leaching performance of succinic acid was superior, carbonation of its leachate did not result in the production of PCC, but rather the precipitation of calcium succinate, and only after the use of pH buffering agents (sodium hydroxide or bicarbonate). In contrast, carbonation of the acetic ac...

  8. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari, E-mail: yanti_tkunlam@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Lee, Cheng-Kang, E-mail: cklee@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd. Sec.4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  9. Carbon Dot Based Sensing of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

    Upama Baruah; Neelam Gogoi; Achyut Konwar; Manash Jyoti Deka; Devasish Chowdhury; Gitanjali Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate carbon dot based sensor of catecholamine, namely, dopamine and ascorbic acid. Carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from a green source: commercially available Assam tea. The carbon dots prepared from tea had particle sizes of ∼0.8 nm and are fluorescent. Fluorescence of the carbon dots was found to be quenched in the presence of dopamine and ascorbic acid with greater sensitivity for dopamine. The minimum detectable limits were determined to be 33 μM and 98 μM for dopamine and ascor...

  10. Reduction of plutonium in acidic solutions by mesoporous carbons

    Batch contact experiments with several porous carbon materials showed that carbon solids spontaneously reduce the oxidation state of plutonium in 1-1.5 M acid solutions, without significant adsorption. The final oxidation state and rate of Pu reduction varies with the solution matrix, and also depends on the surface chemistry and surface area of the carbon. It was demonstrated that acidic Pu(VI) solutions can be reduced to Pu(III) by passing through a column of porous carbon particles, offering an easy alternative to electrolysis with a potentiostat. (author)

  11. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2015-10-01

    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100-500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO3H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO3H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.

  12. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331. ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  13. The Strongest Acid: Protonation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Cummings, Steven; Hratchian, Hrant P; Reed, Christopher A

    2016-01-22

    The strongest carborane acid, H(CHB11F11), protonates CO2 while traditional mixed Lewis/Brønsted superacids do not. The product is deduced from IR spectroscopy and calculation to be the proton disolvate, H(CO2)2(+). The carborane acid H(CHB11F11) is therefore the strongest known acid. The failure of traditional mixed superacids to protonate weak bases such as CO2 can be traced to a competition between the proton and the Lewis acid for the added base. The high protic acidity promised by large absolute values of the Hammett acidity function (H0) is not realized in practice because the basicity of an added base is suppressed by Lewis acid/base adduct formation. PMID:26663640

  14. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.

    2001-09-01

    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  15. Adsorption of uranium from crude phosphoric acid using activated carbon

    The adsorption of uranium from crude phosphoric acid has been investigated using conventional activated carbons. It was found that treatment with nitric acid oxidized the surface of activated carbon and significantly increased the adsorption capacity for uranium in acidic solutions. The parameters that affect the uranium(VI) adsorption, such as contact time, solution pH, initial uranium(VI) concentration, and temperature, have been investigated. Equilibrium data were fitted to a simplified Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for the oxidized samples which indicate that the uranium adsorption onto the activated carbon fitted well with Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherm. Equilibrium studies evaluate the theoretical capacity of activated carbon to be 45.24 g kg-1. (author)

  16. Biogeochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes in carboxylic acids

    The carbon isotopic compositions of the carboxyl carbons of fatty acids were determined by measuring the isotopic composition of the carbon dioxide quantitatively released from the acid. A modified version of the Schmidt decarboxylation developed and tested in this work was employed. A study of the evolution of CO2 at 5 +- 20C from the Schmidt decarboxylation of octanoic acid during the developmental program revealed two kinetic phases, each characterized by different rate constants and carbon isotope effects. The first, slower reaction phase displayed overall first-order kinetics, its rate being independent of HN3 concentration. Both pre-equilibration of the HN3-CHCl3 decarboxylation reagent with H2SO4 and saturation of the catalytic H2SO4 phase with KHSO4 drastically altered the rate of evolution and isotopic composition of the product CO2. The mechanistic implications of these results were discussed. A review of the metabolism of saturated fatty acids was made in which the impact of potential isotope fractionations in the various chemical reactions comprising the biosynthetic pathways on the intramolecular carbon isotope distribution within fatty acids was discussed

  17. Acidic weathering of carbonate building stones: experimental assessment

    Ryszard Kryza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbonate rocks, travertine, limestone and marble have been studied to determine their selected technical parameters (water absorption, resistance to salt crystallization damage and reaction to experimentally modelled acid rain weathering imitating the polluted urban atmospheric conditions. The acidic agents present in natural acid rain precipitation, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH and mixture of all the acids, “Acid mix”, were tested. The initial stages of acid weathering involve, apart from chemical dissolution, particularly intense physical detachment of rock particles (granular disintegration significantly contributing to the total mass loss. Travertine was found to be most prone to salt crystallization damage and to acid weathering, and these features should be taken into account especially in external architectural usage of this stone in cold climate conditions and polluted urban atmosphere.

  18. Specific Energy Characteristics of Nanoporous Carbon Activated by Orthophosphoric Acid

    B.I. Rachiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the amount of phosphoric acid on the structure nanoporous carbon materials (NCM obtained from raw materials of plant origin. The results voltammetry defined specific capacitance characteristics of NCM and conditions its synthesis with optimal energy parameters established. It is shown that reducing the number of lignin-cellulose materials in precursor volume due to carbonization leads to a decline in specific capacity of NCM approximately 6-20 %.

  19. ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION BY ACTIVATED CARBON TREATED WITH SULFURIC ACID

    The paper gives results of a study of the adsorption of elemental mercury at 125 C by a sulfuric-acid (H2S04, 50% w/w/ solution)-treated carbon for the removal of mercury from flue gas. The pore structure of the sample was characterized by nitrogen (N2) at -196 C and the t-plot m...

  20. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  1. Selective esterification of non-conjugated carboxylic acids in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid

    2008-01-01

    Non-conjugated carboxylic acids are selectively esterified in good yields in the presence of conjugated or aromatic carboxylic acids by stirring over active carbon supported methanesulfonic acid in di-chloromethane at room temperature.

  2. A theoretical HSAB study of the acidity of carbon acids CH3Z

    Rezende Marcos C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase acidity of nine carbon acids of the form CH3Z (nitromethane, acetophenone, dimethylsulfone, acetaldehyde, butanone, acetone, methyl acetate, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide was investigated, in the search of correlations with global and local HSAB properties, calculated at the 3-21G, 6-31G* and 6-31+G(3df,2p levels. A reasonable correlation was obtained with the calculated ionization energies. Based on the obtained correlation, the gas-phase acidity of methyl thioacetate was estimated (deltaG°= 1476 kJ mol-1 as close to that of the most acidic member of the series, nitromethane. The nucleophilic Fukui functions of the hard and soft anionic centers in each base - CH2Z stabilized by direct conjugation were calculated, following two different approaches, and their ratios utilized to interpret the shifts in acidity when the acids are transferred from gas-phase to aqueous solution.

  3. Methanol dehydration on carbon-based acid catalysts

    Valero-Romero, Mª José; Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa Mª; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Methanol dehydration to produce dimethyl ether (DME) is an interesting process for the chemical industry since DME is an important intermediate and a promising clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Pure or modified γ-aluminas (γ-Al2O3) and zeolites are often used as catalysts for this reaction. However, these materials usually yield non desirable hydrocarbons and undergo fast deactivation. In this work, we study the catalytic conversion of methanol over an acid carbon catalyst obtaine...

  4. Acid neutralisation capacity of accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag.

    Johnson, D C; MacLeod, C L; Hills, C D

    2003-05-01

    The acid neutralisation capacity test is widely used to assess the long-term performance of waste materials prior to disposal. Samples of fixed mass are exposed to increasing additions of nitric add in sealed containers and the resultant pH is plotted as a titration curve. In this work, the add neutralisation capacity test was used in the assessment of an accelerated carbonated stainless steel slag. Difficulties arose in applying the test procedure to this material. This was largely because of the raised pressure from significant volumes of released carbon dioxide trapped in the sealed sample containers, causing an alteration to leachate pH values. Consequently, the add neutralisation capacity test was modified to enable testing of samples in equilibrium with the atmosphere. No adverse effects on the results from testing of a carbonate free material were recorded. PMID:12803247

  5. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  6. Adsorption of fulvic acid by carbon nanotubes from water

    This study investigated adsorption of fulvic acid (FA) by single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and activated carbon. Adsorption of FA depends greatly on the adsorbent surface area and solution pH. SWCNT has higher adsorption than MWCNT and activated carbon. Lower E4/E6 (absorbance at 465 nm to that at 665 nm) and higher E2/E3 (absorbance at 250 nm to that at 365 nm) ratios of the residual FA in solution after adsorption than that of original FA in low pH ranges suggest that aromatic rich FA fractions with polar moieties readily adsorb on the adsorbents. The apparent interaction mechanisms between FA and CNT surfaces include electrostatic, hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen-bond interactions. FA adsorption was reduced greatly with increasing pH because of the increase of electrostatic repulsion and the decrease of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions. - Adsorption of fulvic acid by carbon nanotubes depends greatly on the adsorbent surface area and solution pH

  7. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA from renewable carbon

    Müller Roland H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source.

  8. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  9. Kinetic isotope effect of carbon-13 in decarboxylation of phenylpropiolic acid in anhydrous formic acid

    Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarboxylation of phenylpropiolic acid (carboxyl-13C) in formic acid medium and in the decarbonylation of liquid formic acid assisted with phenylpropiolic acid (PPA) and acetophenone (AP) have been studied in the 70-100oC temperature interval. The carboxyl-13C KIEs are in the range 1.0034 at 71.6oC and 1.0047 at 101.2oC respectively. The C-13C KIE, k-12/k-13, in the decarbonylation of liquid formic acid assisted with PPA were found to be of 1.0419 at 71.6oC and 1.0383 at 101.2oC. The C-13 KIE in the decarbonylation of pure formic acid are 1.0464 at 70.2oC and 1.0411 at 98oC respectively. The above experimental results have been discussed and interpreted as indicating that the formation of Cα-H bond preceded by the protonation of triple acetylenic bond of PPA is the rate determining step followed by carbon dioxide splitting. The 13-CO-KIE in the carbon monooxide generation assisted with PPA is much larger than the 13-CO-KIE generated in the presence of phenylacetylene. This shows that the decarboxylation of PPA and decarboxylation of FA are interrelated processes proceeding in the reaction cage. The formic acid involved in the formation of TS is decarbonylating directly avoiding probably largely the formic acid anhydride intermediate formation. (author)

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid mediated by carbon nano tubes/ Li+/ carbon paste modified solid electrode

    Multi-walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was used to modify BPPG electrode because of its unique structure and extraordinary properties. MWCNT modified electrode exhibited obvious enhancing and electro catalyzing effects to the oxidation of ascorbic acid using cyclic voltammetry technique. MWCNT was bonded on BPPG electrode surface using carbon paste with ratio of 30 % (w/ W) carbon paste (binder): 70 % (w/ w) MWCNT. This method of modification has lowered the capacitance background current and enabled lower detection limit of ascorbic acid concentration. The electrical conductivity property of MWCNT modified electrode was further improved with the intercalation with lithium ion and resulted in current enhancement of 2 times on the oxidation current of ascorbic acid. Parameters of pH and temperature showed significant relation to the sensitivity of MWCNT modified electrode. Under the optimized parameters, the calibration curve constructed was linear up from 50 μM to 5 mM with sensitivity of 34.5 mA M-1. The practical application of MWCNT modified electrode was demonstrated with Vitamin C pill and orange juice. Good reproducibility and recovery of ascorbic acid concentration showed the feasibility of MWCNT modified electrode to be used in the detection of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. This also proposed MWCNT modified BPPG electrode possessed advantages such as low detection limit, high stability, low cost and simplicity in fabrication. (author)

  11. Carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) synthesis under moderate conditions starting from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid

    The synthesis of carbonate-containing apatite (CAP) from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid under moderate conditions was investigated. In all cases, complete precipitation of orthophosphate species was observed. The reaction temperature influenced strongly the decomposition of calcium carbonate and therefore the composition of formed products. The reaction temperature of 80 °C was found to be effective for the complete decomposition of calcium carbonate particles after 48 h of reaction. Infra-red spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetry/mass spectroscopy (TG–MS) coupling, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations allowed the identification of the composition of formed products. By increasing the reaction temperature from 20 °C to 80 °C, the content of A-type CAP increased and that of B-type CAP decreased, according to the favorable effect of temperature on the formation of A-type CAP. The total amount of carbonate content incorporated in CAP's structure, which was determined by TG–MS analysis, increased with the reaction temperature and reached up to 4.1% at 80 °C. At this temperature, the solid product was mainly composed of apatitic components and showed the typical flat-needle-like structure of CAP particles obtained in hydrothermal conditions. These results show an interesting one-step synthesis of CAP from calcium carbonate and orthophosphoric acid as low cost but high purity starting materials. Highlights: • The synthesis of carbonate-containing apatites from CaCO3 and H3PO4 was studied. • The decomposition of CaCO3 particles was complete at 80 °C, 13.2 bar for 48 h. • The transformation of CaCO3 and H3PO4 into apatitic products was also complete. • Pure carbonate-containing apatite was directly obtained without water-rising step

  12. Synthesis of acid-functionalized composite via surface deposition of acid-containing amorphous carbon

    Du, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Lou, Lan-Lan; Dong, Yanling; Liu, Gaixia; Liu, Shuangxi

    2012-07-01

    A synthetic procedure, including two steps: a hydrothermal treatment using H2SO4 solution and a thermal treatment with concentrated H2SO4 in Teflon-lined stainless autoclaves was developed to synthesize acid-functionalized composite. In this process, the carbonization of glucose which contributed to the formation of carbon species with acid functional groups occurred on the silica surface. The resultant composite, investigated by powder XRD, low temperature N2 sorption and TEM, possessed well-defined mesostructure. And it was determined by XPS that amorphous carbon was deposited at the silica surface of SBA-15. The presence of multi-functional groups in the composite was confirmed by FT-IR results. Furthermore, carboxylic and sulfonic groups could be incorporated into the composite material via the covalent bond. The composite was employed as the catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. It was suggested that acid sites were well dispersed, which was responsible for the good performance in the catalytic test. According to these facts, a synthesis route for mesostructured composite with acid functional groups has been proposed.

  13. Separation of ruthenium from nitric acid solutions using carbon tetrachloride

    The noble metal, ruthenium is one of the major fission product elements produced with high fission yield, mainly in for breeder reactors using 239Pu fuels. In the aqueous reprocessing of spent fuels for the recovery of U and Pu by PUREX process ruthenium interferes in the solvent extraction stage. In the treatment of high level liquid waste for its disposal, oxides of Ru are formed, which contaminate the surrounding environment owing to their high vapour pressure. Hence, it is desirable to separate from the waste solution prior to its processing for disposal. A simple and feasible method has been employed in the present work for the separation and recovery of ruthenium from aqueous nitric acid medium using ammonium ceric nitrate (ACN) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The efficiency in the separation of Ru was investigated under various experimental conditions such as acidity and ageing effect. Separation efficiency was observed to decrease with increasing nitric acid concentration. Maximum separation was achieved at 1 M nitric acid. Further studies were carried out to investigate the effect of ageing on the separation efficiency ruthenium. With increase in time, separation percentage of ruthenium was decreasing in all concentrations of nitric acid studied. (author)

  14. Efficient L-lactic acid fermentation by the mold Rhizopus oryzae using activated carbon

    Koide, M.; Hirata, M.; Gaw, M.; Takanashi, H.; Hano, T. [Oita Univ, Oita (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Batch fermentations of Rhizopus oryzae AHU 6537 in medium containing granular activated carbon from coal, powder activated carbon from coal or granular activated carbon from coconut were carried out in an airlift bioreactor. As a result, fermentation broths were decolorized by activated carbon, and clearer fermentation broths were obtained than in fermentation without activated carbon. With activated carbon from coal, the cells formed smaller pellets than in fermentation without activated carbon, and fermentation performance was improved. Productivity was further improved by increasing the amount of activated carbon from coal. Therefore, the productivity of lactic acid fermentation could be improved by selecting a suitable activated carbon and by controlling the amount of activated carbon.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase 5 regulates acid-base homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Ruben Postel

    Full Text Available The regulation of the acid-base balance in cells is essential for proper cellular homeostasis. Disturbed acid-base balance directly affects cellular physiology, which often results in various pathological conditions. In every living organism, the protein family of carbonic anhydrases regulate a broad variety of homeostatic processes. Here we describe the identification, mapping and cloning of a zebrafish carbonic anhydrase 5 (ca5 mutation, collapse of fins (cof, which causes initially a collapse of the medial fins followed by necrosis and rapid degeneration of the embryo. These phenotypical characteristics can be mimicked in wild-type embryos by acetazolamide treatment, suggesting that CA5 activity in zebrafish is essential for a proper development. In addition we show that CA5 regulates acid-base balance during embryonic development, since lowering the pH can compensate for the loss of CA5 activity. Identification of selective modulators of CA5 activity could have a major impact on the development of new therapeutics involved in the treatment of a variety of disorders.

  16. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m‑2 yr‑1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42‑ accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  17. Boric acid corrosion of carbon and low alloy steels

    Leakage of borated water from the reactor coolant system of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and the resulting corrosion of carbon and low alloy steel components are concerns that have been addressed by utilities for many years. Significant corrosion has been observed in instances where such leakage has gone undetected for several months. In 1990, the B and W Owners Group (B and WOG) sponsored a test program to determine the levels of wastage that are possible when primary water leakage occurs. In this test program, carbon and stainless steel specimens were exposed to borated water at temperatures from 300 F to 550 F. Initial boric acid concentration was controlled within the limits of 13,000 to 15,000 ppm (as H3BO3) with 1.0--2.0 ppm lithium (as LiOH) added to duplicate the primary water chemistry. Testing was performed to determine the degree of attack caused by a leak traveling along a pipe both with and without insulation. These tests show the importance of temperature and boric acid concentrations on the wastage that can occur from such a leak

  18. Reduction of radiostrontium mobility in acid soils by carbonate treatment

    Development of chemical treatments to immobilize 90Sr in soil to prevent its leaching from radioactive waste disposed in shallow land burial sites is highly desirable. Six in situ carbonate-precipitating treatments, varying the amounts of carbonate, alkaline earth cation (Ca or Ba as chlorides), and order of addition were examined for their ability to immobilize radiostrontium in laboratory soil columns. The Na2CO3-followed by CaCl2-treatment was most consistently successful at reducing the leachability of radiostrontium by 0.05M CaCl2 from three low organic matter-acid soils, immobilizing as much as 53% of added radiostrontium. For the high organic matter-slightly acid soil, Na2CO3 alone, without supplemental Ca or Ba, resulted in the best immobilization (39%); dissolution of soil organic matter and the alkalinity-induced aggregate dispersion probably interfered with CaCO3 and/or BaCO3 precipitation. Success of the treatments is based primarily on their ability to generate, in situ, Ca(Sr,Mg)CO3 or Ba(Ca,Mg,Sr)CO3 precipitates that exchange radiostrontium very slowly with eluting Ca ions. Allied tests with 137Cs, which is commonly codisposed with 90Sr, indicated that the treatments describe did not interfere with the natural tendency of the selected soils to fix 137Cs strongly

  19. Easy modification of glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Thiagarajan, Soundappan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2009-04-15

    A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been modified by electrochemical oxidation in mild acidic media (0.1 mol l(-1) H(2)SO(4)) and could be applied for individual and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). Oxidized GCE shows a single redox couple (E(0)'=-2.5 mV) which is based on the formation functional groups during the electrochemical pretreatment process. Proposed GCE successfully decreases the over potentials for the oxidation process of these species (AA, DA and UA) comparing with bare GCE. The oxidized GCE has its own simplicity, stability, high sensitivity and possesses the potential for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. PMID:19162467

  20. Highly Efficient Procedure for the Synthesis of Fructone Fragrance Using a Novel Carbon based Acid

    Xuezheng Liang; Shao-Qin Lv; Lin-Mei Rong; Sheng-Xian Zhao; Chunqing Li; Baowei Hu; Chenze Qi

    2010-01-01

    The novel carbon based acid has been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of furaldehyde and hydroxyethylsulfonic acid. A highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of fructone has been developed using the novel carbon based acid. The results showed that the catalyst possessed high activity for the reaction, giving a yield of over 95%. The advantages of high activity, stability, reusability and low cost for a simple synthesis procedure and wide applicability to various diols ...

  1. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Simona Žabčíková; Dai Long Vu; Libor Červenka; Vojtěch Tambor; Martina Vašatová

    2016-01-01

    Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surf...

  2. Highly Efficient Procedure for the Synthesis of Fructone Fragrance Using a Novel Carbon based Acid

    Xuezheng Liang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel carbon based acid has been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of furaldehyde and hydroxyethylsulfonic acid. A highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of fructone has been developed using the novel carbon based acid. The results showed that the catalyst possessed high activity for the reaction, giving a yield of over 95%. The advantages of high activity, stability, reusability and low cost for a simple synthesis procedure and wide applicability to various diols and β-keto esters make this novel carbon based acid one of the best choices for the reaction.

  3. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  4. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... days of incubation, 2.2% of the labelled carbon originally added to the soil was located in carbohydrate metabolites, 7% in amino acid metabolites and 5% in the insoluble residue. The carbon in these fractions accounted for 77% of the total, residual, labelled carbon in the soil; 12% in carbohydrates...

  5. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid

    In this study, the removal of boric acid from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with salicylic acid was studied in batch system. pH, adsorbent amount, initial boron concentration, temperature, shaking rate and salicylic acid film thickness were chosen as parameters. Boron removal efficiencies increased with increasing adsorbent amount, temperature and pH, decreasing initial boron concentration. As thickness of salicylic acid film on activated carbon becomes thin up to 0.088 nm, the efficiency increased, and then, the efficiency decreased with becoming thinner than 0.088 nm of salicylic acid film. Shaking rate was no effect on removal efficiency. In result, it was determined that the use of salicylic acid as an impregnant for activated carbon led to the increase of the amount of boron adsorbed. A lactone ring, being the most appropriate conformation, forms between boric acid and -COOH and -OH groups of salicylic acid

  6. Novel graphene flowers modified carbon fibers for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid.

    Du, Jiao; Yue, Ruirui; Ren, Fangfang; Yao, Zhangquan; Jiang, Fengxing; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou

    2014-03-15

    A novel and sensitive carbon fiber electrode (CFE) modified by graphene flowers was prepared and used to simultaneously determine ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). SEM images showed that beautiful and layer-petal graphene flowers homogeneously bloomed on the surface of CFE. Moreover, sharp and obvious oxidation peaks were found at the obtained electrode when compared with CFE and glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the oxidation of AA, DA and UA. Also, the linear calibration plots for AA, DA and UA were observed, respectively, in the ranges of 45.4-1489.23 μM, 0.7-45.21 μM and 3.78-183.87 μM in the individual detection of each component. By simultaneously changing the concentrations of AA, DA and UA, their oxidation peaks appeared at -0.05 V, 0.16 V and 2.6 V, and the good linear responses ranges were 73.52-2305.53 μM, 1.36-125.69 μM and 3.98-371.49 μM, respectively. In addition, the obtained electrode showed satisfactory results when applied to the determination of AA, DA and UA in urine and serum samples. PMID:24140872

  7. Carbon doping of MgB{sub 2} by toluene and malic-acid-in-toluene

    Bohnenstiehl, S.D., E-mail: bohnenstiehl.1@osu.ed [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Susner, M.A.; Yang, Y.; Collings, E.W.; Sumption, M.D. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Rindfleisch, M.A.; Boone, R. [Hyper Tech Research, Inc., 539 Industrial Mile Road, Columbus, OH 43228 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Both toluene and malic acid contribute carbon to MgB{sub 2}. {yields} Toluene is more effective than malic acid for transport properties. {yields} Total carbon can be measured by LECO carbon analysis. - Abstract: The decomposition of malic acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 5}) in the presence of Mg and B was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) which revealed that malic acid reacted with Mg but not B. Also, the addition of toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}) to dissolve malic acid followed by subsequent drying resulted in no reaction with Mg, indicating that the malic acid had decomposed during the dissolution/drying stage. The total carbon contributed by toluene versus a toluene/5 wt.% malic acid mixture was measured using a LECO CS600 carbon analyzer. The toluene sample contained {approx}0.4 wt.% C while the toluene/malic acid mixture had {approx}1.5 wt.% C, demonstrating that the toluene contributed a significant amount of carbon to the final product. Resistivity measurements on powder-in-tube MgB{sub 2} monofilamentary wires established that the toluene/malic acid doped sample had the highest B{sub c2}. However, the toluene-only sample had the highest transport J{sub c} over most of the magnetic field range (0-9 T), equaled only by that of toluene/malic-acid sample in fields above 9 T.

  8. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-04-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with 13C-enriched glucose and 15N-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and 13C- and 15N content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) allowed us to trace the fate of microbial biomass and -detritus and the major biochemical groups therein (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) over intermediate time scales (weeks-months). Moreover, the unidentified fraction of the labeled material (i.e. not analyzed as HAA, FA, or carbohydrate) provided information on the formation and fate of molecularly uncharacterizable organic matter. Loss of 13C and 15N from the sediment was slow (half live of 433 days) which may have been due to the permanently anoxic conditions in the experiment. Loss rates for the different biochemical groups were also low with the following order of loss rate constants: PLFA > TFA > HAA > monosaccharides. The unidentified 13C-pool was rapidly formed (within days) and then decreased relatively slowly, resulting in a gradual relative accumulation of this pool over time. Degradation and microbial reworking of the labeled material resulted in subtle, yet consistent, diagenetic changes within the different biochemical groups. In the HAA pool, glycine, lysine, and proline were lost relatively slowly (i.e. best preserved) while there was no accumulation of D-alanine relative to L-alanine, indicating no relative accumulation of bacterial macromolecules rich in D-alanine. In the fatty acid pool, there was very little difference between PLFAs and TFAs, indicating a very similar lability of these pools. Differences between individual fatty acids included a relatively slow loss of i15

  9. Soil metabolic transformations of carbon-14-myo-inositol, carbon-14-phytic acid and carbon-14-iron(III) phytate

    Uniformly labelled 14C-phytic acid and 14C-iron(III) phytate were synthesized from uniformly labelled 14C-myo-inositol. The three compounds were incubated in an Andosol sandy loam at 70% field capacity and 36.50C for a 12-day period. Myo-inositol, phytic acid and iron(III) phytate underwent a 61.0, 1.9 and 0% microbial oxidation respectively to CO2 during the incubation period. The rate of fixation of 14C-phytic acid was illustrated by its rapid decline in metabolism in the 12-day period. The metabolism rate of phytic was considerably reduced by the presumed formation of iron(III) and aluminium phytate. The metabolism rate of myo-inositol was reduced nine-fold after an initial rapid metabolism during the first day of incubation. The following mechanisms were observed in the soil metabolism of myo-inositol: (1) soil mineral-inositol carbon adsorption, (2) humic acid-inositol carbon adsorption, (3) the phosphorylation of myo-inositol, and (4) the epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. The formation of (1) and (2) was found to be highly dependent upon microbial activity. Interactions (1), (2) and (3)are considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the microbial oxidation of myo-inositol. The inhibition of myo-inositol oxidation via adsorption or phosphorylation is considered to be due to the chemical blockage of the stereo-specific microbial oxidative attack on the axial hydroxyl group. (author)

  10. Molybdosphoric Acid Mixed with Titania Used as a Catalyst to Synthesize Diphenyl Carbonate via Transesterification of Dimethyl Carbonate and Phenol

    Tong Chen; Huajun Han; Zhiping Du; Jie Yao; Gongying Wang; Dachuan Shi; Desheng Zhang; Zhiming Chen

    2006-01-01

    The 12-molybdosphoric acid mixed with titania (MPA-TiO2) was found to be a novel and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of diphenyl carbonate (DPC) via transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and phenol. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) techniques were employed to characterize the prepared catalysts. The effect of the weight ratio of the 12-molybdosphoric acid to titania on the transesterification was investigated. A 13.1% yield of DPC and an 11.6% yield of methyl phenyl carbonate (MPC) were obtained over MPA-TiO2 with the weight ratio of MPA to TiO2 as 5:1.

  11. Sorption of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroheptanoic acid on granular activated carbon.

    Zhang, Di; Luo, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Woodward, David; Huang, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    The sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on granular activated carbon (GAC) was characterized and compared to explore the underlying mechanisms. Sorption of the three perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on GAC appeared to be a rapid intra-particle diffusion process, which were well represented by the pseudo-second-order rate model with the sorption rate following the order PFOS > PFOA > PFHpA. Sorption isotherm data were well fitted by the Freundlich model with the sorption capacity (Kf) of PFOS, PFOA and PFHpA being 4.45, 2.42 and 1.66 respectively. This suggests that the hydrophilic head group on PFAAs, i.e. sulfonate vs carboxylic, has a strong influence on their sorption. Comparison between PFOA and PFHpA revealed that hydrophobicity could also play a role in the sorption of PFAAs on GAC when the fluorocarbon chain length is different. Analyses using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested possible formation of a negative charge-assisted H-bond between PFAAs and the functionalities on GAC surfaces, including non-aromatic ketones, sulfides, and halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:26606188

  12. Enhancing the capacitances of electric double layer capacitors based on carbon nanotube electrodes by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization

    2010-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) were made from carbon nanotubes(CNTs).Effect of carbon dioxide activation together with acid oxidation for the electrodes on the characteristics and performances of electrodes and EDLCs was studied.Carbon dioxide activation changed the microstructure of the electrodes,increased the effective surface area of CNTs and optimized the distribution of apertures of the electrodes.Acid oxidization modified the surface characteristics of CNTs.Based on the polarizable electrodes treated by carbon dioxide activation and acid oxidization,the performances of EDLCs were greatly enhanced.The specific capacitance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.8 F/g to 60.4 F/g.

  13. Interaction of nucleic acids with carbon nanotubes and dendrimers

    Bidisha Nandy; Mogurampelly Santosh; Prabal K Maiti

    2012-07-01

    Nucleic acid interaction with nanoscale objects like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dendrimers is of fundamental interest because of their potential application in CNT separation, gene therapy and antisense therapy. Combining nucleic acids with CNTs and dendrimers also opens the door towards controllable self-assembly to generate various supra-molecular and nano-structures with desired morphologies. The interaction between these nanoscale objects also serve as a model system for studying DNA compaction, which is a fundamental process in chromatin organization. By using fully atomistic simulations, here we report various aspects of the interactions and binding modes of DNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) with CNTs, graphene and dendrimers. Our results give a microscopic picture and mechanism of the adsorption of single- and double-strand DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) on CNT and graphene. The nucleic acid–CNT interaction is dominated by the dispersive van der Waals (vdW) interaction. In contrast, the complexation of DNA (both ssDNA and dsDNA) and siRNA with various generations of poly-amido-amine (PAMAM) dendrimers is governed by electrostatic interactions. Our results reveal that both the DNA and siRNA form stable complex with the PAMAM dendrimer at a physiological pH when the dendrimer is positively charged due to the protonation of the primary amines. The size and binding energy of the complex increase with increase in dendrimer generation. We also give a summary of the current status in these fields and discuss future prospects.

  14. Screen printing of nucleic acid detecting carbon electrodes.

    Dequaire, Murielle; Heller, Adam

    2002-09-01

    A large fraction of the presently mass-manufactured (> 10(8) units/year) electrochemical biosensors, used mostly by diabetic people to monitor their blood glucose levels, have screen-printed carbon working electrodes. An earlier study (Campbell, C. N., et al. Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 158-162) showed that nucleic acids can be assayed at 1 nM concentrations by a sandwich-type amperometric method. The assay was performed with vitreous carbon working electrodes on which an electron-conducting polycationic redox polymer and avidin were coelectrodeposited. Because the rate of the electrodeposition increases with the surface density of the polycationic redox polymer, its practicality depends on pretreatment of the surface, which adds anionic functions. (Gao, Z., et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 810-813). Here it is shown that the required conducting redox polymer films can be electrodeposited on potentially mass manufacturable electrodes made by screen-printing hydrophilic carbon inks on polyester sheets. The modified electrodes are made in two steps. First a polycationic electron-conducting redox polymer is cross-linked and electrodeposited by applying a negative potential. Next, an amine-terminated 20-base single-stranded oligonucleotide is electrodeposited by ligand-exchange. Both steps involve exchange of a labile inner sphere chloride ligand of the polymer-bound osmium-complex: Cross-linking and electrodeposition of the redox polymer result when inner-sphere chloride anions of the osmium complexes are exchanged by imidazole functions of neighboring chains. Incorporation of the oligonucleotide in the redox polymer results in the formation of a coordinative bond between the terminal amine (attached through a spacer to the oligonucleotide) and the osmium complex. In testing for the presence of a 38-base oligonucleotide, the analyte, in a 15- or 25-microL droplet of hybridization solution, is hybridized with and captured by the 20-base electrode-bound sequence; then

  15. Mechanism of carbon monoxide reactions under high pressure catalyzed by acids and bases

    Takezaki, Y.

    1978-05-01

    A review, based mainly on work done at Kyoto University, covers the mechanisms and kinetics of acid-catalyzed carbonylations, including the hydrogen fluoride-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide to methallyl chloride, the sulfuric acid-catalyzed synthesis of succinic acid from acrylic acid, and the conversion of toluene to p-tolualdehyde in hydrogen fluoride/boron trifluoride by the Gattermann-Koch reaction; and of base-catalyzed reactions, including the production of methyl formate from methanol with 1,8-diazabicyclo (5,4,0)undec-7-ene catalyst and of malonic acid from potassium acetate and potassium carbonate. Graphs, tables, and 34 references.

  16. Carbon Mineralization in Acidic, Xeric Forest Soils: Induction of New Activities †

    Tate, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon mineralization was examined in Lakehurst and Atsion sands collected from the New Jersey Pinelands and in Pahokee muck from the Everglades Agricultural Area. Objectives were (i) to estimate the carbon mineralization capacities of acidic, xeric Pinelands soils in the absence of exogenously supplied carbon substrate (nonamended carbon mineralization rate) and to compare these activities with those of agriculturally developed pahokee muck, and (ii) to measure the capacity for increased car...

  17. Humification degree of Rendzina soil humic acids influenced by carbonate leaching and land use

    Radmanović Svjetlana B.; Đorđević Aleksandar R.; Nikolić Nataša S.

    2015-01-01

    The humification degrees of humic acids extracted from calcareous and decarbonated Rendzinas under different land use were characterized upon their optical properties, to evaluate the influence of carbonate leaching (decarbonation) and different land uses. Decarbonation influenced the humification degree of humic acids positively. Base leaching and acidification of decarbonated Rendzinas led to a decrease in humification degree of humic acids. In calcareous...

  18. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion by 11-aminoundecanoic acid

    Saad Ghareba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports results on the investigation of the possibility of using 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AA as an inhibitor of general corrosion of carbon steel (CS in HCl under a range of experimental conditions: inhibitor concentration, exposure time, electrolyte temperature and pH and CS surface roughness. It was found that AA acts as a mixed-type inhibitor, yielding maximum inhibition efficiency of 97 %. The adsorption of AA onto the CS surface was described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The corresponding apparent Gibbs free energy of AA adsorption on CS at 295 K was calculated to be −30.2 kJ mol–1. The adsorption process was found to be driven by a positive change in entropy of the system. PM-IRRAS measurements revealed that the adsorbed AA layer is amorphous, which can be attributed to the repulsion between the neighboring positively charged amine groups and a high heterogeneity of the CS surface. It was also found that the AA provides very good corrosion protection of CS of various surface roughness, and over a prolonged time.

  20. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid catalyst and its catalytic activities for acetalization

    Yueqing Lu; Xuezheng Liang; Chenze Qi

    2012-06-01

    Novel solid acid based on carbon/silica composites are synthesized through one-pot hydrothermal carbonization of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid, sucrose and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The novel solid acid owned the acidity of 2.0 mmol/g, much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the solid acid are investigated through acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid was very efficient for the reactions. The high acidity and catalytic activities made the novel carbon/silica composites based solid acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

  1. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Boisen, Anja; O, Fernando Martínez

    2013-01-01

    This work involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple “one pot” synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own...... Nlayered Integrated Molecular Orbital and Molecular Mechanics (B3LYP(6–31G(d):UFF)). The results confirmed that the interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between protons of the glutamic moiety from folic acid and π electrons from the carbon nanotubes. The single-walled carbon nanotube-folic acid...

  2. Effect of different carbon fillers and dopant acids on electrical properties of polyaniline nanocomposites

    E Johny Jelmy; S Ramakrishnan; Murali Rangarajan; Nikhil K Kothurkar

    2013-02-01

    Electrically conducting nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) with carbon-based fillers have evinced considerable interest for various applications such as rechargeable batteries, microelectronics, sensors, electrochromic displays and light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. The nature of both the carbon filler and the dopant acid can significantly influence the conductivity of these nanocomposites. This paper describes the effects of carbon fillers like carbon black (CB), graphite (GR) and muti-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and of dopant acids like methane sulfonic acid (MSA), camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on the electrical conductivity of PANI. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of neat PANI and carbon–PANI nanocomposites were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), UV–Vis spectroscopy and the four-point probe technique, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were also conducted for different PANI composites. The results show that PANI and carbon–PANI composites with organic acid dopants show good thermal stability and higher electrical conductivity than those with inorganic acid dopants. Also, carbon–PANI composites generally show higher electrical conductivity than neat PANI, with highest conductivities for PANI–CNT composites. Thus, in essence, PANI–CNT composites prepared using organic acid dopants are most suitable for conducting applications.

  3. Electrochemically oxidized carbon anode in direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cells

    The activity of electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode was investigated in the operation of a direct L-ascorbic acid fuel cell anode. The surface oxygen species placed on electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation process of carbon electrode can facilitate the pore-filling process (i.e., wetting) of the electrolyte into the microstructure of the carbon electrode by increasing the number of more polar functional groups on the electrode surface. The electrochemically oxidized carbon electrode exhibited significantly enhanced electro-catalytic oxidation activity of L-ascorbic acid compared to an unmodified carbon electrode. Moreover, the simplified electrode structure using carbon paper without an additional powder-based precious catalyst layer is very favorable in creating percolation network and generates power density of 18 mW/cm2 at 60 deg. C

  4. Differences in oxygen reduction catalysis of platinised acid treated Showa Denko carbon nanofibres

    Veltzé, Sune; Yli-Rantala, Elina; Borghei, Maryam;

    2011-01-01

    corrosion, as the nanostructures are thermally and chemically more durable. The presented work describes the effects on surface defect of acid treated Showa Denko vapour grown carbon fibres (VGCF®/VGCF-H®). A selection of carbon fibres have been platinised and the differences of the oxygen reduction......The use of carbon as support material for platinum nano-crystallites in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) is a common method for increasing the electrochemical specific surface area (ECSA) of platinum. During fuel cell operation, the conditions that catalysts are subjected to lead to various...... forms of the ECSA degradation: By agglomeration of the platinum crystallites, Rietveld ripening or indirectly by corrosion of the carbon support. Graphitised carbon nanostructures like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (CNFs), etc. are proposed as carbon support substitutes to avoid carbon...

  5. Synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride by reaction of melamine and uric acid

    Highlights: → Graphitic carbon nitrides by CVD of melamine and uric acid on alumina. → The building blocks of carbon nitrides are heptazine nuclei. → Composite particles with alumina core and carbon nitride coating. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitrides were synthesized starting from melamine and uric acid. Uric acid was chosen because it thermally decomposes, and reacts with melamine by condensation at temperatures in the range of 400-600 deg. C. The reagents were mixed with alumina and subsequently the samples were treated in an oven under nitrogen flux. Alumina favored the deposition of the graphitic carbon nitrides layers on the exposed surface. This method can be assimilated to an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Infrared (IR) spectra, as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, are in accordance with the formation of a graphitic carbon nitride with a structure based on heptazine blocks. These carbon nitrides exhibit poor crystallinity and a nanometric texture, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The thermal degradation of the graphitic carbon nitride occurs through cyano group formation, and involves the bridging tertiary nitrogen and the bonded carbon, which belongs to the heptazine ring, causing the ring opening and the consequent network destruction as inferred by connecting the IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. This seems to be an easy and promising route to synthesize graphitic carbon nitrides. Our final material is a composite made of an alumina core covered by carbon nitride layers.

  6. Morphology-dependent Electrochemical Enhancements of Porous Carbon as Sensitive Determination Platform for Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    Cheng, Qin; Ji, Liudi; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-02-01

    Using starch as the carbon precursor and different-sized ZnO naoparticles as the hard template, a series of porous carbon materials for electrochemical sensing were prepared. Experiments of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal that the particle size of ZnO has big impacts on the porous morphology and surface area of the resulting carbon materials. Through ultrasonic dispersion of porous carbon and subsequent solvent evaporation, different sensing interfaces were constructed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) were studied. On the surface of porous carbon materials, the accumulation efficiency and electron transfer ability of AA, DA and UA are improved, and consequently their oxidation signals enhance greatly. Moreover, the interface enhancement effects of porous carbon are also controlled by the particle size of hard template. The constructed porous carbon interface displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a sensitive platform for the simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA.

  7. Metabolic carbon fluxes and biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Ralstonia eutropha on short chain fatty acids.

    Yu, Jian; Si, Yingtao

    2004-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids can be synthesized into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Ralstonia eutropha. Metabolic carbon fluxes of the acids in living cells have significant effect on the yield, composition, and thermomechanical properties of PHA bioplastics. Based on the general knowledge of central metabolism pathways and the unusual metabolic pathways in R. eutropha, a metabolic network of 41 bioreactions is constructed to analyze the carbon fluxes on utilization of the short chain fatty acids. In fed-batch cultures with constant feeding of acid media, carbon metabolism and distribution in R. eutropha were measured involving CO2, PHA biopolymers, and residual cell mass. As the cells underwent unsteady state metabolism and PHA biosynthesis under nitrogen-limited conditions, accumulative carbon balance was applied for pseudo-steady-state analysis of the metabolic carbon fluxes. Cofactor NADP/NADPH balanced between PHA synthesis and the C3/C4 pathway provided an independent constraint for solution of the underdetermined metabolic network. A major portion of propionyl-CoA was directed to pyruvate via the 2-methylcitrate cycle and further decarboxylated to acetyl-CoA. Only a small amount of propionate carbon (acetic acid in the medium. Malate is the node of the C3/C4 pathway and TCA cycle and its decarboxylation to dehydrogenation ranges from 0.33 to 1.28 in response to the demands on NADPH and oxaloacetate for short chain fatty acids utilization. PMID:15296425

  8. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  9. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 3130K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 2980K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory

  10. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  11. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  12. Carbon-13 kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid of natural isotopic composition in phosphoric acid medium

    The 13C kinetic isotope effect fractionation in the decarbonylation of lactic acid (LA) of natural isotopic composition by concentrated phosphoric acids (PA) and by 85% H3PO4 has been studied in the temperature interval of 60-150 deg C. The values of the 13C(1) isotope effects in the decarbonylation of lactic acid in 100% H3PO4, in pyrophosphoric acid and in more concentrated phosphoric acids are intermediate between the values calculated assuming that the C(1)-OH bond is broken in the rate-controlling step of dehydration and those calculated for rupture of the carbon-carbon bond in the transition state. In the temperature interval of 90-130 deg C the experimental 13C fractionation factors determined in concentrated PA approach quite closely the 13C fractionation corresponding to C(2)-C(1) bond scission. The 13C(1) kinetic isotope effects in the decarbonylation of LA in 85% orthophosphoric acid in the temperature range of 110-150 deg C coincide with the 13C isotope effects calculated assuming that the frequency corresponding to the C(1)-OH vibration is lost in the transition state of decarbonylation. A change of the mechanism of decarbonylation of LA in going from concentrated PA medium to 85% H3PO4 has been suggested. A possible secondary 18O and a primary18O kinetic isotope effect in decarbonylation of lactic acid in phosphoric acids media have been discussed, too. (author) 21 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets doped graphene oxide for electrochemical simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Graphical abstract: Schematic drawing of electrochemical oxidize AA, DA and UA on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode. - Highlights: • Synthesize g-C3N4, GO and CNNS-GO composite. • CNNS-GO composite was the first time for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE displays fantastic selectivity and sensitivity for AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE was applied to detect real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets with a graphite-like structure have strong covalent bonds between carbon and nitride atoms, and nitrogen atoms in the carbon architecture can accelerate the electron transfer and enhance electrical properties effectually. The graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite was synthesized. And the electrochemical performance of the composite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry ulteriorly. Due to the synergistic effects of layer-by-layer structures by π-π stacking or charge-transfer interactions, graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite can improved conductivity, electro-catalytic and selective oxidation performance. The proposed graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode was employed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in their mixture solution, it exhibited distinguished sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Moreover, the modified electrode was applied to detect urine and dopamine injection sample, and then the samples were spiked with certain concentration of three substances with satisfactory recovery results

  14. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Catalyzed by Amino Acid Hydrochloride Salts

    2008-01-01

    Using amino acid hydrochloride salt as a catalyst, the coupling reaction of CO2 with epoxides could proceed smoothly to give cyclic carbonates in very good yields and high selectivity. The reaction conditions such as the pressure of carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were carefully investigated.

  15. Predicting the Sorption of Aromatic Acids to Noncarbonized and Carbonized Sorbents.

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo; Kah, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Approaches based on the octanol-water partition coefficient are commonly used to describe sorption of neutral organic compounds in environmental systems, but they are not suitable for organic acids, which can dissociate to form anions. We here investigate the applicability of an alternative approach based on the pH-dependent distribution ratio (DOW) to describe sorption of aromatic acids to sorbents representing different degrees of carbonization. Sorption isotherms for four structurally similar acids ((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-15 methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic16 acid (2,4-DB), and 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan)) were measured for 15 sorbents: fresh and carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes, and activated carbon. Dissociation greatly affected the sorption of all acids. Sorption coefficients measured in the high pH range indicated that sorption of the anions ranged over several orders of magnitude and should not be neglected. Sorption trends for all sorbates and carbonized sorbents could be very well described by a single regression equation that included DOW of the sorbate and the specific surface area of the sorbent (R(2) > 0.89). PMID:26949216

  16. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a polar environment

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν3 band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO2 band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H2O)-carbon dioxide (CO2) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν3 band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  17. Inhibition of nitrobenzene adsorption by water cluster formation at acidic oxygen functional groups on activated carbon.

    Kato, Yuichi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition effect of nitrobenzene adsorption by water clusters formed at the acidic groups on activated carbon was examined in aqueous and n-hexane solution. The activated carbon was oxidized with nitric acid to introduce CO complexes and then outgassed in helium flow at 1273 K to remove them completely without changing the structural properties of the carbon as a reference adsorbent. The amounts of acidic functional groups were determined by applying Boehm titration. A relative humidity of 95% was used to adsorb water onto the carbon surface. Strong adsorption of water onto the oxidized carbon can be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption kinetic rate was estimated to be controlled by diffusion from the kinetic analysis. Significant decline in both capacity and kinetic rate for nitrobenzene adsorption onto the oxidized carbon was also observed in n-hexane solution by preadsorption of water to the carbon surface, whereas it was not detected for the outgassed carbons. These results might reveal that water molecules forming clusters at the CO complexes inhibited the entrance of nitrobenzene into the interparticles of the carbon. PMID:18440013

  18. Stable carbon isotope analysis of nucleic acids to trace sources of dissolved substrates used by estuarine bacteria.

    Coffin, R B; Velinsky, D J; R. Devereux; Price, W A; Cifuentes, L A

    1990-01-01

    The natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes measured in bacterial nucleic acids extracted from estuarine bacterial concentrates was used to trace sources of organic matter for bacteria in aquatic environments. The stable carbon isotope ratios of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and nucleic acids extracted from cultures resembled those of the carbon source on which bacteria were grown. The carbon isotope discrimination between the substrate and total cell carbon from bacterial cultures averaged 2.3%...

  19. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Akiyoshi Hoshino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1 system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source and keto acids (oxylic acid sources. In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

  20. Oxygen-18 incorporation into malic acid during nocturnal carbon dioxide fixation in crassulacean acid metabolism plants: a new approach to estimating in vivo carbonic anhydrase activity

    Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO2 fixation is conducted with TC YO2, then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO2 and cellular H2O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the ( TC) malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO3 compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-01-01

    Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and accele...

  2. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Yıldız, Kenan

    2000-01-01

    Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli – Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and acce...

  3. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal by acid modified waste activated carbons.

    Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2009-11-15

    Fresh activated carbon (AC) and waste activated carbon (WAC) were pretreated by heating with mineral acids (sulfuric acid and nitric acid) at high temperature to prepare several grades of adsorbents to evaluate their performance on Cr(VI) removal from aqueous phase. Effects of temperature, agitation speed and pH were tested, and optimum conditions were evaluated. Kinetic study was performed under optimum conditions with several grades of modified adsorbents to know the rates of adsorption. Batch adsorption equilibrium data followed both, Freuindlich and Langmuir isotherms. Maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) of the selected adsorbents treated with sulfuric acid (MWAC 1) and nitric acid (MWAC 2), calculated from Langmuir isotherm are 7.485 and 10.929 mg/g, respectively. Nitric acid treated adsorbent (MWAC 2) was used for column study to determine the constants of bed depth service time (BDST) model for adsorption column design. PMID:19553008

  4. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli – Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and accelerated the dissolution of manganese in acidic media.

  5. A novel synthesis of carbon-labelled quinolone-3-carboxylic acid antibacterials

    Carr, R.M.; Sutherland, D.R. (Glaxo Research and Development Ltd., Greenford (United Kingdom). Isotope Chemistry Group)

    1994-10-01

    3-Iodoquinolones were prepared from the corresponding quinolone-3-carboxylic acids by Hunsdiecker-type iododecarboxylation reactions with lead tetraacetate and iodine. Cyanation of the iodo compounds with mixtures of potassium [[sup 13]C]cyanide and copper (1) iodide, gave [3-[sup 13]C]cyanoquinolones which on acidic hydrolysis afforded quinolone-[3-[sup 13]C]carboxylic acids. In this way, nalidixic acid, an immediate precursor of norfloxacin, and quinolone WIN57273 were labelled with carbon-13 in the metabolically stable carboxylic acid fragment. (author).

  6. Carbonic acid revisited: Vibrational spectra, energetics and the possibility of detecting an elusive molecule

    Stefan E. Huber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We calculate harmonic frequencies of the three most abundant carbonic acid conformers. For this, different model chemistries are investigated with respect to their benefits and shortcomings. Based on these results we use perturbation theory to calculate anharmonic corrections at the ωB97XD/aug-cc-pVXZ, X = D, T, Q, level of theory and compare them with recent experimental data and theoretical predictions. A discrete variable representation method is used to predict the large anharmonic contributions to the frequencies of the stretching vibrations in the hydrogen bonds in the carbonic acid dimer. Moreover, we re-investigate the energetics of the formation of the carbonic acid dimer from its constituents water and carbon dioxide using a high-level extrapolation method. We find that the ωB97XD functional performs well in estimating the fundamental frequencies of the carbonic acid conformers. Concerning the reaction energetics, the accuracy of ωB97XD is even comparable to the high-level extrapolation method. We discuss possibilities to detect carbonic acid in various natural environments such as Earth's and Martian atmospheres.

  7. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  8. Study of iodine recovery with platinum-active carbon from nitric acid solution

    Platinum-Active Carbon (Pt-C) was synthesized and its adsorption and desorption properties in low acidity nitric solution were discussed. It showed that Pt-C can absorb I- and IO3- with high exchange capacity in nitric acid solution, and the recovery rate of I-and IO3- is more than 90%, thus Pt-C can be used for iodine recovery in low acidity nitric solution. (authors)

  9. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using magnetic carbon nanotube improved with tartaric acid

    Zohdi, Nima; Mahdavi, Fariba; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Choong, Thomas SY

    2014-01-01

    Boron removal capacity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with tartaric acid was investigated in this study. Modification of MWCNTs with tartaric acid was confirmed by Boehm surface chemistry method and fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Experiments were performed to determine the adsorption isotherm and adsorption thermodynamic parameters of boron adsorption on tartaric acid modified MWCNTs (TA-MWCNTs). The effect of variables including initial pH, dosage of ad...

  10. Nitric Acid-Treated Carbon Fibers with Enhanced Hydrophilicity for Candida tropicalis Immobilization in Xylitol Fermentation

    Le Wang; Na Liu; Zheng Guo; Dapeng Wu; Weiwei Chen; Zheng Chang; Qipeng Yuan; Ming Hui; Jinshui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3)-treated carbon fiber (CF) rich in hydrophilic groups was applied as a cell-immobilized carrier for xylitol fermentation. Using scanning electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology of the HNO3-treated CF. Additionally, we evaluated the immobilized efficiency (IE) of Candida tropicalis and xylitol fermentation yield by investigating the surface properties of nitric acid treated CF, specifically, the acidic group content, zero charge point, degree of moisture and cont...

  11. Study of the sorption of nitric acid by carbons with a varying graphitization rate

    After having recalled some aspects of the crystalline structure of graphite, and the classification and main properties of lamellar complexes, the author of this research thesis outlines that the graphite-nitric acid complex belongs to the category of spontaneous lamellar complexes which are notably unsteady, or remain steady in presence of an excess of reactant. Then, this research thesis reports the study of the reaction of nitric acid on graphite as well as on pre-graphitic and partially graphitized carbons. The objective is to relate the carbon structure status to its reactivity with respect to nitric acid, and to study the evolution of this reactivity as graphitization progresses

  12. Amino Acids Analysis by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Using Carbon Nanotube as Matrix

    张菁; 王昊阳; 郭寅龙

    2005-01-01

    Twenty common amino acids have been analyzed successfully by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) using carbon nanotubes as matrix. From the spectra, little or no background interference or fragmentation of the analytes has been observed. This method was also applied to the analysis of amino acid mixture successfully. Carbon nanotubes have some features such as large surface area to disperse the analyte molecules sufficiently and prevent the sample aggregation and strong ultraviolet absorption to transfer energy easily to the analyte molecules. The present method has potential application for the rapid and sensitive analysis of amino acids and their mixture.

  13. Carbon-based acid catalyst from waste seed shells: preparation and characterization

    Wang Li H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized seed shells of Jatropha curcas (J. curcas L.. The structure of amorphous carbon consisting of polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets attached a high density of acidic SO3H groups (2.0 mmol · g−1 was identified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The performance of the solid acid catalyst was evaluated for biodiesel production in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. 95.7% yield of biodiesel was obtained after 2 h reaction and the conversions with reused catalyst varied in the range of 95.7% to 95.1%, showing better activity and stability than commercial catalyst amberlyst-46. It was also observed that the prepared catalyst showed enhanced activity in the transesterification of triolein with methanol when compared with other solid acid catalysts. A synergistic effect results from the high density of SO3H groups and the good access of reactants to the acidic sites can be used to explain the excellent catalytic activity, as well as the strong affinity between the hydrophilic reactants and the neutral OH groups bonded to the polycyclic aromatic carbon rings.

  14. Dissimilation of carbon monoxide to acetic acid by glucose-limited cultures of Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Clostridium thermoaceticum was cultivated in glucose-limited media, and the dissimilation of CO to acetic acid was evaluated. The authors found that cultures catalyzed the rapid dissimilation of CO to acetic acid and CO2, with the stoichiometry obtained for conversion approximating that predicted from the following reaction: 4CO + 2H2O → CH3CO2H + 2CO2. Growing cultures formed approximately 50 mmol (3 g) of CO-derived acetic acid per liter of culture, with the rate of maximal consumption approximating 9.1 mmol of CO consumed/h per liter of culture. In contrast, resting cells were found not to dissimilate CO to acetic acid. 14CO was incorporated, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons of acetic acid when the initial cultivation gas phase was 100% CO whereas 14CO2 preferentially entered the carboxyl carbon when the initial gas phase was 100% CO2. Significantly, in the presence of saturating levels of CO, 14CO2 preferentially entered the methyl carbon, whereas saturating levels of CO2 yielded 14CO-derived labeling predominantly in the carboxyl carbon. These findings are discussed in relation to the path of carbon flow to acetic acid

  15. Desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent, (1)

    An investigation was carried out on the desorption of uranium from titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent with acidic eluent by the batch process. The rate of desorption of uranium with acidic eluent depended on temperature, showing an increase as the temperature was raised. But the rate of desorption with acidic eluent was less dependent on temperature than that obtained when mixed eluent of sodium carbonate-sodium hydrogencarbonate was used. The difference of the rate of desorption of uranium in the range of concentration from 0.3 to 0.5N was not found, and the rate of desorption with sulfuric acid was slightly higher than that obtained when hydrochloric acid was used. The amount of dissolved titanium decreased as the ratio of adsorbent to eluent (RAE) was increased. At RAE of 10%, the percentage of dissolved titanium (DTI) was below 0.38% with sulfuric acid, below 0.7% with hydrochloric acid. These values were found to be higher than the ones with the carbonate eluent. The elements except uranium, which were adsorbed on the adsorbent, were eluted simultaneously with acidic eluent. The regeneration of the adsorbent after desorption, therefore, was found to be unnecessary. In a repeated test of adsorption-desorption treatment up to five times, the percentage of uranium adsorbed from natural sea water was approximately constant of 85%. From these results, the application of column process to the desorption of uranium with acidic eluent at room temperature was proposed to be feasible. (author)

  16. Determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparation and fruit juice using modified carbon paste electrode

    Simona Žabčíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrobic acid is key substance in the human metabolism and the rapid and accurate determination in food is of a great interest. Ascorbic acid is an electroactive compound, however poorly responded on the bare carbon paste electrodes. In this paper, brilliant cresyl blue and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the modification of carbon paste electrode. Brilliant cresyl blue acts as a mediator improving the transition of electrons, whereas multiwalled carbon nanotubes increased the surface of the electrode. Both brilliant cresyl blue and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were added directly to the composite material. The electrochemical behavior of modified electode was determined in electrolyte at various pH, and the effect of the scan rate was also performed. It was shown that the electrochemical process on the surface of the modified carbon paste electrode was diffusion-controlled. The resulted modified carbon paste electrode showed a good electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid at a reduced overpotential of +100 mV descreasing the risk of interferences. A linear response of the ascorbic acid oxidation current measured by the amperometry in the range of 0.1 - 350 µmol.L-1 was obtained applying the sensor for the standard solution. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.05 and 0.15 µmol.L-1, respectively. The novel method was applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical vitamin preparation and fruit juice, and the results were in good agreement with the standard HPLC method. The presented modification of carbon paste electrode is suitable for the fast, sensitive and very accurate determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juices and pharmaceutical preparation.

  17. Adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids by carbonaceous adsorbents: Effect of carbon surface chemistry

    Adsorption by carbonaceous sorbents is among the most feasible processes to remove perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) from drinking and ground waters. However, carbon surface chemistry, which has long been recognized essential for dictating performance of such sorbents, has never been considered for PFOS and PFOA adsorption. Thus, the role of surface chemistry was systematically investigated using sorbents with a wide range in precursor material, pore structure, and surface chemistry. Sorbent surface chemistry overwhelmed physical properties in controlling the extent of uptake. The adsorption affinity was positively correlated carbon surface basicity, suggesting that high acid neutralizing or anion exchange capacity was critical for substantial uptake of PFOS and PFOA. Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity had insignificant impact on the extent of adsorption. Synthetic polymer-based Ambersorb and activated carbon fibers were more effective than activated carbon made of natural materials in removing PFOS and PFOA from aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • Adsorption of PFOS and PFOA by ten carbonaceous adsorbents were compared. • Surface chemistry of the adsorbents controlled adsorption affinity. • Carbon surface basicity was positively correlated with the extent of PFOS and PFOA uptake. • Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity was not correlated with adsorption affinity. • Synthetic polymer-based adsorbents were more effective in removing PFOS and PFOA. - Carbon surface basicity is the primary factor that influences adsorption affinity of the carbonaceous sorbents for perfluorooctane sulfonic and carboxylic acids

  18. Electrocatalytic Activity of Carbonized Nanostructured Polyanilines for Oxidation Reactions: Sensing of Nitrite Ions and Ascorbic Acid

    Highlights: • Carbonized PANIs prepared from various nanostructured PANI precursors • Electroanalytical performances of carbonized PANIs evaluated using voltammetry • Study of carbonized PANIs physico-chemical properties related to electroactivity • The lowest over-potential for NO2− oxidation at c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE) • The lowest over-potential for ascorbic acid oxidation at both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA - Abstract: A comparative study of the electrocatalytic activity of nitrogen-containing carbon nanomaterials, prepared by the carbonization of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) salts, for the electrooxidation reactions is presented. Nanostructured PANI salts were synthesized by the oxidative polymerization of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in an aqueous solution in the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (PANI-SSA), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (PANI-DNSA) as well as without added acid (PANI), and subsequently carbonized to c-PANI-SSA, c-PANI-DNSA and c-PANI, respectively. Glassy carbon tip was modified with nanostructured c-PANIs and used for the investigation of sensing of nitrite and ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions as model analytes by linear sweep voltammetry. All three types of the investigated c-PANIs gave excellent response to the nitrite ions and ascorbic acid electrooxidation. The lowest peak potential for nitrite ion oxidation exhibited c-PANI (+0.87 V vs. SCE), and for ascorbic acid oxidation both c-PANI and c-PANI-SSA (ca. + 0.13 V vs. SCE). Electrochemical data were correlated with structural and textural data obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental and nitrogen sorption analysis

  19. Fumaric acid: an overlooked form of fixed carbon in Arabidopsis and other plant species

    Chia, D.W.; Yoder, T.J.; Reiter, W.D.; Gibson, S.I.

    2000-10-01

    Photoassimilates are used by plants for production of energy, as carbon skeletons and in transport of fixed carbon between different plant organs. Many studies have been devoted to characterizing the factors that. regulate photoassimilate concentrations in different plant species. Most studies examining photoassimilate concentrations in C{sub 3} plants have focused on analyzing starch and soluble sugars. However, work presented here demonstrates that a number of C{sub 3} plants, including the popular model organism Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and agriculturally important plants, such as soybean [Glycine ma (L.) Merr.], contain significant quantities of furnaric acid. In fact, furnaric acid can accumulate to levels of several mg per g fresh weight in A-abidopsis leaves, often exceeding starch and soluble sugar levels. Furnaric acid is a component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, like starch and soluble sugars, can be metabolized to yield energy and carbon skeletons for production of other compounds. Fumaric acid concentrations increase with plant age and light intensity in Arabidopsis leaves. Arabidopsis phloem exudates contain significant quantities of fumaric acid, raising the possibility that fumaric acid may function in carbon transport.

  20. Dissolution kinetics of Si and Al from montmorillonite in carbonic acid solution

    Xiaoming Ni; Quanzhong Li; Wenxue Chen

    2014-01-01

    The reaction between carbonic acid and montmorillonite minerals was studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for analyzing changes in the physical properties of coal seams after CO2 injection and for optimizing CO2 pumping parameters. A single montmorillonite mineral of purity [90%was selected and subjected to reactions at 25, 35, and 45 ?C in carbonic acid solutions of varying acidity. The Si and Al concentrations in the solutions and the structure and elemental compositions of the montmorillonite before and after the reactions were analyzed using a spectrophotometer, an X-ray diffractometer, and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer;kinetic reaction models were established for the dissolution of Si and Al in carbonic acid solutions in order to estimate the apparent activation energy of Si dissolution under different acidity conditions. The results indicate that Al dissolved rapidly and soon reached solubility equilibrium. On the other hand, Si concentration in the solutions increased rapidly and then gradually declined with vibrations, with maximum values at 25, 35, and 45 ?C, which were observed at approximately 96, 72, and 48 h, respectively. In addition, Si dissolution fitted the diffusion-controlled reaction model well;as the pH value decreased, the apparent activation energy of Si dissolution decreased, and Si became easier to dissolve. Furthermore, it was concluded that as a weak acid, carbonic acid causes little damage to the mineral structure of montmorillonite.

  1. Inhibition Effect of Dodecylamine on Carbon Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Ling; Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng

    2012-12-01

    Dodecylamine spontaneously adsorbs on carbon steel via its polar group (-NH2) in hydrochloric acid solution. Furthermore, it forms a monolayer film on carbon steel surface. The inhibition mechanism of dodecylamine for carbon steel is geometric blocking effect. The adsorption of dodecylamine on carbon steel surface follows Arrhenius equation. The adsorption slightly increases activated energy, but greatly reduces pre-exponential factor value. Atomic force microscopy force curves indicate that at the area without adsorbed dodecylamine, no obvious adhere force occurs. At the area with adsorbed dodecylamine, however, an average 1.3 nN adhere force is observed.

  2. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ13CDIC) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ13CDIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe2+, alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ13CDIC. We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe2+ followed by Fe3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH)3(s). The extent of DIC decrease and 13C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO3- dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO3- or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe3+ hydrolysis for HCO3- dehydration. The 13C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe2+ was proportional to HCO3- concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO3- input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC in AMD impacted streams may have

  3. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas streams. Initially, a group of promising amino acid salts (taurine, sarcosine, L-proline, -alanine, 6-aminohexanoic acid and DL-methionine) was screened for their CO2 absorption kinetics, pKa value...

  4. Leaching of sodium carbonate cakes by nitric acid

    The interaction has been studied of soda cakes of fluorite-rare-earth concentrate with nitric acid. The effect of a number of factors on extraction of REE into a nitric solution has been considered: the final acidity of the pulp, the duration of leaching, and the ratio between solid and liquid phases. The effect of adding aluminium nitrate into the pulp has also been studied. It has been shown that three-stage counterflow leaching of soda cakes with nitric acid increases REE extraction approximately by 10%

  5. The inhibition of low carbon steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solutions by succinic acid

    The effect of succinic acid (SA) on the corrosion inhibition of a low carbon steel (LCS) electrode has been investigated in aerated non-stirred 1.0 M HCl solutions in the pH range (2-8) at 25 oC. Weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were applied to study the metal corrosion behaviour in the absence and presence of different concentrations of SA under the influence of various experimental conditions. Measurements of open circuit potential (OCP) as a function of time till steady-state potentials (E st) were also established. Surface analysis using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) allowed us to clarify the mechanistic aspects and evaluate the relative inhibition efficiency. Results obtained showed that SA is a good 'green' inhibitor for LCS in HCl solutions. The polarization curves showed that SA behaves mainly as an anodic-type inhibitor. EDX and SEM observations of the electrode surface confirmed existence of a protective adsorbed film of the inhibitor on the electrode surface. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in SA concentration, pH of solution and time of immersion. Maximum inhibition efficiency (∼97.5%) is obtained at SA concentrations >0.01 M at pH 8. The effect of SA concentration and pH on the potential of zero charge (PZC) of the LCS electrode in 1.0 M HCl solutions has been studied and the mechanism of adsorption is discussed. Results obtained from weight loss, polarization and impedance measurements are in good agreements

  6. Carbon isotopic fractionation in the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids. Ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids as a means of determining the intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes

    Monson, K.D.; Hayes, J.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Dept. of Geology)

    1982-02-01

    Methods for the determination of /sup 13/C abundances at individual olefinic carbon positions have been developed, tested, and shown to perform accurately. (1) The double bond is oxidized with ozone; (2) silver oxide is used to cleave the resulting ozonide quantitatively to carboxylic-acid fragments; (3) a modified Schmidt decarboxylation is used to produce CO/sub 2/ quantitatively from the carboxyl groups of the separated cleavage products; and (4) the CO/sub 2/ is utilized for mass spectrometric analysis. The results of intramolecular isotopic analyses are combined with molecular-average isotopic compositions determined by total combustion in order to show that fatty acids biosynthesized by Escherichia coli grown aerobically with glucose as the sole carbon source and harvested at late log phase are depleted by approximately 3 parts per thousand in /sup 13/C relative to the glucose. This fractionation arises in the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase and is localized at the carboxyl position in the acetyl-CoA product. The isotopic order in that two-carbon subunit is carried through the biosynthesis of fatty acids so that alternate positions in the fatty-acid chains are depleted in /sup 13/C by an amount equal to twice the molecular-average depletion. The kinetic isotope effect at C-2 for pyruvate dehydrogenase in vivo is shown to be approximately 2.3%.

  7. Carbon isotopic fractionation in the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids. Ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids as a means of determining the intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes

    Methods for the determination of 13C abundances at individual olefinic carbon positions have been developed, tested, and shown to perform accurately. (1) The double bond is oxidized with ozone; (2) silver oxide is used to cleave the resulting ozonide quantitatively to carboxylic-acid fragments; (3) a modified Schmidt decarboxylation is used to produce CO2 quantitatively from the carboxyl groups of the separated cleavage products; and (4) the CO2 is utilized for mass spectrometric analysis. The results of intramolecular isotopic analyses are combined with molecular-average isotopic compositions determined by total combustion in order to show that fatty acids biosynthesized by Escherichia coli grown aerobically with glucose as the sole carbon source and harvested at late log phase are depleted by approximately 3 parts per thousand in 13C relative to the glucose. This fractionation arises in the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase and is localized at the carboxyl position in the acetyl-CoA product. The isotopic order in that two-carbon subunit is carried through the biosynthesis of fatty acids so that alternate positions in the fatty-acid chains are depleted in 13C by an amount equal to twice the molecular-average depletion. The kinetic isotope effect at C-2 for pyruvate dehydrogenase in vivo is shown to be approximately 2.3%. (author)

  8. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK)

  9. Influence of Sodium Carbonate on Decomposition of Formic Acid by Discharge inside Bubble in Water

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2015-09-01

    An influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubble in water was investigated. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of addition of sodium carbonate, the pH value increased with decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the increase of pH value contributed to improve an efficiency of the formic acid decomposition because the reaction rate of ozone and formic acid increased with increasing pH value. In the case of argon injection, the decomposition rate was not affected by the pH value owing to the high rate constants for loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  10. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes. - Highlights: • Wormholes are flow channels, which are created when acid is injected in rocks. • Wormhole morphology classification is a function of the acid injection rate. • Microtomography evaluates porous media as well as the wormholes structures formed

  11. Catalytic Decarboxylation of Fatty Acids to Aviation Fuels over Nickel Supported on Activated Carbon.

    Wu, Jianghua; Shi, Juanjuan; Fu, Jie; Leidl, Jamie A; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2016-01-01

    Decarboxylation of fatty acids over non-noble metal catalysts without added hydrogen was studied. Ni/C catalysts were prepared and exhibited excellent activity and maintenance for decarboxylation. Thereafter, the effects of nickel loading, catalyst loading, temperature, and carbon number on the decarboxylation of fatty acids were investigated. The results indicate that the products of cracking increased with high nickel loading or catalyst loading. Temperature significantly impacted the conversion of stearic acid but did not influence the selectivity. The fatty acids with large carbon numbers tend to be cracked in this reaction system. Stearic acid can be completely converted at 370 °C for 5 h, and the selectivity to heptadecane was around 80%. PMID:27292280

  12. Electrocatalytic and simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid at molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Beitollahi, Hadi, E-mail: h.beitollahi@yahoo.com [Environment Department, Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikhshoaie, Iran [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175-133 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode have been fabricated. > This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of isoproterenol by about 175 mV. > It resolved the voltammetric waves of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, electrochemical characterization and utilization of a novel modified molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of isoproterenol (IP). The electrochemical profile of the proposed modified electrode was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) that showed a shift of the oxidation peak potential of IP at 175 mV to less positive value, compared with an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 was performed to determine IP in the range from 0.7 to 600.0 {mu}M, with a detection limit of 35.0 nM. Then the modified electrode was used to determine IP in an excess of uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA) by DPV. Finally, this method was used for the determination of IP in some real samples.

  13. Chemical and biological consequences of using carbon dioxide versus acid additions in ocean acidification experiments

    Yates, Kimberly K.; DuFore, Christopher M.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Use of different approaches for manipulating seawater chemistry during ocean acidification experiments has confounded comparison of results from various experimental studies. Some of these discrepancies have been attributed to whether addition of acid (such as hydrochloric acid, HCl) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used to adjust carbonate system parameters. Experimental simulations of carbonate system parameter scenarios for the years 1766, 2007, and 2100 were performed using the carbonate speciation program CO2SYS to demonstrate the variation in seawater chemistry that can result from use of these approaches. Results showed that carbonate system parameters were 3 percent and 8 percent lower than target values in closed-system acid additions, and 1 percent and 5 percent higher in closed-system CO2 additions for the 2007 and 2100 simulations, respectively. Open-system simulations showed that carbonate system parameters can deviate by up to 52 percent to 70 percent from target values in both acid addition and CO2 addition experiments. Results from simulations for the year 2100 were applied to empirically derived equations that relate biogenic calcification to carbonate system parameters for calcifying marine organisms including coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera. Calculated calcification rates for coccolithophores, corals, and foraminifera differed from rates at target conditions by 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent in closed-system CO2 gas additions, from 0.8 percent to 15 percent in the closed-system acid additions, from 4.8 percent to 94 percent in open-system acid additions, and from 7 percent to 142 percent in open-system CO2 additions.

  14. Influence of acid functionalization on the cardiopulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and carbon black particles in mice

    Engineered carbon nanotubes are being developed for a wide range of industrial and medical applications. Because of their unique properties, nanotubes can impose potentially toxic effects, particularly if they have been modified to express functionally reactive chemical groups on their surface. The present study was designed to evaluate whether acid functionalization (AF) enhanced the cardiopulmonary toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as control carbon black particles. Mice were exposed by oropharyngeal aspiration to 10 or 40 μg of saline-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), acid-functionalized SWCNTs (AF-SWCNTs), ultrafine carbon black (UFCB), AF-UFCB, or 2 μg LPS. 24 hours later, pulmonary inflammatory responses and cardiac effects were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and isolated cardiac perfusion respectively, and compared to saline or LPS-instilled animals. Additional mice were assessed for histological changes in lung and heart. Instillation of 40 μg of AF-SWCNTs, UFCB and AF-UFCB increased percentage of pulmonary neutrophils. No significant effects were observed at the lower particle concentration. Sporadic clumps of particles from each treatment group were observed in the small airways and interstitial areas of the lungs according to particle dose. Patches of cellular infiltration and edema in both the small airways and in the interstitium were also observed in the high dose group. Isolated perfused hearts from mice exposed to 40 μg of AF-SWCNTs had significantly lower cardiac functional recovery, greater infarct size, and higher coronary flow rate than other particle-exposed animals and controls, and also exhibited signs of focal cardiac myofiber degeneration. No particles were detected in heart tissue under light microscopy. This study indicates that while acid functionalization increases the pulmonary toxicity of both UFCB and SWCNTs, this treatment caused cardiac effects only with the AF-carbon nanotubes

  15. In situ synthesis carbonated hydroxyapatite layers on enamel slices with acidic amino acids by a novel two-step method

    In situ fabrication of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) remineralization layer on an enamel slice was completed in a novel, biomimetic two-step method. First, a CaCO3 layer was synthesized on the surface of demineralized enamel using an acidic amino acid (aspartic acid or glutamate acid) as a soft template. Second, at the same concentration of the acidic amino acid, rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite was produced with the CaCO3 layer as a sacrificial template and a reactant. The morphology, crystallinity and other physicochemical properties of the crystals were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), respectively. Acidic amino acid could promote the uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite with rod-like crystals via absorption of phosphate and carbonate ions from the reaction solution. Moreover, compared with hydroxyapatite crystals coated on the enamel when synthesized by a one-step method, the CaCO3 coating that was synthesized in the first step acted as an active bridge layer and sacrificial template. It played a vital role in orienting the artificial coating layer through the template effect. The results show that the rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals grow into bundles, which are similar in size and appearance to prisms in human enamel, when using the two-step method with either aspartic acid or acidic glutamate (20.00 mmol/L). - Graphical abstract: FESEM images of enamel slices etched for 60 s and repaired by the two-step method with Glu concentration of 20.00 mmol/L. (A) The boundary (dotted line) of the repaired areas (b) and unrepaired areas (a). (Some selected areas of etched enamel slices were coated with a nail polish before the reaction, which was removed by acetone after the reaction); (B) high magnification image of Ga, (C) high magnification image of Gb. In situ fabrication of carbonated

  16. In situ synthesis carbonated hydroxyapatite layers on enamel slices with acidic amino acids by a novel two-step method

    Wu, Xiaoguang [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhao, Xu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: lyi99@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Yang, Tao [Department of Stomatology, Children' s Hospital of Changchun, 130051 (China); Yan, Xiujuan; Wang, Ke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2015-09-01

    In situ fabrication of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) remineralization layer on an enamel slice was completed in a novel, biomimetic two-step method. First, a CaCO{sub 3} layer was synthesized on the surface of demineralized enamel using an acidic amino acid (aspartic acid or glutamate acid) as a soft template. Second, at the same concentration of the acidic amino acid, rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite was produced with the CaCO{sub 3} layer as a sacrificial template and a reactant. The morphology, crystallinity and other physicochemical properties of the crystals were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), respectively. Acidic amino acid could promote the uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite with rod-like crystals via absorption of phosphate and carbonate ions from the reaction solution. Moreover, compared with hydroxyapatite crystals coated on the enamel when synthesized by a one-step method, the CaCO{sub 3} coating that was synthesized in the first step acted as an active bridge layer and sacrificial template. It played a vital role in orienting the artificial coating layer through the template effect. The results show that the rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals grow into bundles, which are similar in size and appearance to prisms in human enamel, when using the two-step method with either aspartic acid or acidic glutamate (20.00 mmol/L). - Graphical abstract: FESEM images of enamel slices etched for 60 s and repaired by the two-step method with Glu concentration of 20.00 mmol/L. (A) The boundary (dotted line) of the repaired areas (b) and unrepaired areas (a). (Some selected areas of etched enamel slices were coated with a nail polish before the reaction, which was removed by acetone after the reaction); (B) high magnification image of Ga, (C) high magnification image of Gb. In situ fabrication of

  17. Effect of water-extractable carboxylic acids in crude oil on wettability in carbonates

    Fathi, Seyed Jafar; Austad, Tor; Strand, Skule

    2011-01-01

    The acidic components of the crude oil have a profound effect on the initial wetting conditions and possible wettability alteration by seawater in carbonates. In this work, three types of crude oils with different concentrations of water-extractable acidic components were prepared from a base oil: (1) a reference oil, RES-40 [acid number (AN) = 1.90 mg of KOH/g and base number (BN) = 0.51 mg of KOH/g], (2) a treated oil depleted in water-extractable acidic components, termed treated oil (TO) ...

  18. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid

    Bassham, James A.; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1950-01-25

    Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic cycle to be operating normally at the same time, indicates that malic acid is not an intermediate in photosynthesis but is probably closely related to some intermediate of the cycle. Absence of labeled succinic and fumaric acids in these experiments, in addition to the failure of malonate to inhibit photosynthesis, precludes the participation of these acids as intermediates in photosynthesis.

  19. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: changbinbin806@163.com; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  20. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses high acidity and high –SO3H density. • It

  1. Monodispersed Hollow SO3H-Functionalized Carbon/Silica as Efficient Solid Acid Catalyst for Esterification of Oleic Acid.

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Ding; Tan, Minghui; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Tsubaki, Noritatsu; Wu, Mingbo

    2015-12-01

    SO3H-functionalized monodispersed hollow carbon/silica spheres (HS/C-SO3H) with primary mesopores were prepared with polystyrene as a template and p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH) as a carbon precursor and -SO3H source simultaneously. The physical and chemical properties of HS/C-SO3H were characterized by N2 adsorption, TEM, SEM, XPS, XRD, Raman spectrum, NH3-TPD, element analysis and acid-base titration techniques. As a solid acid catalyst, HS/C-SO3H shows excellent performance in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol, which is a crucial reaction in biodiesel production. The well-defined hollow architecture and enhanced active sites accessibility of HS/C-SO3H guarantee the highest catalytic performance compared with the catalysts prepared by activation of TsOH deposited on the ordered mesoporous silicas SBA-15 and MCM-41. At the optimized conditions, high conversion (96.9%) was achieved and no distinct activity drop was observed after 5 recycles. This synthesis strategy will provide a highly effective solid acid catalyst for green chemical processes. PMID:26588826

  2. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a polyaniline doped with silicotungstic acid and carbon nanotubes for the sensitive amperometric determination of ascorbic acid

    We report on an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive amperometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA). Aniline containing suspended silicotungstic acid and carbon nanotubes was electropolymerized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a single step which provides a simple and controllable method and greatly improves the electrocatalytic oxidation of AA. The effects of scan rate, solution pH and working potential were studied. A linear relationship exists between the current measured and the concentration of AA in the range from 1 μM to 10 μM and 0.01 mM to 9 mM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.51 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor is selective, stable and satisfyingly reliable in real sample experiments. In our eyes, it has a large potential for practical applications. (author)

  3. Nanoporous carbon synthesized from sol-gel template for adsorbing gibberellic acid in aqueous solution

    A novel method, based on dynamic carbonization and silica template formed by sol-gel, was developed to prepare nanoporous carbon materials with tailored pore structures. The effects of the sol-gel reaction and carbonization process on the final nanoporous carbon product were investigated by pore features such as specific surface area, the total pore volume, and pore size distribution, which were systemically characterized by iodine index, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption. The experimental results indicate that the pore structures of the prepared nanoporous carbon are tunable on the nano-scale by controlling the preparation process in the proposed method. The nanoporous carbon prepared under the optimal conditions has a high total pore volume of 1.26 cm3/g, a large specific surface area of 1744 m2/g, and a maximal adsorption capacity of 9.2 mg/g to gibberellic acid in aqueous solution, which is nearly 6 times that of commercial activated carbon. Highlights: → Silica formed by sol-gel as template for nanoporous carbon preparation. → Pore structures are tunable on the nano-scale. → High total pore volume and large specific surface developing. → Adsorption of gibberellic acid in aqueous solution carrying out.

  4. Efficient Fixation of Carbon Dioxide by Electrolysis - Facile Synthesis of Useful Carboxylic Acids -

    Masao Tokuda

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical fixation of atmospheric pressure of carbon dioxide to organic compounds is a useful and attractive method for synthesizing of various carboxylic acids. Electrochemical fixation of carbon dioxide, electrochemical carboxylation, organic halides, organic triflates, alkenes, aromatic compounds, and carbonyl compounds can readily occur in the presence of an atmospheric pressure of carbon dioxide to form the corresponding carboxylic acids with high yields, when a sacrificial anode such as magnesium or aluminum is used in the electrolysis. The electrochemical carboxylation of vinyl bromides was successfully applied for the synthesis of the precursor of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as ibuprofen and naproxen. On the other hand, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has significant potential as an environmentally benign solvent in organic synthesis and it could be used both as a solvent and as a reagent in these electrochemical carboxylations by using a small amount of cosolvent.

  5. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Bača, Petr; Micka, Karel; Křivík, Petr; Tonar, Karel; Tošer, Pavel

    Experiments were made with negative lead-acid battery electrodes doped with different concentrations of powdered carbon. It turned out that the rate of formation decreased with the rising concentration of carbon added into the active material. During accelerated cycling in the PSoC regime, the cycle life showed a maximum at a concentration of carbon near 1%, whereas at lower or higher concentrations the cycle life was profoundly lower. A marked increase of the active mass resistance with the cycle number was recorded at carbon concentrations above 2%. Orientation experiments showed that compression of the lead-acid laboratory cells caused an increase of the cycle life of the negative electrode in the studied regime.

  6. Grafting process of ethyltrimethoxysilane and polyphosphoric acid on calcium carbonate surface

    Graphical abstract: XPS survey spectra of (a) CaCO3 untreated, treated with (b) ethyltrimethoxysilane or (c) polyphosphoric acid. (b) Zoom on the silane area. Highlights: ► Calcium carbonate has been treated with ethyltrimethoxysilane and polyphosphoric acid. ► Treated calcium carbonate has been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ► Silanol groups are adsorbed onto calcium carbonate through hydrogen interactions. ► Phosphoric acid is adsorbed on calcium carbonate through a P-O-C bonds formation. - Abstract: In order to facilitate its incorporation into a polymer matrix (mostly hydrophobic), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is strongly hydrophilic, has to be chemically treated to avoid the formation of aggregates and to improve the compatibility with the polymer. The objective of this study is to analyze, by using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the CaCO3 surface after a chemical surface treatment with ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMO) and polyphosphoric acid (PPA) in an organic solvent, in order to verify if these molecules are able to interact with the CaCO3 surface, and to propose some hypothesis about the surface grafting mechanism. After several solvent washings were performed to remove all species in excess, contact angle results have pointed out the presence of an organic layer after the chemical treatment of CaCO3 with ETMO and PPA. Based on XPS results, we propose a grafting mechanism of silane and phosphoric acid molecules. Ethyltrimethoxysilane induce an hydrolysis process of the CaCO3 surface which leads to a condensation phenomenon. This Si-OH network is adsorbed through hydrogen interactions with some hydroxyl groups. In the case of phosphoric acid, the molecules are adsorbed on carbon atoms through P-O-C bonds formation. This original grafting points out the major role of the solvent nature with CaCO3 surface reactivity.

  7. Charge transfer between carbon nanotubes and sulfuric acid as determined by Raman spectroscopy

    Puech, Pascal; Hu, Tao; Sapelkin, Andrei; Gerber, Iann; Tishkova, Victoria; Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Levine, Benjamin; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bacsa, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous interaction between sulfuric acid and carbon nanotubes is studied using Raman spectroscopy. We are able to determine the charge transfer without any additional parameter using the spectral signature of inner and outer walls of double-wall carbon nanotubes. While for the outer wall both the lattice contraction and the nonadiabatic effects contribute to the phonon shift, only the lattice contraction contributes for the inner nanotube. For the outer nanotube, we are able to separ...

  8. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  9. Carbonic acid as a reserve of carbon dioxide on icy moons: The formation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a polar environment

    Jones, Brant M.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Strazzulla, Giovanni, E-mail: brantmj@hawaii.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has been detected on the surface of several icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn via observation of the ν{sub 3} band with the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Galileo spacecraft and the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on board the Cassini spacecraft. Interestingly, the CO{sub 2} band for several of these moons exhibits a blueshift along with a broader profile than that seen in laboratory studies and other astrophysical environments. As such, numerous attempts have been made in order to clarify this abnormal behavior; however, it currently lacks an acceptable physical or chemical explanation. We present a rather surprising result pertaining to the synthesis of carbon dioxide in a polar environment. Here, carbonic acid was synthesized in a water (H{sub 2}O)-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) (1:5) ice mixture exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of 5 keV electrons. The irradiated ice mixture was then annealed, producing pure carbonic acid which was then subsequently irradiated, recycling water and carbon dioxide. However, the observed carbon dioxide ν{sub 3} band matches almost exactly with that observed on Callisto; subsequent temperature program desorption studies reveal that carbon dioxide synthesized under these conditions remains in solid form until 160 K, i.e., the sublimation temperature of water. Consequently, our results suggest that carbon dioxide on Callisto as well as other icy moons is indeed complexed with water rationalizing the shift in peak frequency, broad profile, and the solid state existence on these relatively warm moons.

  10. Carbonic Acid Revisited: Critical Remarks on Theoretical Predictions and the Possibility of Detecting an Elusive Molecule

    Huber, Stefan E; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Probst, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We calculate harmonic frequencies of the three most abundant carbonic acid conformers. For this, different model chemistries are investigated with respect to their benefits and shortcomings. Based on these results we use perturbation theory to calculate anharmonic corrections at the {\\omega}B97XD/aug-cc-pVXZ, X=D, T, Q, level of theory and compare them with recent experimental data and theoretical predictions. A discrete variable representation method is used to predict the large anharmonic contributions to the frequencies of the stretching vibrations in the hydrogen bonds in the carbonic acid dimer. Moreover, we re-investigate the energetics of the formation of the carbonic acid dimer from its constituents water and carbon dioxide using a high-level extrapolation method. We find that the {\\omega}B97XD functional performs well in estimating the fundamental frequencies of the carbonic acid conformers. Concerning the reaction energetics, the accuracy of {\\omega}B97XD is even comparable to the high-level extrapo...

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous phytic acid for enhancing biosensor

    The poor dispersion of carbon based nanomaterials without strong acid pretreatment in aqueous solution is a fundamental problem, limiting its applications in biology-related fields. A good dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water was realized by 50 wt.% phytic acid (PA) solution. As an application case, the PA–MWCNTs dispersion in aqueous solution was used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its direct electrochemistry was realized. The constructed biosensor has a sound limit of detection, wide linear range, and high affinity for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as being free from interference of co-existing electro-active species. (papers)

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous phytic acid for enhancing biosensor

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Miao, Yun; Ye, Pingping; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2014-04-01

    The poor dispersion of carbon based nanomaterials without strong acid pretreatment in aqueous solution is a fundamental problem, limiting its applications in biology-related fields. A good dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in water was realized by 50 wt.% phytic acid (PA) solution. As an application case, the PA-MWCNTs dispersion in aqueous solution was used for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and its direct electrochemistry was realized. The constructed biosensor has a sound limit of detection, wide linear range, and high affinity for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as being free from interference of co-existing electro-active species.

  13. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  14. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  15. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production

    Hidayat, Arif; Rochmadi; Wijaya, Karna; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the esterification of PFAD using the sulfonatedcoconut shell biochar catalyst was studied. Carbon solid catalysts were prepared by a sulfonation of carbonized coconut shells. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of the reaction temperatures, the molar ratios of methanol to PFAD, the catalyst loading and the reaction times. The reusability of the solid acid carbon catalysts was also studied in this work. The results indicated that the FFA conversion was significantly increased with increasing catalyst loading and reaction times. It can be concluded that the optimal conditions were an PFAD to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60oC.At this optimum condition, the conversion to biodieselreached 88%.

  16. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  17. Impact of individual acid flue gas components on mercury capture by heat-treated activated carbon

    Jian-ming ZHENG; Jin-song ZHOU; Zhong-yang LUO; Ke-fa CEN

    2012-01-01

    Elemental mercury capture on heat-treated activated carbon (TAC) was studied using a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor.The capability of TAC to perform Hg0 capture under both N2 and baseline gas atmospheres was studied and the effects of common acid gas constituents were evaluated individually to avoid complications resulting from the coexistence of multiple components.The results suggest that surface functional groups (SFGs) on activated carbon (AC) are vital to Hg0 capture in the absence of acid gases.Meanwhile,the presence of acid gas components coupled with defective graphitic lattices on TAC plays an important role in effective Hg0 capture.The presence of HCl,NO2,and NO individually in basic gases markedly enhances Hg0 capture on TAC due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 on acidic sites created on the carbon surface and catalysis by the defective graphitic lattices on TAC.Similarly,the presence of SO2 improves Hg0 capture by about 20%.This improvement likely results from the deposition of sulfur groups on the AC surface and oxidation of the elemental mercury by SO2 due to catalysis on the carbon surface.Furthermore,O2 exhibits a synergistic effect on Hg0 oxidation and capture when acid gases are present in the flue gases.

  18. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    Highlights: ► Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. ► Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. ► Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  19. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    Dong Chenbo; Campell, Alan S.; Eldawud, Reem; Perhinschi, Gabriela [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Dinu, Cerasela Zoica, E-mail: cerasela-zoica.dinu@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  20. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from 14CO2 into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while 14C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO-6 molar while the CO2-compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants

  1. Acceleration of carbon-13 spin-lattice relaxation times in amino acids by electrolytes

    Tian Jinping; Yin Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    A series of amino acids and carboxylic acids were determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy.The results showed that addition of 3M MgCl2 led to the 13C NMR integral area of samples being well proportional to number of carbon atoms that produce the particular signal with reliability over 95%. Measurements of 13C spin-lattice relaxation times (T1's) are reported for a number of amino acids. T1's of all the carbons in amino acids generally tend to decrease with the increase of the concentration of electrolytes, and the presence of magnesium slats is of significant. Carboxylic carbons in amino acids are the most sensitive "acceptor" of the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating effects in electrolytes, and the 13C spin-lattice relaxation accelerating ability of electrolytes is Mg(ClO4)2 >MgCl2 >CaCl2 >NaCl >KCl >LiClO4 >NaOH. In general, T1's of C1 carbons in nonpolar a-amino acids are higher than those in polar and basic a-amino acids both in aqueous and 3M MgCl2 medium. In aliphatic straight-chain amino acids, a-, a-, a-, ai- and a- amino acids, T1's of C1 carbons tend to reduce with the increase of inserted carbon numbers between amino and carboxylic groups compared with Gly. T1's can be decreased even more when amino acids are mixed in 3M MgCl2, but T1's of carbons in amino acids decrease slightly with increase of the concentration of amino acids in 3M MgCl2. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed in terms of intermolecular interaction and paramagnetic impurity in electrolytes, large contributions of intermolecular interaction which is enhanced in electrolytes concentrate on the incoming "unsaturation" of the primary solvation shell of cations with the increase of electrolytes concentration and complexes formation of amino acids with metal ions. In electrolytes, amino acids are "anchored" to cations and molecule tumbling is slowed down, molecular rigidity is increased and molecular size is "enlarged", all of these are helpful to accelerate

  2. Effect of acid treated carbon nanotubes on mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of polystyrene nanocomposites

    Amr, Issam Thaher

    2011-09-01

    In this work, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) were functionalized by acid treatment and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Polystyrene/CNT composites of both the untreated and acid treated carbon nanotubes were prepared by thermal bulk polymerization without any initiator at different loadings of CNT. The tensile tests showed that the addition of 0.5 wt.% of acid treated CNT results in 22% increase in Young\\'s modulus. The DSC measurements showed a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) of PS in the composites. The rheological studies at 190 °C showed that the addition of untreated CNT increases the viscoelastic behavior of the PS matrix, while the acid treated CNT acts as plasticizer. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the incorporation of CNT into PS enhanced the thermal properties of the matrix polymer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Corrosion inhibitor binding in an acidic medium: Interaction of 2-mercaptobenizmidazole with carbon-steel in hydrochloric acid

    Highlights: • Carbon-steel inhibited by 2-mercaptobenzimidazole in 1 M HCl is examined with XPS. • Data reveal surface termination as a function of corrosion inhibitor concentration. • N 1s spectra suggest that 2-mercaptobenzimidazole adsorbs in two tautomeric forms. • For well-inhibited substrates, adsorption is on film-free carbon-steel. • 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole apparently binds preferentially to active corrosion sites. - Abstract: Mechanistic understanding of the functionality of organic corrosion inhibitors in acidic media is essential to knowledge-based performance optimization. In this study, we address a key issue hindering progress in this area, namely the chemical nature of the corrosion inhibitor/substrate interface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is employed to reveal the surface termination of carbon-steel, following immersion in 1 M hydrochloric acid inhibited with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI). Core level spectra indicate that the termination varies as a function of MBI concentration, with the interface consisting of MBI bound to film-free carbon-steel on highly inhibited substrates

  4. Michael addition of thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroamino acid and dehydropeptide derivatives

    Ferreira, Paula M.T.; Maia, Hernâni L. S.; Monteiro, Luís S.; Sacramento, Joana

    2001-01-01

    Michael additions of nitrogen heterocycles, thiols, carbon nucleophiles and amines to dehydroalanine derivatives, including a glycyldehydroalanine peptide, were performed in fair to good yields. Dehydroaminobutyric acid derivatives reacted only with the stronger nucleophiles but in considerably lower yields and often no reaction was observed with the corresponding dehydrophenylalanine derivatives. When a tosyl group was bonded to the nitrogen atom of the dehydroamino acid, in some cases the a...

  5. Study of Changes in a Palm-Shell-Based Activated Carbon Characteristics by Nitric Acid

    W.M.A.W. Daud; A.H. Houshmand

    2010-01-01

    A palm-shell-based activated carbon (PSAC) was oxidized with nitric acid solutions at different conditions. A 2-level full factorial design was considered for experimental conditions. Adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) were used to study the oxidized PSAC. Although, oxidation by nitric acid decreases the surface area and pore volume of PSAC, however it creates a considerable amount of different oxygen groups on the surface of PSAC.

  6. Isolation of green coffee chlorogenic acids using activated carbon

    Suarez-Quiroz, Mirna Leonor; Alonso Campos, Angelina; Alfaro, Gerardo Valerio; Gonzalez-Rıos, Oscar; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids, which are interesting natural antioxidants widespread in the plant kingdom, were extracted and purified from Mexican green coffee beans (Coffea arabica) using different methods. The final objective was to find an easy way to extract high-value molecules from a complex mixture, avoiding as much as possible the use of toxic solvents. Three extraction methods (hot water at 80 8C, aqueous methanol 70% (v/v), and aqueous isopropanol 60% (v/v)) were tested in combination with two...

  7. Efficient optical resolution of amino acid by alanine racemaze chiral analogue supported on mesoporous carbon

    Jang, D.; Kim, K.; Park, D.; Kim, G.

    2012-09-01

    Optically pure D-amino acids are industrially important chiral building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, food ingredients, and drug intermediates. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic-resolution processes have recently been developed for deracemization of amino acids. S-ARCA would be a good candidate for the selective adsorption of D amino acid through the imine formation reaction. The organic phase containing S-ARCA adsorbent, TPPC or Ionic Liquid (as a phase transfer catalyst) in MC were coated on the surfaces of mesoporous carbon C-SBA-15(CMK). The aqueous solution of racemic D/L-amino acid and NaOH were added to the carbon support coated with ARCA. The D/L ratios on ARCA and in solution were determined with increasing reaction time. S-ARCA has a unique property for the selective adsorption of D- amino acid (up to 90% selcetivity) in the racemic mixture. The fixed bed reactor containing ARCA/carbon support was also adopted successfully for the selective separation of amino acid.

  8. On the neutralization of acid rock drainage by carbonate and silicate minerals

    Sherlock, E. J.; Lawrence, R. W.; Poulin, R.

    1995-02-01

    The net result of acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions within mining wastes is termed acid rock drainage (ARD). The oxidation of sulfide minerals is the major contributor to acid generation. Dissolution and alteration of various minerals can contribute to the neutralization of acid. Definitions of alkalinity, acidity, and buffer capacity are reviewed, and a detailed discussion of the dissolution and neutralizing capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals related to equilibium conditions, dissolution mechanism, and kinetics is provided. Factors that determine neutralization rate by carbonate and silicate minerals include: pH, PCO 2, equilibrium conditions, temperature, mineral composition and structure, redox conditions, and the presence of “foreign” ions. Similar factors affect sulfide oxidation. Comparison of rates shows sulfides react fastest, followed by carbonates and silicates. The differences in the reaction mechanisms and kinetics of neutralization have important implications in the prediction, control, and regulation of ARD. Current static and kinetic prediction methods upon which mine permitting, ARD control, and mine closure plans are based do not consider sample mineralogy or the kinetics of the acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions. Erroneous test interpretations and predictions can result. The importance of considering mineralogy for site-specific interpretation is highlighted. Uncertainty in prediction leads to difficulties for the mine operator in developing satisfactory and cost-effective control and remediation measures. Thus, the application of regulations and guidelines for waste management planning need to beflexible.

  9. Whole-body pharmacokinetics of HDAC inhibitor drugs, butyric acid, valproic acid and 4-phenylbutyric acid measured with carbon-11 labeled analogs by PET

    The fatty acids, n-butyric acid (BA), 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) and valproic acid (VPA, 2-propylpentanoic acid) have been used for many years in the treatment of a variety of CNS and peripheral organ diseases including cancer. New information that these drugs alter epigenetic processes through their inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has renewed interest in their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics and the relationship of these properties to their therapeutic and side effect profiles. In order to determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of these drugs in primates, we synthesized their carbon-11 labeled analogues and performed dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) in six female baboons over 90 min. The carbon-11 labeled carboxylic acids were prepared by using 11CO2 and the appropriate Grignard reagents. [11C]BA was metabolized rapidly (only 20% of the total carbon-11 in plasma was parent compound at 5 min post injection) whereas for VPA and PBA 98% and 85% of the radioactivity were the unmetabolized compound at 30 min after their administration respectively. The brain uptake of all three carboxylic acids was very low ( VPA > PBA), which is consistent with the need for very high doses for therapeutic efficacy. Most of the radioactivity was excreted through the kidneys and accumulated in the bladder. However, the organ biodistribution between the drugs differed. [11C]BA showed relatively high uptake in spleen and pancreas whereas [11C]PBA showed high uptake in liver and heart. Notably, [11C]VPA showed exceptionally high heart uptake possibly due to its involvement in lipid metabolism. The unique biodistribution of each of these drugs may be of relevance in understanding their therapeutic and side effect profile including their teratogenic effects

  10. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of δ13C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH2PO4 at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTARTM column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH2PO4 aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical

  11. Synthesis of δ-aminolevulic acid. Application to the introduction of carbon-14 and of tritium

    Several new syntheses of δ aminolevulic acid (δ A.L.A.) have been studied. 14C-4 δ - aminolevulic acid has been obtained from 14C allylacetic carboxylic acid with a yield of 30 per cent with respect to barium carbonate and with a specific activity of 32 mCi/mM. The 14C-1 or 14C-2 δ-A.L.A. has been prepared from the 14C-1 or 14C-2 acetate with a yield of 55 per cent with respect to the acetate. Finally the tritiated δ-A.L.A. has been obtained for the first time by tritiation of ethyl phthalimidodehydrolevulate. (author)

  12. Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems

    Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios

  13. N, S co-doped carbon dots with orange luminescence synthesized through polymerization and carbonization reaction of amino acids

    Graphical abstract: N, S co-doped CDs with orange luminescence were synthesized through one-pot polymerization and carbonization reactions under hydrothermal conditions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. - Highlights: • N, S co-doped CDs were synthesized by one-pot carbonization reactions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. • The as-obtained N, S co-doped CDs showed unique orange fluorescence under excitation at room temperature. • The products could be applied in the imaging of peritoneal macrophages of mice without any functionalization. - Abstract: For practical application, it is highly desirable to obtain carbon dots (CDs) through environmentally benign synthetic route, using green raw materials. On the other hand, at present, most of CDs reported in the literature showed blue, green and yellow emission. Therefore it is still necessary to develop new strategy to obtain CDs with longer wavelength emission in order to expand their application range. Toward this end, in this study, N, S co-doped CDs were synthesized through one-pot condensation polymerization and carbonization reactions under hydrothermal conditions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. Taking the reaction of L-serine with L-cystine as an example, the as-obtained products were characterized by various techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and so on. Interestingly, N, S co-doped CDs displayed unique orange emission at room temperature. The possible photoluminescence mechanism of N, S co-doped CDs was proposed. Furthermore, the as-synthesized N, S co-doped CDs were directly applied in the imaging of peritoneal macrophages of mice

  14. N, S co-doped carbon dots with orange luminescence synthesized through polymerization and carbonization reaction of amino acids

    Zeng, Ya-Wen [Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Ma, De-Kun, E-mail: dkma@wzu.edu.cn [Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Wang, Wei; Chen, Jing-Jing; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yi-Zhou [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Yu, Kang, E-mail: yukang62@126.com [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Huang, Shao-Ming, E-mail: smhuang@wzu.edu.cn [Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: N, S co-doped CDs with orange luminescence were synthesized through one-pot polymerization and carbonization reactions under hydrothermal conditions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. - Highlights: • N, S co-doped CDs were synthesized by one-pot carbonization reactions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. • The as-obtained N, S co-doped CDs showed unique orange fluorescence under excitation at room temperature. • The products could be applied in the imaging of peritoneal macrophages of mice without any functionalization. - Abstract: For practical application, it is highly desirable to obtain carbon dots (CDs) through environmentally benign synthetic route, using green raw materials. On the other hand, at present, most of CDs reported in the literature showed blue, green and yellow emission. Therefore it is still necessary to develop new strategy to obtain CDs with longer wavelength emission in order to expand their application range. Toward this end, in this study, N, S co-doped CDs were synthesized through one-pot condensation polymerization and carbonization reactions under hydrothermal conditions, using two different amino acids as raw materials. Taking the reaction of L-serine with L-cystine as an example, the as-obtained products were characterized by various techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and so on. Interestingly, N, S co-doped CDs displayed unique orange emission at room temperature. The possible photoluminescence mechanism of N, S co-doped CDs was proposed. Furthermore, the as-synthesized N, S co-doped CDs were directly applied in the imaging of peritoneal macrophages of mice.

  15. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Ordinary Chondrite (OC) Meteorites from Antarctica Indicate Distinct Terrestrial Carbonate Species using a Stepped Acid Extraction Procedure Impacting Mars Carbonate Research

    Evans, M. E.; Niles, P. B.; Locke, D.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the stable isotope values of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals from five OC meteorites collected in Antarctica. These samples were selected for analysis based upon their size and collection proximity to known Martian meteorites. They were also selected based on petrologic type (3+) such that they were likely to be carbonate-free before falling to Earth. This study has two main tasks: 1) characterize the isotopic composition of terrestrial, secondary carbonate minerals formed on meteorites in Antarctica, and 2) study the mechanisms of carbonate formation in cold and arid environments with Antarctica as an analog for Mars. Two samples from each meteorite, each ~0.5g, was crushed and dissolved in pure phosphoric acid for 3 sequential reactions: a) Rx0 for 1 hour at 30°C, b) Rx1 for 18 hours at 30°C, and c) Rx2 for 3 hours at 150°C. CO2 was distilled by freezing with liquid nitrogen from each sample tube, then separated from organics and sulfides with a TRACE GC using a Restek HayeSep Q 80/100 6' 2mm stainless column, and then analyzed on a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS in Dual Inlet mode. This system was built at NASA/JSC over the past 3 years and proof tested with known carbonate standards to develop procedures, assess yield, and quantify expected uncertainties. Two distinct species of carbonates are found based on the stepped extraction technique: 1) Ca-rich carbonate released at low temperatures, and 2) Mg, or Fe-rich carbonate released at high temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that most of the carbonates present in the ordinary chondrites analyzed have δ13C=+5‰, which is consistent with formation from atmospheric CO2 δ13C=-7‰ at -20°C. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the carbonates vary between +4‰ and +34‰ with the Mg-rich and/or Fe-rich carbonates possessing the lowest δ18O values. This suggests that the carbonates formed under a wide range of temperatures. However, the carbonate oxygen

  16. Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for fast screening of oxalic acid levels in soil solutions

    Šestáková, Ivana; Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2008), s. 140-140. E-ISSN 1213-7103. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /12./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxalic acid * carbon paste electrodes * soil solutions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  17. Polymerization of euphorbia oil with Lewis acid in carbon dioxide media

    Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3-OEt2) Lewis acid catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of euphorbia oil (EO), a natural epoxy oil, in liquid carbon dioxide was conducted in an effort to develop useful vegetable oil based polymers. The resulting polymers (RPEO) were characterized by FTIR, 1H-...

  18. Localization and quantification of carbon-centered radicals on any amino acid of a protein

    A general strategy to localize and quantify carbon-centered radicals within proteins is described. The methodology was first exemplified on amino acids and then on a peptide. This method is applicable to any protein system regardless of size, and the site of hydrogen abstraction by OH radical on all residues within proteins is easily and accurately detected. (authors)

  19. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime;

    2013-01-01

    This work involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple “one pot” synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own N...

  20. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  1. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  2. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  3. Adsorption of clofibric acid and ketoprofen onto powdered activated carbon: effect of natural organic matter.

    Gao, Yaohuan; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-12-01

    The adsorption of two acidic pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), clofibric acid and ketoprofen, onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated with a particular focus on the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the PhACs. Suwannee River humic acids (SRHAs) were used as a substitute for NOM. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to obtain adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms with and without SRHAs in the system. The adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption ofclofibric acid was not significantly affected by the presence of SRHAs at a concentration of 5 mg (as carbon) L(-1). An adsorption capacity of 70 to 140 mg g(-1) was observed and equilibrium was reached within 48 h. In contrast, the adsorption of ketoprofen was markedly decreased (from about 120 mg g(-1) to 70-100 mg g(-1)) in the presence of SRHAs. Higher initial concentrations of clofibric acid than ketoprofen during testing may explain the different behaviours that were observed. Also, the more hydrophobic ketoprofen molecules may have less affinity for PAC when humic acids (which are hydrophilic) are present. The possible intermolecular forces that could account for the different behaviour of clofibric acid and ketoprofen adsorption onto PAC are discussed. In particular, the relevance of electrostatic forces, electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bonding and London dispersion forces are discussed PMID:22439557

  4. Carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect in the decarbonylation of lactic acid [1-14C

    The carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect for the decarbonation of lactic acid[1-14C] in sulfuric acid has been measured in the temperature interval of 20-90 deg C. The experimental values of (k12C/k14C) are compared with the theoretical 14C kinetic isotope effect calculated assuming that one carbon-oxygen stretching vibration is lost in the rate-determining step. The discrepancy between experimentally observed temperature dependence of the 14C kinetic isotope effect and the theoretical one is explained by the possible side reactions wich change the apparent degrees of decarbonylation and isotopic composition of CH3CHOHCOOH[1-14C] used in experiments aiming at the determination of carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect in the decarbonylation process itself. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  5. N-heterocyclic Amine Derivatives as Efficient Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel in Acidic Medium

    A novel heterocyclic amine derivatives, namely N, N'-substituted pyridinyl ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid sodium salt (A) and ethylene diamine N, N'-diacetic acid di (2-methylene tetra hydro furfuryl) acetate (B) were synthesized and their structure confirmations were performed by FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectra. The inhibition effectiveness was evaluated against the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by weight loss and polarization techniques. The results showed that the synthesized derivatives are good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium, their inhibition efficiency, increased with inhibitor concentration, and (A) is slightly more effective than (B). The potentiostatic polarization study showed that (A) and (B) are mixed-type inhibitors in 1 M HCl. These compounds prevent carbon steel from corrosion by adsorption to the steel surface and forming insoluble complexes with ferrous species. The weight loss results and potentiostatic polarization studies were in reasonable agreement. (author)

  6. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  7. Controlled exposures of volunteers to respirable carbon and sulfuric acid aerosols

    Anderson, K.R.; Avol, E.L.; Edwards, S.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Ruchuan Peng; Linn, W.S.; Hackney, J.D. (Univ. of Southern California, Downey (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Respirable carbon or fly ash particles are suspected to increase the respiratory toxicity of coexisting acidic air pollutants, by concentrating acid on their surfaces and so delivering it efficiently to the lower respiratory tract. To investigate this issue, the authors exposed 15 healthy and 15 asthmatic volunteers in a controlled-environment chamber to four test atmospheres: (1) clean air; (2) 0.5-{mu}m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol at {approx}100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, generated from water solution; (3) 0.5-{mu}m carbon aerosol at {approx}250 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, generated from highly pure carbon black with specific surface area comparable to ambient pollution particles; and (4) carbon as in (3) plus {approx}100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of ultrafine H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol generated from fuming sulfuric acid. Electron microscopy showed that nearly all acid in (4) became attached to carbon particle surfaces, and that most particles remained in the sub-{mu}m size range. Exposures were performed double-blind, 1 week apart. They lasted 1 hr each, with alternate 10-min periods of heavy exercise (ventilation {approx}50 L/min) and rest. Subjects gargled citrus juice before exposure to suppress airway ammonia. Lung function and symptoms were measured pre-exposure, after initial exercise, and at end-exposure. Bronchial reactivity to methacholine was measured after exposure. Statistical analyses tested for effects of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or carbon, separate or interactive, on health measures.

  8. Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves.

    Gallyamov, Marat O; Chaschin, Ivan S; Khokhlova, Marina A; Grigorev, Timofey E; Bakuleva, Natalia P; Lyutova, Irina G; Kondratenko, Janna E; Badun, Gennadii A; Chernysheva, Maria G; Khokhlov, Alexei R

    2014-04-01

    Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H2O and CO2. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16-33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. PMID:24582232

  9. Voltammetric Determination of Ferulic Acid Using Polypyrrole-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode with Sample Application

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A polypyrrole-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode-based sensor was devised for determination of ferulic acid (FA. The fabricated sensor was prepared electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV and characterized using CV and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The electrode shows an excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards FA oxidation. Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak current correlates linearly to the FA concentration throughout the range of 3.32 × 10−6 to 2.59 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3. The prepared sensor is highly selective towards ferulic acid without the interference of ascorbic acid. The sensor applicability was tested for total content determination of FA in a commercial popcorn sample and showed a robust functionality.

  10. Modification of cation-exchange properties of activated carbon by treatment with nitric acid

    The uptake of inorganic cations by high-surface-area activated carbon can be increased by an order of magnitude by controlled exposure to high concentrations of nitric acid at elevated temperatures. Distribution coefficients of cations are also increased. Oxidation treatment causes some loss in particle strength. Acid strength of the functional groups from the nitric acid treatment is greater than those of the starting material. Surface area measurements from small-angle neutron scattering indicate that the increase in effective ion-exchange capacity is not accompanied by gross changes in the structure of the material. 13C-NMR on solid samples suggests that the concentration of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups in the carbon is increased by the treatment

  11. Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Grate, Jay W.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorinated hydrogen-bond acidic groups are directly attached to the backbone of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) without the introduction of intermediate electron donating surface groups. Hexafluoroalcohol functional groups are exceptionally strong hydrogen bond acids, and are added to the nanotube surface using the aryl diazonium approach to create hydrogen-bond acidic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. These groups can promote strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with matrix materials in composites or with molecular species to be concentrated and sensed. In the latter case, this newly developed material is expected to find useful application in chemical sensors and in CNT-based preconcentrator devices for the detection of pesticides, chemical warfare agents and explosives.

  12. Enriched surface acidity for surfactant-free suspensions of carboxylated carbon nanotubes purified by centrifugation

    Elizabeth I. Braun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that surfactant-suspended carbon nanotube (CNT samples can be purified by centrifugation to decrease agglomerates and increase individually-dispersed CNTs. However, centrifugation is not always part of protocols to prepare CNT samples used in biomedical applications. Herein, using carboxylated multi-walled CNTs (cMWCNTs suspended in water without a surfactant, we developed a Boehm titrimetric method for the analysis of centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions and used it to show that the surface acidity of oxidized carbon materials in aqueous cMWCNT suspensions was enriched by ∼40% by a single low-speed centrifugation step. This significant difference in surface acidity between un-centrifuged and centrifuged cMWCNT suspensions has not been previously appreciated and is important because the degree of surface acidity is known to affect the interactions of cMWCNTs with biological systems.

  13. Development of Acidizing Techniques for Low-permeability Carbonate Reservoirs

    Liu Tongbin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Geological Background In accordance with gas reservoir occurrence, reserve type and trap type, the discovered and developed carbonate reservoirs in Sichuan Basin can be classified into the following three types: the first type is the layered porous gas reservoir (including porous and fractured porous gas reservoir), mainly distributed in East Sichuan area; the second is the block vug bottom water drive gas reservoir; the third is the irregular gas reservoir with fracture system, mainly distributed in the areas of South Sichuan and Southwest Sichuan. The reservoirs of these gas pools are mainly of carbonatite. The matrix porosity and permeability of carbonatite are very low, the porosity being below 1% - 3% and the permeability, 0.1×10-3-8× 10-3 μm2. Also the throat capillary resistance force is considerable with the mid-value width of the throat (γ50)of 0.1 - 4 μm, most below 2 μm. Owing to the low permeability and porosity as well as the serious heterogeneity of the reservoir, the productivi ty of gas wells changes greatly.

  14. Facile Carbon Fixation to Performic Acids by Water-Sealed Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2015-10-01

    Carbon fixation refers to the conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic materials, as commonly performed in nature through photosynthesis by plants and other autotrophic organisms. The creation of artificial carbon fixation processes is one of the greatest challenges for chemistry to solve the critical environmental issue concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions. We have developed an electricity-driven facile CO2 fixation process that yields performic acid, HCO2OH, from CO2 and water at neutral pH by dielectric barrier discharge with an input electric power conversion efficiency of currently 0.2-0.4%. This method offers a promising future technology for artificial carbon fixation on its own, and may also be scaled up in combination with e.g., the post-combustion CO2 capture and storage technology.

  15. Increasing reversible capacity of soft carbon anode by phosphoric acid treatment

    Soft carbon with a high reversible capacity has been proposed as an anode material for high-power lithium ion batteries. In this work, we investigate the effect of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) addition during preparation on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of soft carbon. H3PO4 facilitates the formation of nanopores by terminating C-C bonding and forming C-Ox-P (0carbon and maintaining excellent cycle performance and rate capability. In addition, the proposed synthetic route is simple and cost-effective, which will be helpful for successfully employing soft carbon on a commercial scale

  16. Aqueous solutions of acidic ionic liquids for enhanced stability of polyoxometalate-carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    Hu, Chenchen; Zhao, Enbo; Nitta, Naoki; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyoxometalates (POMs) nanoconfined in microporous carbons have been synthesized and used as electrodes for supercapacitors. The addition of the pseudocapacitance from highly reversible redox reaction of POMs to the electric double-layer capacitance of carbon lead to an increase in specific capacitance of ∼90% at 1 mV s-1. However, high solubility of POM in traditional aqueous electrolytes leads to rapid capacity fading. Here we demonstrate that the use of aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (P-IL) as electrolyte instead of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions offers an opportunity to significantly improve POM cycling stability. Virtually no degradation in capacitance was observed in POM-based positive electrode after 10,000 cycles in an asymmetric capacitor with P-IL aqueous electrolyte. As such, POM-based carbon composites may now present a viable solution for enhancing energy density of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC) based on pure carbon electrodes.

  17. Neutralizing Carbonic Acid in Deep Carbonate Strata below the North Atlantic

    Daniel P. Schrag

    2006-07-14

    Our research is aimed at investigating several technical issues associated with carbon dioxide sequestration in calcium carbonate sediments below the sea floor through laboratory experiments and chemical transport modeling. Our goal is to evaluate the basic feasibility of this approach, including an assessment of optimal depths, sediment types, and other issues related to site selection. The results of our modeling efforts were published this past summer in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. We are expanding on that work through a variety of laboratory and modeling efforts. In the laboratories at Columbia and at Harvard, we are studying the flow of liquid carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide-water mixtures through calcium carbonate sediments to better understand the geomechanical and structural stability of the sediments during and after injection. We are currently preparing the results of these findings for publication. In addition, we are investigating the kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution in the presence of CO{sub 2}-water fluids, which is a critical feature of the system as it allows for increased permeability during injection. We are also investigating the possibility of carbon dioxide hydrate formation in the pore fluid, which might complicate the injection procedure by reducing sediment permeability but might also provide an upper seal in the sediment-pore fluid system, preventing release of CO{sub 2} into the deep ocean, particularly if depth and temperature at the injection point rule out immediate hydrate formation. This is done by injecting liquid CO{sub 2} into various types of porous media, and then monitoring the changes in permeability. Finally, we are performing an economic analysis to estimate costs of drilling and gas injection, site monitoring as well as the availability of potential disposal sites with particular emphasis on those sites that are within the 200-mile economic zone of the United States. We present some

  18. A Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-chitosan Modified Electrode for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

    Ling Yan JIANG; Chuan Yin LIU; Li Ping JIANG; Guang Han LU

    2005-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode has been prepared.The modified electrode resolves the overlapping voltammetric response of dopamine and ascorbic acid into two well-defined peak by 212 mY. The mechanism of discrimination of dopamine from ascorbic acid is discussed. Dopamine can be determined selectively with the carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode. The electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability.keywords: Nanotube-chitosan modified electrode, dopamine, ascorbic acid.

  19. Humification degree of Rendzina soil humic acids influenced by carbonate leaching and land use

    Radmanović Svjetlana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The humification degrees of humic acids extracted from calcareous and decarbonated Rendzinas under different land use were characterized upon their optical properties, to evaluate the influence of carbonate leaching (decarbonation and different land uses. Decarbonation influenced the humification degree of humic acids positively. Base leaching and acidification of decarbonated Rendzinas led to a decrease in humification degree of humic acids. In calcareous Rendzinas, the humification degree of humic acids was in descending order: grassland>arable land>forest land, and in decarbonated Rendzinas: arable land>grassland>forest land. The humification degree of humic acids was higher in the calcareous forest and grassland Rendzinas compared to decarbonated Rendzinas, analogously in decarbonated arable land compared to calcareous arable land Rendzinas. Differences in the humification degree of humic acids among various land uses that emerged between calcareous and decarbonated Rendzinas indicate the dominant influence of soil chemical characteristics (carbonate content and pH value compared with the quantity and quality of the organic litter input.

  20. Determination of 4-aminophenylarsonic acid using a glassy carbon electrode modified with an ionic liquid and carbon nanohorns

    We have developed a sensor for 4-aminophenylarsonic acid (4-APhAA) by coating a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite prepared from an ionic liquid and dahlia-like carbon nanohorns (CNHs). The good electric conductivity, large surface area and high pore volume of the CNHs, and the synergistic action of the ionic liquid (which is a good dispersant with excellent ion conductivity) result in efficient electrocatalysis towards oxidation of 4-APhAA. The effect was investigated by various electrochemical methods, and the electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient, standard heterogeneous rate constant and thermodynamic activation energy were determined. The response range of 4-APhAA was evaluated using an i-t plot. If operated at a working voltage of 900 mV (vs Ag/AgCl), the sensor responds to 4-APhAA over the 0.5 μM to 3.5 M concentration range. (author)

  1. Electro-Oxidation of Concentrated Ce(Ⅲ) at Carbon Felt Anode in Nitric Acid Media

    2006-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of Ce( Ⅲ) to Ce( Ⅳ ) in parallel plate flow type electrolyzer divided with cation exchange membrane was carried out in nitric acid media at carbon felt anode under galvanostatic conditions. Carbon felt was used as an anode for its high specific surface area and high oxygen evolution overpotential. Pt coated Ti plates were used as cathcurrent efficiency (92%) until about 80% of Ce( Ⅲ) was oxidized. Then, oxygen evolution, accompanied by terminal voltage jump, took place, lowering current efficiency. Ce( Ⅲ ) was oxidized up to 90% with current efficiency of 62%. In this mode, strong carbon felt anode oxidation was observed. The wear out of carbon felt was 46% in six consequent runs (6 h of operation). After each run, carbon felt surface had to be renewed with slightly alkaline solution to remove carbon oxidation products and ensure regular operational conditions. When anode surface was blocked, oxygen evolution took place from the beginning of electrolysis due to higher actual current density. The wear out of carbon felt anode could be minimized by means of oxygen evolution prevention. In the case when electrolysis had been stopped before oxygen evolution started (at Ce( Ⅳ ) conversion of about 80% ), the wear out of anode was less than 2% during 6 consequent runs (4 h of operation).

  2. Cyclic calcination/carbonation looping of dolomite modified with acetic acid for CO2 capture

    The dolomite modified with acetic acid solution was proposed as a CO2 sorbent for calcination/carbonation cycles. The carbonation conversions for modified and original dolomites in a twin fixed-bed reactor system with increasing the numbers of cycles were investigated. The carbonation temperature in the range of 630 C-700 C is beneficial to the carbonation reaction of modified dolomite. The carbonation conversion for modified dolomite is significantly higher than that for original sorbent at the same reaction conditions with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The modified dolomite exhibits a carbonation conversion of 0.6 after 20 cycles, while the unmodified sorbent shows a conversion of 0.26 at the same reaction conditions, which is calcined at 920 C and carbonated at 650 C. At the high calcination temperature over 920 C modified dolomite can maintain much higher conversion than unmodified sorbent. The mean grain size of CaO derived from modified dolomite is smaller than that from original sorbent with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The calcined modified dolomite possesses greater surface area and pore volume than calcined original sorbent during the multiple cycles. The pore volume and pore area distributions for calcined modified dolomite are also superior to those for calcined unmodified sorbent during the looping cycle. The modified dolomite is proved as a new and promising type of regenerable CO2 sorbent for industrial applications. (author)

  3. Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw.

    Drake, Travis W; Wickland, Kimberly P; Spencer, Robert G M; McKnight, Diane M; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-11-10

    Northern permafrost soils store a vast reservoir of carbon, nearly twice that of the present atmosphere. Current and projected climate warming threatens widespread thaw of these frozen, organic carbon (OC)-rich soils. Upon thaw, mobilized permafrost OC in dissolved and particulate forms can enter streams and rivers, which are important processors of OC and conduits for carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Here, we demonstrate that ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from 35,800 y B.P. permafrost soils is rapidly mineralized to CO2. During 200-h experiments in a novel high-temporal-resolution bioreactor, DOC concentration decreased by an average of 53%, fueling a more than sevenfold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration. Eighty-seven percent of the DOC loss to microbial uptake was derived from the low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids acetate and butyrate. To our knowledge, our study is the first to directly quantify high CO2 production rates from permafrost-derived LMW DOC mineralization. The observed DOC loss rates are among the highest reported for permafrost carbon and demonstrate the potential importance of LMW DOC in driving the rapid metabolism of Pleistocene-age permafrost carbon upon thaw and the outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere by soils and nearby inland waters. PMID:26504243

  4. Large discharge capacity from carbon electrodes in sulfuric acid with oxidant

    Inagaki, M.; Iwashita, N.

    The discharge performance of the graphite intercalation compounds in sulfuric acid containing nitric acid (H 2SO 4-GICs) was studied by focusing on the effects of oxidant and carbon nanotexture. A large discharge capacity from H 2SO 4-GICs synthesized by using an excess amount of HNO 3, more than 150 times of the theoretical value (93 mAh/g carbon), was obtained depending on the amount of oxidant added, the discharge current, and the nanotexture of carbon electrode. The experimental results are explained in terms of competition between the de-intercalation of sulfuric acid due to galvanostatic reduction and the re-intercalation due to chemical oxidation by HN03 during discharging. However, a subsidiary reaction decreases the effective amount of HNO 3 on the discharge by a small current and also on the cycle of chemical charging and electrochemical discharging. The oxidant KMnO 4 gave only a little larger capacity for discharge than the theoretical one, because it was reduced to the manganese oxide precipitates during the oxidation of the carbon electrode.

  5. Galvanic corrosion between carbon steel 1018 and Alloy 600 in crevice with boric acid solution

    This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000∼10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor

  6. Trehalose 6-phosphate coordinates organic and amino acid metabolism with carbon availability.

    Figueroa, Carlos M; Feil, Regina; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Kölling, Katharina; Krause, Ursula; Höhne, Melanie; Encke, Beatrice; Plaxton, William C; Zeeman, Samuel C; Li, Zhi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hoefgen, Rainer; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2016-02-01

    Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) is an essential signal metabolite in plants, linking growth and development to carbon metabolism. The sucrose-Tre6P nexus model postulates that Tre6P acts as both a signal and negative feedback regulator of sucrose levels. To test this model, short-term metabolic responses to induced increases in Tre6P levels were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the Escherichia coli Tre6P synthase gene (otsA) under the control of an ethanol-inducible promoter. Increased Tre6P levels led to a transient decrease in sucrose content, post-translational activation of nitrate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and increased levels of organic and amino acids. Radio-isotope ((14)CO2) and stable isotope ((13)CO2) labelling experiments showed no change in the rates of photoassimilate export in plants with elevated Tre6P, but increased labelling of organic acids. We conclude that high Tre6P levels decrease sucrose levels by stimulating nitrate assimilation and anaplerotic synthesis of organic acids, thereby diverting photoassimilates away from sucrose to generate carbon skeletons and fixed nitrogen for amino acid synthesis. These results are consistent with the sucrose-Tre6P nexus model, and implicate Tre6P in coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. PMID:26714615

  7. Carbon isotope composition of dissolved humic and fulvic acids in the Tokachi river system

    This study reports carbon isotopic ratios (Δ14C and δ13C) of dissolved humic and fulvic acids in the Tokachi River system, northern Japan. These acids have a refractory feature and they represent the largest fraction of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments. The acids were isolated using the XAD extraction method from river water samples collected at three sites (on the upper and lower Tokachi River, and from one of its tributaries) in June 2004 and 2005. δ13C values were -27.8 to -26.9 per mil for humic and fulvic acids. On the other hand, the Δ14C values ranged from -247 to +26 per mil and the average values were -170±79 per mil for humic acid and -44±73 per mil for fulvic acid. The difference was attributed to the residence time of fulvic acid in the watershed being shorter than that of humic acid. The large variation suggested that humic substances have a different pathway in each watershed environment. (authors)

  8. Simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and tryptophan with Azure A-interlinked multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticles composite modified electrode

    Hayati Filik; Asiye Aslıhan Avan; Sevda Aydar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotube/Azure A/gold nanoparticle composites (Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs) were prepared by binding gold nanoparticles to the surfaces of Azure A-coated carbon nanotubes. Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, and tryptophan. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the modified e...

  9. Collagen tissue treated with chitosan solutions in carbonic acid for improved biological prosthetic heart valves

    Gallyamov, Marat O., E-mail: glm@spm.phys.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1–2, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova 28, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chaschin, Ivan S. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova 28, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Khokhlova, Marina A. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1–2, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Grigorev, Timofey E. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova 28, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bakuleva, Natalia P.; Lyutova, Irina G.; Kondratenko, Janna E. [Bakulev Scientific Center for Cardiovascular Surgery of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Roublyevskoe Sh. 135, Moscow 121552 (Russian Federation); Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G. [Radiochemistry Division, Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1–2, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, Alexei R. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1–2, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova 28, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-01

    Calcification of bovine pericardium dramatically shortens typical lifetimes of biological prosthetic heart valves and thus precludes their choice for younger patients. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that the calcification is to be mitigated by means of treatment of bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid, i.e. water saturated with carbon dioxide at high pressure. This acidic aqueous fluid unusually combines antimicrobial properties with absolute biocompatibility as far as at normal pressure it decomposes spontaneously and completely into H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}. Yet, at high pressures it can protonate and dissolve chitosan materials with different degrees of acetylation (in the range of 16–33%, at least) without any further pretreatment. Even exposure of the bovine pericardium in pure carbonic acid solution without chitosan already favours certain reduction in calcification, somewhat improved mechanical properties, complete biocompatibility and evident antimicrobial activity of the treated collagen tissue. The reason may be due to high extraction ability of this peculiar compressed fluidic mixture. Moreover, exposure of the bovine pericardium in solutions of chitosan in carbonic acid introduces even better mechanical properties and highly pronounced antimicrobial activity of the modified collagen tissue against adherence and biofilm formation of relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Yet, the most important achievement is the detected dramatic reduction in calcification for such modified collagen tissues in spite of the fact that the amount of the thus introduced chitosan is rather small (typically ca. 1 wt.%), which has been reliably detected using original tritium labelling method. We believe that these improved properties are achieved due to particularly deep and uniform impregnation of the collagen matrix with chitosan from its pressurised solutions in carbonic acid. - Highlights: • Treatment of GA

  10. Effect of magnesium carbonate on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid powder as an alkalising solubilizer.

    Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possibility of developing a novel oral pharmaceutical product using fenofibric acid instead of choline fenofibrate, the powder properties, solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetics in rats of fenofibrate, choline fenofibrate and fenofibric acid were compared. Furthermore, the effect of magnesium carbonate, an alkalising agent on the solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of fenofibric acid was assessed, a mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate being prepared by simple blending at a weight ratio of 2/1. The three fenofibrate derivatives showed different particle sizes and melting points with similar crystalline shape. Fenofibric acid had a significantly higher aqueous solubility and dissolution than fenofibrate, but significantly lower solubility and dissolution than choline fenofibrate. However, the fenofibric acid/magnesium carbonate mixture greatly improved the solubility and dissolution of fenofibric acid with an enhancement to levels similar with those for choline fenofibrate. Fenofibric acid gave lower plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values compared to choline fenofibrate in rats. However, the mixture resulted in plasma concentrations, AUC and Cmax values levels not significantly different from those for choline fenofibrate. Specifically, magnesium carbonate increased the aqueous solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of fenofibric acid by about 7.5-, 4- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Thus, the mixture of fenofibric acid and magnesium carbonate at the weight ratio of 2/1 might be a candidate for an oral pharmaceutical product with improved oral bioavailability. PMID:26992922

  11. Phase equilibrium measurements and modelling of ternary system (carbon dioxide + ethanol + palmitic acid)

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary system (palmitic acid + ethanol + CO2). The motivation of this research relies on the fact that palmitic acid is the major compound of several vegetable oils. Besides, equilibrium data for palmitic acid in carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent are scarce in the literature. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 20 MPa and mole fraction of palmitic acid from 0.0199 to 0.2930. Vapour-liquid and solid-fluid transitions were visually observed for the system studied. The Peng-Robinson equation of state, with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule was employed for thermodynamic modelling of the system investigated with a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated values.

  12. Selective Acidic Leaching of Spent Zinc-Carbon Batteries Followed by Zinc Electrowinning

    Shalchian, Hossein; Rafsanjani-Abbasi, Ali; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a selective acidic leaching procedure was employed for recycling zinc from spent zinc-carbon batteries. Leaching experiments were carried out in order to maximize zinc recovery and minimize manganese recovery in diluted sulfuric acid media. Response surface methodology and analysis of variance were employed for experimental design, data analysis, and leaching optimization. The experimental design has 28 experiments that include 24 main runs and four replicate in center point. The optimal conditions obtained from the selective acidic leaching experiments, were sulfuric acid concentration of 1 pct v/v, leaching temperature of 343 K (70 °C), pulp density of 8 pct w/v, and stirring speed of 300 rpm. The results show that the zinc and manganese recoveries after staged selective leaching are about 92 and 15 pct, respectively. Finally, metallic zinc with purity of 99.9 pct and electrolytic manganese dioxide were obtained by electrowinning.

  13. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    This paper describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. It can serve as the basis for an undergraduate (or pre college) experiment in environmental chemistry. Recent field investigations are described that provide measurements of carbonate stone dissolution and mechanical erosion under weathering conditions that are prevalent in the eastern US. The purpose of the laboratory work is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that were difficult to resolve on the basis of field experiments alone

  14. Effect of acid oxidization of carbon nanotube electrode on the capacitances of double layer capacitors

    LI; Chensha; WANG; Dazhi; LIANG; Tongxiang; WANG; Xiaofen

    2004-01-01

    Polarizable electrode of electric double layer capacitor was made from carbon nanotubes. The effect of acid oxidation of electrode on the specific capacitance was studied. Oxidation removed the redundant carbon, expanded the pore size and introduced some kinds of functional groups on the surface of CNTs. The specific capacit ance of the electrodes with organic electrolyte was increased from 21.4 to 49.6 F/gafter being oxidized at a volume ratio of H2SO4 to HNO3 of 3:1.

  15. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of carbon nitride dots from folic acid for cell imaging.

    Guan, Weiwei; Gu, Wei; Ye, Ling; Guo, Chenyang; Su, Su; Xu, Pinxiang; Xue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    A green, one-step microwave-assisted polyol synthesis was employed to prepare blue luminescent carbon nitride dots (CNDs) using folic acid molecules as both carbon and nitrogen sources. The as-prepared CNDs had an average size of around 4.51 nm and could be well dispersed in water. Under excitation at 360 nm, the CNDs exhibited a strong blue luminescence and the quantum yield was estimated to be 18.9%, which is greater than that of other reported CNDs. Moreover, the CNDs showed low cytotoxicity and could efficiently label C6 glioma cells, demonstrating their potential in cell imaging. PMID:25382977

  16. Biosynthetic control of the natural abundance of carbon 13 at specific positions within fatty acids in Escherichia coli. Evidence regarding the coupling of fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C) at natural abundance levels have been determined for individual carbon atoms in each of the major phospholipid fatty acids of Escherichia coli grown on glucose as the sole carbon source. Two models were constructed for the isotope effects and carbon flow pathways which must be responsible for the observed isotopic fractionations. Both models incorporate a branch in the carbon flow at which fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) is utilized either for complex lipid synthesis or for elongation by fatty acid synthetase. Depletion of carbon 13 in the carboxyl groups of myristic and palmitoleic acids (relative to carbonyl groups in precursor acyl-ACP's) was observed to occur at this branching site. Only one of the models was consistent both with this observation and with the observation that exogenous fatty acids are incorporated into phospholipids but are not elongated. The successful model has free fatty acid as the intermediate product coupling fatty acid biosynthesis to phospholipid synthesis. Essential to this pathway are those reactions catalyzed by thioesterases I and II as well as acyl-ACP synthetase, enzymes whose roles have previously been unknown in vivo

  17. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, and uric acid using a carbon paste electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid, and palladium nanoparticles

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies revealed an optimized composition of 60 % graphite, 20 % paraffin, 10 % MWCNT and 10 % IL. In a next step, the optimized CPE was modified with palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA), with peak separations of 180 and 200 mV for AA-DA and DA-UA, respectively. The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.6 to 112, 0.1 to 151, and 0.5 to 225 μM, respectively, and with 200, 30 and 150 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. (author)

  18. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  19. Biodiesel Production Using Supercritical Methanol with Carbon Dioxide and Acetic Acid

    Chao-Yi Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of oils and lipids in supercritical methanol is commonly carried out in the absence of a catalyst. In this work, supercritical methanol, carbon dioxide, and acetic acid were used to produce biodiesel from soybean oil. Supercritical carbon dioxide was added to reduce the reaction temperature and increase the fats dissolved in the reaction medium. Acetic acid was added to reduce the glycerol byproduct and increase the hydrolysis of fatty acids. The Taguchi method was used to identify optimal conditions in the biodiesel production process. With an optimal reaction temperature of 280°C, a methanol-to-oil ratio of 60, and an acetic acid-to-oil ratio of 3, a 97.83% yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs was observed after 90 min at a reaction pressure of 20 MPa. While the common approach to biodiesel production results in a glycerol byproduct of about 10% of the yield, the practices reported in this research can reduce the glycerol byproduct by 30.2% and thereby meet international standards requiring a FAME content of >96%.

  20. Methods for estimation of long-term non-carbonate neutralisation of acid rock drainage.

    Miller, Stuart D; Stewart, Warwick S; Rusdinar, Yuni; Schumann, Russell E; Ciccarelli, Joseph M; Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C

    2010-04-01

    In the long-term phase of an acid rock drainage (ARD) evolution profile, after any short-term neutralisation capacity provided by carbonate minerals is exhausted, the net acid release is a product of a declining acid generation rate (AGR) and a slower, long-term acid neutralisation rate mainly provided by gangue silicate minerals. At some point, the AGR and the non-carbonate acid neutralisation rate (ANRnc) will be similar. Matching of the AGR and ANRnc near 10mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week is demonstrated in data from 10-year columns. This long-term neutralisation is not measured at present in any accepted assessment tests. Methods to estimate ANRnc, based on silicate mineralogy and solution assays from long-term column leach tests, are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated between rates measured from the solution assay data and those calculated from mineralogy using kinetic databases. More rigorous analysis of the leachate chemistry of selected long-term leach tests also suggests possible cover design criteria based on the maximum AGR that will maintain a pH>4 in leachate from ARD materials. The data show a distinct break at an AGR of 3mg H(2)SO(4)/kg/week, below which no leachate pH is less than 4. The results indicate that an AGR of 10t H(2)SO(4)/ha/year is conservative and a suitable cover design target for ARD control that would be matched by ANRnc. PMID:20097405

  1. Carbon quantum dots with photo-generated proton property as efficient visible light controlled acid catalyst

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Xing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-12-01

    Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34.7-46.2%, respectively) in water solution under visible light, while the 1-4 nm CQDs and 10-2000 nm graphite do not have such excellent catalytic activity. The use of 5-10 nm CQDs as a light responsive and controllable photocatalyst is truly a novel application of carbon-based nanomaterials, which may significantly push research in the current catalytic industry, environmental pollution and energy issues.Developing light-driven acid catalyst will be very meaningful for the controlled-acid catalytic processes towards a green chemical industry. Here, based on scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and ΔpH testing, we demonstrate that the 5-10 nm carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized by electrochemical ablation of graphite have strong light-induced proton properties under visible light in solution, which can be used as an acid catalyst. The 5-10 nm CQDs' catalytic activity is strongly dependent on the illumination intensity and the temperature of the reaction system. As an effective visible light driven and controlled acid-catalyst, 5-10 nm CQDs can catalyze a series of organic reactions (esterification, Beckmann rearrangement and aldol condensation) with high conversion (34

  2. Double-walled carbon nanotubes suspending by natural active substances (saponins and humic acids

    Zafour-Hadj-Ziane A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs discovered over the past fifteen years are very interesting materials because of their structural, mechanical, chemical and electronic properties. However, their poor dispersion after synthesis constitutes a real obstacle to their use in varied fields. To respond to a topical issue, we proposed a new concept based on the use of natural active substances such a saponins; biosurfactant extracted from the tree Sapindus Mukorossiand humic acids. The results showed that for a concentration of 1.5 mg/l of saponin and 5 mg/l of humic acids, the stable suspensions were obtained; the zeta potential measurements have justified these results.

  3. Poly-glutamic acid modified carbon nanotube-doped carbon paste electrode for sensitive detection of L-tryptophan.

    Liu, Xiao; Luo, Liqiang; Ding, Yaping; Ye, Daixin

    2011-08-01

    A novel poly-glutamic acid (PGA) film modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was first prepared for the determination of l-tryptophan (l-Trp). Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied for characterization of the surface morphology of the modified electrodes and cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the proposed electrode towards the oxidation of l-Trp. Optimization of the experimental parameters was performed with regard to pH, ratio of CNTs, concentration of glutamic acid, electro-polymerization cycles, accumulation time and concentration of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate. The linearity between the oxidation peak current and the l-Trp concentration was obtained in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-4)M with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-8)M (S/N=3) and the sensitivity was calculated to be 1143.79μA∙mM(-1)∙cm(-2). In addition, the PGA modified CPE incorporating CNTs displayed high selectivity, good stability and reproducibility, making it suitable for the routine analysis of l-Trp in clinical use. PMID:21640670

  4. Behaviors of clay minerals in dilute sulphuric acid and sodium carbonate leaching

    The dissolution properties and acid consumption of kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and their dewatered products roasted at temperature 600-800 deg C in dilute sulphuric acid are studied. The results indicate that the dissolubility of kaolinite is smaller, montmorillonite is greater and illite is between them. But after roasting at temperature 600-800 deg C, the dissolubility of dewatered kaolinite is greater, dewatered montmorillonite is much smaller, and the dewatered illite is between them. The study on reaction products of kaolinite with sodium carbonate in pressurized sodium carbonate leaching indicates that the reaction product is the colloid multiple sodium silicate at lower temperature (below 120 deg C), the crystalline hydroxysodalite at higher temperature (above 160 deg C)

  5. Preparation of carbon nanotubes decorated with manganese dioxide nanoparticles for electrochemical determination of ferulic acid

    We report on an electrochemical sensor for the detection of ferulic acid (FA) that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes that are decorated with MnO2 nanoparticles. The new electrode shows excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ferulic acid at pH 7. Cyclic voltammetry reveals a 23 mV decrease in the peak-to-peak separation of the oxidation and reduction waves. Under optimized conditions, the anodic peak current at a voltage of 150 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) is linearly related to the peak current in the 0.082–220 μM concentration range, and the limit of detection (at an SNR of 3) is 10 nM. The sensor was applied to the determination of FA in spiked human serum samples and gave satisfactory results, with recoveries ranging from 97 to 99.2 %. (author)

  6. Miniaturized ascorbic acid fuel cells with flexible electrodes made of graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth

    Hoshi, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Kazuo; Sumi, Hisato; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2016-04-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a biologically friendly compound and exists in many products such as sports drinks, fruit, and even in human blood. Thus, a miniaturized and flexible ascorbic acid fuel cell (AAFC) is expected be a power source for portable or implantable electric devices. In this study, we fabricated an AAFC with anode and cathode dimensions of 3 × 10 mm2 made of a graphene-coated carbon fiber cloth (GCFC) and found that GCFC electrodes significantly improve the power generated by the AAFC. This is because the GCFC has more than two times the effective surface area of a conventional carbon fiber cloth and it can contain more enzymes. The power density of the AAFC in a phosphate buffer solution containing 100 mM AA at room temperature was 34.1 µW/cm2 at 0.46 V. Technical issues in applying the AAFC to portable devices are also discussed.

  7. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  8. Abscisic acid as a factor in regulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Maria Faltynowicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abscisic acid (ABA on carbon metabolism and the activity of ribulosebisphosphate (RuBP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylases in 8-day-old pea seedlings was investigated. It was endeavoured to correlate the changes observed in metabolic processes with the endogenous ABA level. In plants treated with ABA incorporation of labeled carbon into sucrose, glucose, fructose and sugar phosphates was depressed, while 14C incorporation into starch, ribulose and malic acid was enhanced. The activity of RuBP carboxylase was considerably lowered, whereas that of PEP carboxylase was slightly increased. It is considered that inhibition of photosynthesis due to the action of ABA is caused to a great extent by the obstruction of the C-3 pathway and reduced activity of RuBP carboxylase, whereas (β-carboxylation was not blocked.

  9. Esterification of levulinic acid into ethyl levulinate catalysed by sulfonated hydrothermal carbons

    Filoklis D. Pileidis; Maham Tabassum; Sam Coutts; Maria-Magdalena Ttitirici

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of carbon-based, heterogeneous sulphonic catalysts for the production of levulinate esters. Hydrothermal treatment at moderated temperatures was employed to generate highly func-tional carbonaceous materials, referred to as hydrothermal carbons (HTCs), from both glucose, cellulose and rye straw. The products were sulfonated to generate solid acid-catalysts. Characterisa-tion of the as-synthesised materials as well as catalyst activity tests were performed. SEM images indicate the micrometre-sized particles present in both HTCs were largely unaffected by sulfona-tion, although cellulose-derived HTC displayed signs of inadequate hydrolysis. FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis confirmed successful incorporation of sulphonic groups. 13C solid state NMR, in addition to TGA, elucidated the carbons’ structural composition and supported the common-ly-proposed hydrothermal carbonisation mechanism. Finally, the catalysts were tested via levulinic acid-ethanol esterification and gave high conversion and ester-selectivities (>90%).

  10. Production of extracellular ferulic acid esterases by Lactobacillus strains using natural and synthetic carbon sources

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, also known as feruloyl esterases, cinnamic acid esterases or cinnamoyl esterases, belong to a common group of hydrolases distributed in the plant kingdom. Especially the fungal enzymes were very well characterised in the past whereas the enzyme was rarely found in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains. It is well known that strong antioxidants free phenolic acids can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal microflora composed among others also of Lactobacillus strains. The aim of this study was to examine four Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus K1, L. rhamnosus E/N, PEN, OXYfor the ability to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. The LAB strains were grown in the minimal growth media using German wheat bran, rye bran, brewers’ spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, methyl syringate or methyl vanillate as the sole carbon source. FAE activity was determined using the post-cultivation supernatants, methyl ferulate and HPLC with UV detection. Results. The highest FAE activity was obtained with L. acidophilus K1 and methyl ferulate (max. 23.34 ±0.05 activity units and methyl p-coumarate (max. 14.96 ±0.47 activity units as carbon sources. L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN exhibited the limited ability to produce FAE with cinnamic acids methyl esters. Methyl syringate and methyl vanillate (MS and MV were insufficient carbon sources for FAE production. Brewers’ spent grain was the most suitable substrate for FAE production by L. acidophilus K1 (max. 2.64 ±0.06 activity units and L. rhamnosus E/N, OXY and PEN. FAE was also successfully induced by natural substrates rye bran, corn pectin (L. acidophilus K1, German wheat bran and larchwood arabinogalactan (E/N, PEN or German wheat bran and corn pectin (OXY. Conclusions. This study proved the

  11. Electrochromic iridium oxide films: Compatibility with propionic acid, potassium hydroxide, and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous thin films of It oxide were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering onto unheated substrates. The crystallite size was similar to 5 nm, and a small amount of unoxidized Ir was present. The electrochromic performance was studied by optical transmittance measurements and cyclic voltammetry applied to films in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes, specifically being 1 M propionic acid, 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li-PC). Cyclic v...

  12. Adsorption of rhodamine B by acid activated carbon-Kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies

    Shanmugam Arivoli; M. Thenkuzhali; P. Martin Deva Prasath

    2009-01-01

    A carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from an indigenous waste by acid treatment was tested for its efficiency in removing Rhodamine B (RDB). The parameters studied include agitation time, initial dye concentration, carbon dose, pH and temperature. The adsorption followed first order kinetics and the rate is mainly controlled by intra-particle diffusion. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The adsorption capacity (Qm) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm p...

  13. Organic Matter, Carbon and Humic Acids in Rehabilitated and Secondary Forest Soils

    Lee Y. Leng; Ahmed, Osumanu H.; Nik M.A. Majid; Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Tropical rainforests cover about 19.37 million ha (60%) of Malaysias total area and about 8.71 million ha can be found in Sarawak, Malaysia. Excessive logging, mining and shifting cultivation contribute to deforestation in Sarawak. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Quantify soil Organic Matter (SOM), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and Humic Acids (HA) in rehabilitated and secondary forest soils and (ii) Compare SOM, SOC and HA sequestrations of both forests. Approach: So...

  14. Separation of Erucic Acid from Rape-Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with Entrainer

    云志; 钱仁渊; 等

    2002-01-01

    Separation of erucic acid from rape-seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainer was carried on a pilot column with an inner diameter 14 mm and an effective total height 2.2m.Experiments were focused on the effects of entrainers.i.e.acetone.ethanol and ethyl acetate,on the extraction.It is showed that entrainers made selectivity lower,but separation time shorter.

  15. Poly(lactic acid)/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors

    Valtencir Zucolotto; Eliton Souto Medeiros; Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso; Juliano Elvis Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated to...

  16. Ancient low–molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw

    Drake, Travis W.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Spencer, Robert G.M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to directly link rapid microbial consumption of ancient permafrost-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to CO2 production using a novel bioreactor. Rapid mineralization of the freshly thawed DOC was attributed to microbial decomposition of low–molecular-weight organic acids, which were completely consumed during the experiments. Our results indicate that substantial biodegradation of permafrost DOC occurs immediately after thaw and before downstream...

  17. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  18. Novel ferulic acid esterases from Bifidobacterium sp. produced on selected synthetic and natural carbon sources

    Dominik Szwajgier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ferulic acid esterases (or feruloyl esterases, a common group of hydrolases are very well distributed in the plant kongdom. The fungal feruloyl esterases were very extensively studied whereas probiotic lactic acid bacteria as the source of this enzyme were generally omitted. Free phenolic acids – strong antioxidants can be released from the dietary fiber by the action of intestinal lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to examine the three probiotic Bifidobacterium strains to produce extracellular FAE on different synthetic and natural carbon sources. Material and methods. Studies were carried out using Bifidibacteriumstrains (B. animalis Bi30, B. catenulatum KD 14 and B. longum KN 29. The strains were cultivated using minimal growth media containing selected natural and synthetic carbon sources: German wheat bran, rye bran, barley spent grain, isolated larchwood arabinogalactan, apple pectin, corn pectin, methyl esters of phenolic acids. The production of extracellular feruloyl esterase was estimated using the post cultivation supernatants and methyl ferulate. The concentration of ferulic acid released from the ester was determined using HPLC with DAD detection. Results. The most efficient bacterial strain for FAE production was B. animalis cultivated in the presence of methyl p-coumarate and methyl ferulate as the main carbon sources (14.95 nmol·ml-1·min-1 and 4.38 nmol·ml-1·min-1, respectively. In the case of each FAE, the highest activity was obtained at 37oC (pH 6.3 in Theorell/Steinhagen buffer (B. animalis Bi30 or in Tris/HCl buffer (B. catenulatum KD14 and B. longum KN29. Taking under consideration all results, it should be noticed that the highest feruloyl esterase activities were obtained using synthetic methyl esters of phenolic acids. Conclusions. The presented resultsbroaden the knowledgeabout the production of the feruloyl esterase by probiotic bacteria. Although the enzyme is only accessory during

  19. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  20. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  1. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization.

    Abad, Sergi; Turon, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM) with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10-0.12 h(-1)), biomass (0.7-0.8 g cells/g Substrate) and product (0.14-0.15 g DHA/g cells) yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct. PMID:26690180

  2. Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Oil-Palm Shell for Carboxylic Acid Adsorption

    Hector Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recovery of volatile carboxylic acids (VCA by adsorption onto activated carbon adsorbent (CA was explored. The CA was synthesized from palm-oil kernel shells using H3PO4 at 10 and 60% w/w as activating agent. The samples produced in this manner were labeled as CA10A, CA60A respectively. Also KOH was used as activating agent at 10 and 60% w/w. In this case, the produced samples were labeled as CA10B, CA60B respectively. After activation, the surface of all four CA samples was extensively characterized both physically and chemically. The obtained CA adsorption behavior for VCA was assessed by submerging samples of CA in solutions at a fixed initial VCA concentration. Because some of the acids were adsorbed on the CA surface, the VCA concentration in solution was reduced. Carbon CA60B exhibited the greatest adsorption capacity, reaching 1300 mg of adsorbed acids/g carbon. Five adsorption isotherms models were fitted to experimental data. The Langmuir-Freundlich model described best the adsorption phenomena. Desorption behavior was assessed by placing CA after adsorption in water and was not high, which forces to reconsider either de desorption mechanism proposed in this study and/or the use CA as synthesized here for VCA recovery.

  3. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M; Piatkowski, Uwe; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13)C patterns among amino acids (δ(13)CAA) could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13)CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13)C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13)CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13)C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13)C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs. PMID:24069196

  4. Tracing carbon sources through aquatic and terrestrial food webs using amino acid stable isotope fingerprinting.

    Thomas Larsen

    Full Text Available Tracing the origin of nutrients is a fundamental goal of food web research but methodological issues associated with current research techniques such as using stable isotope ratios of bulk tissue can lead to confounding results. We investigated whether naturally occurring δ(13C patterns among amino acids (δ(13CAA could distinguish between multiple aquatic and terrestrial primary production sources. We found that δ(13CAA patterns in contrast to bulk δ(13C values distinguished between carbon derived from algae, seagrass, terrestrial plants, bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, we showed for two aquatic producers that their δ(13CAA patterns were largely unaffected by different environmental conditions despite substantial shifts in bulk δ(13C values. The potential of assessing the major carbon sources at the base of the food web was demonstrated for freshwater, pelagic, and estuarine consumers; consumer δ(13C patterns of essential amino acids largely matched those of the dominant primary producers in each system. Since amino acids make up about half of organismal carbon, source diagnostic isotope fingerprints can be used as a new complementary approach to overcome some of the limitations of variable source bulk isotope values commonly encountered in estuarine areas and other complex environments with mixed aquatic and terrestrial inputs.

  5. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells. PMID:26601132

  6. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Francesco Ferella; Ida De Michelis; Francesca Beolchini; Valentina Innocenzi; Francesco Vegliò

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values exp...

  7. Potentially bioavailable natural organic carbon and hydrolyzable amino acids in aquifer sediments

    Thomas, Lashun K.; Widdowson, Mark A.; Novak, John T.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between concentrations of operationally defined potentially bioavailable organic -carbon (PBOC) and hydrolyzable amino acids (HAAs) in sediments collected from a diverse range of chloroethene--contaminated sites. Concentrations of PBOC and HAA were measured using aquifer sediment samples collected at six selected study sites. Average concentrations of total HAA and PBOC ranged from 1.96 ± 1.53 to 20.1 ± 25.6 mg/kg and 4.72 ± 0.72 to 443 ± 65.4 mg/kg, respectively. Results demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship between concentrations of PBOC and total HAA present in the aquifer sediment (p amino acids are known to be readily biodegradable carbon compounds, this relationship suggests that the sequential chemical extraction procedure used to measure PBOC is a useful indicator of bioavailable carbon in aquifer sediments. This, in turn, is consistent with the interpretation that PBOC measurements can be used for estimating the amount of natural organic carbon available for driving the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in groundwater systems.

  8. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha 10 Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi Hiroshima, Japan 739-8527 (Japan)

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  9. Inhibiting properties and adsorption of an amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor on carbon steel in aqueous carbon dioxide solutions

    Buchweishaija, Joseph

    1997-12-31

    Carbon dioxide corrosion is a major corrosion problem in oil and gas production systems and many organic inhibitors have been tested and used to protect the substrate from corrosion. This thesis studies the mechanism of interaction of the inhibitor molecule with the metallic substrate and how this affects the dissolution rate of the metal. The performance of a commercial amine based fatty acid corrosion inhibitor has been investigated using rotating cylinder electrodes and carbon steel electrodes in CO{sub 2} saturated formation water in the temperature range between 35 to 80{sup o}C. The corrosion process was monitored by electrochemical impedance measurements, and at the end of each experiment full polarization curves were recorded. When the inhibitor was applied on noncorroded electrodes, high inhibitor performance, over 99.7%, was observed independent of temperature. On precorroded electrodes inhibitor performance was found to depend on temperature and time of precorrosion. Above 60{sup o}C, the inhibitor performance decreased with increasing time of precorrosion, presumably because of the formation of a corrosion film of either iron carbonate or a combination of iron carbonate and iron carbide which prevent the inhibitor from reaching the surface. The inhibitor protection efficiency was assumed to be associated with the degree of inhibitor coverage at the material surface, and adsorption isotherms have been calculated in the concentration range between 0.1 ppm and 100 ppm. A Langmuir isotherm was found to give the best fit. The inhibitor performance on a 2 days precorroded rotating electrode was investigated at different solution pH ranging between 4.5 and 6.5 at 35{sup o}C. 130 refs., 80 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Isotope separation of carbon-13 by counter-current column with exchange reaction between carbon dioxide and carbamic acid

    The isotope separation performance of carbon-13 with exchange reaction between CO2 and carbamic acid was studied and some factors for the counter-current column were studied for improving the overall performance. The working fluid for the experiments was a solution of DNBA, (C4H9)2NH, and n-octane mixture. The rate-controlling step of 13C transfer at temperatures higher than 10 deg C was the exchange reaction between carbamic acid and CO2 dissolved by physical absorption. The capacity coefficient of 13C transfer between gas and liquid in the counter-current column was successfully related to the product of three factors: the concentration of carbamic acid, the concentration of CO2 dissolved by physical absorption and the liquid holdup of the column. The liquid holdup was also an important factor. As the holdup increased, the isotope exchange rate and the overall separation factor of the column increased. However, the transient time to equilibrium was much longer. (author)

  11. Neutralizing Carbonic Acid in Deep Carbonate Strata below the North Atlantic

    Klaus Lackner; Charles Harvey; Bruce Watson

    2008-01-14

    Carbon dioxide injection into deep sea sediments below 2700 m water depth and a few hundred meters to fifteen hundred meters deep in the sediment column may provide permanent geologic storage by gravitational trapping. At high pressures and low temperatures common in deep sea sediments a few hundred meters below sea floor, CO{sub 2} will be in its liquid phase and will be denser than the overlying pore fluid. The lower density of the pore fluid provides a cap to the denser CO{sub 2} and ensures gravitational trapping in the short term. The overall storage capacity for CO{sub 2} in such deep sea formations below the ocean floor is primarily determined by the permeability, and will vary with seafloor depth, geothermal gradient, porosity, and pore water salinity. Furthermore, the dissemination of the injected CO{sub 2} in the sediments and potential chemical reactions between CO{sub 2}, pore fluid and sediments will define its fate in the storage reservoir. The main objectives of our research was to evaluate the potential for sub-seabed CO{sub 2} storage in deep sea sediments using a range of approaches including experiments, permeability analysis, and modeling. Over the course of the three-year award, our results support an important role for sub-seabed storage in a diverse portfolio of carbons sequestration options. Our analysis has shown the feasibility of this type of storage, and also emphasizes that escape or leakage from such sites would be negligible. The most difficult challenge is to overcome the low permeability of typical deep-sea sediments, and a variety of approaches are suggested for future research.

  12. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on chitosan-carbon nanotubes electrospun nanofiber on silver nanoparticles.

    Numnuam, Apon; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2014-06-01

    A novel amperometric uric acid biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing uricase on an electrospun nanocomposite of chitosan-carbon nanotubes nanofiber (Chi-CNTsNF) covering an electrodeposited layer of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a gold electrode (uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au). The uric acid response was determined at an optimum applied potential of -0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl in a flow-injection system based on the change of the reduction current for dissolved oxygen during oxidation of uric acid by the immobilized uricase. The response was directly proportional to the uric acid concentration. Under the optimum conditions, the fabricated uric acid biosensor had a very wide linear range, 1.0-400 μmol L(-1), with a very low limit of detection of 1.0 μmol L(-1) (s/n = 3). The operational stability of the uricase/Chi-CNTsNF/AgNPs/Au biosensor (up to 205 injections) was excellent and the storage life was more than six weeks. A low Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.21 mmol L(-1) indicated that the immobilized uricase had high affinity for uric acid. The presence of potential common interfering substances, for example ascorbic acid, glucose, and lactic acid, had negligible effects on the performance of the biosensor. When used for analysis of uric acid in serum samples, the results agreed well with those obtained by use of the standard enzymatic colorimetric method (P > 0.05). PMID:24718436

  13. Batch fermentation model of propionic acid production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici in different carbon sources.

    Coral, Jefferson; Karp, Susan Grace; Porto de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana; Parada, José Luis; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is widely used as additive in animal feed and also in the manufacturing of cellulose-based plastics, herbicides, and perfumes. Salts of propionic acid are used as preservative in food. PA is mainly produced by chemical synthesis. Nowadays, PA production by fermentation of low-cost industrial wastes or renewable sources has been an interesting alternative. In the present investigation, PA production by Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4965 was studied using a basal medium with sugarcane molasses (BMSM), glycerol or lactate (BML) in small batch fermentation at 30 and 36 degrees C. Bacterial growth was carried out under low dissolved oxygen concentration and without pH control. Results indicated that P. acidipropionici produced more biomass in BMSM than in other media at 30 degrees C (7.55 g l(-1)) as well as at 36 degrees C (3.71 g l(-1)). PA and biomass production were higher at 30 degrees C than at 36 degrees C in all cases studied. The best productivity was obtained by using BML (0.113 g l(-1) h(-1)), although the yielding of this metabolite was higher when using glycerol as carbon source (0.724 g g(-1)) because there was no detection of acetic acid. By the way, when using the other two carbon sources, acetic acid emerged as an undesirable by-product for further PA purification. PMID:18386184

  14. Electro-oxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed on cobalt hydroxide-modified glassy carbon electrode

    GHASEM KARIM-NEZHAD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid on a cobalt hydroxide modified glassy carbon (CHM–GC electrode in alkaline solution was investigated. The process of the involved oxidation and its kinetics were established using the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry techniques, as well as by steady state polarization measurements. The results revealed that cobalt hydroxide promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current; hence ascorbic acid is oxidized at lower potentials, which is thermodynamically more favorable. The cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry indicate a catalytic EC mechanism is operative with the electrogeneration of Co(IV as the electrochemical process. Also, the process is diffusion-controlled and the current–time responses follow Cottrellian behavior. This result was confirmed by steady state measurements. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid and the electron-transfer coefficient are reported.

  15. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  16. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid

  17. Deactivation of carbon supported palladium catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cell

    A new carbon black supported palladium catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell applications has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Bi-modal distribution of Pd crystallite sizes was observed. The average Pd size for crystallites in small size and large size ranges were about 2.7 nm and 11.2 nm, respectively. The initial activity of the catalyst in the oxidation of formic acid tested in a fuel cell was similar to a commercial well dispersed 20 wt.% Pd/Vulcan. The rates of the fuel cell power decay were measured for formic acid of two purities for various current loadings. The results showed that various mechanisms contribute to the decrease of cell power with time. In direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) fed with a very pure HCOOH accumulation of CO2 gas bubbles in anode catalyst layer is responsible for observed power decay. In DFAFC fed with a pure for analysis (p.a.) grade formic acid the formation of COads poison from the formic acid impurities is the main deactivation reason.

  18. Application of vibrational spectroscopy in the in vitro studies of carbon fiber-polylactic acid composite degradation.

    Blazewicz, Marta; Gajewska, Maria Chomyszyn; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

    1999-05-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy was used for assessment of new material for stomatology, for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniqe.Implants applied in the healing of periodontal defects using GTR technique have to meet stringent requirements concerning their chemical as well physical properties.At present the implants prepared from two layers membranes differing in porosity in their outer and inner layers are studied clinically. Composite plates prepared by us consist of three layers: polylactic acid film, carbon fibres coated with polylactic acid and carbon fabric.Vibrational spectroscopic studies of the material; polylactic acid- carbon fiber have made it possible to analyse chemical reactions occurring between the polymer and carbon surface. Analysis of the IR spectra of samples treated in Ringer solution allowed to describe the phenomena resulting from the composite degradation. It was shown that material biostability is related to the presence of carbon fibers.

  19. Hyaluronic Acid-Coated Carbon Nonwoven Fabrics as Potential Material for Repair of Osteochondral Defects for medical applications

    Rajzer, I.; Menaszek, E.; Bačáková, Lucie; Orzelski, M.; Blazewicz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2013), s. 102-107. ISSN 1230-3666 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cartilage * carbon fibres * nonwoven scaffolds * hyaluronic acid Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  20. Formation of isomers of anionic hemiesters of sugars and carbonic acid in aqueous medium.

    Dos Santos, Vagner B; Vidal, Denis T R; Francisco, Kelliton J M; Ducati, Lucas C; do Lago, Claudimir L

    2016-06-16

    Hemiesters of carbonic acid can be freely formed in aqueous media containing HCO3(-)/CO2 and mono- or poly-hydroxy compounds. Herein, (13)C NMR spectroscopy was used to identify isomers formed in aqueous solutions of glycerol (a prototype compound) and seven carbohydrates, as well as to estimate the equilibrium constant of formation (Keq). Although both isomers are formed, glycerol 1-carbonate corresponds to 90% of the product. While fructose and ribose form an indistinct mixture of isomers, the anomers of d-glucopyranose 6-carbonate correspond to 74% of the eight isomers of glucose carbonate that were detected. The values of Keq for the disaccharides sucrose (4.3) and maltose (4.2) are about twice the values for the monosaccharides glucose (2.0) and fructose (2.3). Ribose (Keq = 0.89)-the only sugar without a significant concentration of a species containing a -CH2OH group in an aqueous solution-resulted in the smallest Keq. On the basis of the Keq value and the concentrations of HCO3(-) and glucose in blood, one can anticipate a concentration of 2-4 µmol L(-1) for glucose 6-carbonate, which corresponds to ca. of 10% of its phosphate counterpart (glucose 6-phosphate). PMID:27111726

  1. Formic Acid Oxidation over Hierarchical Porous Carbon Containing PtPd Catalysts

    Elena Pastor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of high surface monolithic carbon as support for catalysts offers important advantage, such as elimination of the ohmic drop originated in the interparticle contact and improved mass transport by ad-hoc pore design. Moreover, the approach discussed here has the advantage that it allows the synthesis of materials having a multimodal porous size distribution, with each pore size contributing to the desired properties. On the other hand, the monolithic nature of the porous support also imposes new challenges for metal loading. In this work, the use of Hierarchical Porous Carbon (HPC as support for PtPd nanoparticles was explored. Three hierarchical porous carbon samples (denoted as HPC-300, HPC-400 and HPC-500 with main pore size around 300, 400 and 500 nm respectively, are used as porous support. PtPd nanoparticles were loaded by impregnation and subsequent chemical reduction with NaBH4. The resulting material was characterized by EDX, XRD and conventional electrochemical techniques. The catalytic activity toward formic acid and methanol electrooxidation was evaluated by electrochemical methods, and the results compared with commercial carbon supported PtPd. The Hierarchical Porous Carbon support discussed here seems to be promising for use in DFAFC anodes.

  2. The in Silico Insight into Carbon Nanotube and Nucleic Acid Bases Interaction

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ghalandari, Behafarid; Tabatabaie, Seyed Saleh; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore practical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields the properties of their interaction with biomolecules must be revealed. Recent years, the interaction of CNTs with biomolecules is a subject of research interest for practical applications so that previous research explored that CNTs have complementary structure properties with single strand DNA (ssDNA). Objectives Hence, the quantum mechanics (QM) method based on ab initio was used for this purpose. Therefore values of binding energy, charge distribution, electronic energy and other physical properties of interaction were studied for interaction of nucleic acid bases and SCNT. Materials and Methods In this study, the interaction between nucleic acid bases and a (4, 4) single-walled carbon nanotube (SCNT) were investigated through calculations within quantum mechanics (QM) method at theoretical level of Hartree-Fock (HF) method using 6-31G basis set. Hence, the physical properties such as electronic energy, total dipole moment, charge distributions and binding energy of nucleic acid bases interaction with SCNT were investigated based on HF method. Results It has been found that the guanine base adsorption is bound stronger to the outer surface of nanotube in comparison to the other bases, consistent with the recent theoretical studies. In the other words, the results explored that guanine interaction with SCNT has optimum level of electronic energy so that their interaction is stable. Also, the calculations illustrated that SCNT interact to nucleic acid bases by noncovalent interaction because of charge distribution an electrostatic area is created in place of interaction. Conclusions Consequently, small diameter SCNT interaction with nucleic acid bases is noncovalent. Also, the results revealed that small diameter SCNT interaction especially SCNT (4, 4) with nucleic acid bases can be useful in practical application area of biomedical fields such detection and drug delivery.

  3. Mobility of acid-treated carbon nanotubes in water-saturated porous media.

    Peng, X J; Du, C J; Liang, Z; Wang, J; Luan, Z K; Li, W J

    2011-01-01

    The production, use, and disposal of nanomaterials may inevitably lead to their appearance in water. With the development of new industries around nanomaterials, it seems necessary to be concerned about the transport of nanomaterials in the environment. In this paper, the transport of acid-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in porous media was investigated. Before the mobility investigation, the stability of acid-treated CNT dispersions was studied using ultraviolet-visible spectra and it was indicated that, under the chemical conditions employed in this work, there was no apparent aggregation. The mobility investigation showed that transport of acid-treated CNTs increased with treatment time due to increase in particle zeta potential. Carbon nanotubes treated with nitric acid for 2, 6, and 12 h possessed measured zeta potentials of -30.0, -43.0, and -48.5 mV, respectively. Utilizing clean-bed filtration theory, we showed that acid-treated CNTs have the potential to migrate 3.28, 5.67, and 7.69 m in saturated glass beads, respectively. We showed that solution ionic strength and pH have important effects on the mobility of acid-treated CNTs. Increasing the pH from 6.0 to 7.9 resulted in an increase in migration potential from 2.96 to 10.86 m. Increasing the ionic strength from 0.005 to 0.020 M resulted in a decrease in CNT migration potential from 5.67 to 1.42 m. PMID:22031583

  4. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  5. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied

  6. Theoretical study of inhibition efficiencies of some amino acids on corrosion of carbon steel in acidic media: green corrosion inhibitors.

    Dehdab, Maryam; Shahraki, Mehdi; Habibi-Khorassani, Sayyed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition efficiencies of three amino acids [tryptophan (B), tyrosine (c), and serine (A)] have been studied as green corrosion inhibitors on corrosion of carbon steel using density functional theory (DFT) method in gas and aqueous phases. Quantum chemical parameters such as EH OMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), E LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), hardness (η), polarizability ([Formula: see text]), total negative charges on atoms (TNC), molecular volume (MV) and total energy (TE) have been calculated at the B3LYP level of theory with 6-311++G** basis set. Consistent with experimental data, theoretical results showed that the order of inhibition efficiency is tryptophan (B) > tyrosine (C) > serine (A). In order to determine the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks, local reactivity has been evaluated through Fukui indices. PMID:26347374

  7. Modeling of dissolution patterns for carbonate acidizing in the porous media

    Samadi, Fereshteh; Esmaeilzadeh, Feridun; Mowla, Dariush

    2012-05-01

    Matrix acidizing is a common technique to stimulate wells for improving well inflow performance. In this treatment that is widely used in the oil industry, acid solution is injected into the formation to dissolve some minerals to increase permeability of carbonate near the wellbore. The aim of the treatment is to create empty channels called wormholes. Wormholing in carbonate rocks is a complex 3-D phenomenon. Matrix acidizing generally should be applied when a well has a high skin factor that cannot be attributed to partial penetration, perforation efficiency or other mechanical aspects of the completion. Obviously, it is of extreme importance to quantify the skin factor to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation treatments. When wormholes extend beyond the damaged zone or connect with natural fissures in the formation, a negative skin effect is obtained. An ideal matrix treatment restores the permeability in the near wellbore region to a value at least as high as the original undamaged permeability; it accomplishes this over the entire completed interval and it leaves the formation in the treated region with high relative permeability to the oil and/or gas phase. Designing a treatment should strive to achieve this ideal at the lowest possible cost, which requires consideration of the many physical and chemical interactions taking place between the injected fluids and the reservoir minerals and fluids. In this work, a threescale continuum model is used to model reactive dissolution of carbonate rocks in radial flow. Both the Darcy and pore scale physics such as mass transfer of acid molecules to the mineral surface and subsequent reaction at the surface, changing pore structure and variations in reservoir permeability are included in this model. Partial differential equations obtained from the model, have been solved by numerical method. The influence of reservoir temperature on optimum injection rate is investigated. Results show that optimum injection rate

  8. Development of heterogenized catalyst systems for the synthesis of acrylic acid derivatives from carbon dioxide and ethylene

    Prasetyo, Eko

    2015-01-01

    Use of CO2 as chemical feedstock represents one of the most sustainable ways for carbon recycling, generating high value products. Current industrial practices include the manufacture of urea, organic (poly)carbonates, and salicylic acid. CO2 can also be used to produce CO-rich syngas, which can be further processed to olefins, aldehydes, alcohols, or synthetic fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Direct carboxylation with CO2 yielding carbonates, carbamates, carboxylates, or lactones is of ...

  9. Poly(lactic acid/Carbon Nanotube Fibers as Novel Platforms for Glucose Biosensors

    Valtencir Zucolotto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the development and investigation of properties of new nanostructured architecture for biosensors applications. Highly porous nanocomposite fibers were developed for use as active materials in biosensors. The nanocomposites comprised poly(lactic acid(PLA/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT fibers obtained via solution-blow spinning onto indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of nanocomposite-modified ITO electrodes were investigated toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection. We investigated the effect of carbon nanotube concentration and the time deposition of fibers on the sensors properties, viz., sensitivity and limit of detection. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the nanocomposite-modified electrodes displayed enhanced activity in the electrochemical reduction of H2O2, which offers a number of attractive features to be explored in development of an amperometric biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOD was further immobilized by drop coating on an optimized ITO electrode covered by poly(lactic acid/carbon nanotube nanofibrous mats. The optimum biosensor response was linear up to 800 mM of glucose with a sensitivity of 358 nA·mM−1 and a Michaelis-Menten constant (KM of 4.3 mM. These results demonstrate that the solution blow spun nanocomposite fibers have great potential for application as amperometric biosensors due to their high surface to volume ratio, high porosity and permeability of the substrate. The latter features may significantly enhance the field of glucose biosensors.

  10. Pantethine inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses and stimulates carbon dioxide formation in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Cighetti, G; Del Puppo, M; Paroni, R; Fiorica, E; Galli Kienle, M

    1987-02-01

    The effects of pantethine on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes. Preincubation of the cells with pantethine induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the radioactivity incorporated into carbon dioxide and lipids in incubations with [2-14C]acetate. When pantethine and the labeled substrate were simultaneously added to the cell suspension, there was an enhancement of carbon dioxide radioactivity at short incubation time (5 min) whereas, at longer incubation time, values were comparable to those of controls; lipid radioactivity, instead, was dramatically reduced by pantethine even at short incubation time and decreased further during the incubation, being 23% of that of controls at 60 min. Analysis of the incubation medium showed that pantethine induced a concentration- and time-dependent release of acetate into the medium. Results of the effect of the acetate concentration on the incorporation of [2-14C]acetate radioactivity into CO2 and lipids in control hepatocytes allowed the conclusion that the above-described modifications induced by pantethine are only partially attributable to the dilution of the labeled substrate, and that catabolism of acetate to carbon dioxide is stimulated by the disulphide pantethine, whereas cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses are inhibited. PMID:3106549