Sample records for acid based techniques

  1. A comparison of various modes of liquid-liquid based microextraction techniques: determination of picric acid.

    Burdel, Martin; Šandrejová, Jana; Balogh, Ioseph S; Vishnikin, Andriy; Andruch, Vasil


    Three modes of liquid-liquid based microextraction techniques--namely auxiliary solvent-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, auxiliary solvent-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with low-solvent consumption, and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction--were compared. Picric acid was used as the model analyte. The determination is based on the reaction of picric acid with Astra Phloxine reagent to produce an ion associate easily extractable by various organic solvents, followed by spectrophotometric detection at 558 nm. Each of the compared procedures has both advantages and disadvantages. The main benefit of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction is that no hazardous chlorinated extraction solvents and no dispersive solvent are necessary. Therefore, this procedure was selected for validation. Under optimized experimental conditions (pH 3, 7 × 10(-5) mol/L of Astra Phloxine, and 100 μL of toluene), the calibration plot was linear in the range of 0.02-0.14 mg/L and the LOD was 7 μg/L of picric acid. The developed procedure was applied to the analysis of spiked water samples. PMID:23381802

  2. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Christopher McSweeney


    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  3. Poly lactic acid based biodegradable stents and functionalization techniques: brief review

    Rebelo, Rita; Vila, Nívea Taís; Rana, Sohel; Fangueiro, Raúl


    Commercial stents, especially metallic ones, present several disadvantages, and this gives rise to the necessity of producing or coating stents with different materials, like natural polymers, in order to improve their biocompatibility and minimize the disadvantages of metallic ones. This review paper discusses some applications of natural-based polymers in stents, namely polylactic acid (PLA) for stent development and chitosan for biocompatible coatings of stents . Furthermore...

  4. A simple and highly sensitive assay of perfluorooctanoic acid based on resonance light scattering technique

    Zhang, Fang; Zheng, Yonghong; Liang, Jiaman; Long, Sha; Chen, Xianping; Tan, Kejun


    A simple, highly sensitive resonance light scattering (RLS) method for the detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been developed based on the interaction with crystal violet (CV). It was found that PFOA can form complexes with CV in acid medium resulting in remarkable enhancement of the RLS intensity of the system. And the enhanced RLS intensities are in proportion to the concentration of PFOA in the range of 0.1-25.0 μmol/L (R2 = 0.9998), with a detection limit of 11.0 nmol/L (S/N = 3). In this work, the optimum reaction conditions and the interferences of foreign substances were investigated. The reaction mechanism between CV and PFOA was also studied by the absorption spectrum and scanning electron microscope (SEM). This method is successfully applied to the determination of PFOA in tap water and Jialing river water samples with RSD ≤ 4.04%.

  5. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Alex Willyandre


    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  6. Extraction techniques of uranium from phosphoric acid

    The rapid increase in the price of uranium oxide (U3O8) in recent years and the global development in the balance of supply and demand for this material led to the foundation and development of uranium extraction techniques as a by-product of phosphoric acid processes in the phosphate industry. This article briefly describes the processes and techniques to extract uranium, concentrating on two techniques and the differences between them. (author)

  7. Optical and Thermal Behaviors of Polyamide-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites Based on 4,4'-Azodibenzoic Acid by Solution Intercalation Technique

    Faghihi, Khalil; Shabanian, Meisam


    Two new samples of polyamide-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites based on 4,4'-azodibenzoic acid were prepared by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Polyamide (PA) 4 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of 4,4'-azodibenzoic acid 2 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl sulfone 3 in the presence of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PA-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.


    Qing Shen; Jian-feng Hu; Qing-feng Gu


    The column wicking technique was applied to estimate the surface free energy of cellulose, the importance of which is to obtain a real effective capillary radius, Reff, initially from the plot of Washburn penetration distance versus time.Since the cellulose sample could not be packed with good reproducibility, therefore, Reff can not be obtained readily from the slope of the plot. A method was developed in this paper by uniting all apparent packing heights with a unique value to deduce a real effective capillary radius. Based on the defined critical packing height related to the critical packing density, the surface free energy and acid-base properties of cellulose Sigma C8002 were estimated.

  9. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water, Quaternary Ammonium and Lactic Acid-Based Solutions in Controlling Microbial Contamination of Food Cutting Boards Using a Manual Spraying Technique.

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju N; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Rasco, Barbara


    Bactericidal activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), quaternary ammonium (QUAT), and lactic acid-based solutions was investigated using a manual spraying technique against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that were inoculated onto the surface of scarred polypropylene and wooden food cutting boards. Antimicrobial activity was also examined when using cutting boards in preparation of raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. Viable counts of survivors were determined as log10 CFU/100 cm(2) within 0 (untreated control), 1, 3, and 5 min of treatment at ambient temperature. Within the first minute of treatment, NEW and QUAT solutions caused more than 3 log10 bacterial reductions on polypropylene surfaces whereas less than 3 log10 reductions were achieved on wooden surfaces. After 5 min of treatment, more than 5 log10 reductions were achieved for all bacterial strains inoculated onto polypropylene surfaces. Using NEW and QUAT solutions within 5 min reduced Gram-negative bacteria by 4.58 to 4.85 log10 compared to more than 5 log10 reductions in Gram-positive bacteria inoculated onto wooden surfaces. Lactic acid treatment was significantly less effective (P antimicrobial effectiveness was observed (0.5 to <2 log10 reductions were achieved within the first minute) when both cutting board types were used to prepare raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. PMID:27027449

  10. Development of the high-temperature, solid-state, electromotive force technique to study the thermodynamics of Lewis-acid-base transition metal alloys

    The basic principles of the Engel-Brewer theory of metals are summarized and illustrated. Definitions of words used to describe its fundamentals are clarified. The theory predicts the extreme stability of the Lewis-acid-base alloys. The thermodynamics of such alloys may be obtained through the use of oxide-electrolyte, electrochemical cells. Experimental techniques associated with the use of these cells are explained in detail. Much attention is given to the preparation and processing of the materials required. A selective review of the cell literature demonstrates frequent difficulty in obtaining accurate thermodynamic data. In an attempt to correct this situation, as well as to correct problems discovered in this work, the physical processes which create the cell emf are clearly identified. The fundamental understanding afforded by the resulting cell model implies the procedures used to both discover and eliminate errors. Those due to concentration overpotentials, reactive impurities in the gas phase, and interfacial reactions are carefully analyzed. The procedures used to test for and attain equilibrium in an alloy-oxide, powder compact are supported through identification of the transport processes that mediate equilibration

  11. Use of infrared and magnetic nuclear resonance techniques in the characterization of the acid-base reaction of an experimental dental cement

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are products of the acid-base setting reaction between an finely fluoro-alumino silicate glass powder and poly(acrylic acid) in aqueous solution. The sol gel method is an adequate route of preparation of the glasses used to obtain the GICs. The objective of this paper was to compare two powders: a commercial and an experimental and to investigate the structural changes during hardening of the cements by FTIR and Al MAS NMR. These analyses showed that the experimental glass powder reacted with organic acid to form the GICs and it is a promising material to manufacture dental cements. (author)

  12. A Novel Type of Nucleic Acid-based Biosensors: the Use of PNA Probes, Associated with Surface Science and Electrochemical Detection Techniques

    Mateo-Martí, Eva; Pradier, Claire-Marie


    PNA, an ingenious DNA mimic, has two main advantages compared to DNA as a probe: first, it has no phosphate ions making the latter unique labels for the presence of DNA; second, its backbone is uncharged permitting a better hybridisation and the use of other matrix molecule or polymer to increase the binding and detection qualities. PNA offers a promising opportunity for highly specific nucleic acid recognition. In this chapter, we present a quick overview of some surface analysis techniques ...

  13. The Synthesis Technique of Polyacrylic Acid Superplasticizer

    ZHANG Rongguo; LI Qiong; ZHANG Anfu; LIU Yong; LEI Jiaheng


    Using water separation technique,acrylic acid (AA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000,of which the ratio was 1.5,were esterified and the optimum esterification ratio of 90% could be reached under the condition of 110 ℃×3 h.Using polyoxyethylene acrylate macromonomer (PA) prepared in the esterification,AA and sodium methylacryl sulfonate (MAS) as monomers,a copolymer which could be used as superplasticizer was prepared by free radical copolymerization in n(PA);n(AA) :n(MAS) of 1 ;7 :3.When the synthesis condition was 80 ℃×5 h,the optimal dosage of initiator was 3.0%-4.0%,the fluidity of cement paste with the samples could reach 270 mm.By analyzing the effect of the content of residual small molecule sulfonic monomer on the properties of sample,n(MAS)/n(PA) was controlled in a range of 2.5-3.8.

  14. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    Cox, Brian G


    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  15. Advances in nucleic acid-based detection methods.

    Wolcott, M J


    Laboratory techniques based on nucleic acid methods have increased in popularity over the last decade with clinical microbiologists and other laboratory scientists who are concerned with the diagnosis of infectious agents. This increase in popularity is a result primarily of advances made in nucleic acid amplification and detection techniques. Polymerase chain reaction, the original nucleic acid amplification technique, changed the way many people viewed and used nucleic acid techniques in cl...

  16. Evaluation of chromium concentration in cattle feces using different acid digestion and spectrophotometric quantification techniques

    N.K.P. Souza; E. Detmann; D. S. Pina; Valadares Filho, S. C.; C.B. Sampaio; A.C. Queiroz; C.M. Veloso


    The objective of this work was to evaluate combinations between acid digestion techniques and spectrophotometric quantification to measure chromium concentration in cattle feces. Digestion techniques were evaluated based on the use of nitric and perchloric acids, sulfuric and perchloric acids, and phosphoric acid. The chromium quantification in the solutions was performed by colorimetry and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). When AAS was used, the addition of calcium chloride to th...

  17. Wavelet Based Image Denoising Technique

    Sachin D Ruikar


    Full Text Available This paper proposes different approaches of wavelet based image denoising methods. The search for efficient image denoising methods is still a valid challenge at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. Wavelet algorithms are useful tool for signal processing such as image compression and denoising. Multi wavelets can be considered as an extension of scalar wavelets. The main aim is to modify the wavelet coefficients in the new basis, the noise can be removed from the data. In this paper, we extend the existing technique and providing a comprehensive evaluation of the proposed method. Results based on different noise, such as Gaussian, Poisson’s, Salt and Pepper, and Speckle performed in this paper. A signal to noise ratio as a measure of the quality of denoising was preferred.

  18. Evaluation of Meterorite Amono Acid Analysis Data Using Multivariate Techniques

    McDonald, G.; Storrie-Lombardi, M.; Nealson, K.


    The amino acid distributions in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, Mars meteorite ALH84001, and ice from the Allan Hills region of Antarctica are shown, using a multivariate technique known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to be statistically distinct from the average amino acid compostion of 101 terrestrial protein superfamilies.

  19. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David


    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound. PMID:27241163


    WANG Qingguo; CHEN Fute; HUANG Yuanfu; ZHOU Qingli


    Inverse gas chromatography(IGC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques were applied to determining the relative acid-base strength of polymers and coupling agents. The acid-base characteristics of fillers such as CaCO3 could be altered by treatment with different coupling agents. It was shown that some mechanical properties of filled polymers were obviously associated with acid-base interactions between polymers and fillers.

  1. Determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams by fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique

    A fiber optic aided spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the determination of free acidity in nuclear fuel reprocessing streams. The developed method is simple, accurate and applicable to all ranges of nitric acid and heavy metal concentrations relevant to the purex process. The method is based on the formation of yellow colour with an acid-sensitive indicator such as chrome azurol s, the intensity of yellow colour is proportional to the acid concentration. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 455 nm in the range of acidity 1-10 M of nitric acid. The results obtained are reproducible with standard deviation 2% and relative error is less than 3%. The results obtained by the developed technique are in good agreement with those obtained by the standard procedure. This method is adaptable for remote operation and on-line monitoring. (author)

  2. Evaluation of chromium concentration in cattle feces using different acid digestion and spectrophotometric quantification techniques

    N.K.P. Souza


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate combinations between acid digestion techniques and spectrophotometric quantification to measure chromium concentration in cattle feces. Digestion techniques were evaluated based on the use of nitric and perchloric acids, sulfuric and perchloric acids, and phosphoric acid. The chromium quantification in the solutions was performed by colorimetry and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. When AAS was used, the addition of calcium chloride to the solutions as a releasing agent was also evaluated. Several standard samples containing known chromium contents were produced (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10g of chromium per kg of feces using cattle feces obtained from three different animals to evaluate the accuracy of the different combinations of techniques. The accuracy was evaluated by adjusting a simple linear regression model of the estimated values on the actual values of chromium content in the standard samples. Regardless of the digestion technique, the chromium content estimates in the standard samples obtained by colorimetry were not accurate (P0.05. The use of the digestion technique in phosphoric acid provided incomplete recovery of the fecal chromium (P0.05 fecal chromium contents.

  3. The Liquisolid Technique: Based Drug Delivery System

    Izhar Ahmed Syed; E. Pavani


    The “Liquisolid” technique is a novel and capable addition towards such an aims for solubility enhancement and dissolution improvement, thereby it increases the bioavailability. It contains liquid medications in powdered form. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and water soluble drugs. This technique is based upon the admixture of drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials. The use of non-volatile solvent causes improved wettability...

  4. Image Based Authentication Using Steganography Technique

    Satish Kumar Sonker; Sanjeev Kumar; Amit Kumar; Dr. Pragya Singh


    In the world of Information Security we are generally using Traditional (Text based) or multi factor Authentication Approach. Through which we are facing a lot of problems and it’s also less secure too. In these types conventional method attacks like brute-force attack, Dictionary Attack etc., are possible. This paper proposes the Image Based Authentication Using Steganography Technique considering the advantage of steganography technique along with the image. Including steganography in image...

  5. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.;


    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible...

  6. Evaluation of NaOH leaching techniques to extract humic acids from palaeosols

    It can be shown quite conclusively that the often used technique (AAA) of leaching palaeosol samples with hot or boiling dilute HCl solution, followed by treatment with up to 2% NaOH solution and a further treatment with dilute HCl solution may not remove all of the so-called humic acids from palaeosol samples. In fact, in many cases it does not remove any of the humic acids, only carbohydrates, amino acids and other organic compounds. This can be shown by examination of the visible spectrum (400-700 nm) of the 'humic acid' extract in alkaline solution. Hence, many of the reported 14C results from the 'humin' fraction of palaeosols are actually from the humic acid fraction which is tightly bound to the clay component of the palaeosol. The NaOH leach also has the potential to introduce carboxylic acid groups from atmospheric CO2 into phenol groups. A reevaluation of humic acid extracts of palaeosols collected from the Loess Plateau in China has been made, with analyses comparing the properties of the various organic extracts. Also, an extraction technique based on recommendations from the International Humic Substances Society, incorporating removal of impurities by chromatography plus a decarboxylation step is proposed

  7. Flow Modeling Based Wall Element Technique

    Sabah Tamimi


    Full Text Available Two types of flow where examined, pressure and combination of pressure and Coquette flow of confined turbulent flow with a one equation model used to depict the turbulent viscosity of confined flow in a smooth straight channel when a finite element technique based on a zone close to a solid wall has been adopted for predicting the distribution of the pertinent variables in this zone and examined even with case when the near wall zone was extended away from the wall. The validation of imposed technique has been tested and well compared with other techniques.

  8. Practical application of nucleic acid techniques to avian disease problems.

    Purchase, H G


    A workshop in which 17 practicing scientists participated was intended to address primarily people who use or could use biotechnology in their work and was confined to five techniques. Endonuclease fingerprinting and mapping involved cleaving nucleic acid with a specific restriction enzyme and separating the nucleic acid fragments by electrophoresis. Field and vaccine isolates of Pasteurella multocida could be distinguished; Salmonella enteritidis could be divided into three groups; chlamydia could be grouped into seven groups; and vaccinia, quail pox, and fowl pox could be clearly distinguished. Preparation of nucleic acid probes involved producing large amounts of labeled oligonucleotides, usually of unknown sequence. Successful probes had been made for infectious bursal disease virus, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus. In Southern, Northern, and dot blotting, either DNA or RNA fragments were placed on or transferred to a solid substrate and probed. The procedure was able to detect infectious bursal disease virus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Marek's disease virus. In situ hybridization involved applying a labeled probe to frozen or fixed sections or to intact cells. In Polymerase chain reaction, two primers, some distance apart, were annealed to a denatured target DNA. Repeated cycles of DNA synthesis with a thermostable polymerase, denaturing, and reannealing resulted in great amplification of a rare sequence. After 30 cycles, a rare gene sequence could be amplified more than 10(6) times. It was used successfully to detect minute quantities of influenza virus and infectious bursal disease virus, and the process was used to facilitate DNA sequencing of coccidiosis gene segments. PMID:2559697

  9. A Shape Based Image Search Technique

    Aratrika Sarkar


    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive application we have developed based on shaped-based image retrieval technique. The key concepts described in the project are, imatching of images based on contour matching; iimatching of images based on edge matching; iiimatching of images based on pixel matching of colours. Further, the application facilitates the matching of images invariant of transformations like i translation ; ii rotation; iii scaling. The key factor of the system is, the system shows the percentage unmatched of the image uploaded with respect to the images already existing in the database graphically, whereas, the integrity of the system lies on the unique matching techniques used for optimum result. This increases the accuracy of the system. For example, when a user uploads an image say, an image of a mango leaf, then the application shows all mango leaves present in the database as well other leaves matching the colour and shape of the mango leaf uploaded.

  10. The Effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain Technique in Probing Students' Understanding about Acid-Base Chemistry: A Case for the Concepts of pH, pOH, and Strength

    Kala, Nesli; Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa


    The present study describes high school students' conceptions about acids and bases in terms of pH, pOH, microscopic level, strength, and concentration. A total of 27 high school students participated in the study. The data was collected using 3 POE tasks and a semi-structured interview. The data analysis demonstrated that most of the students had…


    纳瑟; 刘重庆


    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  12. Rapid Tooling Technique Based on Stereolithograph Prototype

    丁浩; 狄平; 顾伟生; 朱世根


    Rapid tooling technique based on the sterelithograph prototype is investigated. The epoxy tooling technological process was elucidated. It is analyzed in detail that the epoxy resin formula is easy to cast, curing process, and release agents. The transitional plaster model is also proposed. The mold to encrust mutual.inductors with epoxy and mold to inject plastic soapboxes was made with the technique The tooling needs very little time and cost, for the process is only to achieve the nice replica of the prototype. It is benefit for the trial and small batch of production.

  13. Base-acid hybrid water electrolysis.

    Chen, Long; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Fei; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao


    A base-acid hybrid electrolytic system with a low onset voltage of 0.78 V for water electrolysis was developed by using a ceramic Li-ion exchange membrane to separate the oxygen-evolving reaction (OER) in a basic electrolyte solution containing the Li-ion and hydrogen-evolving reaction (HER) in an acidic electrolyte solution. PMID:26804323

  14. A novel colonic anastomosis technique involving fixed polyglycolic acid mesh

    Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Ersoz, Feyzullah; Sari, Serkan; Kaygusuz, Arslan


    Background: Polyglycolic acid mesh (PAM) reinforcement of colonic anastomoses were evaluated. Methods: Twenty female albino rabbits were divided into two groups. Each rabbit underwent segmental colonic resection with single-layer anastomosis. In one group of rabbits, PAM of length equal to the circumference of the anastomosis was applied. Rabbits were sacrificed on postoperative day 10 and peritoneal adhesions, anastomosis burst pressure, and anastomosis histopathological characteristics were evaluated. Results: The average burst pressure for the control and PAM groups was 149±15.95 mmHgand 224±124.5 mmHg, respectively (p=0.578). All control anastomoses burst, whereas only five (50%) PAM anastomoses burst (p<0.03). There was no anastomotic leakage in the control group, whereas three PAM group anastomoses leaked (p=0.210). The collagen fiber density and amount of neovascularization were lower in the PAM than the control group (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The average peritoneal adhesion value was 1.6±0.51 in the control group and 2.9±0.31 in the PAM group (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The new fixed PAM-reinforced anastomosis technique resulted in an increased risk of anastomosis leakage and peritoneal adhesion, but also higher in non-burst anastomoses. PMID:21072268

  15. The Liquisolid Technique: Based Drug Delivery System

    Izhar Ahmed Syed


    Full Text Available The “Liquisolid” technique is a novel and capable addition towards such an aims for solubility enhancement and dissolution improvement, thereby it increases the bioavailability. It contains liquid medications in powdered form. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and water soluble drugs. This technique is based upon the admixture of drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials. The use of non-volatile solvent causes improved wettability and ensures molecular dispersion of drug in the formulation and leads to enhance solubility. By using hydrophobic carriers (non-volatile solvents one can modify release (sustained release of drugs by this technique. Liquisolid system is characterized by flow behavior, wettability, powder bed hydrophilicity, saturation solubility, drug content, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, in-vitro release and in-vivo evaluation. By using this technique, solubility and dissolution rate can be improved, sustained drug delivery systems be developed for the water soluble drugs.

  16. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD


    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  17. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  18. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes


    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  19. Use of isotope techniques to trace the origin of acidic fluids in geothermal systems

    Realizing the potential contribution of stable isotopes of the water molecule and those of sulphur compounds in tracing the sources of acidic fluids, especially the sulphate type of acidity in geothermal well discharges, the IAEA organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) with the objectives of integrating isotope techniques, in particular the isotopes of sulphur compounds, into (1) identification of the origin of the water component in acidic fluids, (2) identification of the origin of sulphur compounds in acidic fluids and (3) study on mixing of waters from different sources to form acidic fluids. In addition to these objectives, the CRP was also to test isotope geothermometry based on sulphur compounds in geothermal fluids. In this CRP, isotopic composition of oxygen-18 and deuterium in waters sampled from acidic wells indicates that these waters are mixtures of meteoric and magmatic waters. Examples of this type of geothermal systems are Miravalles in Costa Rica, Onikobe in Japan, Los Humeros in Mexico and Several fields in the Philippines. It has further shown that acidic fluids are isotopically heavier in some systems, implying a larger fraction of magmatic inputs. This isotopic evidence confirms the hypothesis that some acidic fluids are un-neutralized magmatic water. The aqueous sulphate in geothermal well discharges of a volcanic geothermal system originates from either oxidation of H2S gas similar to that producing acidic hot springs and ponds at the surface, hydrolysis of magmatic SO2 gas or hydrolysis of native sulphur at shallow depth. Isotope geothermometry based on δ34S (H2S) provides estimates of reservoir temperatures that are compatible to measured temperature values for the acidic wells, but not for neutral pH wells. This suggests that fractionation equilibrium is more easily attained in acidic wells as compared to neutral pH wells. Isotope geothermometer based on δ18O in water and aqueous sulphate was found to be generally not applicable

  20. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert


    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  1. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological......Process calculus is the common denominator for a class of compact, idealised, domain-specific formalisms normally associated with the study of reactive concurrent systems within Computer Science. With the rise of the interactioncentred science of Systems Biology a number of bio-inspired process...... systems as formalised in a process calculus. In particular it is argued that Static Program Analysis provides a useful approach to the study of qualitative properties of such models. In support of this claim a number of static program analyses are developed for Regev’s BioAmbients – a bio-inspired variant...

  2. Biometric Iris Recognition Based on Hybrid Technique

    Khattab M. Ali Alheeti


    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is one of the important biometric recognition systems that identify people based on theireyes and iris. In this paper the iris recognition algorithm is implemented via histogram equalization andwavelet techniques. In this paper the iris recognition approach is implemented via many steps, these stepsare concentrated on image capturing, enhancement and identification. Different types of edge detectionmechanisms; Canny scheme, Prewitt scheme, Roberts scheme and Sobel scheme are used to detect irisboundaries in the eyes digital image. The implemented system gives adequate results via different types ofiris images.

  3. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mouth design. Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA and degree of stain removal (DSR, were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. Results: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H 3 PO 4 -pumice. Conclusion: The H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound.

  4. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  5. Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition

    Georgiou, D. N.; Karakasidis, T.E.; Nieto, J J; Torres, A.


    Use of fuzzy clustering technique and matrices to classify amino acids and its impact to Chou's pseudo amino acid composition correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +302421074163. (Karakasidis, T.E.) (Karakasidis, T.E.) University of Patras, Department of Mathematics - 265 00 Patras--> - GREECE (Georgiou, D.N.) University of Thessaly, Department of Civil Engineering - 383 34 Volos--> - GREECE (Karakas...

  6. Chromatographic separation of 3,4-difluorophenylacetic acid and its positional isomers using five different techniques.

    Zhou, L; Wu, Y; Johnson, B D; Thompson, R; Wyvratt, J M


    The separation of five positional isomers from 3,4-difluorophenylacetic acid was investigated using normal- and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. Operating parameters of each technique, such as temperature, type of stationary phase, mobile phase pH, ionic strength, organic modifiers and additives were varied in order to elucidate the separation mechanisms. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology, a simple and practical RPLC method was selected. The method was validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection, accuracy, recovery, ruggedness and precision. PMID:10670818

  7. Hypokalemic paralysis and acid-base balance

    Ivo Casagranda


    Full Text Available Three cases of hypokalemic paralysis are reported, presenting to the Emergency Department. The first is a patient with a hypokalemic periodic paralysis with a normal acid-base status, the second is a case of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis of all extremities with a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, the last is a patient with a hypokalemic distal paralysis of right upper arm with metabolic alkalosis. Afterwards some pathophysiologic principles and the clinical aspects of hypokalemia are discussed and an appropriate approach to do in Emergency Department, to identify the hypokalemic paralysis etiologies in the Emergency Department, is presented, beginning from the evaluation of acid-base status.

  8. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)


    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  9. Antioxidant activities and radical scavenging activities of flavonoids studied by the electrochemical methods and ESR technique based on the novel paramagnetic properties of poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid)

    Graphical abstract: ESR spectra of the PAASA/RGO/graphite electrodes: (1) in the buffer solution consisting of 0.20 M phosphate and methanol (80: 20, v/v), (2) in the buffer solutions containing 150 μM of (+)-catechin. -- Abstract: Four kinds of flavonoid, viz. flavanone naringenin, Flavone apigenin, flavonol kaempferol, and flavanol (+)-catechin, are used to investigate their antioxidant and radical scavenging activitis in the water-methanol solution of pH 6.3, using the electrochemical methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid) (PAASA) is first used as a radical source that was polymerized on a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/glassy carbon (GC) disk or on the RGO/graphite fiber electrode. The assessment of the antioxidant activities is performed using both cyclic voltammetry and the open circuit potential measurement. On the basis of results from both electrochemical mathods, the order of the antioxidant actitvities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin However, the difference in the antioxidant activities between naringenin and apigenin is very small. On the basis of the ESR signal intensities of PAASA, the order of the radical scavenging activities of flavonoids is in good agreement with that of the above antioxdant activities.Three oxidation peaks on the cyclic voltammograms of (+)-catechin are first detected, which gives us a deep insight into the oxidation mechanism of (+)-catechin

  10. Fermented probiotic beverages based on acid whey

    Katarzyna Skryplonek


    Full Text Available Background. Production of fermented probiotic beverages can be a good method for acid whey usage. The obtained products combine a high nutritional value of whey with health benefits claimed for probiotic bac- teria. The aim of the study was to define quality properties of beverages based on fresh acid whey and milk with addition of buttermilk powder or sweet whey powder. Material and methods. Samples were inoculated with two strains of commercial probiotic cultures: Lac- tobacillus acidophilus La-5 or Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12. After fermentation, samples were stored at refrigerated conditions. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days sensory characteristics, hardness, acetaldehyde content, titratable acidity, pH acidity and count of bacteria cells were evaluated. Results. Throughout all storage period, the number of bacteria was higher than 8 log cfu/ml in the all sam- ples. Beverages with La-5 strain had higher hardness and acidity, whilst samples with Bb-12 contained more acetaldehyde. Samples with buttermilk powder had better sensory properties than with sweet whey powder. Conclusions. Obtained products made of acid whey combined with milk and fortified with buttermilk pow- der or sweet whey powder, are good medium for growth and survival of examined probiotic bacteria strains. The level of bacteria was sufficient to provide health benefits to consumers.

  11. Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

    Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar


    This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

  12. Process flow measurement based on tracer techniques

    Flow measurement methods based on the tracer techniques are the transit time method as well as methods based on tracer dilution. These methods can be applied to the on-site calibration of flowmeters and to measuring the flowrate where no flowmeter is installed. The accuracy of the tracer methods depends on the prevailing measuring conditions. In this report the accuracy of the transit time method under field conditions is estimated to be 1-2% on the 99,7% confidence level. The accuracy of the isotope dilution method is estimated as slightly better, namely about 0.5% at its best. An even better accuracy, about 0.2%, could be achieved by developing the method and the measuring equipment. Tests were carried out with the transit time method for water and steam flow. While measuring water flow the effect of different measuring parameters upon the repeatability of the method were looked into. Such were the number of the detectors and the distance between the measuring points. Different means of tracer injection were tested, as well. These had less effect than expected. The accuracies achieved in steam flow measurements were of the same order of magnitude as in water flow measurements. The tracers used were 137mBa for water flow and 41Ar for steam flow measurements

  13. Nucleic acid hybridization techniques for the detection of bluetongue virus

    Virus isolation, antigen detection, and in situ hybridization were compared in their abilities to detect in cell culture, the five serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurring in the United States, serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. For isolation, virus was propagated in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. For antigen detection, two techniques, indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) and enzyme immunocytoassay (EICA) were used. For in situ hybridization, a complementary DNA (cDNA) of the L3 RNA genome segment of BTV, serotype 17 (BTV-17) labeled with 35S was used as a group-specific probe. Virus isolation was the most sensitive technique, often detecting input virus and then detecting virus throughout the course of the study. IFA and EICA were of similar sensitivity and detected BTV antigen shortly after detection of virus by isolation. A direct-blot hybridization technique using a 32P-labeled, strand-specific RNA transcript probe was developed, optimized, and used to detect BTV in pools of infected Culicoides variipennis midges. The technique was able to detect as few as one infected Culicoides midge in a pool of 100 and as little as 3.5 log10 TCID50 per ml of virus. A sandwich hybridization technique was developed and used to detect BTV in pools of infected Culicoides variipennis midges. The sandwich hybridization technique used a single-stranded DNA catcher sequence bound to a solid support and a 32P-labeled, single-stranded RNA detector sequence. Sandwich hybridization was compared to direct blot hybridization using a strand-specific RNA transcript probe or a cDNA probe. Sandwich hybridization was able to detect as few as one infected Culicoides midge in a pool of 50; however, the technique was approximately tenfold less sensitive than direct blot hybridization

  14. 宽频段太赫兹光谱技术的抗坏血酸和硫胺素研究%Research on L-Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine Based on Wide-Band Terahertz Spectroscopy Technique

    李春; 李淼; 蒋玲


    We employed terahertz time-domain spectra (THz-TDS)and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR)to measure the terahertz spectroscopy of L-ascorbic acid and thiamine in the frequency region ranging from 0.10 to 3.50 THz.Molecular models of two vitamins have been shown,and based on above two spectroscopies,we compared the differences about the absorp-tion spectra between the L-ascorbic acid and the thiamine.The measured results show that the absorption spectra obtained based on THz-TDS and FTIR are completely consistent in the frequency range of 0.70 to 3.00 THz.New fingerprint peaks obtained by the FTIR in the low frequency region from 0.30 to 0.50 THz in terms of high sensitive silicon bolometer detector,which are not found by the THz-TDS.Furthermore,several bands at 8.75,8.85,9.00,9.30 and 10.30 THz,fingerprint peaks have been found in the frequency region from 8.00 to 12.00 THz for the thiamine sample obtained by the FTIR.Measurement results indicate the absorption spectra depend on the ratio of polyethylene powder mixed with the L-ascorbic acid.L-ascorbic acid has a lower absorption ability at THz band,so pure samples should be used for testing experiment.In addition,we calculated the re-fractive index for the two samples.This study has important implications for the discriminatory analysis of vitamins and the es-tablishment of vitamin spectroscopy standard database.%采用太赫兹时域光谱(THz-TDS)和傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR),测量了 L-抗坏血酸与硫胺素在0.10~3.50 THz 的光谱特性。给出了两种维生素的分子模型,详细分析比较了抗坏血酸与硫胺素在两种方法测量下吸收光谱的异同。结果表明:利用太赫兹时域光谱和傅里叶红外光谱测得的特征吸收谱在0.70~3.00 THz 完全吻合,而在较低频段0.30~0.50 THz,两种样品的傅里叶红外光谱展现了太赫兹时域光谱所没有的特征峰,同时硫胺素样品在8.00~12.00 THz

  15. A novel colonic anastomosis technique involving fixed polyglycolic acid mesh

    Aysan, Erhan; Bektas, Hasan; Ersoz, Feyzullah; Sari, Serkan; Kaygusuz, Arslan


    Background: Polyglycolic acid mesh (PAM) reinforcement of colonic anastomoses were evaluated. Methods: Twenty female albino rabbits were divided into two groups. Each rabbit underwent segmental colonic resection with single-layer anastomosis. In one group of rabbits, PAM of length equal to the circumference of the anastomosis was applied. Rabbits were sacrificed on postoperative day 10 and peritoneal adhesions, anastomosis burst pressure, and anastomosis histopathological characteristics were...

  16. Intercomparison of Nitrous Acid (HONO) Measurement Techniques during SHARP

    Pinto, J. P.; Meng, Q.; Dibb, J. E.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Ren, X.; Stutz, J.; Zhang, R.


    HONO is regarded as a potentially important radical precursor in a number of diverse environments ranging from polar to semi-tropical. As part of the SHARP (Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors), time series of HONO were obtained by five different measurement techniques. Techniques used were long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), long-path absorption photometry (LoPAP), mist chamber (MC), quantum cascade laser and ionization detection-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Various combinations of techniques were in operation during the whole period from 15 April through 31 May 2009 with a common measurement period extending from 16 to 28 May. All instruments recorded a similar diurnal pattern of HONO concentrations with higher mean values from the in-situ techniques than either the low- or mid-path DOAS. The largest differences among techniques were found during the afternoon with measurements from the in-situ techniques higher than either the low- or mid-path DOAS. Principal components analysis using measurements of trace species was used to identify possible sources of interference in the chemical measurements. Two major components were identified: one associated with primary, mainly traffic related pollutants and the other with photochemical species. The afternoon differences between DOAS and MC and the U Miami LoPAP were found to be most strongly associated with the photochemical component. The results for comparison between DOAS and MC are in accord with those found previously during August-September 2006. All instruments showed some association between measurement differences and the primary component. Further details and associations with air coming from different areas of the Houston airshed will also be presented.

  17. Evaluation of ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium

    This dissertation is to analyze the viability of using ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium non-invasively, therefore, ultrasonic tests were performed relating different boric acid concentrations with the travel time of the ultrasonic wave, also were evaluated factors able to mask the characterization of these concentrations by ultrasonic technique. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique allows the characterization of boric acid concentrations in liquid medium in very simple terms by the ultrasonic wave travel time, requiring further studies in complex conditions. (author)

  18. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A


    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol. PMID:18967966

  19. FLOWCER - a flowmeter based on radiotracer techniques

    One of the most difficult problems in the field of flow measurement is the lack of a portable, clamp-on type of flowmeter of good accuracy. This is a serious restriction in non-continuous flow measurements and on-site calibrations of flow meters. One possibility of constructing a meter capable for these measurements is to use tracer techniques, particularly radioisotope tracers. A flow measurement instrument, FLOWCER, has been developed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The instrument is based on the radioisotope transit time method. The device can be used for the accurate instantaneous measurement of volume flow rate in ducts. The tracer used is 137mBa produced in a portable isotope generator. Because of the short half-life (2.6 min) of 137mBa the measurement is radiologically very safe. The device consists of the isotope generator, an injection device for the tracer, radiation detectors, a data logger unit and a micro-computer. Also a transducer for various other quantities than flow may be connected to the analog input channels of the FLOWCER. The measurement program can be modified for measurements of different types. The FLOWCER has been used for the measurememts of energy and material balances, for the on-site calibrations of flow meters and for pump efficiency analysis. The application most frequently used has been the on-site calibration of flow meters. According to the present experience (over 100 calibrated flow meters) the accuracy level of flow measurements can be increased by a factor of ten or more by using the transit time method for on-site calibration

  20. Determination of the protonation enthalpy of humic acid by calorimetric titration technique

    Graphical abstract: The thermodynamic quantities of protonation of humic acid were determined by the combination of potentiometric titration and calorimetric titration. It was observed that the protonation enthalpy and Gibbs free energy had been affected by pH of solution. As a result, the thermodynamics of the protonation reaction of humic acid is influenced by the polyelectrolyte effect and the heterogeneity. - Highlights: • We applied calorimetric titration technique to the protonation of humic acid. • The thermodynamic quantities of protonation of humic acid were determined. • The protonation enthalpy of humic acid is affected by the heterogeneity. • Gibbs free energy of the protonation is affected by the polyelectrolyte effect. - Abstract: In this study, the calorimetric titration technique was used to determine the protonation enthalpy of two reference humic acids and polyacrylic acid. First, we obtained the apparent protonation constant of two kinds of humic acid purchased from IHSS (International Humic Substances Society) and polyacrylic acid by potentiometric titration. Second, we obtained the protonation enthalpy of them by calorimetric titration. The protonation enthalpy of humic acid was affected by pH and the ionic strength of bulk solution. From the comparison of ΔH between humic acid and polyacrylic acid, it was concluded that the pH dependence of ΔH is attributed to the heterogeneity of humic acid. And ΔH of phenolic hydroxyl group in humic acid is strongly influenced by the electric double layer of humic acid’s surface. This is considered to be a reason of the ionic strength dependence of ΔH. On the other hand, Gibbs free energy of the protonation of humic acid is affected by the electrostatic attraction with the progress of dissociation of functional groups such as carboxyl group and phenolic hydroxyl group. Consequently, the thermodynamics of the protonation of humic acid is affected by the polyelectrolyte effect and the

  1. Toward the completion of measurement of absorption spectra of 20 amino acids and 5 bases of nuclear acids over wide energy range

    Absorption spectra of biomolecules over wide energy range are very important to study their radiation effects in terms of the optical approximation proposed by Platzman. Using synchrotron radiation we accumulated absorption spectra of amino acids and bases of nuclear acids. Now we will be able to complete the measurement for all 20 amino acids and all 5 bases of nuclear acids within one year. Here we report mainly about basic techniques to obtain precise data. (author)

  2. Hypokalemic paralysis and acid-base balance

    Ivo Casagranda; Riccardo Boverio; Andrea Defrancisci; Sara Ferrillo; Francesca Gargiulo


    Three cases of hypokalemic paralysis are reported, presenting to the Emergency Department. The first is a patient with a hypokalemic periodic paralysis with a normal acid-base status, the second is a case of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis of all extremities with a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, the last is a patient with a hypokalemic distal paralysis of right upper arm with metabolic alkalosis. Afterwards some pathophysiologic principles and the clinical aspects of hypokalemia are discu...

  3. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H2O2/ HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Protein Requirement in Chinese Young Adults Using the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique

    LI Min; ZHANG Yu Hui; WANG Zhi Ling; GOU Ling Yan; LI Wei Dong; TIAN Yuan; HU Yi Chun; WANG Rui; PIAO Jian Hua; YANG Xiao Guang


    Objective To accurately calculate the protein requirements in Chinese young adults using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Methods Nine women and ten men received a restricted daily level of protein intake (0.75, 0.82, 0.89, 0.97, and 1.05 g/kg), along with L-[1-13C]-leucine. Subjects’ protein requirement was determined by a biphasic linear regression crossover analysis of F13CO2 data. In doing so, a breakpoint at the minimal rate of appearance of 13CO2 expiration specific to each level of dietary protein was identified. This trial was registered with the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-ONC-11001407. Results The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of protein for healthy Chinese young adults were determined to be 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d), respectively, based on the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Conclusion The EAR and RNI of mixed protein are 5% and 16% that are lower than the current proposed EAR and RNI (0.92 and 1.16 g/(kg·d), respectively), as determined by the nitrogen balance method. The respective EAR and RNI recommendations of 0.87 and 0.98 g/(kg·d) of mixed protein are estimated to be reasonable and suitable for Chinese young adults.

  5. Application of diffraction techniques in studies of lead/acid battery performance

    The author presents a resume of the most significant contributions to lead/acid battery research made by X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. In addition, those areas of research are defined which show the most promise in achieving improvements in the performance of the lead/acid battery. (Auth.)

  6. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer


    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  7. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.


    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  8. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun


    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Position of the hyaluronic acid injected and the effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System were confirmed by ultrasonography in one of the cases. Results: Sonogram images demonstrated the location of the injected hyaluronic acid and pressure effect of hyaluronic acid on the superficial musculoaponeurotic System, confirming the ability to manipulate the superficial musculoaponeurotic System by this injection technique. The lifting result of this Single injection technique was immediately visible and maintained for at least 26 weeks. Conclusion: This is a less invasive, reproducible method that provides a sustained face lifting result. The authors propose the term “supraSMAS lift” for this novel injection technique. PMID:27047633

  9. Segmentation of Color Images Based on Different Segmentation Techniques

    Purnashti Bhosale; Aniket Gokhale


    In this paper, we propose an Color image segmentation algorithm based on different segmentation techniques. We recognize the background objects such as the sky, ground, and trees etc based on the color and texture information using various methods of segmentation. The study of segmentation techniques by using different threshold methods such as global and local techniques and they are compared with one another so as to choose the best technique for threshold segmentation. Further segmentation...

  10. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.


    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid...

  11. Characterization of the microbial acid mine drainage microbial community using culturing and direct sequencing techniques.

    Auld, Ryan R; Myre, Maxine; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Leduc, Leo G; Merritt, Thomas J S


    We characterized the bacterial community from an AMD tailings pond using both classical culturing and modern direct sequencing techniques and compared the two methods. Acid mine drainage (AMD) is produced by the environmental and microbial oxidation of minerals dissolved from mining waste. Surprisingly, we know little about the microbial communities associated with AMD, despite the fundamental ecological roles of these organisms and large-scale economic impact of these waste sites. AMD microbial communities have classically been characterized by laboratory culturing-based techniques and more recently by direct sequencing of marker gene sequences, primarily the 16S rRNA gene. In our comparison of the techniques, we find that their results are complementary, overall indicating very similar community structure with similar dominant species, but with each method identifying some species that were missed by the other. We were able to culture the majority of species that our direct sequencing results indicated were present, primarily species within the Acidithiobacillus and Acidiphilium genera, although estimates of relative species abundance were only obtained from direct sequencing. Interestingly, our culture-based methods recovered four species that had been overlooked from our sequencing results because of the rarity of the marker gene sequences, likely members of the rare biosphere. Further, direct sequencing indicated that a single genus, completely missed in our culture-based study, Legionella, was a dominant member of the microbial community. Our results suggest that while either method does a reasonable job of identifying the dominant members of the AMD microbial community, together the methods combine to give a more complete picture of the true diversity of this environment. PMID:23485423

  12. Biodegradable polyesters based on succinic acid

    Nikolić Marija S.


    Full Text Available Two series of aliphatic polyesters based on succinic acid were synthesized by copolymerization with adipic acid for the first series of saturated polyesters, and with fumaric acid for the second series. Polyesters were prepared starting from the corresponding dimethyl esters and 1,4-butanediol by melt transesterification in the presence of a highly effective catalyst tetra-n-butyl-titanate, Ti(0Bu4. The molecular structure and composition of the copolyesters was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The effect of copolymer composition on the physical and thermal properties of these random polyesters were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of crystallinity was determined by DSC and wide angle X-ray. The degrees of crystallinity of the saturated and unsaturated copolyesters were generally reduced with respect to poly(butylene succinate, PBS. The melting temperatures of the saturated polyesters were lower, while the melting temperatures of the unsaturated copolyesters were higher than the melting temperature of PBS. The biodegradability of the polyesters was investigated by enzymatic degradation tests. The enzymatic degradation tests were performed in a buffer solution with Candida cylindracea lipase and for the unsaturated polyesters with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. The extent of biodegradation was quantified as the weight loss of polyester films. Also the surface of the polyester films after degradation was observed using optical microscopy. It could be concluded that the biodegradability depended strongly on the degree of crystallinity, but also on the flexibility of the chain backbone. The highest biodegradation was observed for copolyesters containing 50 mol.% of adipic acid units, and in the series of unsaturated polyesters for copolyesters containing 5 and 10 mol.% of fumarate units. Although the degree of crystallinity of the unsaturated polyesters decreased slightly with increasing unsaturation, the biodegradation

  13. Experimental study on thermal hazard of tributyl phosphate-nitric acid mixtures using micro calorimeter technique.

    Sun, Qi; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Liang; Sun, Jin-Hua


    During PUREX spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, mixture of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent are employed as organic solvent to extract uranium in consideration of radiation contaminated safety and resource recycling, meanwhile nitric acid is utilized to dissolve the spent fuel into small pieces. However, once TBP contacts with nitric acid or nitrates above 130°C, a heavy "red oil" layer would occur accompanied by thermal runaway reactions, even caused several nuclear safety accident. Considering nitric acid volatility and weak exothermic detection, C80micro calorimeter technique was used in this study to investigate thermal decomposition of TBP mixed with nitric acid. Results show that the concentration of nitric acid greatly influences thermal hazard of the system by direct reactions. Even with a low heating rate, if the concentration of nitric acid increases due to evaporation of water or improper operations, thermal runaway in the closed system could start at a low temperature. PMID:27136728

  14. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena


    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  15. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.


    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  16. Path Based Mapping Technique for Robots

    Amiraj Dhawan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore a new way of autonomous mapping. Current systems using perception techniques like LAZER or SONAR use probabilistic methods and have a drawback of allowing considerable uncertainty in the mapping process. Our approach is to break down the environment, specifically indoor, into reachable areas and objects, separated by boundaries, and identifying their shape, to render various navigable paths around them. This is a novel method to do away with uncertainties, as far as possible, at the cost of temporal efficiency. Also this system demands only minimum and cheap hardware, as it relies on only Infra-Red sensors to do the job.

  17. Aqueous biphasic system based on cholinium ionic liquids: extraction of biologically active phenolic acids

    Branco, Sónia Isabel Pereira


    Phenolic acids are aromatic secondary plant metabolites, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. Due to their biological and pharmacological properties, they have been playing an important role in phytotherapy and consequently techniques for their separation and purification are in need. This thesis aims at exploring new sustainable separation processes based on ionic liquids (ILs) in the extraction of biologically active phenolic acids. For that purpose, three phenolic acids with simi...

  18. Comparison of Vibration-Based Damage Assessment Techniques

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.


    Three different vibration-based damage assessment techniques have been compared. One of the techniques uses the ratios between changes in experimentally and theoretically estimated natural frequencies, respectively, to locate a damage. The second technique relies on updating of a finite element...

  19. A Survey Based on Opinion Classification Techniques.

    Poongodi S


    Full Text Available The essential one is to collect the information as what the people think forever. Nowadays people can share everything in online Social network such as twitter, facebook. .People articulates their views and opinions regarding products and services. People can easily access and understand the opinions of others via web resources like as blog, review, and forum. These opinions are individual information which represents user’s opinions. The precise way for predicting opinions are to extract sentiments from the web, which could valuable for marketing research. Opinions are so vital that whenever need to make a decision before want to know others’ opinions. Opinion is not only important for a user but is also useful for an organization. This survey is about various methods and techniques used to classify the user opinions like as positive, negative.

  20. Key Point Based Data Analysis Technique

    Yang, Su; Zhang, Yong

    In this paper, a new framework for data analysis based on the "key points" in data distribution is proposed. Here, the key points contain three types of data points: bridge points, border points, and skeleton points, where our main contribution is the bridge points. For each type of key points, we have developed the corresponding detection algorithm and tested its effectiveness with several synthetic data sets. Meanwhile, we further developed a new hierarchical clustering algorithm SPHC (Skeleton Point based Hierarchical Clustering) to demonstrate the possible applications of the key points acquired. Based on some real-world data sets, we experimentally show that SPHC performs better compared with several classical clustering algorithms including Complete-Link Hierarchical Clustering, Single-Link Hierarchical Clustering, KMeans, Ncut, and DBSCAN.

  1. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Shinsuke Kuwaki; Nobuyoshi Nakajima; Hidehiko Tanaka; Kohji Ishihara


    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids...

  2. Fluorimetric determination of total ascorbic acid by a stopped-flow mixing technique.

    Pérez-Ruiz, T; Martínez-Lozano, C; Tomás, V; Fenoll, J; Fenol, J


    A simple, rapid and automatic fluorimetric method for the determination of total ascorbic acid is described. The method makes use of the stopped-flow mixing technique in order to achieve the rapid oxidation of ascorbic acid by dissolved oxygen to dehydroascorbic acid, which then reacts with o-phenylenediamine to form a fluorescent quinoxaline. The initial rate and fluorescence signal of this system are directly proportional to the ascorbic acid concentration. The calibration graph was linear over the range 0.1-30 microg ml(-1) (kinetic method) and 0.25-34 microg ml(-1) (equilibrium method). The precision (% RSD) was close to 0.5%. The method has been used for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, fruit juices, soft drinks and blood serum. PMID:11534621

  3. Activity Based Costing versus Traditional Technique

    Dragomirescu Simona Elena; Solomon Daniela Cristina


    One of the current methods of management is Activity-Based Costing (ABC), method that allows the company to understand more clearly how and on what activity/product profit is achieved. In essence, the method involves identifying all specific activities of a product or service and distribution expenses to achieve them with greater accuracy than with traditional accounting methods. This involves not only costs determining closer to reality, but a better understanding of the factors that determi...

  4. An Authentication Technique Based on Classification

    李钢; 杨杰


    We present a novel watermarking approach based on classification for authentication, in which a watermark is embedded into the host image. When the marked image is modified, the extracted watermark is also different to the original watermark, and different kinds of modification lead to different extracted watermarks. In this paper, different kinds of modification are considered as classes, and we used classification algorithm to recognize the modifications with high probability. Simulation results show that the proposed method is potential and effective.

  5. Survey of image-based representations and compression techniques

    Shum, HY; Kang, SB; Chan, SC


    In this paper, we survey the techniques for image-based rendering (IBR) and for compressing image-based representations. Unlike traditional three-dimensional (3-D) computer graphics, in which 3-D geometry of the scene is known, IBR techniques render novel views directly from input images. IBR techniques can be classified into three categories according to how much geometric information is used: rendering without geometry, rendering with implicit geometry (i.e., correspondence), and rendering ...

  6. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen


    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase. PMID:25340964

  7. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  8. Personnel neutron monitoring based on albedo technique

    This work deals with the study, design and test of a personal neutron monitor based on the detection of albedo neutrons from the body and its further relation to the incident flux. By this method, neutrons of energies below about 100 KeV can be efficiently detected, providing good information in the region where the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation starts to rise. The system consists of a pair of Thermoluminescent Detectors (6 LiF - 7 LiF) ∼ inside a polyethylene moderating body, in order to increase the sensitivity. The surface of the dosimeter facing away from the body is covered by a layer of a borated resin to assure appropriate shielding of incident low energy neutrons. The response of the dosimeter to monoenergetic neutrons from a 3 MeV Van de Graaff, to Am Be neutrons and to neutrons from a thermal column was investigated. The directional sensitivity, the effect of beam divergence was well as the effect of changes in dosimeter-to-body distances were also studied. (author)

  9. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal


    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  10. Interactions of Night Blue with Nucleic Acids and Determination of Nucleic Acids Using Resonance Light Scattering Technique

    吴会灵; 梁宏; 等


    The noncovalent interactions of night blue (NB) with several nucleic acids in buffer medium of Britton-Robinson at pH 4.1 have been studied by spectroscopic methods.It is shown that the binding of NB with nucleic acids involves the J-aggregation of NB molecules on the surface of nucleic acids.The aggregation was encouraged by polyanions nucleic acids,in which nucleic acids served for acting templates,In this connection,a new method of nucleic acids with sensitivity at nanogram level is proposed based on the measurement of enhanced resonance light scattering (RLS).The linear range of ctDNA,fsDNA and yRNA is 0.01-2.5,0.03-2.5 and 0.04-1.0 μg/mL,respectively,and the corresponding detection limits(3σ)are 9.4,7.3 and 5.7ng/mL at 2.5×1005mol/L of NB.Synthetic and real samples were analyzed with satisfactory results.

  11. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    T. Subramani; J. Jothi


    This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case s...

  12. Potential of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric analysis for rapid measurement of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in algal oil.

    Wu, Di; He, Yong


    Developing rapid methods for measuring long-chain ω-3 (n-3) poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) contents has been a crucial request from the algal oil industry. In this study, four spectroscopy techniques, namely visible and short-wave near infra-red (Vis-SNIR), long-wave near infra-red (LNIR), mid-infra-red (MIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, were exploited for determining the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) contents in algal oil. The best prediction for both DHA and EPA were achieved by NMR spectroscopy, in which the determination coefficients of cross-validation (rCV(2)) values were 0.963 and 0.967 for two LCPUFAs. The performances of Vis-SNIR and LNIR spectroscopy were also accepted. The variable selection was proved as an efficient and necessary step for the spectral analysis in this study. The results were promising and implied that spectroscopy techniques have a great potential for assessment of DHA and EPA in algal oil. PMID:24731319

  13. Thermochemical comparisons of homogeneous and heterogeneous acids and bases. 1. Sulfonic acid solutions and resins as prototype Broensted acids

    Arnett, E.M.; Haaksma, R.A.; Chawla, B.; Healy, M.H.


    Heats of ionization by thermometric titration for a series of bases (or acids) can be used to compare solid acids (or bases) with liquid analogues bearing the same functionalities in homogeneous solutions. The method is demonstrated for Broensted acids by reacting a series of substituted nitrogen bases with solutions of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) in acetonitrile and with suspensions of the microporous polymeric arylsulfonic acid resin-Dowex 50W-X8 in the same solvent. Under well-controlled anhydrous conditions there is a good correlation (r = 0.992) between the heats of reaction of the bases with the homogeneous and heterogeneous acid systems, but the homogeneous system gives a more exothermic interaction by 3-4 kcal mol/sup -1/ for a series of 29 substituted pyrimidines, anilines, and some other amines. This difference may be attributed to homohydrogen bonding interactions between excess acid and sulfonate anion sites which are more restricted geometrically in the resin than in solution. Other factors which affect the enthalpy change for the acid-base interaction are the acid/base ratio, the water content of the sulfonic acid, the solvent, and the resin structure (e.g., microporous vs. macroporous). Steric hindrance in the base does not differentiate solid from homogeneous acid. In addition to the use of titration calorimetry, heats of immersion are reported for the Dowex-arylsulfonic acid resins and the Nafion-perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin in a series of basic liquids. The results are compared with each other and with those from a previous study of several varieties of coal.

  14. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Xue Charlie


    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  15. Preparation of Poly Acrylic Acid-Poly Acrylamide Composite Nanogels by Radiation Technique

    Parisa Ghorbaniazar


    Full Text Available Purpose: Nanogel, a nanoparticle prepared from a cross-linked hydrophilic polymer network, has many biomedical applications. A radiation technique has recently been introduced as one of the appropriate methods for the preparation of polymeric nanogels due to its additive-free initiation and easy control procedure. Methods: We have investigated the formation of nano-sized polymeric gels, based on the radiation-induced inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking of the inter-polymer complex (IPC of polyacrylamide (PAAm and polyacrylic acide (PAAc. Results: The results indicated that the prepared polymeric complex composed of PAAm and PAAc was converted into nanogel by irradiation under different doses (1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy. This was due to inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking at the range of 446-930 nm as characterized by the photon correlation spectroscopy method. Increasing the irradiation dose reduced the size of nanoparticles to 3 kGy; however, the higher doses increased the size and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated the nanogel formation in the reported size by particle size and showed the microcapsule structure of the prepared nanogels. Biocompatibility of nanogels were assessed and proved by MTT assay. Conclusion: It was concluded that low dose irradiation can be successfully applied for nanometre-ranged hydrogel.

  16. Enhanced Acid/Base Catalysis in High Temperature Liquid Water

    Xiu Yang LU; Qi JING; Zhun LI; Lei YUAN; Fei GAO; Xin LIU


    Two novel and environmentally benign solvent systems, organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water (HTLW) and NH3-enriched HTLW, were developed, which can enhance the reaction rate of acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW. We investigated the decomposition of fructose in organic acids-enriched HTLW, hydrolysis of cinnamaldehyde and aldol condensation of phenylaldehyde with acetaldehyde in NH3-enriched HTLW. The experimental results demonstrated that organic acids-enriched or NH3-enriched HTLW can greatly accelerate acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW.

  17. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Malika Trabelsi; Saloua Saidane; Sihem Ben Abdelmelek


    In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classifi...

  18. Fusion Based Neutron Sources for Security Applications: Neutron Techniques

    Albright, S.; Seviour, Rebecca


    The current reliance on X-Rays and intelligence for na- tional security is insufficient to combat the current risks of smuggling and terrorism seen on an international level. There are a range of neutron based security techniques which have the potential to dramatically improve national security. Neutron techniques can be broadly grouped into neutron in/neutron out and neutron in/photon out tech- niques. The use of accelerator based fusion devices will potentially enable to wide spread applic...

  19. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    Osther, Palle J


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  20. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.


    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Application of glyph-based techniques for multivariate engineering visualization

    Glazar, Vladimir; Marunic, Gordana; Percic, Marko; Butkovic, Zlatko


    This article presents a review of glyph-based techniques for engineering visualization as well as practical application for the multivariate visualization process. Two glyph techniques, Chernoff faces and star glyphs, uncommonly used in engineering practice, are described, applied to the selected data set, run through the chosen optimization methods and user evaluated. As an example of how these techniques function, a set of data for the optimization of a heat exchanger with a microchannel coil is adopted for visualization. The results acquired by the chosen visualization techniques are related to the results of optimization carried out by the response surface method and compared with the results of user evaluation. Based on the data set from engineering research and practice, the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques for engineering visualization are identified and discussed.

  2. Mefenamic acid conjugates based on a hydrophilic biopolymer hydroxypropylcellulose: novel prodrug design, characterization and thermal analysis

    Macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of mefenamic acid were designed onto a cellulose ether derivative hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as ester conjugates. Fabrication of HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates was achieved by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride as carboxylic acid (a functional group in drug) activator at 80 degree C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction was preceded under homogeneous reaction conditions as HPC was dissolved before use in DMAc solvent. Imidazole was used as a base. Easy workup reactions resulted in good yields (55-65%) and degree of substitution (DS) of drug (0.37-0.99) onto HPC. The DS was calculated by acid-base titration after saponification and UV/Vis spectrophotometry after hydrolysis. DS by both of the methods was found in good agreement with each other. Aqueous and organic soluble novel prodrugs of mefenamic acid were purified and characterized by different spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques. The initial, maximum and final degradation temperatures of HPC, mefenamic acid and HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates were drawn from thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative TG curves and compared to access relative thermal stability. The TG analysis has indicated that samples obtained were thermally more stable especially with increased stability of mefenamic acid in HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates. These novel MPDs of mefenamic acid (i.e., HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates) may have potential applications in pharmaceutically viable drug design due to wide range of solubility and extra thermal stability imparted after MPD formation. (author)

  3. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  4. Acid-Base Pairs in Lewis Acidic Zeolites Promote Direct Aldol Reactions by Soft Enolization.

    Lewis, Jennifer D; Van de Vyver, Stijn; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy


    Hf-, Sn-, and Zr-Beta zeolites catalyze the cross-aldol condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acetone under mild reaction conditions with near quantitative yields. NMR studies with isotopically labeled molecules confirm that acid-base pairs in the Si-O-M framework ensemble promote soft enolization through α-proton abstraction. The Lewis acidic zeolites maintain activity in the presence of water and, unlike traditional base catalysts, in acidic solutions. PMID:26138135

  5. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    Beer, Neil Reginald


    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  6. Sobre a força de ácidos e bases: algumas considerações On the strength of acids and bases: some considerations

    Eduardo J. S. Vichi


    Full Text Available This article intends to answer the question: "what is the best way to evaluate the strength of acids and bases?" The meaning of the word strength, the main acid-base theories (ionotropic and electron pair, the neutralization reactions and the thermodynamical formalism are considered. Some cases are presented and discussed. In conclusion, evaluating acid-base strength is dependent on the theory (formalism as well as on the system and measuring techniques.

  7. Sobre a força de ácidos e bases: algumas considerações On the strength of acids and bases: some considerations

    Eduardo J. S. Vichi; Aécio Pereira Chagas


    This article intends to answer the question: "what is the best way to evaluate the strength of acids and bases?" The meaning of the word strength, the main acid-base theories (ionotropic and electron pair), the neutralization reactions and the thermodynamical formalism are considered. Some cases are presented and discussed. In conclusion, evaluating acid-base strength is dependent on the theory (formalism) as well as on the system and measuring techniques.

  8. Spectroscopic Studies of Amino Acid Ionic Liquid-Supported Schiff Bases

    Paula Ossowicz; Ewa Janus; Grzegorz Schroeder; Zbigniew Rozwadowski


    Amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylaldehyde and various amino acids (L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-histidine) have been investigated by means of various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, UV-Vis, IR, MS) and deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts. The results have shown that in all studied amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases (except the L-histidine derivative) a proton transfer equilibrium exists and the presence o...

  9. Comparison of acid leaching and fusion techniques to determine uranium in soil samples by alpha spectrometry.

    Dirican, Abdullah; Şahin, Mihriban


    Dissolution of radionuclides of interest is an indispensable first step in the alpha spectrometric analysis of soil samples. In this study a uranium recovery method for the analysis of uranium isotopes in soil samples is presented. Two different soil sample dissolution techniques were used: digestion in open beaker and fusion. The results of these techniques were compared. Two proficiency test samples and one reference material prepared by the IAEA were analyzed. Better results were obtained by fusion dissolution technique but impurities were higher than with acid leaching. Results of two techniques were more or less similar within the uncertainty limits. The detection limit (a(#)) was evaluated as part of the quality control. PMID:26651172

  10. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    Perrin, D D


    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  11. Determination of the acidic sites of purified single-walled carbon nanotubes by acid base titration

    Hu, H.; Bhowmik, P.; Zhao, B.; Hamon, M. A.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C.


    We report the measurement of the acidic sites in three different samples of commercially available full-length purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) - as obtained from CarboLex (CLI), Carbon Solutions (CSI) and Tubes@Rice (TAR) - by simple acid-base titration methods. Titration of the purified SWNTs with NaOH and NaHCO 3 solutions was used to determine the total percentage of acidic sites and carboxylic acid groups, respectively. The total percentage of acidic sites in full length purified SWNTs from TAR, CLI and CSI are about 1-3%.

  12. Electrochemical surface modification technique to impede mild steel corrosion using perfluorooctanoic acid

    Shubha H Natarj; Venkatesha T. Venkatarangaiah; ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO


    The present work demonstrated that corrosion inhibition efficiency of electrochemically generated organic coat is remarkably more effective than self-assembled monolayer (SAM) generated by dip coating technique. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used to modify mild steel surface for effective protection. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and contact angle measurements substantiate the modification of mild steel surface and its effect on surface hydrophobicity. A comparison between el...

  13. Vapor pressure data for fatty acids obtained using an adaptation of the DSC technique

    Highlights: ► Vapor pressure data of fatty acids were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. ► The DSC technique is especially advantageous for expensive chemicals. ► High heating rate was used for measuring the vapor pressure data. ► Antoine constants were obtained for the selected fatty acids. - Abstract: The vapor pressure data for lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The adjustments made in the experimental procedure included the use of a small sphere (tungsten carbide) placed over the pinhole of the crucible (diameter of 0.8 mm), making it possible to use a faster heating rate than that of the standard method and reducing the experimental time. The measurements were made in the pressure range from 1333 to 9333 Pa, using small sample quantities of fatty acids (3–5 mg) at a heating rate of 25 K min−1. The results showed the effectiveness of the technique under study, as evidenced by the low temperature deviations in relation to the data reported in the literature. The Antoine constants were fitted to the experimental data whose values are shown in Table 5.

  14. Vapor pressure data for fatty acids obtained using an adaptation of the DSC technique

    Matricarde Falleiro, Rafael M. [LPT, Departamento de Processos Quimicos (DPQ), Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-852 Campinas - SP (Brazil); Akisawa Silva, Luciana Y. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 09972-270 Diadema - SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A. [EXTRAE, Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos (DEA), Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-862 Campinas - SP (Brazil); Kraehenbuehl, Maria A., E-mail: [LPT, Departamento de Processos Quimicos (DPQ), Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-852 Campinas - SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vapor pressure data of fatty acids were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DSC technique is especially advantageous for expensive chemicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High heating rate was used for measuring the vapor pressure data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antoine constants were obtained for the selected fatty acids. - Abstract: The vapor pressure data for lauric (C{sub 12:0}), myristic (C{sub 14:0}), palmitic (C{sub 16:0}), stearic (C{sub 18:0}) and oleic (C{sub 18:1}) acids were obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The adjustments made in the experimental procedure included the use of a small sphere (tungsten carbide) placed over the pinhole of the crucible (diameter of 0.8 mm), making it possible to use a faster heating rate than that of the standard method and reducing the experimental time. The measurements were made in the pressure range from 1333 to 9333 Pa, using small sample quantities of fatty acids (3-5 mg) at a heating rate of 25 K min{sup -1}. The results showed the effectiveness of the technique under study, as evidenced by the low temperature deviations in relation to the data reported in the literature. The Antoine constants were fitted to the experimental data whose values are shown in Table 5.

  15. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno


    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  16. Data Mining and Neural Network Techniques in Case Based System


    This paper first puts forward a case-based system framework basedon data mining techniques. Then the paper examines the possibility of using neural n etworks as a method of retrieval in such a case-based system. In this system we propose data mining algorithms to discover case knowledge and other algorithms.

  17. An Agent Communication Framework Based on XML and SOAP Technique



    This thesis introducing XML technology and SOAP technology,present an agent communication fi-amework based on XML and SOAP technique,and analyze the principle,architecture,function and benefit of it. At the end, based on KQML communication primitive lan- guages.

  18. Connecting Acids and Bases with Encapsulation... and Chemistry with Nanotechnology

    Criswell, Brett


    The features and the development of various new acids and bases activity sets that combines chemistry with nanotechnology are being described. These sets lead to the generation of many nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases.

  19. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Malik, O.P.; Chen, G.P.; Zhang, Y.; El-Metwally, K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    Gosavi, Abhijit


    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  1. A Hough Transform based Technique for Text Segmentation

    Saha, Satadal; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kr


    Text segmentation is an inherent part of an OCR system irrespective of the domain of application of it. The OCR system contains a segmentation module where the text lines, words and ultimately the characters must be segmented properly for its successful recognition. The present work implements a Hough transform based technique for line and word segmentation from digitized images. The proposed technique is applied not only on the document image dataset but also on dataset for business card reader system and license plate recognition system. For standardization of the performance of the system the technique is also applied on public domain dataset published in the website by CMATER, Jadavpur University. The document images consist of multi-script printed and hand written text lines with variety in script and line spacing in single document image. The technique performs quite satisfactorily when applied on mobile camera captured business card images with low resolution. The usefulness of the technique is verifie...

  2. Face Recognition Approach Based on Wavelet - Curvelet Technique

    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel face recognition approach based on wavelet-curvelet technique, is proposed. This algorithm based on the similarities embedded in the images, That utilize the wavelet-curvelet technique to extract facial features. The implemented technique can overcome on the other mathematical image analysis approaches. This approaches may suffered from the potential for a high dimensional feature space, Therefore it aims to reduce the dimensionality that reduce the required computational power and memory size. Then the Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC is adopted to recognize different faces. In this work, three major experiments were done. two face databases (MAFD & ORL, and higher recognition rate is obtained by the implementation of this techniques.

  3. A Hough Transform based Technique for Text Segmentation

    Saha, Satadal; Basu, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kr.


    Text segmentation is an inherent part of an OCR system irrespective of the domain of application of it. The OCR system contains a segmentation module where the text lines, words and ultimately the characters must be segmented properly for its successful recognition. The present work implements a Hough transform based technique for line and word segmentation from digitized images. The proposed technique is applied not only on the document image dataset but also on dataset for business card rea...

  4. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri


    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. PMID:25249123

  5. Combining Speedup techniques based on Landmarks and Containers



    Full Text Available The Dijkstra’s algorithm [1] , which is applied in many real world problems like mobile routing, road maps, railway networks, etc,. is used to find the shortest path between source and destination. There are many techniques available to speedup the algorithm while guaranteeing the optimality of the solution. The main focus of the work is to implement landmark technique and Containers separately and compare the results with random graphs and planar graphs. The combined speedup technique which is based on landmarks and containers were also experimented with random graphs and planar graphs to improvethe speedup of the shortest path queries.

  6. The comparison of techniques and methods for L-ascorbic acid determination in the fruits

    Cvetković Biljana R.


    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential vitamin for human nutrition; with the L-ascorbic acid (AA being the active form of vitamin C. Hence, determination of the L-ascorbic acid in the natural and processed foods is very important. In the past, plenty of methods based on the reversible redox reaction of AA oxidation/DHA reduction were developed. Because of L-ascorbic acid instability in aqueous solutions, it is useful to analyze various types of extraction. The aim of this study is to compare three different methods and three different extractants for the L-ascorbic acid determination. Fruits (kiwi, lemon, orange, and grapefruit were purchased from a local market. The L-ascorbic acid in these four samples was determined by the three different methods: the AOAC, the HPLC method with three different types of extractions, and the colorimetric method using ascorbate-oxidase. For the HPLC measurements, one part of the fruits was extracted with distilled water, the second with potassium hydrogen phosphate, and the third with 3% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA in 8% acetic acid. The HPLC measurements of each sample were repeated three times, the AOAC titration was repeated five times, and in the calorimetric method three measurements were performed. The results were statistically evaluated related to sample basis. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the results for all three methods of extraction for all samples, except for the grapefruit sample where no significant difference was observed between the results obtained after the buffer extraction (E2 and the metaphosphoric acid in acetic acid extraction (E3. Discriminative analysis for the HPLC determinations proves that there is a clear difference and defined border between the samples in relation to the methods of extraction during the HPLC determination.

  7. Analysis of amino acids network based on distance matrix

    Ali, Tazid; Akhtar, Adil; Gohain, Nisha


    In this paper we have constructed a distance matrix of the amino acids. The distance is defined based on the relative evolutionary importance of the base position of the corresponding codons. From this distance matrix a network of the amino acids is obtained. We have argued that this network depicts the evolutionary pattern of the amino acids. To examine the relative importance of the amino acids with respect to this network we have discussed different measures of centrality. We have also investigated the correlation coefficients between different measures of centrality. Further we have explored clustering coefficient as well as degree of distribution.

  8. Finding Within Cluster Dense Regions Using Distance Based Technique

    Wesam Ashour; Motaz Murtaja


    One of the main categories in Data Clustering is density based clustering. Density based clustering techniques like DBSCAN are attractive because they can find arbitrary shaped clusters along with noisy outlier. The main weakness of the traditional density based algorithms like DBSCAN is clustering the different density level data sets. DBSCAN calculations done according to given parameters applied to all points in a data set, while densities of the data set clusters may be totally different....

  9. A locked nucleic Acid-based nanocrawler

    Astakhova, I Kira; Pasternak, Karol; Campbell, Meghan A;


    Herein we introduce a novel fluorescent LNA/DNA machine, a nanocrawler, which reversibly moves along a directionally polar complementary road controlled by affinity-enhancing locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers and additional regulatory strands. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dyes attached to 2'-a...

  10. Determination of low citric acid concentrations in a mixture of weak acid/bases

    Lahav, O.; Shlafman, E.; Cochva, M.


    A titration approach was developed to measure low concentrations of citric acid (C6H8O7) in a mixture of other weak acid/ bases. Two methods were tested. The first and more practical method (a 4-point titration procedure) is applicable in conditions where volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are not normally present. The second method (a 5-point titration procedure) was developed for anaerobic environments where VFAs may be encountered. Generally, fairly accurate and repetitive results (precision > 95...

  11. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B


    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. PMID:20814088

  12. Runtime Monitoring Technique to handle Tautology based SQL Injection Attacks

    Ramya Dharam


    Full Text Available Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.

  13. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang


    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100-500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO3H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO3H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.

  14. PCA Based Rapid and Real Time Face Recognition Technique

    T R Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available Economical and efficient that is used in various applications is face Biometric which has been a popular form biometric system. Face recognition system is being a topic of research for last few decades. Several techniques are proposed to improve the performance of face recognition system. Accuracy is tested against intensity, distance from camera, and pose variance. Multiple face recognition is another subtopic which is under research now a day. Speed at which the technique works is a parameter under consideration to evaluate a technique. As an example a support vector machine performs really well for face recognition but the computational efficiency degrades significantly with increase in number of classes. Eigen Face technique produces quality features for face recognition but the accuracy is proved to be comparatively less to many other techniques. With increase in use of core processors in personal computers and application demanding speed in processing and multiple face detection and recognition system (for example an entry detection system in shopping mall or an industry, demand for such systems are cumulative as there is a need for automated systems worldwide. In this paper we propose a novel system of face recognition developed with C# .Net that can detect multiple faces and can recognize the faces parallel by utilizing the system resources and the core processors. The system is built around Haar Cascade based face detection and PCA based face recognition system with C#.Net. Parallel library designed for .Net is used to aide to high speed detection and recognition of the real time faces. Analysis of the performance of the proposed technique with some of the conventional techniques reveals that the proposed technique is not only accurate, but also is fast in comparison to other techniques.

  15. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.


    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  16. Analysis and Identification of Acid-Base Indicator Dyes by Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Clark, Daniel D.


    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a very simple and effective technique that is used by chemists by different purposes, including the monitoring of the progress of a reaction. TLC can also be easily used for the analysis and identification of various acid-base indicator dyes.

  17. Modern Techniques for Studying the Metabolism and Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds, Especially Amino Acids

    Several techniques have been developed in recent years which make it possible to gain considerable insight into the manner in which compounds are utilized by animals, and to elucidate the role-of various substances in the synthetic processes that animals carry out. By utilizing these techniques it has become possible to determine the over-all metabolic fate of specific compounds in the animal; to establish how rapidly individual compounds are metabolized; and to identify various factors that influence the rate and extent of utilization of compounds by animals. Knowledge of this type is of great interest and is very important for better understanding metabolic processes and their regulation in animals. It seems likely that this type of information will provide the basis for influencing the metabolic fate of compounds in the animal and for ensuring more efficient utilization of substances for the desirable biosynthetic processes that animals carry out. Various techniques are discussed here that are being used to assess die metabolism and utilization of compounds in the intact animal and will give special attention to the role of the amino acids in lactating ruminants. Analysis of the respiratory patterns provides one method for evaluating the specific rate and extent of oxidation of 14C-labelled compounds after these are administered to animals. The rate of appearance of 14C in respired CO2, the time of maximum specific activity, and the subsequent decrease in specific activity, with time, reflect the role of individual compounds as sources of metabolic energy for the animal. The rate of disappearance of 14C-labelled compounds from the blood, with time, can be used to calculate turnover rates, pool sizes, and fluxes of metabolites through these pools. These parameters reflect the magnitude of the metabolic processes associated with utilization of specific compounds and they provide a basis for calculating the quantitative significance of the compound in the animal

  18. A novel decomposition technique of friable asbestos by CHClF2-decomposed acidic gas

    Asbestos was widely used in numerous materials and building products due to their desirable properties. It is, however, well known that asbestos inhalation causes health damage and its inexpensive decomposition technique is necessary to be developed for pollution prevention. We report here an innovative decomposition technique of friable asbestos by acidic gas (HF and HCl) generated from the decomposition of CHClF2 by the reaction with superheated steam at 800 deg. C. Chrysotile-asbestos fibers were completely decomposed to sellaite and magnesium silicofluoride hexahydrate by the reaction with CHClF2-decomposed acidic gas at 150 deg. C for 30 min. At high temperatures beyond 400 deg. C, sellaite and hematite were detected in the decomposed product. In addition, crocidolite containing wastes and amosite containing wastes were decomposed at 500 deg. C and 600 deg. C for 30 min, respectively, by CHClF2-decomposed acidic gas. The observation of the reaction products by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the resulting products did not contain any asbestos

  19. A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay based on strand displacement.

    Vary, C P


    A homogeneous nucleic acid hybridization assay which is conducted in solution and requires no separation steps is described. The assay is based on the concept of strand displacement. In the strand displacement assay, an RNA "signal strand" is hybridized within a larger DNA strand termed the "probe strand", which is, in turn, complementary to the target nucleic acid of interest. Hybridization of the target nucleic acid with the probe strand ultimately results in displacement of the RNA signal ...

  20. Effect of benzoic acid supplementation on acid-base status and mineralmetabolism in catheterized growing pigs

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;


    Benzoic acid (BA) in diets for growing pigs results in urinary acidification and reduced ammonia emission. The objective was to study the impact of BA supplementation on the acid-base status and mineral metabolism in pigs. Eight female 50-kg pigs, fitted with a catheter in the abdominal aorta, were...

  1. Nucleic Acid-based Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Integrated Microfluidic Platform Systems

    Carl A. Batt


    Full Text Available The advent of nucleic acid-based pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques, driving the development of portable, integrated biosensors. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems presents a significant advantage for rapid, portable field-based testing. In this review, we highlight current developments and directions in nucleic acid-based micro total analysis systems for the detection of bacterial pathogens. Recent progress in the miniaturization of microfluidic processing steps for cell capture, DNA extraction and purification, polymerase chain reaction, and product detection are detailed. Discussions include strategies and challenges for implementation of an integrated portable platform.

  2. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.


    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  3. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Lee, Cheng-Kang, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd. Sec.4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  4. Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Cereal-Based Turkish Foods

    DAĞLIOĞLU, Orhan; Taşan, Murat


    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 13 cereal-based foods produced by Turkish companies were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The total fat contents of the samples ranged from 1.8 to 37.9%. Traditional Turkish white bread and bulgur had the lowest fat content (1.8% and 2.3% respectively) and wafer the highest (37.9%). The major fatty acids in the samples were C16:0, C18:0, trans C18:1, C18:1 and C18:2. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents varied bet...

  5. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna


    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  6. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    Hutchinson, Ronda


    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  7. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32P exchange technique. (author)

  8. Wavelet transformation based watermarking technique for human electrocardiogram (ECG).

    Engin, Mehmet; Cidam, Oğuz; Engin, Erkan Zeki


    Nowadays, watermarking has become a technology of choice for a broad range of multimedia copyright protection applications. Watermarks have also been used to embed prespecified data in biomedical signals. Thus, the watermarked biomedical signals being transmitted through communication are resistant to some attacks. This paper investigates discrete wavelet transform based watermarking technique for signal integrity verification in an Electrocardiogram (ECG) coming from four ECG classes for monitoring application of cardiovascular diseases. The proposed technique is evaluated under different noisy conditions for different wavelet functions. Daubechies (db2) wavelet function based technique performs better than those of Biorthogonal (bior5.5) wavelet function. For the beat-to-beat applications, all performance results belonging to four ECG classes are highly moderate. PMID:16235811

  9. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen


    A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

  10. "Ayeli": Centering Technique Based on Cherokee Spiritual Traditions.

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Garrett, J. T.


    Presents a centering technique called "Ayeli," based on Cherokee spiritual traditions as a way of incorporating spirituality into counseling by helping clients identify where they are in their journey, where they want to be, and how they can get there. Relevant Native cultural traditions and meanings are explored. (Contains 25 references.) (GCP)

  11. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune


    This article describes the work carried out within the project: Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique - Application to Civil Engineering Structures. The project is part of the research programme: Dynamics of Structures sponsored by the Danish Technical Research Counsil. The planned...

  12. Improved Experimental Techniques for Analyzing Nucleic Acid Transport Through Protein Nanopores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    Costa, Justin A.

    The translocation of nucleic acid polymers across cell membranes is a fundamental requirement for complex life and has greatly contributed to genomic molecular evolution. The diversity of pathways that have evolved to transport DNA and RNA across membranes include protein receptors, active and passive transporters, endocytic and pinocytic processes, and various types of nucleic acid conducting channels known as nanopores. We have developed a series of experimental techniques, collectively known as "Wicking", that greatly improves the biophysical analysis of nucleic acid transport through protein nanopores in planar lipid bilayers. We have verified the Wicking method using numerous types of classical ion channels including the well-studied chloride selective channel, CLIC1. We used the Wicking technique to reconstitute α-hemolysin and found that DNA translocation events of types A and B could be routinely observed using this method. Furthermore, measurable differences were observed in the duration of blockade events as DNA length and composition was varied, consistent with previous reports. Finally, we tested the ability of the Wicking technology to reconstitute the dsRNA transporter Sid-1. Exposure to dsRNAs of increasing length and complexity showed measurable differences in the current transitions suggesting that the charge carrier was dsRNA. However, the translocation events occurred so infrequently that a meaningful electrophysiological analysis was not possible. Alterations in the lipid composition of the bilayer had a minor effect on the frequency of translocation events but not to such a degree as to permit rigorous statistical analysis. We conclude that in many instances the Wicking method is a significant improvement to the lipid bilayer technique, but is not an optimal method for analyzing transport through Sid-1. Further refinements to the Wicking method might have future applications in high throughput DNA sequencing, DNA computation, and molecular

  13. Syntheses and characterizations of three acid-base supramolecular complexes

    Three acid-base compounds with supramolecular architectures, namely, (1,2-H2bdc)(dmt) (1), (trans-1,4-H2ccdc)0.5(phdat) (2) and (1,3-H2bdc)(phdat) (3) (1,2-H2bdc = 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, trans-1, 4-H2ccdc = trans-1, 4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H2bdc = 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dmt = 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-s-triazine, phdat = 2,4-diamino-6-phenyl-s-triazine) have been synthesized and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffractions and TGA. (author)

  14. Electrochemical surface modification technique to impede mild steel corrosion using perfluorooctanoic acid

    Shubha H Natarj


    Full Text Available The present work demonstrated that corrosion inhibition efficiency of electrochemically generated organic coat is remarkably effective than self-assembled monolayer (SAM generated by dip coating technique. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA is used to modify mild steel surface for effective protection. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and contact angle measurements substantiate the modification of mild steel surface and its effect on surface hydrophobicity. A comparison between electrochemical properties of PFOA SAM generated by dip coat method (DC-PFOA and PFOA coat generated by electrochemical method (EC-PFOA is presented. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the corrosion protection efficiency of EC-PFOA (91% is much superior to DC-PFOA (28%.

  15. The stereochemistry of the condensation product of salicylaldehyde and n-butylbarbituric acid by NMR techniques

    Since the discovery of the 5-deazaflavin cofactor (coenzyme F420) as a naturally occurring compound, a great attention has been focused on several iso steric flavin analogues. One of the simplest approaches towards the synthesis of oxadeazaflavin, compound which the nitrogen at the N-10 position of 5-deazaflavin is replaced by oxygen, is the direct condensation between barbituric acid and salicylaldehyde. In this paper, the use of some NMR techniques so as to determine the stereochemistry of the preformed isomer has been described and a possible mechanism for this isomerization discussed

  16. The stereochemistry of the condensation product of salicylaldehyde and n-butylbarbituric acid by NMR techniques

    Cruz, Elizabete R.; Villar, J. Daniel Figueroa [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Since the discovery of the 5-deazaflavin cofactor (coenzyme F{sub 420}) as a naturally occurring compound, a great attention has been focused on several iso steric flavin analogues. One of the simplest approaches towards the synthesis of oxadeazaflavin, compound which the nitrogen at the N-10 position of 5-deazaflavin is replaced by oxygen, is the direct condensation between barbituric acid and salicylaldehyde. In this paper, the use of some NMR techniques so as to determine the stereochemistry of the preformed isomer has been described and a possible mechanism for this isomerization discussed 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  18. Application of molecular techniques for identification and ennumeration of acetic acid bacteria

    González Benito, Angel


    Application of molecular techniques for identification and enumeration of acetic acid bacteria:Los principales objetivos de la tesis son el desarrollo de técnicas de biología molecular rápidas y fiables para caracterizar bacterias acéticas.Las bacterias acéticas son las principales responsables del picado de los vinos y de la producción de vinagre. Sin embargo, existe un desconocimiento importante sobre su comportamiento y evolución. Las técnicas de enumeración y de identificación basadas en ...

  19. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (author)

  20. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)


    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  1. The Real-Time Image Processing Technique Based on DSP

    QI Chang; CHEN Yue-hua; HUANG Tian-shu


    This paper proposes a novel real-time image processing technique based on digital singnal processor (DSP). At the aspect of wavelet transform(WT) algorithm, the technique uses algorithm of second generation wavelet transform-lifting scheme WT that has low calculation complexity property for the 2-D image data processing. Since the processing effect of lifting scheme WT for 1-D data is better than the effect of it for 2-D data obviously, this paper proposes a reformative processing method: Transform 2-D image data to 1-D data sequence by linearization method, then process the 1-D data sequence by algorithm of lifting scheme WT. The method changes the image convolution mode,which based on the cross filtering of rows and columns. At the aspect of hardware realization, the technique optimizes the program structure of DSP to exert the operation power with the in-chip memorizer of DSP. The experiment results show that the real-time image processing technique proposed in this paper can meet the real-time requirement of video-image transmitting in the video surveillance system of electric power. So the technique is a feasible and efficient DSP solution.

  2. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Abdel Kader, Neamat S.; Zorkany, M.


    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. PMID:25587570

  3. Towards lactic acid bacteria-based biorefineries.

    Mazzoli, Roberto; Bosco, Francesca; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Bayer, Edward A; Pessione, Enrica


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used in industrial applications mainly as starters for food fermentation or as biocontrol agents or as probiotics. However, LAB possess several characteristics that render them among the most promising candidates for use in future biorefineries in converting plant-derived biomass-either from dedicated crops or from municipal/industrial solid wastes-into biofuels and high value-added products. Lactic acid, their main fermentation product, is an attractive building block extensively used by the chemical industry, owing to the potential for production of polylactides as biodegradable and biocompatible plastic alternative to polymers derived from petrochemicals. LA is but one of many high-value compounds which can be produced by LAB fermentation, which also include biofuels such as ethanol and butanol, biodegradable plastic polymers, exopolysaccharides, antimicrobial agents, health-promoting substances and nutraceuticals. Furthermore, several LAB strains have ascertained probiotic properties, and their biomass can be considered a high-value product. The present contribution aims to provide an extensive overview of the main industrial applications of LAB and future perspectives concerning their utilization in biorefineries. Strategies will be described in detail for developing LAB strains with broader substrate metabolic capacity for fermentation of cheaper biomass. PMID:25087936

  4. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell


    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  5. Teaching acid/base physiology in the laboratory

    Friis, Ulla G; Plovsing, Ronni; Hansen, Klaus;


    Acid/base homeostasis is one of the most difficult subdisciplines of physiology for medical students to master. A different approach, where theory and practice are linked, might help students develop a deeper understanding of acid/base homeostasis. We therefore set out to develop a laboratory...... exercise in acid/base physiology that would provide students with unambiguous and reproducible data that clearly would illustrate the theory in practice. The laboratory exercise was developed to include both metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Data were collected from 56 groups of medical...... students that had participated in this laboratory exercise. The acquired data showed very consistent and solid findings after the development of both metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. All results were consistent with the appropriate diagnosis of the acid/base disorder. Not one single group...

  6. Acid-base strengths in m-cresol

    Bos, M.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.


    For various acids and bases dissociation constants were determined conductimetrically in m-cresol. A glass electrode was calibrated by means of some compounds with dissociation constants known from conductivity measurements. Potentiometric titrations with this calibrated glass electrode gave dissoci

  7. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment

  8. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    B. Devikiruba


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  9. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete


    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  10. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications


    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  11. Acid-base homeostasis in the human system

    White, R. J.


    Acid-base regulation is a cooperative phenomena in vivo with body fluids, extracellular and intracellular buffers, lungs, and kidneys all playing important roles. The present account is much too brief to be considered a review of present knowledge of these regulatory systems, and should be viewed, instead, as a guide to the elements necessary to construct a simple model of the mutual interactions of the acid-base regulatory systems of the body.

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new higher amino acid Schiff base derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and 7-aminocephalosporanic acid

    Özdemir (nee Güngör), Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan; Özçelik, Berrin; Oyardı, Özlem


    Novel β-lactam derivatives (1c-3c) (1d-3d) were produced by using 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) and the higher amino acid Schiff bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H/13C NMR and UV-vis spectra. Antibacterial activities of all the higher amino acid Schiff bases (1a-3a) (1b-3b) and β-lactam derivatives were screened against three gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii RSKK 02026), three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 07005, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and their drug-resistant isolates by using broth microdilution method. Two fungi (Candida albicans and Candida krusei) were used for antifungal activity.

  13. Synthesis of polyacrylic-acid-based thermochromic polymers

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Alam, Sarfaraz; Mathur, G. N.


    Smart materials respond to environmental stimuli with particular changes in some variables (for example temperature, pressure and electric field etc), for that reason they are often called responsive materials. In the present work, we have synthesized thermochromic polymer based on poly acrylic acid cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) that visually and reversibly changes color in the temperature range (70 - 130°C). These thermochromic materials can be used as visual sensors of temperature. Thermochromic polymers are based on polyacrylic acid and CoCl2 complex.

  14. Statistics and Machine Learning based Outlier Detection Techniques for Exoplanets

    Goel, Amit; Montgomery, Michele


    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time that can indicate formation and dynamic evolution of planets. The observable key parameters that we consider are planetary mass and orbital period. If planet masses are significantly less than their host star masses, then Keplerian Motion is defined as P^2 = a^3 where P is the orbital period in units of years and a is the orbital period in units of Astronomical Units (AU). Keplerian motion works on small scales such as the size of the Solar System but not on large scales such as the size of the Milky Way Galaxy. In this work, for confirmed exoplanets of known stellar mass, planetary mass, orbital period, and stellar age, we analyze Keplerian motion of systems based on stellar age to seek if Keplerian motion has an age dependency and to identify outliers. For detecting outliers, we apply several techniques based on statistical and machine learning methods such as probabilistic, linear, and proximity based models. In probabilistic and statistical models of outliers, the parameters of a closed form probability distributions are learned in order to detect the outliers. Linear models use regression analysis based techniques for detecting outliers. Proximity based models use distance based algorithms such as k-nearest neighbour, clustering algorithms such as k-means, or density based algorithms such as kernel density estimation. In this work, we will use unsupervised learning algorithms with only the proximity based models. In addition, we explore the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques by validating the outliers. The validation criteria for the outliers is if the ratio of planetary mass to stellar mass is less than 0.001. In this work, we present our statistical analysis of the outliers thus detected.

  15. Techniques for jar formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Weighall, M. J.

    The market for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is growing steadily and will be given a further boost as the market for 36-V batteries for the 42-V PowerNet develops over the next few years. The manufacture of VRLA batteries poses, however, a number of complex technical problems that are not experienced in the manufacture of conventional flooded batteries. For the large-scale manufacture of automotive batteries or other small VRLA batteries of 100 Ah or less, jar formation rather than plate formation and dry charge would seem to be a logical and economically sound decision. For this to be successful, however, a number of key issues need to be reviewed, starting with a detailed consideration of battery design. This paper reviews issues associated with the jar formation of VRLA batteries. Guidance is given concerning filling techniques (gravity or vacuum fill), the formation process, charging techniques, and formation algorithms. Battery design and separator optimisation is discussed. The properties of the separator, e.g. wicking rate, fibre composition, surface area and compression, may have a critical impact on acid filling and jar formation, and may partially determine the filling and formation conditions to be used. The control of temperature during formation is particularly important. Formation algorithms and temperature data are presented. Attention is drawn to the possible loss of plate-group compression during the formation process, and how this may be avoided.

  16. Phosphate fixation capacity of Thai acid soils using 32P isotope techniques

    Five acid soil samples from benchmark sites in Thailand were collected: Rangsit soil, two samples (Sulfic Tropaquepts or acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic Paleustults). The soil P status was characterized in the laboratory by the 32P isotope exchange technique using treatments with and without P addition. In another experiment, the P-fixing capacity of the same soils was examined. They were incubated for 30 days with two Thai phosphate rocks Lamphun PR and RP and Ratchaburi PR, and TSP was used as a standard fertilizer. All of them were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg-1 . The soils can be ranked according to their P- fixing capacity as follows: Rangsit series (acid sulfate soil) > Mae Tang series (Typic Paleustult) > Pakchong series (Oxic Paleustult) > Warin series (Oxic Paleustult). The P availability from TSP decreased after 30 days incubation with the soils. PR from Ratchaburi was more effective than Lamphun PR. (author)

  17. Evaluating the molecular weight and characteristics of humic acids gradations using gel filtration and radioisotope tracer technique

    The measurement for molecular weight of humic acids gradations in the drab soil showed that the humic acid could be separated into three gradations of molecular weight using gel filtration by G-50 and two gradations by G-100, the molecular weights by G-50 were 78180, 48339, 22863 and molecular weights by G-100 were 63343 and 19870 respectively. While fulvic acid had only one gradation by both G-50 and G-100, the molecular weight was 2300 approximately. The measurement for complexation capacity of cadmium (zinc)-humic acids showed that the contents of Cd(Zn)-humic acid had two peak values with the volume of eluent compounded by cadmium (or zinc). The Cd(or Zn)-fulvic acid had only one peak value. The curve between contents of Cd (Zn)-humic acid and the volume of eluent met with the curve between spectrum and the volume of eluent. The experiment conducted by radioisotope tracer technique indicated that the complexation capacity of 65Zn-humic acids changed with different gradations of humic acids, the complexation curve met with the spectrum curve on the whole, i.e. the value of 65Zn-humic acid had two peak values, while the 65Zn-fulvic acid had only one, indicating that the use of radioisotope tracer technique could eliminate the intervention accompanied by other heavy metal ions

  18. An Efficient Image Compression Technique Based on Arithmetic Coding

    Prof. Rajendra Kumar Patel


    Full Text Available The rapid growth of digital imaging applications, including desktop publishing, multimedia, teleconferencing, and high visual definition has increased the need for effective and standardized image compression techniques. Digital Images play a very important role for describing the detailed information. The key obstacle for many applications is the vast amount of data required to represent a digital image directly. The various processes of digitizing the images to obtain it in the best quality for the more clear and accurate information leads to the requirement of more storage space and better storage and accessing mechanism in the form of hardware or software. In this paper we concentrate mainly on the above flaw so that we reduce the space with best quality image compression. State-ofthe-art techniques can compress typical images from 1/10 to 1/50 their uncompressed size without visibly affecting image quality. From our study I observe that there is a need of good image compression technique which provides better reduction technique in terms of storage and quality. Arithmetic coding is the best way to reducing encoding data. So in this paper we propose arithmetic coding with walsh transformation based image compression technique which is an efficient way of reduction

  19. Finding Within Cluster Dense Regions Using Distance Based Technique

    Wesam Ashour


    Full Text Available One of the main categories in Data Clustering is density based clustering. Density based clustering techniques like DBSCAN are attractive because they can find arbitrary shaped clusters along with noisy outlier. The main weakness of the traditional density based algorithms like DBSCAN is clustering the different density level data sets. DBSCAN calculations done according to given parameters applied to all points in a data set, while densities of the data set clusters may be totally different. The proposed algorithm overcomes this weakness of the traditional density based algorithms. The algorithm starts with partitioning the data within a cluster to units based on a user parameter and compute the density for each unit separately. Consequently, the algorithm compares the results and merges neighboring units with closer approximate density values to become a new cluster. The experimental results of the simulation show that the proposed algorithm gives good results in finding clusters for different density cluster data set.

  20. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  1. Vibration based fault detection techniques for mechanical structures

    Fault detection techniques for mechanical structures and their application are becoming more important in recent years in the field of structure health monitoring. The intention of this paper is to present available state of the art methods that could be implemented in mechanical structures. Global based methods that contribute on detection, isolation and analysis of fault from changes in vibration characteristics of the structure are presented. Techniques are based on the idea that modal frequencies, mode shapes and modal damping as model properties of the structure can be determine as function of physical properties. In addition, if a fault appears in mechanical structure, this can be recognized as changes in the physical properties, which leads to cause changes in the modal properties of the structure. (Author)


    Ekta Walia


    Full Text Available The role of digital images is increasing rapidly in mobile devices. They are used in many applications including virtual tours, virtual reality, e-commerce etc. Such applications synthesize realistic looking novel views of the reference images on mobile devices using the techniques like image-based rendering (IBR. However, with this increasing role of digital images comes the serious issue of processing large images which requires considerable time. Hence, methods to compress these large images are very important. Wavelets are excellent data compression tools that can be used with IBR algorithms to generate the novel views of compressed image data. This paper proposes a framework that uses wavelet-based warping technique to render novel views of compressed images on mobile/ handheld devices. The experiments are performed using Android Development Tools (ADT which shows the proposed framework gives better results for large images in terms of rendering time.

  3. A microscopy technique based on bio-impedance sensors

    Yúfera, A.; Huertas, Gloria; Olmo, Alberto


    It is proposed a microscopy for cell culture applications based on impedance sensors. The imagined signals are measured with the Electrical Cell-Substrate Spectroscopy (ECIS) technique, by identifying the cell area. The proposed microscopy allows real-time monitoring inside the incubator, reducing the contamination risk by human manipulation. It requires specific circuits for impedance measurements, a two-dimensional sensor array (pixels), and employing electrical models to decode efficiently...


    Ekta Walia; Vishal Verma,


    The role of digital images is increasing rapidly in mobile devices. They are used in many applications including virtual tours, virtual reality, e-commerce etc. Such applications synthesize realistic looking novel views of the reference images on mobile devices using the techniques like image-based rendering (IBR). However, with this increasing role of digital images comes the serious issue of processing large images which requires considerable time. Hence, methods to compress ...

  5. A thermopneumatic micropump based on micro-engineering techniques

    Pol, van der, P.; Lintel, van, H.T.G.; Elwenspoek, M; Fluitman, J.H.J.


    The design, working principle and realization of an electro-thermopneumatic liquid pump based on micro-engineering techniques are described. The pump, which is of the reciprocating displacement type, comprises a pump chamber, a thin silicon pump membrane and two silicon check valves to direct the flow. The dynamic pressure of an amount of gas contained in a cavity, controlled by resistive heating, actuates the pump membrane. The cavity, chambers, channels and valves are realized in silicon wa...

  6. Microanalysis of clay-based pigments by XRD techniques

    Hradil, David; Bezdička, Petr; Hradilová, J.

    Catania : Technart, 2015. "O-48". [Technart 2015 : non-destructive and microanalytical techniques in art and cultural heritage. 27.04.2015-30.04.2015, Catania] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-22984S Keywords : micro-XRD * clay-based pigments * paintings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  7. A Different Web-Based Geocoding Service Using Fuzzy Techniques

    Pahlavani, P.; Abbaspour, R. A.; Zare Zadiny, A.


    Geocoding - the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  8. Hydrocarbon microseepage mapping using signature based target detection techniques

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Şebnem Düzgün, H.; Aydin Alatan, A.


    In this paper, we compare the conventional methods in hydrocarbon seepage anomalies with the signature based detection algorithms. The Crosta technique [1] is selected as a basement in the experimental comparisons for the conventional approach. The Crosta technique utilizes the characteristic bands of the searched target for principal component transformation in order to determine the components characterizing the target in interest. Desired Target Detection and Classification Algorithm (DTDCA), Spectral Matched Filter (SMF), and Normalized Correlation (NC) are employed for signature based target detection. Signature based target detection algorithms are applied to the whole spectrum benefiting from the information stored in all spectral bands. The selected methods are applied to a multispectral Advanced SpaceBorne Thermal Emission and Radiometer (ASTER) image of the study region, with an atmospheric correction prior to the realization of the algorithms. ASTER provides multispectral bands covering visible, short wave, and thermal infrared region, which serves as a useful tool for the interpretation of the areas with hydrocarbon anomalies. The exploration area is selected as Gemrik Anticline which is located in South East Anatolia, Adıyaman, Bozova Oil Field, where microseeps can be observed with almost no vegetation cover. The spectral signatures collected with Analytical Spectral Devices Inc. (ASD) spectrometer from the reference valley [2] have been utilized as an input to the signature based detection algorithms. The experiments have indicated that DTDCA and MF outperforms the Crosta technique by locating the microseepage patterns along the mitigation pathways with a better contrast. On the other hand, NC has not been able to map the searched target with a visible distinction. It is concluded that the signature based algorithms can be more effective than the conventional methods for the detection of microseepage induced anomalies.

  9. Performance Based Novel Techniques for Semantic Web Mining

    Mahendra Thakur


    Full Text Available The explosive growth in the size and use of the World Wide Web continuously creates new great challenges and needs. The need for predicting the users preferences in order to expedite and improve the browsing though a site can be achieved through personalizing of the websites. Most of the research efforts in web personalization correspond to the evolution of extensive research in web usage mining, i.e. the exploitation of the navigational patterns of the web site visitors. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In this paper, we propose novel techniques that use the content semantics and the structural properties of a web site in order to improve the effectiveness of web personalization. In the first part of our work we present standing for Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the second part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based PageRank, a PageRank-style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques. Overall, we demonstrate that our proposed hybrid personalization framework results in more objective and representative predictions than existing techniques.

  10. Acid-base disturbance in patients with cirrhosis

    Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren


    PURPOSE: Acid-base disturbances were investigated in patients with cirrhosis in relation to hemodynamic derangement to analyze the hyperventilatory effects and the metabolic compensation. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with cirrhosis and 44 controls were investigated during a hemodynamic study......, and effects of unidentified ions (all Pacid-base disturbances could not be identified. CONCLUSION: Hypocapnic alkalosis is related to disease severity and hyperdynamic systemic circulation in patients with cirrhosis. The metabolic compensation includes...... alterations in serum albumin and water retention that may result in a delicate acid-base balance in these patients....

  11. Regression based peak load forecasting using a transformation technique

    This paper presents a regression based daily peak load forecasting method with a transformation technique. In order to forecast the load precisely through a year, the authors should consider seasonal load change, annual load growth and the latest daily load change. To deal with these characteristics in the load forecasting, a transformation technique is presented. This technique consists of a transformation function with translation and reflection methods. The transformation function is estimated with the previous year's data points, in order that the function converts the data points into a set of new data points with preserving the shape of temperature-load relationships in the previous year. Then, the function is slightly translated so that the transformed data points will fit the shape of temperature-load relationships in the year. Finally, multivariate regression analysis with the latest daily loads and weather observations estimates the forecasting model. Large forecasting errors caused by the weather-load nonlinear characteristic in the transitional seasons such as spring and fall are reduced. Performance of the technique which is verified with simulations on actual load data of Tokyo Electric Power Company is also described

  12. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.


    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  13. The coulometric titration of acids and bases in dimethylsulfoxide media

    Bos, M.; IJpma, S.T.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.


    The coulometric titration of 20–200 μeq of acids and bases in DMSO media is described. In the titration of bases, the electro-oxidation of hydrogen at a platinized platinum electrode is used as the source of protons. The conditions for 100 % current efficiency at this electrode are low current densi

  14. A European Acid Rain Program based on the US experience

    Brandt, U. Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The paper shows that cost-effective involvement of the source location involves utmost difficulty in practice. Based on the RAINS model, it is recommended that source location should be ignored in a European market for SO2, as is the case in the US Acid Rain Program. Based on the political target...

  15. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.


    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.


    纳瑟; 刘重庆


    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  17. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  18. An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular LPCA Approach

    Mathu S.S. Kumar


    Full Text Available Problem statement: A face identification algorithm based on modular localized variation by Eigen Subspace technique, also called modular localized principal component analysis, is presented in this study. Approach: The face imagery was partitioned into smaller sub-divisions from a predefined neighborhood and they were ultimately fused to acquire many sets of features. Since a few of the normal facial features of an individual do not differ even when the pose and illumination may differ, the proposed method manages these variations. Results: The proposed feature selection module has significantly, enhanced the identification precision using standard face databases when compared to conservative and modular PCA techniques. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm, when related with conservative PCA algorithm and modular PCA, has enhanced recognition accuracy for face imagery with illumination, expression and pose variations.

  19. New modulation-based watermarking technique for video

    Lemma, Aweke; van der Veen, Michiel; Celik, Mehmet


    Successful watermarking algorithms have already been developed for various applications ranging from meta-data tagging to forensic tracking. Nevertheless, it is commendable to develop alternative watermarking techniques that provide a broader basis for meeting emerging services, usage models and security threats. To this end, we propose a new multiplicative watermarking technique for video, which is based on the principles of our successful MASK audio watermark. Audio-MASK has embedded the watermark by modulating the short-time envelope of the audio signal and performed detection using a simple envelope detector followed by a SPOMF (symmetrical phase-only matched filter). Video-MASK takes a similar approach and modulates the image luminance envelope. In addition, it incorporates a simple model to account for the luminance sensitivity of the HVS (human visual system). Preliminary tests show algorithms transparency and robustness to lossy compression.

  20. Studying Satellite Image Quality Based on the Fusion Techniques

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zaky, Ali A


    Various and different methods can be used to produce high-resolution multispectral images from high-resolution panchromatic image (PAN) and low-resolution multispectral images (MS), mostly on the pixel level. However, the jury is still out on the benefits of a fused image compared to its original images. There is also a lack of measures for assessing the objective quality of the spatial resolution for the fusion methods. Therefore, an objective quality of the spatial resolution assessment for fusion images is required. So, this study attempts to develop a new qualitative assessment to evaluate the spatial quality of the pan sharpened images by many spatial quality metrics. Also, this paper deals with a comparison of various image fusion techniques based on pixel and feature fusion techniques.

  1. Feature-based multiresolution techniques for product design

    LEE Sang Hun; LEE Kunwoo


    3D computer-aided design (CAD) systems based on feature-based solid modelling technique have been widely spread and used for product design. However, when part models associated with features are used in various downstream applications,simplified models in various levels of detail (LODs) are frequently more desirable than the full details of the parts. In particular,the need for feature-based multiresolution representation of a solid model representing an object at multiple LODs in the feature unit is increasing for engineering tasks. One challenge is to generate valid models at various LODs after an arbitrary rearrangement of features using a certain LOD criterion, because composite Boolean operations consisting of union and subtraction are not commutative. The other challenges are to devise proper topological framework for multiresolution representation, to suggest more reasonable LOD criteria, and to extend applications. This paper surveys the recent research on these issues.

  2. Comparison of pathology-based techniques for detection of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus in chickens.

    Brown, C C; King, D J; Seal, B S


    Two pathology-based techniques, immunohistochemistry and riboprobe in-situ hybridization, were applied to formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from chickens infected with three different isolates of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV). With the immunohistochemical method, viral protein was consistently detectable in the spleen and caecum at the terminal phase of the infection. With in-situ hybridization, viral nucleic acid was consistently detected in the eyelid, spleen and caecum in both the acute and terminal phases. Hybridization with anti-sense probe to detect viral mRNA was often more intense than hybridization with sense probe to detect viral genomic RNA. PMID:10208734

  3. An enhanced single base extension technique for the analysis of complex viral populations.

    Dale R Webster

    Full Text Available Many techniques for the study of complex populations provide either specific information on a small number of variants or general information on the entire population. Here we describe a powerful new technique for elucidating mutation frequencies at each genomic position in a complex population. This single base extension (SBE based microarray platform was designed and optimized using poliovirus as the target genotype, but can be easily adapted to assay populations derived from any organism. The sensitivity of the method was demonstrated by accurate and consistent readouts from a controlled population of mutant genotypes. We subsequently deployed the technique to investigate the effects of the nucleotide analog ribavirin on a typical poliovirus population through two rounds of passage. Our results show that this economical platform can be used to investigate dynamic changes occurring at frequencies below 1% within a complex nucleic acid population. Given that many key aspects of the study and treatment of disease are intimately linked to population-level genomic diversity, our SBE-based technique provides a scalable and cost-effective complement to both traditional and next generation sequencing methodologies.

  4. Current and future developments in nucleic acid-based diagnostics

    The detection and characterization of specific nucleic acids of protozoa, rickettsia, bacteria and viruses have proven to be particularly useful for detecting pathogens of human and veterinary importance. It is also proving an invaluable tool for surveillance purposes and as a means of ensuring food security. Previous approaches towards pathogen isolation have often been tedious or even impossible. PCR, first conceived by Mullis in 1983, has proven to be a revolutionary technique for the rapid and accurate detection of numerous pathogens. The discovery and cloning of thermostable DNA polymerases has further contributed to this technology. Many additional developments, based on the basic principles of PCR, have been described e.g. RT-PCR, NASBA, RAPD, AFLP, LCR, PCR ELISA, strand displacement amplification (SDA), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), branched DNA (bDNA), hybrid capture, immunocapture PCR. This list continues to expand with new variations on basic PCR principles. Improvements in thermocyclers involve the development of integrated amplification and signal detection systems, including on-line real-time devices. In addition, rugged portable instruments have been designed for field use. These are particularly useful as systems for early warning in detecting biowarfare agents and outbreaks of cross-boundary and other pathogens. Fluorophores, utilising principles of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, are used as labels for probes in such real-time assays. Molecular beacon technology also utilises such mechanisms. Real-time thermocyclers allow the monitoring of amplified DNA as well as establishing sequence characteristics based on melting or hybridisation curves. Taqman chemistry makes use of such a system. Stem-loop DNA probes have been designed to have increased specificity for target recognition and include molecular beacon methodologies, suppression PCR approaches and hairpin probes in DNA microarrays. Automated sample processing or robotic

  5. Lactic acid bacteria fermentations in oat-based suspensions

    Mårtensson, Olof


    This thesis deals with the fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in oat-based suspensions, with formulation work of fermented products based on oat and with nutritional studies of these products. Changes in structure in terms of viscosity and ropiness were studied when exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing LAB strains, namely, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCFB 2772, Lactobacillus brevis G-77 and Pediococcus damnosus 2.6 were grown in these oat-based suspensions...

  6. Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers

    Luong, Howard Cam


    This book provides in-depth coverage of transformer-based design techniques that enable CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to achieve state-of-the-art performance.  Design, optimization, and measured performance of oscillators and frequency dividers for different applications are discussed in detail, focusing on not only ultra-low supply voltage but also ultra-wide frequency tuning range and locking range.  This book will be an invaluable reference for anyone working or interested in CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems.

  7. Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering.

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Liu, Baodong


    The challenge of computed tomography is to reconstruct high-quality images from few-view projections. Using a prior guidance image, guided image filtering smoothes images while preserving edge features. The prior guidance image can be incorporated into the image reconstruction process to improve image quality. We propose a new simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique based on guided image filtering. Specifically, the prior guidance image is updated in the image reconstruction process, merging information iteratively. To validate the algorithm practicality and efficiency, experiments were performed with numerical phantom projection data and real projection data. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and efficient for nondestructive testing and rock mechanics. PMID:27410859

  8. Coupled cavity model based on the mode matching technique

    Ayzatsky, M I


    We have developed the mode matching technique that is based on the using the eigenmodes of circular cavities and the eigenwaves of circular waveguides as the basic functions for calculation the properties of nonuniform disc-loaded waveguides. We have obtained exact infinite systems of coupled equations which can be reduced by making some assumptions. Under such procedure we can receive more exact parameters of nonuniform equivalent circuits by solving the appropriative algebraic systems. These parameters of equivalent circuits are functions both geometric sizes and frequency. Moreover, under such approach all used values have interpretation. We called this approach as coupled cavity model.

  9. Line impedance estimation using model based identification technique

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Agelidis, Vassilios; Teodorescu, Remus

    into the operation of the grid-connected power converters. This paper describes a quasi passive method for estimating the line impedance of the distribution electricity network. The method uses the model based identification technique to obtain the resistive and inductive parts of the line impedance....... The quasi-passive behaviour of the proposed method comes from the combination of the non intrusive behaviour of the passive methods with a better accuracy of the active methods. The simulation results reveal the good accuracy of the proposed method....

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Exemplar Based and Wavelet Based Inpainting Technique

    Vaibhav V Nalawade


    Full Text Available Image inpainting is the process of filling in of missing region so as to preserve its overall continuity. Image inpainting is manipulation and modification of an image in a form that is not easily detected. Digital image inpainting is relatively new area of research, but numerous and different approaches to tackle the inpainting problem have been proposed since the concept was first introduced. This paper compares two separate techniques viz, Exemplar based inpainting technique and Wavelet based inpainting technique, each portraying a different set of characteristics. The algorithms analyzed under exemplar technique are large object removal by exemplar based inpainting technique (Criminisi’s and modified exemplar (Cheng. The algorithm analyzed under wavelet is Chen’s visual image inpainting method. A number of examples on real and synthetic images are demonstrated to compare the results of different algorithms using both qualitative and quantitative parameters.

  11. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    Hourani, Nadim


    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL−1) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  13. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions


    Nail Iskanderov


    Full Text Available The article highlights the study of the evolutionary movement of scientific and pedagogical thought in recent decades, a trend of movement from the issues of improving the organization of the learning process through the increased efficiency of the educational process to the problem of understanding the nature of mental processes, analyzes the state of psychological and pedagogical methods of teaching, summarizes instructional methods, associated with the implicit and explicit formation of knowledge, develops the scheme, based on the internal logic of the relationship of neural ensembles, allowing to form stage-by-stage and develop a frame-based and conceptual organization of knowledge in the process of learning new information, considers the features and classification of explicit and implicit methods and techniques of training, and the possibility of using these methods in teaching, shows the similarities and differences between the terms "concept", "frame" and "cognitom", explains the insight into implicit and explicit teaching methodology.

  15. On HTML and XML based web design and implementation techniques

    Web implementation is truly a multidisciplinary field with influences from programming, choosing of scripting languages, graphic design, user interface design, and database design. The challenge of a Web designer/implementer is his ability to create an attractive and informative Web. To work with the universal framework and link diagrams from the design process as well as the Web specifications and domain information, it is essential to create Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or other software and multimedia to accomplish the Web's objective. In this article we will discuss Web design standards and the techniques involved in Web implementation based on HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML). We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HTML over its successor XML in designing and implementing a Web. We have developed two Web pages, one utilizing the features of HTML and the other based on the features of XML to carry out the present investigation. (author)

  16. Designing on ICT reconstruction software based on DSP techniques

    The convolution back project (CBP) algorithm is used to realize the CT image's reconstruction in ICT generally, which is finished by using PC or workstation. In order to add the ability of multi-platform operation of CT reconstruction software, a CT reconstruction method based on modern digital signal processor (DSP) technique is proposed and realized in this paper. The hardware system based on TI's C6701 DSP processor is selected to support the CT software construction. The CT reconstruction software is compiled only using assembly language related to the DSP hardware. The CT software can be run on TI's C6701 EVM board by inputting the CT data, and can get the CT Images that satisfy the real demands. (authors)

  17. Evolutionary Based Techniques for Fault Tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Lohn, Jason D.


    The use of SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is becoming more and more prevalent in space applications. Commercial-grade FPGAs are potentially susceptible to permanently debilitating Single-Event Latchups (SELs). Repair methods based on Evolutionary Algorithms may be applied to FPGA circuits to enable successful fault recovery. This paper presents the experimental results of applying such methods to repair four commonly used circuits (quadrature decoder, 3-by-3-bit multiplier, 3-by-3-bit adder, 440-7 decoder) into which a number of simulated faults have been introduced. The results suggest that evolutionary repair techniques can improve the process of fault recovery when used instead of or as a supplement to Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR), which is currently the predominant method for mitigating FPGA faults.

  18. Principles and applications of neutron based inspection techniques

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of substances of importance, for a variety of purposes from national security threats (e.g., nuclear materials, explosives, narcotics) to customs duties, shipment control and validation, and for protection of the environment. The inspection is generally founded on the nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the various nuclides present and the detection of resultant characteristic emissions. These can be discrete gamma lines resulting from the thermal (n,γ) neutron capture process or inelastic neutron scattering (n,n'γ) occurring with fast neutrons. The two types of reactions are generally complementary. The capture process provides energetic and highly penetrating gamma rays in most inorganic substances and in hydrogen, while fast neutron inelastic scattering provides relatively strong gamma-ray signatures in light elements such as carbon and oxygen. In some specific important cases, though, unique signatures are provided by the neutron capture process in light elements such as nitrogen, where unusually high energy gamma rays are produced. This forms the basis for key explosive detection techniques. The detection of nuclear materials, both fissionable (e.g., 238U) and fissile (e.g., 235U), are generally based on the fissions induced by the probing neutrons and detecting one or more of the unique signatures of the fission process. These include prompt and delayed neutrons and prompt and delayed gamma rays. These signatures are not discrete in energy (typically they are continua) but temporally and energetically significantly different from the background, thus making them readily distinguishable. The penetrability of fast neutrons as probes and the gamma rays and fission neutrons as signatures make neutron interrogation applicable for large conveyances such as cars, trucks and marine containers. The neutron-based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can

  19. Principles and applications of neutron based inspection techniques

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of substances of importance for a variety of purposes from national security threats (e.g., nuclear materials, explosives, narcotics) to customs dutiable goods, to hazardous substances to protect the environment. The inspection is generally founded on the nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the various nuclides present and the detection of resultant characteristic emissions. These can be discrete γ lines resulting from the thermal (n, γ) neutron capture process or inelastic neutron scattering (n, n'γ) occurring with fast neutrons. The two types of reactions are generally complementary. The capture process provides energetic and highly penetrating γ rays in most inorganic substances and hydrogen. Fast neutrons inelastic scattering provide relatively strong γ-ray signatures in light elements such as carbon and oxygen. In some specific important cases, unique signatures are provided by the neutron (n, γ) process in light elements such as nitrogen, where unusually high-energy γ rays are produced. This forms the basis for key explosive detection techniques. The detection of nuclear materials, both fissionable (e.g., 238U) and fissile (e.g., 235U), is generally based on the fissions induced by the probing neutrons and detecting one or more of the unique signatures of the fission process. These include prompt and delayed neutrons and prompt and delayed γ rays. These signatures are not discrete in energy (typically they are continua) but temporally and energetically significantly different from the background, thus making them readily distinguishable. The penetrability of fast neutrons as probes, and the γ rays and fission neutrons as signatures makes neutron interrogation applicable to the inspection of large conveyances such as cars, trucks, and marine containers. Neutron based inspection techniques have a broad applications. They can be used as stand-alone for complete scans of objects

  20. Detection of Nucleic Acid Bases by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Technique Based on in-situ Photo-reduced Silver Colloids%基于在位光还原银胶法的表面增强拉曼散射技术检测核酸碱基

    吴雷; 李海超; 赵海峰; 孙宇; 许浩然; 吕明; 杨春花; 李文钊; 李正强


    The formation of colloids induced by laser irradiation was proved by the means of Raman scattering, UV-Vis spectrum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Raman signal of nucleic acid bases was slightly enlarged due to the surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity brought by the aggregation of silver atoms. Furthermore, the experiment results showed that the Raman spec-tra with high signal to noise ratio and with good repeatability could be obtained by this method and the Raman spectra of nucleic acid bases obtained were similar to those obtained in Lee-Meisel silver colloid and on silver membrane surface. Although there were some new peaks and shifts in our Raman study, the classical characteristic peaks could also be found and used to identify different species. Due to its simple operation, SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) of colloids prepared by photo-reduced silver nitrate was of great application value in the in situ detection of small molecules.%在环状有机物存在的条件下,Ag+经激光诱导可发生光还原反应,形成Ag原子聚集的银胶体.本研究通过拉曼散射光谱、紫外-可见光谱和扫描电镜证明,核酸碱基和Ag+混合溶液经过激光诱导可以生成银胶体颗粒.随着银胶体的生成,核酸碱基的拉曼光谱信号因为表面增强拉曼散射效应而得到明显增强.实验表明,本方法不但可以获得高信噪比的拉曼光谱谱图,而且获得的胞嘧啶、尿嘧啶、胸腺嘧啶、腺嘌呤和鸟嘌呤的增强拉曼光谱与Lee-Meisel银胶和银膜表面两种体系下获得的表面增强拉曼光谱具有相似性.同时,腺嚓吟和鸟嘌呤又出现了一些因Ag+作用而产生的新位移谱带,但是仍然可以作为指征碱基类别的特征峰归属.利用Ag+光还原的方法在位获得银溶胶增强拉曼光谱信号,具有银胶制备操作简单、峰位特征等优点,在核酸碱基的低浓度在位检测方面具有应用前景.

  1. RBF-based technique for statistical demodulation of pathological tremor.

    Gianfelici, Francesco


    This paper presents an innovative technique based on the joint approximation capabilities of radial basis function (RBF) networks and the estimation capability of the multivariate iterated Hilbert transform (IHT) for the statistical demodulation of pathological tremor from electromyography (EMG) signals in patients with Parkinson's disease. We define a stochastic model of the multichannel high-density surface EMG by means of the RBF networks applied to the reconstruction of the stochastic process (characterizing the disease) modeled by the multivariate relationships generated by the Karhunen-Loéve transform in Hilbert spaces. Next, we perform a demodulation of the entire random field by means of the estimation capability of the multivariate IHT in a statistical setting. The proposed method is applied to both simulated signals and data recorded from three Parkinsonian patients and the results show that the amplitude modulation components of the tremor oscillation can be estimated with signal-to-noise ratio close to 30 dB with root-mean-square error for the estimates of the tremor instantaneous frequency. Additionally, the comparisons with a large number of techniques based on all the combinations of the RBF, extreme learning machine, backpropagation, support vector machine used in the first step of the algorithm; and IHT, empirical mode decomposition, multiband energy separation algorithm, periodic algebraic separation and energy demodulation used in the second step of the algorithm, clearly show the effectiveness of our technique. These results show that the proposed approach is a potential useful tool for advanced neurorehabilitation technologies that aim at tremor characterization and suppression. PMID:24808594

  2. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques



    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  3. Semantic-based technique for thai documents plagiarism detection

    Sorawat Prapanitisatian


    Full Text Available Plagiarism is the act of taking another person's writing or idea without referring to the source of information. This is one of major problems in educational institutes. There is a number of plagiarism detection software available on the Internet. However, a few numbers of them works. Typically, they use a simple method for plagiarism detection e.g. string matching. The main weakness of this method is it cannot detect the plagiarism when the author replaces some words using synonyms. As such, this paper presents a new technique for a semantic-based plagiarism detection using Semantic Role Labeling (SRL and term weighting. SRL is deployed in order to calculate the semantic-based similarity. The main different from the existing framework is terms in a sentence are weighted dynamically depending on their roles in the sentence e.g. subject, verb or object. This technique enhances the plagiarism detection mechanism more efficiently than existing system although positions of terms in a sentence are reordered. The experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the plagiarism document more effective than the existing methods, Anti-kobpae, Turnit-in and Traditional Semantic Role Labeling.

  4. Hash Based Least Significant Bit Technique For Video Steganography

    Prof. Dr. P. R. Deshmukh ,


    Full Text Available The Hash Based Least Significant Bit Technique For Video Steganography deals with hiding secret message or information within a video.Steganography is nothing but the covered writing it includes process that conceals information within other data and also conceals the fact that a secret message is being sent.Steganography is the art of secret communication or the science of invisible communication. In this paper a Hash based least significant bit technique for video steganography has been proposed whose main goal is to embed a secret information in a particular video file and then extract it using a stego key or password. In this Least Significant Bit insertion method is used for steganography so as to embed data in cover video with change in the lower bit.This LSB insertion is not visible.Data hidding is the process of embedding information in a video without changing its perceptual quality. The proposed method involve with two terms that are Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and the Mean Square Error (MSE .This two terms measured between the original video files and steganographic video files from all video frames where a distortion is measured using PSNR. A hash function is used to select the particular position for insertion of bits of secret message in LSB bits.




    Full Text Available In previous works, the acid-base properties, charging behavior and chemical heterogeneity of humic substances have been studied using different mathematical equations to fit the experimental data. The objective of this research is to study the charge behavior, acid-base properties and analyze the chemical heterogeneity of humic acids (HA extracted from soil and composted municipal solid waste by potentiometric titrations. The humic acids extracted from compost have some characteristics and behavior similar to those obtained from soil. The negative charge development of HA extracted from composted material are lower than those extracted from soil and increase as ionic strength increase. The amount of carboxylic groups is lower in compost HA than in soil HA The heterogeneity of HA extracted from compost is higher than those extracted from soil. As the time of composting period increase the humification processes that take place trends to produce compost HA that has similar characteristics to soil HA. We suggest that HA extracted from composted material are macromolecules "like soil humic acids", i.e. "humiclike fraction"

  6. Uso das técnicas de infravermelho e de ressonância magnética nuclear na caracterização da reação ácido-base de um cimento odontológico experimental Use of infrared and magnetic nuclear resonance techniques in the characterization of the acid-base reaction of an experimental dental cement

    Marcio José Bertolini


    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are products of the acid-base setting reaction between an finely fluoro-alumino silicate glass powder and poly(acrylic acid in aqueous solution. The sol gel method is an adequate route of preparation of the glasses used to obtain the GICs. The objective of this paper was to compare two powders: a commercial and an experimental and to investigate the structural changes during hardening of the cements by FTIR and Al MAS NMR. These analyses showed that the experimental glass powder reacted with organic acid to form the GICs and it is a promising material to manufacture dental cements.

  7. A Novel FCC Catalyst Based on a Porous Composite Material Synthesized via an In Situ Technique

    Shu-Qin Zheng


    Full Text Available To overcome diffusion limitations and improve transport in microporous zeolite, the materials with a wide-pore structure have been developed. In this paper, composite microspheres with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized by an in situ technique using sepiolite, kaolin and pseudoboehmite as raw material. A novel fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst for maximizing light oil yield was prepared based on the composite materials. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques and tested in a bench FCC unit. The results indicated that the catalyst had more meso- and macropores and more acid sites than the reference catalyst, and thus can increase light oil yield by 1.31 %, while exhibiting better gasoline and coke selectivity.

  8. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Floyd, S.D.


    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  9. Label-free detection of DNA single-base mismatches using a simple reflectance-based optical technique.

    Nava, G; Ceccarello, E; Giavazzi, F; Salina, M; Damin, F; Chiari, M; Buscaglia, M; Bellini, T; Zanchetta, G


    Rapid and quantitative detection of the binding of nucleic acids to surface-immobilized probes remains a challenge in many biomedical applications. We investigated the hybridization of a set of fully complementary and defected 12-base long DNA oligomers by using the Reflective Phantom Interface (RPI), a recently developed multiplexed label-free detection technique. Based on the simple measurement of reflected light intensity, this technology enables to quantify the hybridization directly as it occurs on the surface with a sensitivity of 10 pg mm(-2). We found a strong effect of single-base mismatches and of their location on hybridization kinetics and equilibrium binding. In line with previous studies, we found that DNA-DNA binding is weaker on a surface than in the bulk. Our data indicate that this effect is a consequence of weak nonspecific binding of the probes to the surface. PMID:27122358

  10. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.


    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  11. Acid-base transport in pancreas-new challenges

    Novak, Ivana; Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Wang, Jing


    to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H-K-ATPases), as well as the calcium-activated K and Cl channels, such as K3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signaling, fine-tune, and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport...

  12. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Alternative Conceptions about Acids and Bases

    Boz, Yezdan


    The purpose of this study was to obtain prospective chemistry teachers' conceptions about acids and bases concepts. Thirty-eight prospective chemistry teachers were the participants. Data were collected by means of an open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of data indicated that most prospective teachers did not have…

  13. Oxidation of coal-based raw materials by nitric acid

    Novák, J.; Novák, František; Madronová, L.; Machovič, V.; Kozler, J.

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 105-123 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - ( Chemistry Research and Applications ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : oxidation * coal-based raw materials * nitric acid Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  14. Acid-base thermochemistry of gaseous oxygen and sulfur substituted amino acids (Ser, Thr, Cys, Met)

    Riffet, Vanessa; Frison, Gilles; Bouchoux, Guy


    Acid-base thermochemistry of isolated amino acids containing oxygen or sulfur in their side chain (serine, threonine, cysteine and methionine) have been examined by quantum chemical computations. Density functional theory (DFT) was used, with B3LYP, B97-D and M06-2X functionals using the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set for geometry optimizations and the larger 6-311++G(3df,2p) basis set for energy computations. Composite methods CBS-QB3, G3B3, G4MP2 and G4 were applied to large sets of neutral, protona...

  15. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A


    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  16. Cryptanalysis of a technique to transform discrete logarithm based cryptosystems into identity-based cryptosystems



    In this paper we analyse a technique designed to transform any discrete logarithm based cryptosystem into an identity-based cryptosystem. The transformation method is claimed to be efficient and secure and to eliminate the need to invent new identity-based cryptosystems. However, we show that the identity-based cryptosystem created by the proposed transformation method suffers from a number of security and efficiency problems.

  17. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  18. NVC Based Model for Selecting Effective Requirement Elicitation Technique

    Md. Rizwan Beg


    Full Text Available Requirement Engineering process starts from gathering of requirements i.e.; requirements elicitation. Requirementselicitation (RE is the base building block for a software project and has very high impact onsubsequent design and builds phases as well. Accurately capturing system requirements is the major factorin the failure of most of software projects. Due to the criticality and impact of this phase, it is very importantto perform the requirements elicitation in no less than a perfect manner. One of the most difficult jobsfor elicitor is to select appropriate technique for eliciting the requirement. Interviewing and Interactingstakeholder during Elicitation process is a communication intensive activity involves Verbal and Nonverbalcommunication (NVC. Elicitor should give emphasis to Non-verbal communication along with verbalcommunication so that requirements recorded more efficiently and effectively. In this paper we proposea model in which stakeholders are classified by observing non-verbal communication and use it as a basefor elicitation technique selection. We also propose an efficient plan for requirements elicitation which intendsto overcome on the constraints, faced by elicitor.

  19. Chemistry research and chemical techniques based on research reactors

    Chemistry has occupied an important position historically in the sciences associated with nuclear reactors and it continues to play a prominent role in reactor-based research investigations. This Panel of prominent scientists in the field was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess the present state of such chemistry research for the information of its Member States and others interested in the subject. There are two ways in which chemistry is associated with nuclear reactors: (a) general applications to many scientific fields in which chemical techniques are involved as essential service functions; and (b) specific applications of reactor facilities to the solution of chemical problems themselves. Twenty years of basic research with nuclear reactors have demonstrated a very widespread, and still increasing, demand for radioisotopes and isotopically-labelled molecules in all fields of the physical and biological sciences. Similarly, the determination of the elemental composition of a material through the analytical technique of activation analysis can be applied throughout experimental science. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Investigations on landmine detection by neutron-based techniques

    Csikai, J. E-mail:; Doczi, R.; Kiraly, B


    Principles and techniques of some neutron-based methods used to identify the antipersonnel landmines (APMs) are discussed. New results have been achieved in the field of neutron reflection, transmission, scattering and reaction techniques. Some conclusions are as follows: The neutron hand-held detector is suitable for the observation of anomaly caused by a DLM2-like sample in different soils with a scanning speed of 1 m{sup 2}/1.5 min; the reflection cross section of thermal neutrons rendered the determination of equivalent thickness of different soil components possible; a simple method was developed for the determination of the thermal neutron flux perturbation factor needed for multi-elemental analysis of bulky samples; unfolded spectra of elastically backscattered neutrons using broad-spectrum sources render the identification of APMs possible; the knowledge of leakage spectra of different source neutrons is indispensable for the determination of the differential and integrated reaction rates and through it the dimension of the interrogated volume; the precise determination of the C/O atom fraction requires the investigations on the angular distribution of the 6.13 MeV gamma-ray emitted in the {sup 16}O(n,n'{gamma}) reaction. These results, in addition to the identification of landmines, render the improvement of the non-intrusive neutron methods possible.

  1. A New Particle Swarm Optimization Based Stock Market Prediction Technique

    Essam El. Seidy


    Full Text Available Over the last years, the average person's interest in the stock market has grown dramatically. This demand has doubled with the advancement of technology that has opened in the International stock market, so that nowadays anybody can own stocks, and use many types of software to perform the aspired profit with minimum risk. Consequently, the analysis and prediction of future values and trends of the financial markets have got more attention, and due to large applications in different business transactions, stock market prediction has become a critical topic of research. In this paper, our earlier presented particle swarm optimization with center of mass technique (PSOCoM is applied to the task of training an adaptive linear combiner to form a new stock market prediction model. This prediction model is used with some common indicators to maximize the return and minimize the risk for the stock market. The experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior than the other PSO based models according to the prediction accuracy.

  2. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing-Based Steel Cable NDE Technique

    Seunghee Park


    Full Text Available Nondestructive evaluation (NDE of steel cables in long span bridges is necessary to prevent structural failure. Thus, an automated cable monitoring system is proposed that uses a suitable NDE technique and a cable-climbing robot. A magnetic flux leakage- (MFL- based inspection system was applied to monitor the condition of cables. This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated. A steel cable bunch specimen with several types of damage was fabricated and scanned by the MFL sensor head to measure the magnetic flux density of the specimen. To interpret the condition of the steel cable, magnetic flux signals were used to determine the locations of the flaws and the levels of damage. Measured signals from the damaged specimen were compared with thresholds that were set for objective decision-making. In addition, the measured magnetic flux signals were visualized as a 3D MFL map for intuitive cable monitoring. Finally, the results were compared with information on actual inflicted damages, to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed cable monitoring method.

  3. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z


    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided. PMID:11890304

  4. Carbon Dot Based Sensing of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

    Upama Baruah; Neelam Gogoi; Achyut Konwar; Manash Jyoti Deka; Devasish Chowdhury; Gitanjali Majumdar


    We demonstrate carbon dot based sensor of catecholamine, namely, dopamine and ascorbic acid. Carbon dots (CDs) were prepared from a green source: commercially available Assam tea. The carbon dots prepared from tea had particle sizes of ∼0.8 nm and are fluorescent. Fluorescence of the carbon dots was found to be quenched in the presence of dopamine and ascorbic acid with greater sensitivity for dopamine. The minimum detectable limits were determined to be 33 μM and 98 μM for dopamine and ascor...

  5. Superhydrophobic alumina surface based on stearic acid modification

    A novel superhydrophobic alumina surface is fabricated by grafting stearic acid layer onto the porous and roughened aluminum film. The chemical and phase structure, morphology, and the chemical state of the atoms at the superhydrophobic surface were investigated by techniques as FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, and XPS, respectively. Results show that a super water-repellent surface with a contact angle of 154.2o is generated. The superhydrophobic alumina surface takes on an uneven flowerlike structure with many nanometer-scale hollows distribute in the nipple-shaped protrusions, and which is composed of boehmite crystal and γ-Al2O3. Furthermore, the roughened and porous alumina surface is coated with a layer of hydrophobic alkyl chains which come from stearic acid molecules. Therefore, both the roughened structure and the hydrophobic layer endue the alumina surface with the superhydrophobic behavior.

  6. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    J. Schindler


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  7. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Schindler, J.; Páta, P.; Klíma, M.; Fliegel, K.

    This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties -- high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System) has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei) and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts) searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric) point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC) coder based on adaptive median regression.

  8. Acid-base transport in pancreas – new challenges

    Ivana eNovak


    Full Text Available Along the gastrointestinal tract a number of epithelia contribute with acid or basic secretions in order to aid digestive processes. The stomach and pancreas are the most extreme examples of acid (H+ and base (HCO3- transporters, respectively. Nevertheless, they share the same challenges of transporting acid and bases across epithelia and effectively regulating their intracellular pH. In this review, we will make use of comparative physiology to enlighten the cellular mechanisms of pancreatic HCO3- and fluid secretion, which is still challenging physiologists. Some of the novel transporters to consider in pancreas are the proton pumps (H+-K+-ATPases, as well as the calcium-activated K+ and Cl- channels, such as KCa3.1 and TMEM16A/ANO1. Local regulators, such as purinergic signalling, fine-tune and coordinate pancreatic secretion. Lastly, we speculate whether dys-regulation of acid-base transport contributes to pancreatic diseases including cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis and cancer.

  9. Crop Yield Forecasted Model Based on Time Series Techniques

    Li Hong-ying; Hou Yan-lin; Zhou Yong-juan; Zhao Hui-ming


    Traditional studies on potential yield mainly referred to attainable yield: the maximum yield which could be reached by a crop in a given environment. The new concept of crop yield under average climate conditions was defined in this paper, which was affected by advancement of science and technology. Based on the new concept of crop yield, the time series techniques relying on past yield data was employed to set up a forecasting model. The model was tested by using average grain yields of Liaoning Province in China from 1949 to 2005. The testing combined dynamic n-choosing and micro tendency rectification, and an average forecasting error was 1.24%. In the trend line of yield change, and then a yield turning point might occur, in which case the inflexion model was used to solve the problem of yield turn point.

  10. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    DongHo Kang


    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.