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Sample records for acid auxotrophs constructed

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana auxotrophs reveal a tryptophan-independent biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid.

    Normanly, J; Cohen, J D; Fink, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    We used tryptophan auxotrophs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana (wall cress) to determine whether tryptophan has the capacity to serve as a precursor to the auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Quantitative gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-SIM-MS) revealed that the trp2-1 mutant, which is defective in the conversion of indole to tryptophan, accumulated amide- and ester-linked IAA at levels 38-fold and 19-fold, respectively, above those of the wild type. Tryptopha...

  2. Amino acid precursors for the detection of transketolase activity in Escherichia coli auxotrophs.

    Simon, Grégory; Bouzon, Madeleine; Charmantray, Franck; Hélaine, Virgil; Légeret, Bertrand; Marlière, Philippe; Hecquet, Laurence

    2009-07-15

    Probes were developed for the in vivo detection of transketolase activity by the use of a complementation assay in Escherichia coli auxotrophs They combine the d-threo ketose moiety recognised by transketolase and the side chain of leucine or methionine. These compounds were donor substrates of yeast transketolase leading to the release of the corresponding alpha-hydroxyaldehydes which could be converted in E. coli by a cascade of reactions into leucine or methionine required for cellular growth. PMID:19535247

  3. Influence of unsaturated fatty acids, membrane fluidity and oxygenation on the survival of an E. coli fatty acid auxotroph following γ-irradiation

    Escherichia coli K1060, a fatty acid auxotroph unable to either synthesize or degrade unsaturated fatty acids (uFAs), was used to study the effect of membrane fluidity on survival after exposure to ionizing radiation. Using this strain of E. coli, significant alterations in the fatty acid composition of the membrane have been produced and verified by gas chromatography. linolenic, oleic, elaidic and palmitelaidic acids were the uFAs used. Survival above the transition temperature (Tsub(t)) (liquid crystal reversible gel) was comparable for these fatty-acid-supplemented membranes after exposure to γ-irradiation, whereas γ-irradiation below Tsub(t) resulted in a significant decrease in survival. An oxygen enhancement effect was observed for each experimental condition employed. (author)

  4. Possible involvement of a plasmid in arginine auxotrophic mutation of Streptomyces kasugaensis.

    Nakano, M M; Ozawa, K; Ogawara, H

    1980-01-01

    Streptomyces kasugaensis gave arginine auxotrophic mutants at high frequency, The coupled loss and reappearance of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid with arginine auxotrophy suggested that the insertion of the plasmid into chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid caused the arginine auxotrophy.

  5. L-Tryptophan Production by Auxotrophic and Analogue Resistant Mutants of Aureobacterium flavescens

    Roy, A; S.K. Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    A number of tyrosine plus phenylalanine double auxotrophic mutants were isolated by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment of a locally isolated strain of Aureobacterium flavescens of which 11A39 and 11A17 were selected on the basis of their tryptophan production in a mineral salt medium over other isolated mutant strains. The mutational block in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway of the selected double auxotrophs were determined. By controlling pH of the production me...

  6. Enrichment of Auxotrophic Mutants in Streptomyces griseus

    Werner, Rolf G.; Demain, Arnold L.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the isolation and enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophic mutants of the indolmycin-producing strain Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12648 was developed, using penicillin selection. With UV irradiation of 2.2 × 104 μW cm−2, a mutation rate to tryptophan auxotrophy of 5.6 × 10−4 was achieved. With 300 μg ml−1 of penicillin G, an enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophs of about 1,000-fold was attained. Approximately 40% of all survivors were tryptophan auxotrophs.

  7. Auxotrophic complementation as a selectable marker for stable expression of foreign antigens in Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Borsuk, Sibele; Mendum, Tom A; Fagundes, Michel Quevedo; Michelon, Marcelo; Cunha, Cristina Wetzel; McFadden, Johnjoe; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2007-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG has the potential to be an effective live vector for multivalent vaccines. However, most mycobacterial cloning vectors rely on antibiotic resistance genes as selectable markers, which would be undesirable in any practical vaccine. Here we report the use of auxotrophic complementation as a selectable marker that would be suitable for use in a recombinant vaccine. A BCG auxotrophic for the amino acid leucine was constructed by knocking out the leuD gene by unmarked homologous recombination. Expression of leuD on a plasmid not only allowed complementation, but also acted as a selectable marker. Removal of the kanamycin resistance gene, which remained necessary for plasmid manipulations in Escherichia coli, was accomplished by two different methods: restriction enzyme digestion followed by re-ligation before BCG transformation, or by Cre-loxP in vitro recombination mediated by the bacteriophage P1 Cre Recombinase. Stability of the plasmid was evaluated during in vitro and in vivo growth of the recombinant BCG in comparison to selection by antibiotic resistance. The new system was highly stable even during in vivo growth, as the selective pressure is maintained, whereas the conventional vector was unstable in the absence of selective pressure. This new system will now allow the construction of potential recombinante vaccine strains using stable multicopy plasmid vectors without the inclusion of antibiotic resistance markers. PMID:17888740

  8. Construction of a Food Grade Recombinant Bacillus subtilis Based on Replicative Plasmids with an Auxotrophic Marker for Biotransformation of d-Fructose to d-Allulose.

    He, Weiwei; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-27

    A food grade recombinant Bacillus subtilis that produces d-psicose 3-epimerase (DPEase; EC 5.1.3.30) was constructed by transforming a replicative multicopy plasmid with a d-alanine racemase gene marker into B. subtilis 1A751 with the d-alanine racemase gene knocked out. The DPEase was expressed in B. subtilis without antibiotic resistance genes and without adding antibiotics during fermentation. Whole cells of the food grade recombinant B. subtilis were used to biotransform d-fructose to d-allulose. The two tandem promoters, including the HpaII and P43 promoters, increased expression levels compared to the use of one promoter, HpaII. For large-scale d-allulose production, the optimal enzyme dose was 40 enzyme activity units of dry cells per gram of d-fructose, which produced a 28.5% turnover yield in 60 min. The recombinant plasmid exhibited stability over 100 generations. This food grade recombinant B. subtilis may be used for large-scale d-allulose production in the food industry. PMID:27056339

  9. Generation of a Uracil Auxotroph Strain of the Probiotic Yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a Host for the Recombinant Protein Production.

    Hamedi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Taghi Zahraei; Khorasanizadeh, Dorsa; Khalaj, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) is the best known probiotic yeast. The genetic engineering of this probiotic strain requires the availability of appropriate mutants to accept various gene constructs carrying different selection markers. As the auxotrophy selection markers are under focus, we have generated a ura3 auxotroph mutant of S. boulardii for use in further genetic manipulations. METHODS: Classical UV mutagenesis was used for the generation of auxotroph mutants. The ...

  10. Tryptophan auxotrophs of Rhizobium japonicum.

    Wells, S E; Kuykendall, L D

    1983-01-01

    Eleven tryptophan-requiring mutants of Rhizobium japonicum I-110 ARS were isolated after nitrous acid mutagenesis and fell into five groups based on characterization by supplementation with intermediates and enzyme assays.

  11. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon.

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B

    2009-08-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions. PMID:19566682

  12. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanonococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H2 or formate for the reduction of CO2 to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions.

  13. A conserved suppressor mutation in a tryptophan auxotroph results in dysregulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis.

    Knoten, Claire A; Wells, Greg; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen that relies on three cell-to-cell signals to regulate multiple virulence factors. The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone) is one of these signals, and it is known to be important for P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. PQS is synthesized in a multistep reaction that condenses anthranilate and a fatty acid. In P. aeruginosa, anthranilate is produced via the kynurenine pathway and two separate anthranilate synthases, TrpEG and PhnAB, the latter of which is important for PQS synthesis. Others have previously shown that a P. aeruginosa tryptophan auxotroph could grow on tryptophan-depleted medium with a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). These revertants produced more pyocyanin and had increased levels of phnA transcript. In this study, we constructed similar tryptophan auxotroph revertants and found that the reversion resulted from a synonymous G-to-A nucleotide mutation within pqsC. This change resulted in increased pyocyanin and decreased PQS, along with an increase in the level of the pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB transcripts. Reporter fusion and reverse transcriptase PCR studies indicated that a novel transcript containing pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB occurs in these revertants, and quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggested that the same transcript appears in the wild-type strain under nutrient-limiting conditions. These results imply that the PQS biosynthetic operon can produce an internal transcript that increases anthranilate production and greatly elevates the expression of the PQS signal response protein PqsE. This suggests a novel mechanism to ensure the production of both anthranilate and PQS-controlled virulence factors. PMID:24748618

  14. Targeting tumors with nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph vaccines.

    Fox, Barbara A; Sanders, Kiah L; Chen, Shan; Bzik, David J

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that has evolved to actively control its invaded host cells. Toxoplasma triggers then actively regulates host innate interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses that elicit T cell control of infection. A live, nonreplicating avirulent uracil auxotroph vaccine strain (cps) of Toxoplasma triggers novel innate immune responses that stimulate amplified CD8(+) T cell responses and life-long immunity in vaccinated mice. Here, we review recent reports showing that intratumoral treatment with cps activated immune-mediated regression of established solid tumors in mice. We speculate that a better understanding of host-parasite interaction at the molecular level and applying improved genetic models based on Δku80 Toxoplasma strains will stimulate development of highly effective immunotherapeutic cancer vaccine strategies using engineered uracil auxotrophs. PMID:23928100

  15. Targeting tumors with nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph vaccines

    Fox, Barbara A.; Sanders, Kiah L; Chen, Shan; Bzik, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that has evolved to actively control its invaded host cells. Toxoplasma triggers then actively regulates host innate IL-12 and interferon-γ responses that elicit T cell control of infection. A live, nonreplicating avirulent uracil auxotroph vaccine strain (cps) of Toxoplasma triggers novel innate immune responses that stimulate amplified CD8+ T cell responses and life-long immunity in vaccinated mice. Here, we review recent reports showing that i...

  16. Avirulent Uracil Auxotrophs Based on Disruption of Orotidine-5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Elicit Protective Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii ▿ †

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) gene, encoding the final enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, was deleted using Toxoplasma gondii KU80 knockouts to develop an avirulent nonreverting pyrimidine auxotroph strain. Additionally, to functionally address the role of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, the uridine phosphorylase (UP) salvage activity was knocked out and a double knockout of UP and OMPDC was also constructed. The nonreverting ΔOMPDC, ΔUP, and ΔOMPDC ...

  17. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  18. Avirulent uracil auxotrophs based on disruption of orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase elicit protective immunity to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2010-09-01

    The orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) gene, encoding the final enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, was deleted using Toxoplasma gondii KU80 knockouts to develop an avirulent nonreverting pyrimidine auxotroph strain. Additionally, to functionally address the role of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, the uridine phosphorylase (UP) salvage activity was knocked out and a double knockout of UP and OMPDC was also constructed. The nonreverting DeltaOMPDC, DeltaUP, and DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP knockout strains were evaluated for pyrimidine auxotrophy, for attenuation of virulence, and for their ability to elicit potent immunity to reinfection. The DeltaUP knockout strain was replication competent and virulent. In contrast, the DeltaOMPDC and DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP strains were uracil auxotrophs that rapidly lost their viability during pyrimidine starvation. Replication of the DeltaOMPDC strain but not the DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP strain was also partially rescued in vitro with uridine or cytidine supplementation. Compared to their hypervirulent parental type I strain, the DeltaOMPDC and DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP knockout strains exhibited extreme attenuation in murine virulence (approximately 8 logs). Genetic complementation of the DeltaOMPDC strain using a functional OMPDC allele restored normal replication and type I parental strain virulence phenotypes. A single immunization of mice with either the live critically attenuated DeltaOMPDC strain or the DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP knockout strain effectively induced potent protective immunity to lethal challenge infection. The avirulent nonreverting DeltaOMPDC and DeltaOMPDC DeltaUP strains provide new tools for the dissection of the host response to infection and are promising candidates for safe and effective Th1 vaccine platforms that can be easily genetically engineered. PMID:20605980

  19. Dithizone staining of intracellular zinc: an unexpected and versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Daniel S Yuan

    Full Text Available Auxotrophic marker genes such as URA3, LEU2, and HIS3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have long been used to select cells that have been successfully transformed with recombinant DNA. A longstanding challenge in working with these genes is that counterselection procedures are often lacking. This paper describes the unexpected discovery of a simple plate assay that imparts a bright red stain to cells experiencing nutritional stress from the lack of a marker gene. The procedure specifically stains a zinc-rich vesicular compartment analogous to the zinc-rich secretory vesicles found in insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cells and glutamate-secreting neurons. Staining was greatly diminished in zap1 mutants, which lack a homeostatic activator of zinc uptake, and in cot1 zrc1 double mutants, which lack the two yeast homologs of mammalian vesicle-specific zinc export proteins. Only one of 93 strains with temperature-sensitive alleles of essential genes exhibited an increase in dithizone staining at its non-permissive temperature, indicating that staining is not simply a sign of growth-arrested or dying cells. Remarkably, the procedure works with most commonly used marker genes, highlights subtle defects, uses no reporter constructs or expensive reagents, requires only a few hours of incubation, yields visually striking results without any instrumentation, and is not toxic to the cells. Many potential applications exist for dithizone staining, both as a versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes and as a powerful new tool for the genetic analysis of a biomedically important vesicular organelle.

  20. 21 CFR 528.1070 - Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct... ANIMALS § 528.1070 Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid construct. (a) Specifications and indications for use. Five copies of a human Bc6 recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) construct located at the...

  1. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for acid mine drainage reclamation

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.5 and iron concentrations as high as 630 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the SCS constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that involved use of both physical and biological treatment. The AMD was fed into three anoxic limestone beds, followed by an aeration pond, before entering a series of four cattail cells and a polishing pond. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and chemical and biological monitoring were conducted throughout the winter months. Chemical analysis of the water along the flow path of the AMD during the first six months of operation indicated that the limestone beds improved the pH substantially, and that most of the metals were removed prior to the water entering the cattail cells. The effectiveness of the wetland system to improve water quality also was monitored using the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test. Determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial improvement in water quality below the limestone beds, and a slight decrease in toxicity throughout the cattail cells. However, toxic levels stayed the same or increased in the polishing pond. Water quality monitoring will continue through the growing season of 1993 to assess the impact of plant growth on the reclamation of the AMD

  2. Design and construction of a whole cell bacterial 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and 2-phenylacetic acid bioassay

    Seppe eDierckx

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAuxins are hormones that regulate plant growth and development. To accurately quantify the low levels of auxins present in plant and soil samples, sensitive detection methods are needed. In this study, the design and construction of two different whole cell auxin biosensors is illustrated. Both use the auxin responsive element HpaA as an input module and differ in output module. The first biosensor is combined with the gfp gene to produce a fluorescent biosensor. Whereas the second one is combined with the genes textit and phzS to produce a pyocyanin producing biosensor whose product can be measured electrochemically.section{Results} The fluorescent biosensor is able to detect 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA and 2-phenylacetic acid (PAA concentrations from 15 µM to 3 mM in a dose-responsive manner. The pyocyanin producing biosensor is able to detect 4-HPA concentrations from 1.9 µM to 15.625 µM and PAA concentrations from 15.625 µM to 125 µM, both in a dose-responsive manner.ConclusionsA fluorescent whole cell auxin biosensor and an electrochemical whole cell auxin biosensor have been constructed and tested. Both are able to detect 4-HPA and PAA concentrations that are environmentally relevant in respect to plant growth.

  3. Avirulent Uracil Auxotrophs Based on Disruption of Orotidine-5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Elicit Protective Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii ▿ †

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) gene, encoding the final enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, was deleted using Toxoplasma gondii KU80 knockouts to develop an avirulent nonreverting pyrimidine auxotroph strain. Additionally, to functionally address the role of the pyrimidine salvage pathway, the uridine phosphorylase (UP) salvage activity was knocked out and a double knockout of UP and OMPDC was also constructed. The nonreverting ΔOMPDC, ΔUP, and ΔOMPDC ΔUP knockout strains were evaluated for pyrimidine auxotrophy, for attenuation of virulence, and for their ability to elicit potent immunity to reinfection. The ΔUP knockout strain was replication competent and virulent. In contrast, the ΔOMPDC and ΔOMPDC ΔUP strains were uracil auxotrophs that rapidly lost their viability during pyrimidine starvation. Replication of the ΔOMPDC strain but not the ΔOMPDC ΔUP strain was also partially rescued in vitro with uridine or cytidine supplementation. Compared to their hypervirulent parental type I strain, the ΔOMPDC and ΔOMPDC ΔUP knockout strains exhibited extreme attenuation in murine virulence (∼8 logs). Genetic complementation of the ΔOMPDC strain using a functional OMPDC allele restored normal replication and type I parental strain virulence phenotypes. A single immunization of mice with either the live critically attenuated ΔOMPDC strain or the ΔOMPDC ΔUP knockout strain effectively induced potent protective immunity to lethal challenge infection. The avirulent nonreverting ΔOMPDC and ΔOMPDC ΔUP strains provide new tools for the dissection of the host response to infection and are promising candidates for safe and effective Th1 vaccine platforms that can be easily genetically engineered. PMID:20605980

  4. Construction of a stainless steel storage tank for phosphoric acid

    Buh, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to get acquainted with all necessary procedures for steel storage tank manufacturing and assembly control. The representative storage tank was built from stainless steel and it was designed to hold 750 m3 of phosphoric acid. In the first section all legally mandatory control procedures are described and they are applied to our storage tank in the second section. Welding control is presented, which consists of destructive and non-destructive inspections of t...

  5. Feasibility of biohydrogen production from tofu wastewater with glutamine auxotrophic mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Zheng, G.H.; Wang, L.; Kang, Z.H. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-12-15

    NH{sub 4}{sup +}, which is normally the integrant in organic wastewater, such as Tofu wastewater, is an inhibitor to hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium. In order to release inhibition of NH{sub 4}{sup +} to biohydrogen generation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a glutamine auxotrophic mutant R. sphaeroides TJ-0803 was obtained by mutagenizing with ethyl methane sulfonate. The mutant could generate biohydrogen efficiently in the medium with high NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, because the inhibition of NH{sub 4}{sup +} to nitrogenase was released. Under suitable conditions, TJ-0803 could effectively produce biohydrogen from tofu wastewater, which commonly containing 50-60 mg L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and the generation rate was increased by more than 100% compared with that from wild-type R. sphaeroides. (author)

  6. Construction of a cyanobacterium synthesizing cyclopropane fatty acids.

    Machida, Shuntaro; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Iwane

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae have received much attention as a next-generation source of biomass energy. However, most of the fatty acids (FAs) from microalgae are multiply unsaturated; thus, the biofuels derived from them are fluid, but vulnerable to oxidation. In this study, we attempted to synthesize cyclopropane FAs in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by expressing the cfa gene for cyclopropane FA synthase from Escherichia coli with the aim of producing FAs that are fluid and stable in response to oxidization. We successfully synthesized cyclopropane FAs in Synechocystis with a yield of ~30% of total FAs. Growth of the transformants was altered, particularly at low temperatures, but photosynthesis and respiration were not significantly affected. C16:1(∆9) synthesis in the desA(-)/desD(-) strain by expression of the desC2 gene for sn-2 specific ∆9 desaturase positively affected growth at low temperatures via promotion of various cellular processes, with the exceptions of photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of the apparent activities of desaturases suggested that some acyl-lipid desaturases might recognize the lipid side chain. PMID:27263419

  7. Biohydrogen Production from Tofu Wastewater with Glutamine Auxotrophic Mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Zheng, G. H.; Kang, Z. H.; Qian, Y. F.; Wang, L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhu, H. G.

    2008-02-01

    Hydrogen production from organic wastewater by photo-bacteria has been attracted more attention, not only because hydrogen is a clean energy, but also because it can be a process for organic wastewater pre-treatment. However NH4+, which normally is the integrant in organic wastewater, is the inhibitor to hydrogen production with photo-bacteria. In this study, the NH4+ effect on biohydrogen generation and nitrogenase activity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria-Rhodobacter sphaeroides was studied. Biohydrogen generation with wild-type R. sphaeroides was found to be more sensitive to NH4+ due to the obvious inhibition of NH4+ to its nitrogenase. For avoiding inhibition of NH4+ to biohydrogen generation of R. sphaeroides, a glutamine auxotrophic mutant R. sphaeroides AR-3 was obtained by EMS treatment. The mutant could generate biohydrogen efficiently in the medium with higher NH4+ concentration. Under suitable conditions, AR-3 produced biohydrogen from tofu wastewater with an average generation rate of 14.2 ml L-1h-1, it was increased by more than 100% compared with that from wild-type R. sphaeroides.

  8. Stimulation of cell proliferation and polyphosphoinositide turnover in a yeast sterol auxotroph by ergosterol

    The effect of ergosterol on cell division and phospholipid metabolism was investigated in strain GL7, a sterol auxotroph of Saccharmyces cerevisiae. When starved for ergosterol GL7 remains viable but grows very slowly and partially accumulates in the unbudded state. The readdition of ergosterol alone or together with cholesterol but not cholesterol alone stimulates both budding and cell proliferation noticeably after a lag of several hours. Within 10 min after ergosterol readdition to prelabeled cholesterol-grown cells the 32P and [3H] inositol content of the polyphosphoinositides increases markedly followed by an equally striking and rapid decrease. The phosphatidylinositol kinase activity in the membrane fraction also increases when cells growing on cholesterol were supplemented with a small amount of ergosterol. A serine specific casein kinase activity which is immunoprecipitable by antibody prepared against the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60/sup v-src/, is enhanced in ergosterol-grown cells when compared to the kinase activity in cholesterol cells. Taken together the results suggest that increased poly-phosphoinositide turnover and protein phosphorylation are associated with or parallel the stimulation of cell proliferation by a small amount of the yeast's natural sterol

  9. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE......% phosphoric acid at 150 8C and at polarization of 2.5 V/SSCE is tantalum. In that case, even a gentle cathodic polarization is harmful in such an acidic environment. Hydrogen reduction leads to tantalum hydride formation, to loss of mechanical properties and to complete disintegration of the metal. Contrary...... to tantalum, titanium is free of any corrosion resistance in hot phosphoric acid. Its corrosion rate ranges from tens of millimetres to metres per year depending on temperature of the acid. Alloy bonded tantalum coating was recognized as an effective corrosion protection for both titanium and stainless steel...

  10. Bioaccumulation of metals in constructed wetlands used to treat acid drainage

    Constructed wetlands are being used extensively as a potential mitigation for acid drainage. However, removal of metals to meet compliance requirements has varied among wetlands, ranging from partial to total success. In addition, wetlands are sinks for contaminants found in acid drainage, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants to levels that would adversely affect the food web is of growing concern. The primary objective of this project was to determine whether bioaccumulation of metals occurs in wetlands constructed for treatment of acid drainage. Water, sediment, plant and benthos samples were collected from two wetlands constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority and a natural wetland in the spring and fall of 1992, and metal concentrations were determined. One of the constructed wetlands, Impoundment 1, has generally been in compliance for NPDES; the other, Widow's Creek, has never been in compliance. Preliminary results indicate similarities in sediment and plant metal concentrations between Impoundment 1 and the natural wetland and greater metal concentrations in the sediment and plants at Widow's Creek. Data also indicate that Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr are being accumulated in the plants at each wetland. However, accumulation of metals by these plants probably accounts for only a small percentage of the removal of the annual metal load supplied to each wetland. Bioaccumulation of metals in the benthic organisms at each wetland is currently being investigated

  11. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. II. Isolation and characterization of phosphatidylserine auxotrophs

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that required exogenously added phosphatidylserine for cell growth were isolated by using the replica technique with polyester cloth, and three such mutants were characterized. Labeling experiments on intact cells with 32Pi and L-[U-14C]serine revealed that a phosphatidylserine auxotroph, designated as PSA-3, was strikingly defective in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. When cells were grown for 2 days without phosphatidylserine, the phosphatidylserine content of PSA-3 was about one-third of that of the parent. In extracts of the mutant, the enzymatic activity of the base-exchange reaction of phospholipids with serine producing phosphatidylserine was reduced to 33% of that in the parent; in addition, the activities of base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with choline and ethanolamine in the mutant were also reduced to 1 and 45% of those in the parent, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the serine-exchange activity in the parent was inhibited approximately 60% when choline was added to the reaction mixture whereas that in the mutant was not significantly affected. From the results presented here, we conclude the following. There are at least two kinds of serine-exchange enzymes in CHO cells; one (serine-exchange enzyme I) can catalyze the base-exchange reactions of phospholipids with serine, choline, and ethanolamine while the other (serine-exchange enzyme II) does not use the choline as a substrate. Serine-exchange enzyme I, in which mutant PSA-3 is defective, plays a major role in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. Serine-exchange enzyme I is essential for the growth of CHO cells

  12. The use of constructed wetlands in the treatment of acid mine drainage

    US government regulations require that all effluents from industrial operations, including mining, meet certain water quality standards. Constructed wetlands have proven to be useful in helping to attain those standards. Application of this biotechnology to mine water drainage can reduce water treatment costs and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water drainage from abandoned mines. Over 400 constructed wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands largely as a result of research by the US Bureau of Mines. Wetlands are passive biological treatment systems that are relatively inexpensive to construct and require minimal maintenance. Chemical treatment costs are reduced sufficiently to repay the cost of construction in less than a year. The mine waste water is typically treated in a series of excavated ponds that resemble small marsh areas. The ponds are engineered to facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron. Ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate supporting a population of sulphate-reducing bacteria which raises the pH. Constructed wetlands in the USA are described - their history, functions, construction methodologies, applicabilities, limitations and costs. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs

  13. Embedding methods for poly(L-lactic acid) microfiber mesh/human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    D'Alessandro, D; Battolla, B; Trombi, L; Barachini, S; Cascone, M G; Bernardini, N; Petrini, M; Mattii, L

    2009-01-01

    Fiber mesh scaffolds were recently investigated in tissue engineering as possible support for stem cell growth and differentiation, in order to repair lesion areas in clinical practice. In particular, the literature is focused on fiber mesh scaffolds constituted of biocompatible and resorbable polymeric structures, like poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). However, as regards the study of constructs constituted of PLLA microfibers and cells, only quantitative and SEM analyses were reported, lacking histological analysis. Histological evaluation of these constructs could give important information about cellular distribution in the scaffold, cell-scaffold interactions and extracellular matrix production. The purpose of our study was to find a valid method to analyze PLLA microfiber/cell constructs from both histological and histochemical angles. Biodegradable non-woven fiber meshes were prepared using hollow microfibers, based on PLLA. We first evaluated different embedding methods useable for histological analysis and the results showed that among the paraffin, Killik, and acrylic resin the only suitable medium was the latter. Then we employed the acrylic resin to embed the constructs made up of PLLA microfibers and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells, which we then analyzed with Toluidine Blue, PAS and Alcian Blue staining. These constructs, previously analyzed for cell viability by MTT and CCK-8 tests, showed viable/proliferating cells until 6 weeks of culture. The stainings performed on constructs confirmed viability data obtained with SEM and MTT/CCK-8 and supplied other information on the cell behaviors such as the distribution and organization onto the scaffold and the production of extracellular matrix molecules. In conclusion, this methodological study mainly suggests a suitable method to analyze PLLA microfiber/cell constructs, at the same time confirming and enriching the literature data on the compatibility between PLLA microfibers and hMSCs. PMID

  14. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a mutation (fatA) that allows trans unsaturated fatty acids to replace the essential cis unsaturated fatty acids of Escherichia coli.

    DeVeaux, L C; Cronan, J E; Smith, T L

    1989-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of Escherichia coli are able to use only unsaturated fatty acids of the cis configuration as the required growth supplement. A mutation in the fatA gene allows such auxotrophs to utilize unsaturated fatty acids with a trans double bond as well as fatty acids having a cis double bond. The fatA gene was mapped to min 69 near argG, and the allele studied (fatA1) was found to be dominant over the wild-type gene. fatA1 mutant strains grew at similar rates when sup...

  15. Supramolecular Coordination Assemblies Constructed From Multifunctional Azole-Containing Carboxylic Acids

    Yuheng Deng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of recent progress in the field of metal coordination polymers assembled from azole-containing carboxylic acids and gives a diagrammatic summary of the diversity of topological structures in the resulting infinite metal-organic coordination networks (MOCNs. Azole-containing carboxylic acids are a favorable kind of multifunctional ligand to construct various metal complexes with isolated complexes and one, two and three dimensional structures, whose isolated complexes are not the focus of this review. An insight into the topology patterns of the infinite coordination polymers is provided. Analyzed topologies are compared with documented topologies and catalogued by the nature of nodes and connectivity pattern. New topologies which are not available from current topology databases are described and demonstrated graphically.

  16. Screening a wide host-range, waste-water metagenomic library in tryptophan auxotrophs of Rhizobium leguminosarum and of Escherichia coli reveals different classes of cloned trp genes.

    Li, Youguo; Wexler, Margaret; Richardson, David J; Bond, Philip L; Johnston, Andrew W B

    2005-12-01

    A metagenomic cosmid library was constructed, in which the insert DNA was derived from bacteria in a waste-water treatment plant and the vector was the wide host-range cosmid pLAFR3. The library was screened for clones that could correct defined tryptophan auxotrophs of the alpha-proteobacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum and of Escherichia coli. A total of 26 different cosmids that corrected at least one trp mutant in one or both of these species were obtained. Several cosmids corrected the auxotrophy of one or more R. leguminosarum trp mutants, but not the corresponding mutants in E. coli. Conversely, one cosmid corrected trpA, B, C, D and E mutants of E. coli but none of the trp mutants of R. leguminosarum. Two of the Trp+ cosmids were examined in more detail. One contained a trp operon that resembled that of the pathogen Chlamydophila caviae, containing the unusual kynU gene, which specifies kynureninase. The other, whose trp genes functioned in R. leguminosarum but not in E. coli, contained trpDCFBA in an operon that is likely co-transcribed with five other genes, most of which had no known link with tryptophan synthesis. The sequences of these TRP proteins, and the products of nine other genes encoded by this cosmid, failed to affiliate them with any known bacterial lineage. For one metagenomic cosmid, lac reporter fusions confirmed that its cloned trp genes were transcribed in R. leguminosarum, but not in E. coli. Thus, rhizobia, with their many sigma-factors, may be well-suited hosts for metagenomic libraries, cloned in wide host-range vectors. PMID:16309391

  17. Construction of HA-1-DC Nucleic-acid Vaccine and Induction of Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    WANG Yaya; ZHANG Donghua; HU Jinmei; LIU Wenli; ZHOU hongsheng; ZHANG Lu; LIU Dan; HUANG Zhenqian; TAN Huo

    2007-01-01

    An HA-1-DC nucleic-acid vaccine was constructed to induce anti-leukemia effect after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). DCs were generated from HSCT donors in vitro, and its immunologic activity was assayed by using flow cytometry and mixed lymphocytes reaction.HA-1 gene was electroporated into the cultured DCs to construct a DC nucleic-acid vaccine. After transfection for 48 h, the expression of HA-1 protein could be detected by using Western blot. The DCs were cultured with syngenic lymphocytes to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).The cytoxicity of the CTLs was detected by LDH assay. The results showed that The DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) expressed the phenotype of DCs, and were effective in stimulating proliferation of the allogenic lymphocytes. After electroporating for 48-h, HA-1 protein was detected by using Western blot. The cytotoxity of inducing CTLs was higher than the control group. It was suggested that minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 could be considered as a target of immunotherapy against leukemia after HSCT.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical property of three coordination polymer constructed from m-phenylenediacrylate acid

    Xiao, YiFan; Wang, TingTing; Zeng, HePing, E-mail: hpzeng@scut.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Three new complexes of the wholly deprotonated flexible ligand m-phenylenediacrylate acid (H{sub 2}mpda), namely, [Zn (mpda) (H{sub 2}O)] [1], [Pr{sub 2}(mpda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(CHOO){sub 2}] [2], and [Mn{sub 2}(mpda){sub 2} (H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] [3], were synthesized by the solvothermal reaction. The complexes were characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. A mixed sample [Nd(mpda)(H{sub 2}O)(CHOO)·Pr(mpda)(H{sub 2}O)(CHOO)] [2{sup ]} was also synthesized and studied. Compounds [1] and [2] exhibit a selective sensing function with respect to acetone, and they are a potential luminescent sensory material for the selective detection of Zn{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescent changes of compound [1] upon the addition of cations (Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, Bi{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}) are utilized to construct two logic gates at the molecular level. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes of flexible ligand m-phenylenedicarboxylic acid were synthesized by solvothermal reaction. Three metal−organic frameworks exhibiting 1D, 2D, 3D structures, respectively. - Highlights: • Three new complexes of m-phenylenedicarboxylic acid were synthesized. • Three metal−organic frameworks exhibiting 1D, 2D, 3D structures, respectively. • [1] and [2] exhibits a very high quenching effect with acetone. • [1] and [2] are a potential luminescent sensory material for Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Two logic gates have been constructed using compound [1].

  19. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  20. Secretion of Rhoptry and Dense Granule Effector Proteins by Nonreplicating Toxoplasma gondii Uracil Auxotrophs Controls the Development of Antitumor Immunity.

    Fox, Barbara A; Sanders, Kiah L; Rommereim, Leah M; Guevara, Rebekah B; Bzik, David J

    2016-07-01

    Nonreplicating type I uracil auxotrophic mutants of Toxoplasma gondii possess a potent ability to activate therapeutic immunity to established solid tumors by reversing immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we engineered targeted deletions of parasite secreted effector proteins using a genetically tractable Δku80 vaccine strain to show that the secretion of specific rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) proteins by uracil auxotrophic mutants of T. gondii in conjunction with host cell invasion activates antitumor immunity through host responses involving CD8α+ dendritic cells, the IL-12/interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) TH1 axis, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Deletion of parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) associated proteins ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35 or ROP38, intravacuolar network associated dense granule proteins GRA2 or GRA12, and GRA24 which traffics past the PVM to the host cell nucleus severely abrogated the antitumor response. In contrast, deletion of other secreted effector molecules such as GRA15, GRA16, or ROP16 that manipulate host cell signaling and transcriptional pathways, or deletion of PVM associated ROP21 or GRA3 molecules did not affect the antitumor activity. Association of ROP18 with the PVM was found to be essential for the development of the antitumor responses. Surprisingly, the ROP18 kinase activity required for resistance to IFN-γ activated host innate immunity related GTPases and virulence was not essential for the antitumor response. These data show that PVM functions of parasite secreted effector molecules, including ROP18, manipulate host cell responses through ROP18 kinase virulence independent mechanisms to activate potent antitumor responses. Our results demonstrate that PVM associated rhoptry effector proteins secreted prior to host cell invasion and dense granule effector proteins localized to the intravacuolar network and host nucleus that are secreted after host cell invasion coordinately control the

  1. Construction of hybrid cell with Phanerochaete chrysosporium todegrade terephthalic acid wastewater (I) phenotype evidence

    2000-01-01

    The fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y99 and the native bacterium YZ1 were the three parental strains for construction of hybrid cells through protoplast fusion to degrade terephthalic acid (TPA) wastewater. The results showed that the native bacterium YZ1 protoplasm could integrate with that of PC to form the hybrid cell Fhh and the fungus Y99 protoplasm also could integrate with that of Fhh to form the hybrid cell Fhhh. The protoplasts of YZ1 and Y99 could change the morphology of PC spore and mycelinm for two times. The hybrid cell Fhhh got the best growth and degradation abilities in the wastewater. It suggested that the hybrid strains obtained from the inter-kingdom protoplast fusion of the three parental strains could create potential for the purification of TPA wastewater.

  2. Extended safety and efficacy studies of a live attenuated double leucine and pantothenate auxotroph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a vaccine candidate

    Sampson, Samantha L.; Mansfield, Keith G; Carville, Angela; Magee, D Mitchell; Quitugua, Teresa; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Bloom, Barry R.; Hondalus, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously described the development of a live, fully attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) vaccine candidate strain with two independent attenuating auxotrophic mutations in leucine and pantothenate biosynthesis. In the present work, those studies have been extended to include testing for protective efficacy in a long-term guinea pig survival model and safety testing in the highly tuberculosis susceptible Rhesus macaque. To model the safety of the ΔleuD ΔpanCD strain in HIV-inf...

  3. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  4. Construction of the Core of Pseudolaric Acid A and Mechanistic Studies on Intramolecular [4+3] Cycloaddition

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of hemiacetal 2, the core of pseudolaric acid A via oxidative cleavage of acetonide 6 or 7 and enolization-hemiacetalization of aldehyde 8. A plausible general mechanism for the intramolecular [4+3] cycloaddition of sulfoxide 4 to adduct 3 is suggested.

  5. Synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide conjugates of bile acids, and polymerase construction of bile acid-functionalized DNA.

    Ikonen, Satu; Macícková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Sanda, Miloslav; Hocek, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using Phusion polymerase for primer extension. One of the dNTPs (dCTP bearing cholic acid) was also efficient for PCR amplification. PMID:20165813

  6. Production of L-threonine by auxotrophs and analogue resistant mutants of Escherichia coli

    A threonine overproducer, E. coli TF427, which is resistant to threonine analogue, α-amino-β-hydroxyvaleric acid (AHV), and requires both methionine and isoleucine was developed by the mutations of E. coli W3110 using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) and UV. The E. coli TF427 produced 46.5 g/l of threonine in a 5-L jar fermentor after 44 hr cultivation. The aspartokinase I of TF427 was not inhibited by threonine, and its synthesis was not repressed by threonine plus isoleucine

  7. Use of submitochondrial particle (SMP) assays for assessing wetlands constructed for sequestering acid mine runoff

    Use of constructed wetlands to sequester metals from acid mine drainage is part of a USEPA SITE demonstration at Burleigh Tunnel near Silverplume, Colorado. Samples are collected on a seasonal basis for toxicity evaluation of two different pilot treatment systems. Water samples were obtained from the outflow of two experimental wetland cells utilizing either upflow and downflow treatment, as well as upstream and downstream of the discharge of Burleigh Tunnel to Clear Creek. Submitochondrial Particle (SMP), Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas acute bioassays were used to evaluate the water quality. The SMP bioassay is based on the electron transfer complex derived from mitochondria. Toxic responses result from subcellular perturbations of various subsets of enzyme systems contained in the complex. In prior work, a 0.79 r2 was reported between the SMP bioassay and P. promelas for 11 inorganics on the EPA Priority Pollutant list. The SMP bioassay provided data consistent with the whole organism results. The two most toxic samples: the Burleigh outflow, and the Clear Creek Upstream sample, gave C. dubia LC50s of 1.01% and 8.41%, respectively. The Burleigh outflow P. promelas LC50 was 1.55%. SMP EC50s for the Burleigh outflow and the Clear Creek Upstream sample were 0.63% and 1.63%, respectively. As the SMP bioassay requires 1 hour to run and costs approximately 1/10th of whole organism assays, it was feasible to determine EC50 values for 7 samples vs. the two sample LC50s determined using whole organism assays. The SMP bioassays can provide sufficient sampling density, at low cost, allowing effective delineation of wetland performance over time

  8. Transferability of different classical force fields for right and left handed α-helices constructed from enantiomeric amino acids.

    Biswas, Santu; Sarkar, Sujit; Pandey, Prithvi Raj; Roy, Sudip

    2016-02-21

    Amino acids can form d and l enantiomers, of which the l enantiomer is abundant in nature. The naturally occurring l enantiomer has a greater preference for a right handed helical conformation, and the d enantiomer for a left handed helical conformation. The other conformations, that is, left handed helical conformations of the l enantiomers and right handed helical conformations of the d enantiomers, are not common. The energetic differences between left and right handed alpha helical peptide chains constructed from enantiomeric amino acids are investigated using quantum chemical calculations (using the M06/6-311g(d,p) level of theory). Further, the performances of commonly used biomolecular force fields (OPLS/AA, CHARMM27/CMAP and AMBER) to represent the different helical conformations (left and right handed) constructed from enantiomeric (D and L) amino acids are evaluated. 5- and 10-mer chains from d and l enantiomers of alanine, leucine, lysine, and glutamic acid, in right and left handed helical conformations, are considered in the study. Thus, in total, 32 α-helical polypeptides (4 amino acids × 4 conformations of 5-mer and 10-mer) are studied. Conclusions, with regards to the performance of the force fields, are derived keeping the quantum optimized geometry as the benchmark, and on the basis of phi and psi angle calculations, hydrogen bond analysis, and different long range helical order parameters. PMID:26863595

  9. Lipophilic nucleic acids--a flexible construction kit for organization and functionalization of surfaces.

    Schade, Matthias; Berti, Debora; Huster, Daniel; Herrmann, Andreas; Arbuzova, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Lipophilic nucleic acids have become a versatile tool for structuring and functionalization of lipid bilayers and biological membranes as well as cargo vehicles to transport and deliver bioactive compounds, like interference RNA, into cells by taking advantage of reversible hybridization with complementary strands. This contribution reviews the different types of conjugates of lipophilic nucleic acids, and their physicochemical and self-assembly properties. Strategies for choosing a nucleic acid, lipophilic modification, and linker are discussed. Interaction with lipid membranes and its stability, dynamic structure and assembly of lipophilic nucleic acids upon embedding into biological membranes are specific points of the review. A large diversity of conjugates including lipophilic peptide nucleic acid and siRNA provides tailored solutions for specific applications in bio- and nanotechnology as well as in cell biology and medicine, as illustrated through some selected examples. PMID:24650567

  10. Role of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in wetlands constructed for acid coal mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Master's thesis

    Five constructed wetlands with different organic substrates were exposed to the same quantity/quality of acid mine drainage (AMD). During the 16-month exposure to AMD, all wetlands accumulated S in the forms of organic and reduced inorganic S and Fe in the form of iron sulfides. Iron sulfide and probably most of the organic S(C-bonded S) accumulation were end products of bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Results of study support the notion that sulfate reduction and accumulation of Fe sulfides contribute to Fe retention in wetlands exposed to AMD. Detailed information is provided

  11. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  12. Research on the Construction of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds by Alginate-hyaluronic Acid with Different Characteristics

    LI Qin-hua; LIU Li; LIN Dong-qing

    2014-01-01

    This research uses alginate and hyaluronic acid as the main component to prepare support, then explores the possibilities as a tissue engineering scaffold. Firstly, prepare HA with various average molecular weight and alginate with different viscosity, mix them up at a certain proportion and make it into a AlgCa 2+-HA composite scaffold with a film-forming method. This article discusses the feasibility of this scaffold used in tissue engineering field according to the consequence of moisture content testing, mechanical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The structure and properties of AlgCa2+-HA composite scaffold are closely related to some factors such as average molecular weight of hyaluronic acid, hyaluronic acid concentration, alginate viscosity, cross-linking agents and processing technology. The AlgCa 2+-HA composite material, which is at different proportions and adding different cross-linking agent,has some certain characteristics:moisture content ranging from 50%to 95%, tensile strength between 2.69 N/mm2 and 4.299 N/mm2, and elongation at break is about 58%to 160%. The prepared AlgCa2+-HA composite scaffolds can be used as tissue engineering scaffolds resulting from its high moisture content, good mechanical properties and ideal pore structure.

  13. Synthesis, structures and properties of two new chiral rare earth-organic frameworks constructed by L/D-tartaric acid

    Hu, Gonghao; Zhang, Haitao; Miao, Hao; Wang, Jiahong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu, Yan, E-mail: yanxu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth cerium with L- or D- tartaric acid afford a pair of novel chiral enantiomer coordination polymers, namely, [Ce(L-tart)(CH{sub 2}OHCH{sub 2}OH)(H{sub 2}O)]Cl (L-1) and [Ce(D-tart)(CH{sub 2}OHCH{sub 2}OH)(H{sub 2}O)]Cl (D-1). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, XRD, IR spectra, and TG analyses. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra and second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements proved that they are of structural chirality in the bulk samples. To the best of our knowledge, the enantiomers of L-1 and D-1 are the first 2D chiral dilayer frameworks constructed from L/D-tartrate ligands, ancillary ligand ethanediol and lanthanide ion Ce. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth cerium with L- or D- tartaric acid afford a pair of novel chiral enantiomer coordination polymers, namely, [Ce(L-tart)(CH{sub 2}OHCH{sub 2}OH)(H{sub 2}O)]Cl (L-1) and [Ce(D-tart)(CH{sub 2}OHCH{sub 2}OH)(H{sub 2}O)]Cl (D-1). Structural analysis indicates that the enantiomers of L-1 and D-1 are the first 2D chiral dilayer frameworks constructed from L/D-tartrate ligands and ancillary ligands ethanediol reacted with lanthanide ions Ce.

  14. Synthesis, structures and properties of two new chiral rare earth-organic frameworks constructed by L/D-tartaric acid

    Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth cerium with L- or D- tartaric acid afford a pair of novel chiral enantiomer coordination polymers, namely, [Ce(L-tart)(CH2OHCH2OH)(H2O)]Cl (L-1) and [Ce(D-tart)(CH2OHCH2OH)(H2O)]Cl (D-1). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, XRD, IR spectra, and TG analyses. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra and second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurements proved that they are of structural chirality in the bulk samples. To the best of our knowledge, the enantiomers of L-1 and D-1 are the first 2D chiral dilayer frameworks constructed from L/D-tartrate ligands, ancillary ligand ethanediol and lanthanide ion Ce. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth cerium with L- or D- tartaric acid afford a pair of novel chiral enantiomer coordination polymers, namely, [Ce(L-tart)(CH2OHCH2OH)(H2O)]Cl (L-1) and [Ce(D-tart)(CH2OHCH2OH)(H2O)]Cl (D-1). Structural analysis indicates that the enantiomers of L-1 and D-1 are the first 2D chiral dilayer frameworks constructed from L/D-tartrate ligands and ancillary ligands ethanediol reacted with lanthanide ions Ce.

  15. Adsorption compared with sulfide precipitation as metal removal processes from acid mine drainage in a constructed wetland

    Machemer, Steven D.; Wildeman, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Metal removal processes from acid mine drainage were studied in an experimental constructed wetland in the Idaho Springs-Central City mining district of Colorado. The wetland was designed to passively remove heavy metals from the mine drainage flowing from the Big Five Tunnel. Concurrent studies were performed in the field on the waters flowing from the wetland and in the laboratory on the wetland substrate. Both studies suggest that there is competition for organic adsorption sites among Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. Iron and Cu appear to be more strongly adsorbed than Zn and Mn. The adsorption of metals varies with the fluctuation of pH in the outflow water. Also indicated by field and laboratory studies is the microbial reduction of sulfate with a corresponding increase in the sulfide concentration of the water. As sulfide is generated. Cu and Zn are completely removed. The field results suggest that upon start up of a constructed wetland, the adsorption of dissolved metals onto organic sites in the substrate material will be an important process. Over time, sulfide precipitation becomes the dominant process for metal removal from acid mine drainage.

  16. Performance of the auxotrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as host for the production of IL-1β in aerated fed-batch reactor: role of ACA supplementation, strain viability, and maintenance energy

    Zueco Jesus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 is an auxotrophic commonly used strain. In this work it has been used as host for the expression and secretion of human interleukin-1β (IL1β, using the cell wall protein Pir4 as fusion partner. To achieve high cell density and, consequently, high product yield, BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] was cultured in an aerated fed-batch reactor, using a defined mineral medium supplemented with casamino acids as ACA (auxotrophy-complementing amino acid source. Also the S. cerevisiae mutant BY4741 Δyca1 [PIR4-IL1β], carrying the deletion of the YCA1 gene coding for a caspase-like protein involved in the apoptotic response, was cultured in aerated fed-batch reactor and compared to the parental strain, to test the effect of this mutation on strain robustness. Viability of the producer strains was examined during the runs and a mathematical model, which took into consideration the viable biomass present in the reactor and the glucose consumption for both growth and maintenance, was developed to describe and explain the time-course evolution of the process for both, the BY4741 parental and the BY4741 Δyca1 mutant strain. Results Our results show that the concentrations of ACA in the feeding solution, corresponding to those routinely used in the literature, are limiting for the growth of S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] in fed-batch reactor. Even in the presence of a proper ACA supplementation, S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] did not achieve a high cell density. The Δyca1 deletion did not have a beneficial effect on the overall performance of the strain, but it had a clear effect on its viability, which was not impaired during fed-batch operations, as shown by the kd value (0.0045 h-1, negligible if compared to that of the parental strain (0.028 h-1. However, independently of their robustness, both the parental and the Δyca1 mutant ceased to grow early during fed-batch runs, both strains using most of the

  17. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    Thu Trang Mai, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Duong Le, Quang; Ngoan Nguyen, Thi; Cham Ba, Thi; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Bich Hoa Phan, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Park, Jun Seo

    2012-06-01

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application.

  18. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application

  19. Two types of rare earth–organic frameworks constructed by racemic tartaric acid

    Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth oxides with racemic tartaric acid (H2tar) yielded 7 rare earth(III) MOFs with general formulas [R2(tar)3(H2O)2]n (R=Y (1), Sm (4), Eu (5), Tb (6), Dy (7)) and [R2(tar)2(C2O4)(H2O)2]n·4nH2O (R=La (2), Nd (3)). X-ray powder diffraction analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that they present two different structural types. MOFs 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic non-centrosymmetric space group Iba2, and feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 topology. MOFs 2 and 3 are isostructural and crystallize in monoclinic P21/c space group and display rare fsx-4,5-P21/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. MOFs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: [R2(tar)2(C2O4)(H2O)2]n·4nH2O (R=La (2), Nd (3)) display rare fsx-4,5-P21/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. Highlights: ► Two types of rare earth MOFs were synthesized by hydrothermal conditions. ► MOFs feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 and rare fsx-4,5-P21/c topology structures. ► MOFs exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence.

  20. Microbial populations identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a constructed wetland treating acid coal mine drainage.

    Nicomrat, Duongruitai; Dick, Warren A; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms are an integral part of the biogeochemical processes in wetlands, yet microbial communities in sediments within constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage (AMD) are only poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity and abundance in a wetland receiving AMD using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Seasonal samples of oxic surface sediments, comprised of Fe(III) precipitates, were collected from two treatment cells of the constructed wetland system. The pH of the bulk samples ranged between pH 2.1 and 3.9. Viable counts of acidophilic Fe and S oxidizers and heterotrophs were determined with a most probable number (MPN) method. The MPN counts were only a fraction of the corresponding FISH counts. The sediment samples contained microorganisms in the Bacteria (including the subgroups of acidophilic Fe- and S-oxidizing bacteria and Acidiphilium spp.) and Eukarya domains. Archaea were present in the sediment surface samples at detection in the bacterial community. The results from the FISH technique from this field study are consistent with results from other experiments involving enumeration by most probable number, dot-blot hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses and with the geochemistry of the site. PMID:16825452

  1. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Qi, Xiao-Xia; Wu, Jun-Chen [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning, E-mail: ningren9@163.com [College of Chemical engineering & Material, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhao, Chun-Li [Raoyang High School of Hebei, Raoyang 053900 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zong, Guang-Cai; Gao, Jie [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry & Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O·C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6-3}). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol

  2. Novel lanthanide complexes constructed from 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoic acid: crystal structures, spectrum and thermochemical properties

    Graphical abstract: Four novel lanthanide coordination polymers [Ln(3,4-DMOBA)3(H2O)2]·H2O·C2H5OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structures indicates 1 D stucture of the title complexes are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure. Complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb3+ ion(5D4 → 7F6-3). The investigation of TG-FTIR and IR spectra of the evolved gases shows uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules tend to lose firstly, and then 3,4-DMOBA ligands begin to decompose. - Highlights: • Four lanthanide coordination polymers were synthesized and characterized. • 1-D chain structures of the title complexes are are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a 3-D structures. • Thermal decomposition processes of the title complexes were studied using TG-FTIR techniques. • IR spectra of evolved gases in thermal decomposition process were obtained and analyzed. - Abstract: Four novel lanthanide complexes [Ln(3,4-DMOBA)3(H2O)2]·H2O·C2H5OH (Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2), Dy(3), Ho(4); 3,4-DMOBA = 3, 4-dimethoxybenzoate) have been hydrothermal synthesized and characterized. Structural analyses reveal that adjacent lanthanide ions are connected by 3,4-DMOBA ligands adopting bridging bidentate mode to generate one-dimensional (1-D) structure with the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules. 1-D structures are linked by hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional (3-D) structure, which is rarely observed in lanthanide carboxylic acids complexes. Under the radiation of UV light, complex 2 exhibits the characteristic emission of Tb3+ ion (5D4 → 7F6-3). The thermal decomposition mechanism is investigated by TG-FTIR technology. IR spectra of the evolved gases show that the uncoordinated water and ethanol molecules lose in the first step. And then 3,4-DMOBA ligand is decomposed into H2O, CO2 and other gaseous molecules as well as the gaseous

  3. Construction Strategy for an Internal Amplification Control for Real-Time Diagnostic Assays Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification: Development and Clinical Application

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    An important analytical control in molecular amplification-based methods is an internal amplification control (IAC), which should be included in each reaction mixture. An IAC is a nontarget nucleic acid sequence which is coamplified simultaneously with the target sequence. With negative results for the target nucleic acid, the absence of an IAC signal indicates that amplification has failed. A general strategy for the construction of an IAC for inclusion in molecular beacon-based real-time nu...

  4. Construction of Yeast Vectors with Resistance to Geneticin

    林会兰; 张广; 周全; 陈国强

    2002-01-01

    Two Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae shuttle vectors containing a resistance marker to geneticin (G418) are constructed. Both vectors contain a kanamycin-resistant marker (KanMX4) module coding aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase (APH) that renders E. coli resistant to kanamycin and S. cerevisiae to geneticin. These vectors overcome the shortage of the conventional yeast vectors bearing HIS3, TRP1, LEU2, and URA3 modules as selection markers, which require hosts to be auxotrophic. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is used as the reporter to examine the functions of the vectors. The vectors are powerful tools for the convenient cloning and controlled expression of genes in most S. cerevisiae strains.

  5. Biomonitoring study of a constructed wetland site treating acid mine drainage. Research report, July 1990-June 1992

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from an underground coal mine in the Jones Branch watershed in McCreary County, KY, substantially reduced water quality in Jones Branch. Downstream from the mine seeps, the pH was routinely below 4.5 and concentrations of most heavy metals, especially iron, were elevated. A cattail wetland (1,022 m2) was constructed on Jones Branch in 1989 to obviate the effects of the AMD. Monthly chemical monitoring was performed on the water from above, from below, and from the 26 cells within the wetland. Based on chemical monitoring, the wetland initially improved water quality, increasing the pH and removing substantial amounts of heavy metals. Beginning in the spring of 1991, water quality at the wetland outfall began to decline, and has not improved to date. To augment the chemical monitoring, a biomonitoring study was initiated in the spring of 1990. Acute 48-hr. static tests were conducted with newly hatched fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Median lethal concentration (LC50) values determined monthly reflects the decline in water quality at the outfall over time

  6. 1H NMR metabolomic study of auxotrophic starvation in yeast using Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares for Pathway Analysis

    Puig-Castellví, Francesc; Alfonso, Ignacio; Piña, Benjamin; Tauler, Romà

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of specific metabolic pathways constitutes the mode of action of many known toxicants and it is responsible for the adverse phenotypes associated to human genetic defects. Conversely, many industrial applications rely on metabolic alterations of diverse microorganisms, whereas many therapeutic drugs aim to selectively disrupt pathogens’ metabolism. In this work we analyzed metabolic changes induced by auxotrophic starvation conditions in yeast in a non-targeted approach, using one-dimensional proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and chemometric analyses. Analysis of the raw spectral datasets showed specific changes linked to the different stages during unrestricted yeast growth, as well as specific changes linked to each of the four tested starvation conditions (L-methionine, L-histidine, L-leucine and uracil). Analysis of changes in concentrations of more than 40 metabolites by Multivariate Curve Resolution – Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) showed the normal progression of key metabolites during lag, exponential and stationary unrestricted growth phases, while reflecting the metabolic blockage induced by the starvation conditions. In this case, different metabolic intermediates accumulated over time, allowing identification of the different metabolic pathways specifically affected by each gene disruption. This synergy between NMR metabolomics and molecular biology may have clear implications for both genetic diagnostics and drug development. PMID:27485935

  7. (1)H NMR metabolomic study of auxotrophic starvation in yeast using Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares for Pathway Analysis.

    Puig-Castellví, Francesc; Alfonso, Ignacio; Piña, Benjamin; Tauler, Romà

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of specific metabolic pathways constitutes the mode of action of many known toxicants and it is responsible for the adverse phenotypes associated to human genetic defects. Conversely, many industrial applications rely on metabolic alterations of diverse microorganisms, whereas many therapeutic drugs aim to selectively disrupt pathogens' metabolism. In this work we analyzed metabolic changes induced by auxotrophic starvation conditions in yeast in a non-targeted approach, using one-dimensional proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and chemometric analyses. Analysis of the raw spectral datasets showed specific changes linked to the different stages during unrestricted yeast growth, as well as specific changes linked to each of the four tested starvation conditions (L-methionine, L-histidine, L-leucine and uracil). Analysis of changes in concentrations of more than 40 metabolites by Multivariate Curve Resolution - Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) showed the normal progression of key metabolites during lag, exponential and stationary unrestricted growth phases, while reflecting the metabolic blockage induced by the starvation conditions. In this case, different metabolic intermediates accumulated over time, allowing identification of the different metabolic pathways specifically affected by each gene disruption. This synergy between NMR metabolomics and molecular biology may have clear implications for both genetic diagnostics and drug development. PMID:27485935

  8. Construction and Verification of LuxS-negative Mutants of Streptococcus Mutans and the Effect of the Absence of LuxS Gene on the Acid Tolerance

    YU Dan-ni; CHEN Jie; ZHANG Yao-chao; HAN Yu-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To knock out the entire Luxs gene of Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans) UA159 strain via homologous recombination and construct a Luxs-deleted mutant strain of S. Mutans. To study the difference between the acid resistance of S. Mutans Ingbritt C international standard strain and the acid resistance of LuxS mutant strain. Methods: Two DNA fragments locating in the upper and downstream of Luxs gene were amplified and a erythromycin resistance gene of PJT10 between them were engineered into PUC19 plasmid for constructing the recombination plasmid pUCluxKO. Electrotransformation of S.mutans cells with pUCluxKO-mutant resulted in isolation of erythromycin resistant S. Mutans transformants, which was identified by polymerase chain reaction, V.harveyi BB170 luminescence bioassay and sequencing analysis. Solutions of S. Mutans standard strain and LuxS mutant strain with same density were made and cultured at pH 3.5 to 7.0 BHI liquid for the same period.Terminal growth situation was compared.Firstly acidized in pH 5.5 BHI liquid,the two strains were cultured at pH 3.0 BHI liquid. The acid tolerance responses of the two strains were compared.Results:Restriction endonuclease analyses showed that pUCluxKO-mutant vector had been successfully recombined. The Luxs-deleted status of S.mutans mutants was confirmed by PCR with primers which were specific for the genes of Luxs and Erythromycin resistance. S.mutans mutant can not induce bioluminescence, indiating the mutant had been successfully recombined. After twenty generations of culture, the constructed Chinese S.mutans mutants were confirmed to be stable. Significant difference of aciduricity was observed between S.mutans standard strain and LuxS mutant strain.The acid resistance of standard strain was stronger than that of LuxS mutant strain.The two strains both displayed the capability of acid tolerance responses. Conclusion:The S.mutans gene allelic exchange plasmid is constructed correctively and a Luxs

  9. Eight supramolecular assemblies constructed from bis(benzimidazole) and organic acids through strong classical hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2014-05-01

    Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.

  10. Multicomponent hydrogen-bonding organic solids constructed from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and N-heterocycles: Synthesis, structural characterization and synthon discussion

    Zong, Yingxia; Shao, Hui; Pang, Yanyan; Wang, Debao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Seven novel multicomponent crystals involving various substituted organic amine molecules and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Crystal structures with 1,4-bis(imidazol) butane (L1) 1, 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L2) 2, 1-phenyl piperazine 3, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine 4, 4,4'-bipyridine 5, 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine 6, 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine 7 were determined. Among the seven molecular complexes, total proton transfer from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid to coformer has occurred in crystals 1-4, while the remaining were cocrystals. X-ray single-crystal structures of these complexes reveal that strong hydrogen bonding O-H···O/N-H···O/O-H···N and weak C-H···O/C-H···π/π···π intermolecular interactions direct the packing modes of molecular crystals together. The analysis of supramolecular synthons in the present structures shows that some classical supramolecular synthons like pyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (7) and aminopyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (8), are again observed in constructing the hydrogen-bonding networks in this paper. Besides, we noticed that water molecules act as a significant hydrogen-bonding connector in constructing supramolecular architectures of 3, 4, 6, and 7.

  11. Processing large-diameter poly(L-lactic acid) microfiber mesh/mesenchymal stromal cell constructs via resin embedding: an efficient histologic method

    In this study, we performed a complete histologic analysis of constructs based on large diameter ( > 100 μm) poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microfibers obtained via dry-wet spinning and rat Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (rMSCs) differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage, using acrylic resin embedding. In many synthetic polymer-based microfiber meshes, ex post processability of fiber/cell constructs for histologic analysis may face deterring difficulties, leading to an incomplete investigation of the potential of these scaffolds. Indeed, while polymeric nanofiber (fiber diameter = tens of nanometers)/cell constructs can usually be embedded in common histologic media and easily sectioned, preserving the material structure and the antigenic reactivity, histologic analysis of large polymeric microfiber/cell constructs in the literature is really scant. This affects microfiber scaffolds based on FDA-approved and widely used polymers such as PLLA and its copolymers. Indeed, for such constructs, especially those with fiber diameter and fiber interspace much larger than cell size, standard histologic processing is usually inefficient due to inhomogeneous hardness and lack of cohesion between the synthetic and the biological phases under sectioning. In this study, the microfiber/MSC constructs were embedded in acrylic resin and the staining/reaction procedures were calibrated to demonstrate the possibility of successfully employing histologic methods in tissue engineering studies even in such difficult cases. We histologically investigated the main osteogenic markers and extracellular matrix molecules, such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, TGF-β1, Runx2, Collagen type I and the presence of amorphous, fibrillar and mineralized matrix. Biochemical tests were employed to confirm our findings. This protocol permitted efficient sectioning of the treated constructs and good penetration of the histologic reagents, thus allowing distribution and expression of

  12. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...... oxygen-consuming opening of the indole ring analogous to the one catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. The pattern of metabolite usage by known tryptophan-auxotrophic mutants and studies of metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography indicate that anthranilic acid is a terminal degradation...

  13. Construction of a Recombinant Leuconostoc mesenteroides CJNU 0147 Producing 1,4-Dihydroxy-2-Naphthoic Acid, a Bifidogenic Growth Factor.

    Eom, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gi-Seong

    2015-01-01

    1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA), a precursor of menaquinone (vitamin K2), has an effect on growth stimulation of bifidobacteria and prevention of osteoporosis, making it a promising functional food material. Therefore, we tried to clone the menB gene encoding DHNA synthase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides CJNU 0147. Based on the genome sequence of Leu. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 (GenBank accession no., CP000414), a primer set (Leu_menBfull_F and Leu_menBfull_R) was designed for the PCR amplification of menB gene of CJNU 0147. A DNA fragment (1,190 bp), including the menB gene, was amplified, cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector, and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of MenB (DHNA synthase) protein of CJNU 0147 had a 98% similarity to the corresponding protein of ATCC 8293. The menB gene was subcloned into pCW4, a lactic acid bacteria - E. coli shuttle vector, and transferred to CJNU 0147. The transcription of menB gene of CJNU 0147 (pCW4::menB) was increased, when compared with those of CJNU 0147 (pCW4) and CJNU 0147 (-). The DHNA was produced from it at a detectable level, indicating that the cloned menB gene of CJNU 0147 encoded a DHNA synthase which is responsible for the production of DHNA, resulting in an increase of bifidogenic growth stimulation activity. PMID:26877648

  14. Identification of novel secreted fatty acids that regulate nitrogen catabolite repression in fission yeast

    Sun, Xiaoying; Hirai, Go; Ueki, Masashi; Hirota, Hiroshi; Wang, Qianqian; Hongo, Yayoi; Nakamura, Takemichi; Hitora, Yuki; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hamamoto, Makiko; Yoshida, Minoru; Yashiroda, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of poor nitrogen sources such as branched-chain amino acids is repressed in the presence of high-quality nitrogen sources such as NH4+ and glutamate (Glu), which is called nitrogen catabolite repression. Amino acid auxotrophic mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe were unable to grow on minimal medium containing NH4Cl or Glu even when adequate amounts of required amino acids were supplied. However, growth of these mutant cells was recovered in the vicinity of colonies of the prototrophic strain, suggesting that the prototrophic cells secrete some substances that can restore uptake of amino acids by an unknown mechanism. We identified the novel fatty acids, 10(R)-acetoxy-8(Z)-octadecenoic acid and 10(R)-hydroxy-8(Z)-octadecenoic acid, as secreted active substances, referred to as Nitrogen Signaling Factors (NSFs). Synthetic NSFs were also able to shift nitrogen source utilization from high-quality to poor nitrogen sources to allow adaptive growth of the fission yeast amino acid auxotrophic mutants in the presence of high-quality nitrogen sources. Finally, we demonstrated that the Agp3 amino acid transporter was involved in the adaptive growth. The data highlight a novel intra-species communication system for adaptation to environmental nutritional conditions in fission yeast. PMID:26892493

  15. New silver(I) coordination polymers constructed from pyrazine derivatives and aromatic carboxylic acids: Syntheses, structures and photoluminescence

    Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Mei, Hong-Xin; Wang, Dan-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2015-11-01

    Five one-dimensional to three-dimensional coordination polymers have been synthesized by 2-chlorobenzoic acid (HL1), 2-nitrobenzoic acid (HL2), o-toluic acid (HL3), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (tpyz) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (mpyz) in the presence of NH3·H2O in mixed solvents systems, namely, {Ag4(tpyz)2(L1)4}n (1), {Ag2(tpyz) (L2)2}n (2), {Ag2(tpyz) (L3)2}n (3), {Ag2(mpyz) (L1)2}n (4), {Ag(mpyz) (L2) (H2O)}n (5). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a 3D framework. The tpyz ligand links 1D chain which was connected by silver atom and L1 anion into 3D framework. Compounds 2 and 4 possess a similar 2D network with (4, 4) topology. Complex 3 also exhibits a two-dimensional structure. There is a 1D silver chain in 3, which is the main difference from 2 and 4. So, 3 shows three-connected (4 8, 3) topology. For 5, only one oxygen of L2 coordinated to Ag(I) ions. The L2 anions were arranged in both sides of the chain, which was connected by silver atoms and mpyz ligands. Then, the uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen with coordinated water 1molecule oxygen through the hydrogen bond made the resultant structure to a 3D framework. Complexes 1-5 spanning from one-dimensional chains to three-dimensional framework suggest that carboxylates and the kinds of pyrazine derivatives play significant roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. The photoluminescence and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the complexes were also investigated.

  16. Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria

    Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; Karamychev, V.; Polouchine, N.; Shakhova, V.; Grigoriev, I.; Lou, Y.; Rokhsar, D.; Lucas, S.; Huang, K.; Goodstein, D. M.; Hawkins, T.; Plengvidhya, V.; Welker, D.; Hughes, J.; Goh, Y.; Benson, A.; Baldwin, K.; Lee, J. -H.; Diaz-Muniz, I.; Dosti, B.; Smeianov, V; Wechter, W.; Barabote, R.; Lorca, G.; Altermann, E.; Barrangou, R.; Ganesan, B.; Xie, Y.; Rawsthorne, H.; Tamir, D.; Parker, C.; Breidt, F.; Broadbent, J.; Hutkins, R.; O' Sullivan, D.; Steele, J.; Unlu, G.; Saier, M.; Klaenhammer, T.; Richardson, P.; Kozyavkin, S.; Weimer, B.; Mills, D.

    2006-06-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. Phylogenetic analyses, comparison of gene content across the group, and reconstruction of ancestral gene sets indicate a combination of extensive gene loss and key gene acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer during the coevolution of lactic acid bacteria with their habitats.

  17. 产L 苹果酸重组大肠杆菌的构建%Construction of recombinant Escherichia coli for L-malic acid production

    吴亚斌; 张梁; 石贵阳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the synthesis pathway of succinic acid in E�coli B0013-1050,the synthesize pathway of L-malic acid was constructed by using Red homologus recombination combined with Xer/dif recombinase system to delete the gene fumB,fumC and maeB from chromosome,and a recombinant strain E�coli 2030 was obtained�L-malic acid of 12�5 g/L with yield of 52�1% was achieved in a 15-L bioreactor. The main by-products, including pyruvic acid and succinic acid were analyzed�To increase the yield of L-malic acid, the malate dehydrogenase encoded gene mdh from Aspergillus flavus was integrantly expressed as the recombinant strain and a recombinant strain E�coli 2040 was obtained. The concentration and the yield of L-malic acid increased to 14 g/L and 60�3% in a 15-L bioreactor, respectively�%基于产琥珀酸重组大肠杆菌E�coli B00131050的琥珀酸合成途径,利用Red同源重组技术结合Xer/dif重组系统敲除富马酸酶基因fumB、fumC,苹果酸酶基因maeB,构建L 苹果酸合成途径,最终得到重组大肠杆菌E�coli 2030,该菌株在15 L发酵罐中,产L 苹果酸12�5 g/L,葡萄糖苹果酸转化率为52�1%,同时对发酵产物中主要杂酸丙酮酸和琥珀酸的生产原因进行了初步的探讨与分析。为进一步提高L 苹果酸的转化率,整合表达来源于黄曲霉的苹果酸脱氢酶基因,构建重组菌E�coli 2040,在15 L发酵罐中产L 苹果酸14 g/L,葡萄糖苹果酸转化率提高到60�3%。

  18. Validity of manganese as a surrogate of heavy metals removal in constructed wetlands treating acidic mine water

    The evaluation of manganese as a surrogate for heavy metal behavior in two wetland treatment systems receiving acidic coal mine drainage in central Pennsylvania was investigated. The use of manganese as an indicator is based on physical/chemical treatment processes quite different from wetland treatment. The treatment systems represented one anoxic, subsurface flow system and one oxic surface flow system. Water quality parameters measured included pH, alkalinity, acidity, and a suite of metals. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the ability of a candidate predictor variable (indicator) to predict heavy metal concentrations and removal. The use of manganese as a predictor of effluent quality proved to be poor in both wetland treatment systems, as evidenced by low linear R2 values and negative correlations. Zinc emerged as the best predictor of the detectable heavy metals at the anoxic wetland. Zinc exhibited positive strong linear correlations with copper, cobalt, and nickel (R2 values of 0.843, 0.881, and 0.970, respectively). Effluent pH was a slightly better predictor of effluent copper levels in the anoxic wetland. Iron and cobalt effluent concentrations showed the only strong relationship (R2 value = 0.778) in the oxic system. The lack of good correlations with manganese strongly challenges its appropriateness as a surrogate for heavy metals in these systems

  19. Construction of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) films via layer by layer assembly of chitosan and hyaluronic acid.

    Del Hoyo-Gallego, Sara; Pérez-Álvarez, Leyre; Gómez-Galván, Flor; Lizundia, Erlantz; Kuritka, Ivo; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Laza, Jose Manuel; Vila-Vilela, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    Polyelectrolytic multilayers (PEMs) with enhanced antibacterial properties were built up onto commercial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films based on the layer by layer assembling of bacterial contact killing chitosan and bacterial repelling highly hydrated hyaluronic acid. The optimization of the aminolysis modification reaction of PET was carried out by the study of the mechanical properties and the surface characterization of the modified polymers. The layer by layer assembly was successfully monitored by TEM microscopy, surface zeta-potential, contact angle measurements and, after labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FTIC) by absorption spectroscopy and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Beside, the stability of the PEMs was studied at physiological conditions in absence and in the presence of lysozyme and hyaluronidase enzymes. Antibacterial properties of the obtained PEMs against Escherichia coli were compared with original commercial PET. PMID:27083341

  20. Usefulness of biodegradable stents constructed of poly-/-lactic acid monofilaments in patients with benign esophageal stenosis

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To report 13 patients with benign esophageal stenosis treated with the biodegradable stent.METHODS: We developed a Ultraflex-type stent by knitting poly-l-lactic acid monofilaments.RESULTS: Two cases were esophageal stenosis caused by drinking of caustic liquid, 4 cases were due to surgical resection of esophageal cancers, and 7 cases were patients with esophageal cancer who received the preventive placement of biodegradable stents for postendoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) stenosis. The preventive placement was performed within 2 to 3 d after ESD. In 10 of the 13 cases, spontaneous migration of the stents occurred between 10 to 21 d after placement. In these cases, the migrated stents were excreted with the feces, and no obstructive complications were experienced. In 3 cases, the stents remained at the proper location on d 21 after placement. No symptoms of re-stenosis were observed within the follow-up period of 7 mo to 2 years. Further treatment with balloon dilatation or replacement of the biodegradable stent was not required.CONCLUSION: Biodegradable stents were useful for the treatment of benign esophageal stenosis, particularly for the prevention of post-ESD stenosis.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Two New Chiral Copper(Ⅱ) Compounds Constructed from (+)-N-TosyI-L-glutamic Acid

    He Rong; Song Huihua; Wu Lili; Wei Zhen; Wang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Chiral coordination polymers have attracted intense interest mainly due to their potential applications. Hence, two new chiral copper(Ⅱ) coordination polymers { [Cu(tsgluO)(H2O)]2·3H2O}n (1) and [Cu(tsgluO)(2,2'-bipy)]n (2)(H2tsglu=(+)-N-tosyl-l-glutamic acid; 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized in the absence or presence of 2,2'-bipy ligand and structurally characterized. A single crystal X-ray diffraction study revealed that compound 1 consists of a paddle-wheel dicopper(Ⅱ) core, which links other equivalents via four tsgluO2- ligands to form a 1D double chain. Such a chain is further interconnected through weak π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions to form a 3D H-bonded supramolecular structure with 1D channels hosting lattice water molecules. Whereas, com-pound 2, containing the coordinating 2,2'-bipy, gives rise to a ladder-like 1D double chain. Antiferromagnetic in-teractions were observed in 1 and 2.

  2. Synthesis, Structures and Photoluminescent Properties of Two Novel Zinc(II) Compounds Constructed from 5-Sulfoisophthalic Acid

    Hydrothermal reaction of zinc(II) salts with 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (NaO3SC6H3-1,3-(COOH)2, NaH2- SIP) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) led to two new compounds, [Zn(phen)3]·2H2SIP·4H2O and [Zn(phen)2(H2O)2]· 2H2SIP·2H2O. They were characterized by element analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1-2 represent the first example of Zn/phen/SIP system. The Zn (II) ion in 1 is six-coordinated by six nitrogen atoms from three phen molecules, and the H2SIP- ligands engage in the formation of hydrogen bond. The Zn(II) ion in 2 is coordinated by four nitrogen atoms from two phen molecules and two oxygen atoms from two water molecules. Moreover, both 1 and 2 are assembled into 3D supramolecular architectures by hydrogen bonds (O-H···O) and π-π interactions. Solvent water molecules occupying voids of the compounds serve as receptors or donors of the extensive O-H···O hydrogen bonds

  3. Structural variations and photoluminescent properties of a series of metal-organic frameworks constructed from 5-(4-carboxybenzoylamino)-isophthalic acid

    Five new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with 5-(4-carboxybenzoylamino)-isophthalic acid (H3L), namely, [Cd9L6(DMA)6]·4DMA (1), [Cd3L2(H2O)9]·4H2O (2), [LaL(H2O)4]·2H2O (3), [CeL(H2O)4]·H2O (4) and [Tb(HL)(H2L)(H2O)3]·5H2O (5) (DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide), have been synthesized. Complex 1 shows a three-dimensional architecture generated from linkage of Cd–O chains via L3− ligands. Minor variations in synthetic conditions of 1 afforded 2, which features an interesting 2D→3D catenation architecture containing helical chains. Complexes 3 and 4 are isostructural and each feature a two-dimensional architecture constructed from the linkage of L3− with Ln3+. Complex 5 displays a chain-like structure, of which the most interesting feature is the existence of free carboxylic acid (–COOH) group which may confer unique functionality. Moreover, the investigations of the thermal stability, powder X-ray diffractions and solid-state photoluminescent properties for these crystalline materials have been carried out. - Graphical Abstract: Solvothermal reactions of tricarboxylate ligand H3L with Cd2+/Ln3+ has yielded a series of new MOFs containing interesting structural motifs. - Highlights: • A tricarboxylate ligand whose coordinating functionalities are not symmetry equivalent is employed to construct MOFs. • Complex 2 features an interesting 2D→3D catenation architecture containing helical chains. • Complex 3 feature chain-like structure containing free – COOH group, which may confer unique functionality. • Photoluminescent properties and thermal behaviors for 1–5 have been reported

  4. Construction of Prokaryotic Expressing Vector of Antisense Nucleic Acid of LasR and Its Effect on the Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosus

    ZHANG Ling; ZHOU Junli; LI Jingming; LIAO Fang

    2007-01-01

    To construct a pUCP18/lasRantisense plasmid carrying the reversed gene and analyze its effect on the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosus, LasR gene was amplified from the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosus by PCR and reversely recombined with plasmid pUCP18. The recombinant pUCP18/lasRantisense was verified by enzyme digestion, PCR and sequencing. The biological effects of pUCP18/lasRantisense were examined by using RT-PCR, NAD method and the assay of pyocyanin. Our results showed that the expected full length lasR fragment (721 bp) was extended from Pseudomonas aeruginosus gene with PCR. And it is consistent with LasR gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in GenBank (No. NC_002516). The recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed and transferred into Pseudomonas aeruginosus. The antisense nucleic acid of LasR gene could reduce the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosus and might serve as a new target site for treatment purpose.

  5. Neural network consistent empirical physical formula construction for density functional theory based nonlinear vibrational absorbance and intensity of 6-choloronicotinic acid molecule

    Yildiz, Nihat; Karabacak, Mehmet; Kurt, Mustafa; Akkoyun, Serkan

    2012-05-01

    Being directly related to the electric charge distributions in a molecule, the vibrational spectra intensities are both experimentally and theoretically important physical quantities. However, these intensities are inherently highly nonlinear and of complex pattern. Therefore, in particular for unknown detailed spatial molecular structures, it is difficult to make ab initio intensity calculations to compare with new experimental data. In this respect, we very recently initiated entirely novel layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach to construct empirical physical formulas (EPFs) for density functional theory (DFT) vibrational spectra of some molecules. In this paper, as a new and far improved contribution to our novel molecular vibrational spectra LFNN-EPF approach, we constructed LFFN-EPFs for absorbances and intensities of 6-choloronicotinic acid (6-CNA) molecule. The 6-CNA data, borrowed from our previous study, was entirely different and much larger than the vibrational intensity data of our formerly used LFNN-EPF molecules. In line with our another previous work which theoretically proved the LFNN relevance to EPFs, although the 6-CNA DFT absorbance and intensity were inherently highly nonlinear and sharply fluctuating in character, still the optimally constructed train set LFFN-EPFs very successfully fitted the absorbances and intensities. Moreover, test set (i.e. yet-to-be measured experimental data) LFNN-EPFs consistently and successfully predicted the absorbance and intensity data. This simply means that the physical law embedded in the 6-CNA vibrational data was successfully extracted by the LFNN-EPFs. In conclusion, these vibrational LFNN-EPFs are of explicit form. Therefore, by various suitable operations of mathematical analysis, they can be used to estimate the electronic charge distributions of the unknown molecule of the significant complexity. Additionally, these estimations can be combined with those of theoretical DFT atomic polar

  6. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml, whereas three resistant type b β-lactamase-producing strains could form colonies 1- to 3-μg/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 104-fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence

  7. A New Dinuclear Gadolinium Complex Constructed from p-Phenylenediamine-N,N, N,N'-tetraacetic Acid and in situ Generated Oxalate

    YU Fang-Yong; HAO Zhi-Feng; LI Hai-Feng; HUSheng

    2012-01-01

    Routine solution reaction of Gd3+ and p-phenylenediamine-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (p-PhDTA) yields a dinuclear complex [Gd2(ox)(p-PhDTA)2(H2O)10]·6H2O (ox = oxalate), which was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (MoKα radiation, = 0.71073), elemental analysis and IR. This complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a = 10.2522(8), b = 10.0053(8), c = 23.8834(18), = 99.1080(10)°, V = 2419.0(3)3, Z = 2, Mr = 1367.32, Dc = 1.877 g/cm3, F(000) = 1368, = 2.830 mm-1, the final R = 0.0337 and wR = 0.0794 for 4747 observed reflections (I 〉 2 (I)). The exo-tetradentate oxalate ligand, generated in situ from the oxidative coupling of methanol, is incorporated to construct a dinuclear Gd2(ox)2 unit decorated with p-PhDTA ligands on the two sides with a monodentate coordination mode. The dinuclear molecules are further connected by the lattice water molecules to form a three-dimen- sional hydrogen network.

  8. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin; Xiao, Changyu; Zhang, Xudong; Xu, Yanhui; Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, {[MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O)}n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain {MnO(CO2)2}n connected by the ligand nda2-, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2-, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ({43}2{46.618.84}). The interactions within each Mn(II)-Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=-1.42(1) cm-1, zj‧=-0.73(2) cm-1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm).

  9. Construction of a Multiplex Promoter Reporter Platform to Monitor Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression and the Identification of Usnic Acid as a Potent Suppressor of psm Gene Expression.

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Yanli; Villanueva, Iván; Ho, Pak Leung; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance becomes phenomenal, alternative therapeutic strategies for bacterial infections such as anti-virulence treatments have been advocated. We have constructed a total of 20 gfp-luxABCDE dual-reporter plasmids with selected promoters from S. aureus virulence-associated genes. The plasmids were introduced into various S. aureus strains to establish a gfp-lux based multiplex promoter reporter platform for monitoring S. aureus virulence gene expressions in real time to identify factors or compounds that may perturb virulence of S. aureus. The gene expression profiles monitored by luminescence correlated well with qRT-PCR results and extrinsic factors including carbon dioxide and some antibiotics were shown to suppress or induce the expression of virulence factors in this platform. Using this platform, sub-inhibitory ampicillin was shown to be a potent inducer for the expression of many virulence factors in S. aureus. Bacterial adherence and invasion assays using mammalian cells were employed to measure S. aureus virulence induced by ampicillin. The platform was used for screening of natural extracts that perturb the virulence of S. aureus and usnic acid was identified to be a potent repressor for the expression of psm. PMID:27625639

  10. Construction and immunological evaluation of truncated hepatitis B core particles carrying HBsAg amino acids 119-152 in the major immunodominant region (MIR).

    Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Guo, Minzhuo; Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuexin; Meng, Qingling; Bi, Shengli

    2013-09-13

    Hepatitis B capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli can reassemble into icosahedral particles, which could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of foreign epitopes, especially those inserted into its major immunodominant region. Herein, we inserted the entire 'α' antigenic determinant amino acids (aa) 119-152 of HBsAg into the truncated HBc (aa 1-144), between Asp(78) and Pro(79). Prokaryotic expression showed that the mosaic HBc was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. After denaturation with urea, it was dialyzed progressively for protein renaturation. We observed that before and after renaturation, mosaic HBc was antigenic as determined by HBsAg ELISA and a lot of viruslike particles were observed after renaturation. Thus, we further purified the mosaic viruslike particles by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE chromatography, and Sepharose 4FF chromatography. Negative staining electron microscopy demonstrated the morphology of the viruslike particles. Immunization of Balb/c mice with mosaic particles induced the production of anti-HBs antibody and Th1 cell immune response supported by ELISPOT and CD4/CD8 proportions assay. In conclusion, we constructed mosaic hepatitis core particles displaying the entire 'α' antigenic determinant on the surface and laid a foundation for researching therapeutic hepatits B vaccines. PMID:23969156

  11. Dosimetric Applications of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements of Free Radicals Formed in Amino Acids: Construction of a Tissue-Equivalent Dosimeter Based on Alanine

    In the case of amino acids rupture of the molecules due to the action of radiation is found to produce free radicals. The number of these radicals can be measured by means of an electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometer and this number is proportional to the dose absorbed. Alanine has been used for this purpose since it possesses this property over a wide dose range (from 10 to 5 x 106 rads). The present paper covers essentially the following points: (a) Pre-irradiation effect in non-irradiated alanine: this dose limits the minimum measurable dose to approximately 10 rads. The origin of this dose and means of re- ducing it have been studied; (b) Energy response of the alanine: by virtue of the close similarity of its composition to that of tissue, this dosimeter has a good energy response for gamma radiations; the loss of efficiency at low energies can be corrected by the addition of a higher Z material (Ba or Ca); (c) Response to neutrons: with neutrons the radical yield is lower than in the case of gamma radiation, although this yield can be increased by adding a hydrogenated substance (paraffin); (d) Construction of a dosimeter in pellet form: the addition of paraffin improves the response to neutrons and enables moulded pellets of the mixture to be produced. These are easier to use than alanine in powder form and the dosimeters can be produced in any desired form. (author)

  12. Synthesis, structures of four coordination compounds constructed from o-methacrylamidobenzoic acid and their relationship between structure and solid state luminescence

    Four new coordination compounds, namely, Zn(o-MAABA)2(Phen) (1), [Cd(o-MAABA)2·2H2O]2 (2), ([Pb2Cl2(o-MAABA)2(Phen)4])·2H2O (3·2H2O), [Pb(NO3)(o-MAABA)(Phen)]n (4), where o-MAABA=o-methacrylamidobenzoic acid and phen=1, 10-phenanthroline, have been synthesized. All compounds were fully confirmed by FT-IR, elemental analysis and TGA analysis. Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, in which compound 1 shows a mononuclear structure, compounds 2 and 3 have binuclear structures and compound 4 shows an infinite chain. In 2 and 4, the adjacent chains are extended into a 3D supramolecular architecture via π–π interactions. Solid-state room temperature luminescence spectra revealed that emission bands of compound 1 were located at 524 nm (λex=352 nm) and compound 4 at 479 and 584 nm (λex=390 nm) assigned to the excimer formation. The emission at 454 nm (λex=340 nm) of compound 2 was mainly ascribed to the Ligand–Metal Charge Transfer (LMCT). - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds constructed by o-methacrylamidobenzoic, phenanthroline and metal ions are reported. The photoluminescent properties is studied, which is affected by the molecular stacking and LMCT.

  13. Construction and immunological evaluation of truncated hepatitis B core particles carrying HBsAg amino acids 119–152 in the major immunodominant region (MIR)

    Highlights: •The conformational HBV neutralization antigen domain was successfully displayed on the surface of truncated HBc particles. •Appropriate dialysis procedures to support the renaturing environment for the protein refolding. •Efficient purification procedures to obtain high purity and icosahedral particles of mosaic HBV antigen. •Strong immune responses not only including neutralization antibody response but also Th1 cell response were induced in mice. -- Abstract: Hepatitis B capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli can reassemble into icosahedral particles, which could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of foreign epitopes, especially those inserted into its major immunodominant region. Herein, we inserted the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant amino acids (aa) 119–152 of HBsAg into the truncated HBc (aa 1–144), between Asp78 and Pro79. Prokaryotic expression showed that the mosaic HBc was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. After denaturation with urea, it was dialyzed progressively for protein renaturation. We observed that before and after renaturation, mosaic HBc was antigenic as determined by HBsAg ELISA and a lot of viruslike particles were observed after renaturation. Thus, we further purified the mosaic viruslike particles by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE chromatography, and Sepharose 4FF chromatography. Negative staining electron microscopy demonstrated the morphology of the viruslike particles. Immunization of Balb/c mice with mosaic particles induced the production of anti-HBs antibody and Th1 cell immune response supported by ELISPOT and CD4/CD8 proportions assay. In conclusion, we constructed mosaic hepatitis core particles displaying the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant on the surface and laid a foundation for researching therapeutic hepatits B vaccines

  14. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O))n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO2)2)n connected by the ligand nda2−, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2−, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((43)2(46.618.84)). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm−1, zj′=−0.73(2) cm−1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured

  15. Construction and immunological evaluation of truncated hepatitis B core particles carrying HBsAg amino acids 119–152 in the major immunodominant region (MIR)

    Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Guo, Minzhuo [Beijing Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Beureau, Tianshuiyuan Lane 6, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100026 (China); Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuexin; Meng, Qingling [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China); Bi, Shengli, E-mail: shengli_bi@163.com [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The conformational HBV neutralization antigen domain was successfully displayed on the surface of truncated HBc particles. •Appropriate dialysis procedures to support the renaturing environment for the protein refolding. •Efficient purification procedures to obtain high purity and icosahedral particles of mosaic HBV antigen. •Strong immune responses not only including neutralization antibody response but also Th1 cell response were induced in mice. -- Abstract: Hepatitis B capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli can reassemble into icosahedral particles, which could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of foreign epitopes, especially those inserted into its major immunodominant region. Herein, we inserted the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant amino acids (aa) 119–152 of HBsAg into the truncated HBc (aa 1–144), between Asp{sup 78} and Pro{sup 79}. Prokaryotic expression showed that the mosaic HBc was mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. After denaturation with urea, it was dialyzed progressively for protein renaturation. We observed that before and after renaturation, mosaic HBc was antigenic as determined by HBsAg ELISA and a lot of viruslike particles were observed after renaturation. Thus, we further purified the mosaic viruslike particles by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} precipitation, DEAE chromatography, and Sepharose 4FF chromatography. Negative staining electron microscopy demonstrated the morphology of the viruslike particles. Immunization of Balb/c mice with mosaic particles induced the production of anti-HBs antibody and Th1 cell immune response supported by ELISPOT and CD4/CD8 proportions assay. In conclusion, we constructed mosaic hepatitis core particles displaying the entire ‘α’ antigenic determinant on the surface and laid a foundation for researching therapeutic hepatits B vaccines.

  16. Accelerated healing of diabetic wound using artificial dermis constructed with adipose stem cells and poly(L-glutamic acid)/chitosan scaffold

    SHEN Ting; PAN Zhi-gang; ZHOU Xiao; HONG Chao-yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic wound is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus.There are no significantly effective therapies for chronic non-healing diabetes ulcer so far.This study aimed to explore the feasibility of healing impaired wound using artificial dermis constructed with human adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) and poly(L-glutamic acid)/chitosan (PLGA/CS) scaffold in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.Methods ASCs were isolated from fresh human lipoaspirates and expanded ex vivo for three passages,and then cells were seeded onto PLGA/CS scaffold to form artificial dermis.Expression of VEGF and TGFβ1 by ASCs presented in artificial dermis was determined.The artificial dermis was transplanted to treat the 20 mm × 20 mm full-thickness cutaneous wound created on the back of diabetic mice.Wound treated with scaffold alone and without treatment,and wound in normal non-diabetic mice served as control.Results Cells growing within scaffold showed great proliferation potential,depositing abundant collagen matrix.Meanwhile,expression of VEGF and TGF-β1 by seeded ASCs maintained at a consistent high level.After treated with ASC based artificial dermis,diabetic wounds exhibited significantly higher healing rate compared with wounds treated with scaffold alone or without treatment.Histological examination also demonstrated an improvement in cutaneous restoration with matrix deposition and organization.Further quantitative analysis showed that there was a significant increase in dermis thickness and collagen content on artificial dermis treated wounds.Conclusion ASC/PLGA artificial dermis can effectively accelerate diabetic wound healing by promoting angiogenic growth factors and dermal collagen synthesis.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Five-, Six-, and Seven-Membered β-Substituted Cyclic Enones: Enantioselective Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters

    Kikushima, Kotaro

    2011-05-11

    The first enantioselective Pd-catalyzed construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via 1,4-addition of arylboronic acids to β-substituted cyclic enones is reported. Reaction of a wide range of arylboronic acids and cyclic enones using a catalyst prepared from Pd(OCOCF(3))(2) and a chiral pyridinooxazoline ligand yields enantioenriched products bearing benzylic stereocenters. Notably, this transformation is tolerant to air and moisture, providing a practical and operationally simple method of synthesizing enantioenriched all-carbon quaternary stereocenters.

  18. Availability of Amino Acids Extends Chronological Lifespan by Suppressing Hyper-Acidification of the Environment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Yo Maruyama

    Full Text Available The chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents the duration of cell survival in the postdiauxic and stationary phases. Using a prototrophic strain derived from the standard auxotrophic laboratory strain BY4742, we showed that supplementation of non-essential amino acids to a synthetic defined (SD medium increases maximal cell growth and extends the chronological lifespan. The positive effects of amino acids can be reproduced by modulating the medium pH, indicating that amino acids contribute to chronological longevity in a cell-extrinsic manner by alleviating medium acidification. In addition, we showed that the amino acid-mediated effects on extension of chronological longevity are independent of those achieved through a reduction in the TORC1 pathway, which is mediated in a cell-intrinsic manner. Since previous studies showed that extracellular acidification causes mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to cell death, our results provide a path to premature chronological aging caused by differences in available nitrogen sources. Moreover, acidification of culture medium is generally associated with culture duration and cell density; thus, further studies are required on cell physiology of auxotrophic yeast strains during the stationary phase because an insufficient supply of essential amino acids may cause alterations in environmental conditions.

  19. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin, E-mail: liyamin@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xiao, Changyu [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Yanhui [Department of Medical Imaging, Bethune Medical Non-Commissioned Officer' s, College, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050081 (China); Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H{sub 2}dmt)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (1), [Ag{sub 5}(nda){sub 2.5}(dmt)]{sub n} (2), (H{sub 2}nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H{sub 2}nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and AgNO{sub 3}, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub n} connected by the ligand nda{sup 2−}, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda{sup 2−}, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 18}.8{sup 4})). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm{sup −1}, zj′=−0.73(2) cm{sup −1}). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λ{sub ex}=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured.

  20. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) Applied to Quantitative Proteomics of Bacillus subtilis

    Soufi, Boumediene; Kumar, C.; Gnad, F.;

    2010-01-01

    We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to large-scale quantitative proteomics analyses of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis in two physiological conditions: growth on succinate and growth under phosphate starvation. Using a B. subtilis strain auxotrophic for...... most comprehensive quantitative proteomics studies in bacteria, covering more than 75% of the B. subtilis genes expressed in the log phase of growth. Furthermore, we detect and quantify dynamics of 35 Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation sites under growth on succinate, and 10 phosphorylation sites under...

  1. Engineering of FRT-lacZ fusion constructs: induction of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fadAB1 operon by medium and long chain-length fatty acids

    Son, Mike S.; Nguyen, David T.; Kang, Yun (Kenneth); Hoang, Tung T.

    2008-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the promoters of various genes in bacteria, it can be difficult to study gene regulation using reporter-gene fusions. Regulation studies of promoters are ideal at their native locus, which do not require prior knowledge of promoter regions. Based on a previous study with FRT-lacZ-KmR constructs, we constructed two novel FRT-lacZ-GmR plasmids. This allows easy engineering of P. aeruginosa reporter-gene fusions, post-mutant construction with the Flp-FRT system. We dem...

  2. Construction management

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  3. Lambda gpP-DnaB Helicase Sequestration and gpP-RpoB Associated Effects: On Screens for Auxotrophs, Selection for Rif(R), Toxicity, Mutagenicity, Plasmid Curing.

    Hayes, Sidney; Wang, Wen; Rajamanickam, Karthic; Chu, Audrey; Banerjee, Anirban; Hayes, Connie

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage lambda replication initiation protein P exhibits a toxic effect on its Escherichia coli (E. coli) host, likely due to the formation of a dead-end P-DnaB complex, sequestering the replicative DnaB helicase from further activity. Intracellular expression of P triggers SOS-independent cellular filamentation and rapidly cures resident ColE1 plasmids. The toxicity of P is suppressed by alleles of P or dnaB. We asked whether P buildup within a cell can influence E. coli replication fidelity. The influence of P expression from a defective prophage, or when cloned and expressed from a plasmid was examined by screening for auxotrophic mutants, or by selection for rifampicin resistant (Rif(R)) cells acquiring mutations within the rpoB gene encoding the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), nine of which proved unique. Using fluctuation assays, we show that the intracellular expression of P evokes a mutator effect. Most of the Rif(R) mutants remained P(S) and localized to the Rif binding pocket in RNAP, but a subset acquired a P(R) phenotype, lost sensitivity to ColE1 plasmid curing, and localized outside of the pocket. One P(R) mutation was identical to rpo*Q148P, which alleviates the UV-sensitivity of ruv strains defective in the migration and resolution of Holliday junctions and destabilizes stalled RNAP elongation complexes. The results suggest that P-DnaB sequestration is mutagenic and supports an earlier observation that P can interact with RNAP. PMID:27338450

  4. The potential of 3-dimensional construct engineered from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/fibrin hybrid scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for in vitro cartilage tissue engineering.

    Abdul Rahman, Rozlin; Mohamad Sukri, Norhamiza; Md Nazir, Noorhidayah; Ahmad Radzi, Muhammad Aa'zamuddin; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Che Ahmad, Aminudin; Hashi, Abdurezak Abdulahi; Abdul Rahman, Suzanah; Sha'ban, Munirah

    2015-08-01

    Articular cartilage is well known for its simple uniqueness of avascular and aneural structure that has limited capacity to heal itself when injured. The use of three dimensional construct in tissue engineering holds great potential in regenerating cartilage defects. This study evaluated the in vitro cartilaginous tissue formation using rabbit's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-seeded onto poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA/fibrin and PLGA scaffolds. The in vitro cartilaginous engineered constructs were evaluated by gross inspection, histology, cell proliferation, gene expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production at week 1, 2 and 3. After 3 weeks of culture, the PLGA/fibrin construct demonstrated gross features similar to the native tissue with smooth, firm and glistening appearance, superior histoarchitectural and better cartilaginous extracellular matrix compound in concert with the positive glycosaminoglycan accumulation on Alcian blue. Significantly higher cell proliferation in PLGA/fibrin construct was noted at day-7, day-14 and day-21 (p<0.05 respectively). Both constructs expressed the accumulation of collagen type II, collagen type IX, aggrecan and sox9, showed down-regulation of collagen type I as well as produced relative sGAG content with PLGA/fibrin construct exhibited better gene expression in all profiles and showed significantly higher relative sGAG content at each time point (p<0.05). This study suggested that with optimum in vitro manipulation, PLGA/fibrin when seeded with pluripotent non-committed BMSCs has the capability to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage and may serve as a prospective construct to be developed as functional tissue engineered cartilage. PMID:26100682

  5. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  6. Usability Constructs

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren;

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  7. Construction practice

    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility

  8. Construction supervision in construction project

    Struna, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Every construction project is a unique, complex process. Every completed structure is permanent act into space, and has therefore substantial influence upon social and natural environment. As a consequence, it is essential to provide professional supervision of the construction process that will ensure conformity of the construction with the project documentation and the building permit. The purpose of the thesis is to present the role of the construction supervision and the work of the s...

  9. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...... valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  10. Three silver-based complexes constructed from organic carboxylic acid and 4,4‧-bipyridine-like ligands: Syntheses, structures and photocatalytic properties

    Wang, Chong-chen; Jing, Huan-ping; Wang, Peng

    2014-09-01

    The reactions of AgNO3 with combinations of 4,4‧-bipyridine (bpy)/1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene (dpe), and 5-aminophthalic acid (H2ap)/2,6-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H2npdc)/4,4‧-stilbenedicarboxylic acid (H2sbdc) in aqueous alcohol/ammonia at room temperature produce crystals of [Ag4(bpy)4](ap)2·11H2O (1), [Ag2(bpy)2](npdc)·2H2O (2) and [Ag2(dpe)1.5(sbdc)0.5](sbdc)0.5·7H2O (3). All complexes 1, 2 and 3 consist of 1D infinite silver-ligand cationic chains, interspersed with organic carboxylate anions that provide charge compensation in the crystal structures. The lattice water molecules are situated among the framework of the crystal structure and show rich hydrogen-bonding interactions, which serve to orientate of the organic carboxylate anions in the crystal packing, while the presence of Ag⋯N and Ag⋯Ag contacts strengthens the frameworks. In addition, complexes 1-3 exhibit good photocatalytic activities for dye decolorization under UV light.

  11. Yeast mutants auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine.

    Atkinson, K D; Jensen, B.; Kolat, A I; Storm, E M; Henry, S. A.; Fogel, S

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which require exogenous ethanolamine or choline were isolated. The mutants map to a single locus (cho1) on chromosome V. The lipid composition suggests that cho1 mutants do not synthesize phosphatidylserine under any growth conditions. If phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine, which are usually derived from phosphatidylserine, were synthesized from exogenous ethanolamine or choline, the mutants grew and divided relatively normally....

  12. Test Research on Compound Polycarboxylic Acid Admixture During Winter Construction%复合型聚羧酸外加剂在冬期施工应用中的试验研究

    杨建国; 王明明; 李忠雨; 娄维萍; 马学伟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the E bid section in one stage of Jinwan Square, reasonable test method is selected during the winter construction of compound polycarboxylic acid admixture.Besides, effects of different concrete mix proportions are studied on the concrete workability, and effects of different maintenance conditions are researched on concrete compressive strength.The optimum mixing amount is chosen by analyzing data to be applied in the engineering.Good economic benefit is obtained.The results show that compound polycarboxylic acid admixture can not only enhance mechanical performance of concrete, but also offer the convenient construction technology.%结合津湾广场一期E标段工程,在聚羧酸外加剂冬期施工中,恰当选取试验方法,考虑不同混凝土配合比对混凝土工作性的影响以及不同养护条件对混凝土抗压强度的影响.经过数据分析,优选了聚羧酸的最佳掺量,并应用于工程中,取得了良好的经济效果.结果表明:复合型聚羧酸外加剂不仅能提高混凝土的力学性能,而且能提供简便易行的施工工艺.

  13. Torus Construction

    Valluri, Monica; Merritt, David

    1999-01-01

    The maximally compact representation of a regular orbit is in terms of its action-angle variables. Computing the map between a trajectory's Cartesian coordinates and its action-angle variables is called torus construction. This article reviews various approaches to torus construction and their application to galactic dynamics.

  14. Construction Management.

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  15. Superstring construction

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  16. Bipolar battery construction

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  17. Construction management

    PEFP, Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We made a conceptual design, basic design and detail design of conventional facilities. Also, we made the engineering support for host site construction as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management and impact analysis on the delay of project site selection

  18. Construction mathematics

    Virdi, Surinder

    2006-01-01

    Taking a starting point below that of GCSE level, by assuming no prior mathematical knowledge, Surinder Virdi and Roy Baker take the reader step by step through the mathematical requirements for Level 2 and 3 Building and Construction courses.Unlike the majority of basic level maths texts available, this book focuses exclusively on mathematics as it is applied in actual construction practice. As such, topics specific to the construction industry are presented, as well as essential areas for Level 2 craft NVQs - for example, costing calculations, labor costs, cost of materials and setting out o

  19. Construction of two Cd(II) complexes by flexible adipic acid plus 2-((benzoimidazol-yl)methyl)-1H-tetrazole ligand

    Duan, Wanlu; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Xiuxiu; Meng, Xiangru

    2015-10-01

    Two new complexes with the formulas [Cd(bimt)(adi)]n (1) and {[Cd(bimt)(adi)0.5Br]·H2O}n (2) were synthesized through reactions of 2-((benzoimidazol-yl)methyl)-1H-tetrazole (bimt) with Cd(II) salts in the presence of adipic acid (H2adi). Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that complex 1 shows a 1D chain structure in which adipate ligand coordinates to Cd(II) ions with μ3-bridging mode. Complex 2 displays a 2D layer structure with 4-connected (44·62) topology in which adipate ligand coordinates to Cd(II) ions with μ2-bridging mode. These results reveal that the versatile coordination modes of adipate ligands play an important role in controlling the structures of the complexes. In addition, their IR spectra, element analyses, PXRD patterns and luminescent properties are investigated.

  20. Worldwide construction

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  1. 基于PTS缺陷型大肠杆菌构建莽草酸生产菌%Construction of shikimic acid-producing engineered Escherichia coli strains based on ptsHIcrr mutants

    邹永康; 周军智; 孙旭; 蔡亚非; 戴红梅; 李树龙; 周长林; 方宏清

    2011-01-01

    对大肠杆菌芳香族氨基酸合成途径进行代谢流改造,以实现高效的生物制备莽草酸.以磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸-糖磷酸转移酶系统(PTS系统)敲除菌DH5αΔptsHIcrr(DHP)为基础,特异性敲除aroL,ydiB基因并转入受阿拉伯糖诱导表达的T7-RNA聚合酶基因,最终构建一系列产莽草酸宿主菌.再将aroE、aroB、tktA、glk、aroF组成的系列基因串联起来置于质粒上,在T7启动子控制下表达,经摇瓶培养检测得知,不同重组菌产莽草酸能力与对照相比均有明显提高,其中DHPYA-T7/pAOC-TGEFB菌株产量最高,可达到392 mg/L.为进一步构建高表达莽草酸工程菌奠定基础.%Metabolic engineering for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli to acquire high-level biosynthesis of shikimic acid was reported. Knockout of aroL, ydiB genes and knock-in of T7-RNA-Polymerase gene which expression was controlled by L-arabinose based on the initial strain DH5α△ptsHlcrr (DHP), resulted in a series of shikimic acid-producing host strains. A series of tandem genes consisting of aroE, aroB, tktA, glk or aroFfbr were controlled by T7 promoter on plasmids were transformed into these host strains. According to the concentration of shikimic acid in shake-flask culture, all the engineered strains displayed high-potentiality compared to the control strain DHP, and the strain DHPYA-T7/pAOC-TGEFB synthesized the highest yield of 392 mg/L of shikimic acid. This study layed a strong foundation for constructing a high-level shikimic acid-producing engineered strain.

  2. 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid/hemin nanocomposites act as redox probes and electrocatalysts for constructing a pseudobienzyme-channeling amplified electrochemical aptasensor.

    Yuan, Yali; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Gan, Xianxue; Bai, Lijuan

    2012-10-29

    A simple wet-chemical strategy for the synthesis of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA)/hemin nanocomposites through π-π interactions is demonstrated. Significantly, the hemin successfully conciliates PTCA redox activity with a pair of well-defined redox peaks and intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, which provides potential application of the PTCA self-derived redox activity as redox probes. Additionally, PTCA/hemin nanocomposites exhibit a good membrane-forming property, which not only avoids the conventional fussy process for redox probe immobilization, but also reduces the participation of the membrane materials that act as a barrier of electron transfer. On the basis of these unique properties, a pseudobienzyme-channeling amplified electrochemical aptasensor is developed that is coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx) for thrombin detection by using PTCA/hemin nanocomposites as redox probes and electrocatalysts. With the addition of glucose to the electrolytic cell, the GOx on the aptasensor surface bioelectrocatalyzed the reduction of glucose to produce H(2)O(2), which in turn was electrocatalyzed by the PTCA/hemin nanocomposites. Cascade schemes, in which an enzyme is catalytically linked to another enzyme, can produce signal amplification and therefore increase the biosensor sensitivity. As a result, a linear relationship for thrombin from 0.005 to 20 nM and a detection limit of 0.001 nM were obtained. PMID:23001991

  3. Construction safety

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  4. Construction Physics

    Bertelsen, Sven; Henrich, Guilherme; Koskela, Lauri; Rooke, John

    2007-01-01

    At the 14th annual conference in the International Group for Lean Construction in 2006 the authors presented the concept of construction as a process being fed by a number of flows out of which one is the critical one deciding the speed with which the process takes place. This contribution takes the idea further and sets out by discussing production in general and the underlying mental flow models associated with this understanding. It then suggests a new model for the understanding of the na...

  5. Construction work

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  6. pH非敏感型自交联共轭亚油酸囊泡的构建和表征%Construction and Characterization of a Novel pH-insensitive Self-crosslinked Ufasome of Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    樊晔; 方云; 高迪

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid( CLA) was employed as a molecular building block to construct a novel pH-insensitive fatty acid vesicle(FAV). First, CLA was semi-synthesized from linoleic acid through alkali isomerization. Subsequently, the ufasome(unsaturated fatty acid liposome) of CLA was self-assembled from the CLA molecules together with the CLA ions in response to pH, and a novel pH-insensitive FAV, the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV, was prepared by chemical tethering the CLA-ufasome through UV irradiation. The sui-table pH ranges and the CLA concentrations were determined by acid-base titration and surface tension mea-surement. The morphology of the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV was imaged by transmission electro microscopy ( TEM) and the pH-insensitive characteristic of the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV was tested by dynamic light scattering ( DLS ) . The experimental results indicated that the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV with diameter of 10-20 nm and wall thickness of 2.0 nm was obtained through a two-step procedure. At first, the CLA-ufa-some formed using the CLA species as a molecular building block at pH=8.6 and CLA concentration of 3 mmol/L, and then followed by UV irradiation self-crosslinking for 2.5 h. It was verified by DLS data that the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV is pH-insensitive in almost all pH ranges. Finally, the in vitro release results of 5-fluorouracil from the self-crosslinked-CLA FAV showed that the process was slow and sustainable.%以共轭亚油酸( Conjugated linoleic acid, CLA)为构造pH非敏感型脂肪酸囊泡( Fatty acid vesicle, FAV)的分子砌块,通过碱异构化法从亚油酸半合成CLA,然后采用pH刺激响应自组装法获得CLA的不饱和脂肪酸囊泡( Ufasome),采用紫外辐照诱导方式对CLA-ufasome实施囊泡内化学绑定,获得一种新的pH非敏感型FAV.通过酸碱滴定和表面张力实验确定CLA-ufasome形成的适宜pH范围和浓度,利用透射电子显微镜( TEM)表征了自交联CLA的FAV的

  7. Modelling Constructs

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these...... notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add...

  8. Constructive Interactions

    Lemoisson, Philippe; Cerri, Stefano A.; Mahe, Serge-André; Sallantin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The new paradigm of "knowledge construction using experiential based and collaborative learning approaches" is an outstanding opportunity for interdisciplinary research. This document is an attempt to introduce and exemplify as much as possible using the lexicon of "social sciences", considerations and tools belonging to "artificial intelligence" (eg.:the machine learning tradition). In the paper we first draw a conceptual framework for rational agents in conversational interaction; then we u...

  9. Constructing Catalonia

    Bill Phillips

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long b een concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problemati c relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a s ituation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 189 8, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginnin g in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a simil ar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, inde ed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and t he conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist politica l interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manip ulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homag e to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil Wa r which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portra yals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and F reedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuat ing a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  10. Constructing Costs

    Donner, Henrik af

    2000-01-01

    The economic analysis of building contracts is an unexplored field within Law and Economics. This paper makes an attempt to cast some light over the subject and encourage to more research within the field. The main purpose has been to describe why the actual price in a public construction project often turns out to be higher than the contract price and offer a way of handle that risk. In the paper a model is set up that shows an optimal contract given expectations on actual price and gaps in ...

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures and fluorescent properties of Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) coordination polymers constructed from 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid

    Three new d10 coordination polymers, namely [Cd(taa)Cl]n1, [Hg(taa)Cl]n2, and [Ag1.5(taa)(NO3)0.5]n3 (taa=1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acatate anion) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of two-dimensional layers constructed by carboxyl-linked helical chains, which are further linked through carboxyl group to generate a unique 3D open framework. Topological analysis reveals that the structure of 1 can be classified as an unprecedented (3,8)-connected network with the Schlaefli symbol (4.52)2(42.58.614.73.8). Compound 2 manifests a doubly interpenetrated decorated α-polonium cubic network with the Schlaefli symbol of (410.62.83). Compound 3 consists of 2D puckered layers made up of Ag centers and taa- bridges. In addition, all of these compounds are photoluminescent in the solid state with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor. - Graphical abstract: Three new compounds based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-acetic acid and Cd(II), Hg(II) and Ag(I) salts display luminescent properties and may be potential candidates for luminescent materials.

  12. Constructing Brambles

    Chapelle, Mathieu; Mazoit, Frédéric; Todinca, Ioan

    Given an arbitrary graph G and a number k, it is well-known by a result of Seymour and Thomas [22] that G has treewidth strictly larger than k if and only if it has a bramble of order k + 2. Brambles are used in combinatorics as certificates proving that the treewidth of a graph is large. From an algorithmic point of view there are several algorithms computing tree-decompositions of G of width at most k, if such decompositions exist and the running time is polynomial for constant k. Nevertheless, when the treewidth of the input graph is larger than k, to our knowledge there is no algorithm constructing a bramble of order k + 2. We give here such an algorithm, running in {mathcal O}(n^{k+4}) time. For classes of graphs with polynomial number of minimal separators, we define a notion of compact brambles and show how to compute compact brambles of order k + 2 in polynomial time, not depending on k.

  13. A Constructed Wetland: From Monitoring To Action.

    Kowal, Dan

    1998-01-01

    Presents a water-quality monitoring project in a Denver school that has evolved into an experiment using a constructed wetland system to treat the acid-mine drainage from an abandoned gold mine. (PVD)

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of two 1D nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by lanthanide with pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    The hydrothermal reactions of LnCl3.6H2O (Ln=Eu, Tb), pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid (3,4-pydaH2), 1,10-phenthroline (phen) and NaOH in aqueous medium yield two metal-organic hybrid materials, [Eu2(3,4-pyda)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (1) and [Tb2(3,4-pyda)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (2), respectively. Both compounds have similar topology structure containing one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. To the best of our knowledge, they represent the first example of nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by 3,4-pydaH2 and chelate heterocylic ligand. Interestingly, the 3,4-pyda anion exhibits three kinds of coordination modes in these complexes. The coordination modes of 3,4-pyda in complexes 1 and 2 have not been observed in other coordination polymers containing 3,4-pyda ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Their magnetic analyses show that they exhibit different magnetic interactions. - Graphical abstract: Two novel lanthanide coordination polymers [M2(pydc)3(phen)(H2O).H2O]n (M=Eu(1) and Tb(2), pydc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate, phen=1,10-phenthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. Both compounds reveal a one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via π-π stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. Their luminescent and magnetic properties have been investigated

  15. Constructing Aligned Assessments Using Automated Test Construction

    Porter, Andrew; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Barghaus, Katherine M.; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We describe an innovative automated test construction algorithm for building aligned achievement tests. By incorporating the algorithm into the test construction process, along with other test construction procedures for building reliable and unbiased assessments, the result is much more valid tests than result from current test construction…

  16. Plasmid construction using recombination activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Ayako Chino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Construction of plasmids is crucial in modern genetic manipulation. As of now, the common method for constructing plasmids is to digest specific DNA sequences with restriction enzymes and to ligate the resulting DNA fragments with DNA ligase. Another potent method to construct plasmids, known as gap-repair cloning (GRC, is commonly used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRC makes use of the homologous recombination activity that occurs within the yeast cells. Due to its flexible design and efficiency, GRC has been frequently used for constructing plasmids with complex structures as well as genome-wide plasmid collections. Although there have been reports indicating GRC feasibility in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, this species is not commonly used for GRC as systematic studies of reporting GRC efficiency in S. pombe have not been performed till date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated GRC efficiency in S. pombe in this study. We first showed that GRC was feasible in S. pombe by constructing a plasmid that contained the LEU2 auxotrophic marker gene in vivo and showed sufficient efficiency with short homology sequences (>25 bp. No preference was shown for the sequence length from the cut site in the vector plasmid. We next showed that plasmids could be constructed in a proper way using 3 DNA fragments with 70% efficiency without any specific selections being made. The GRC efficiency with 3 DNA fragments was dramatically increased >95% in lig4Delta mutant cell, where non-homologous end joining is deficient. Following this approach, we successfully constructed plasmid vectors with leu1+, ade6+, his5+, and lys1+ markers with the low-copy stable plasmid pDblet as a backbone by applying GRC in S. pombe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that GRC was sufficiently feasible in S. pombe for genome-wide gene functional analysis as well as for regular plasmid construction. Plasmids with different

  17. Polymer supported sulphanilic acid: A highly efficient and recyclable green heterogeneous catalyst for the construction of 4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromenes under solvent-free conditions

    Jashmin P Patel; Jemin R Avalani; Dipak K Raval

    2013-05-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene supported sulphanilic acid was prepared, characterized and tested as an acidic catalyst in multicomponent organic synthesis. This is the first report focusing on the development of one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 4,5- dihydropyrano [3,2-c]chromenes under acidic conditions. It proved to be a versatile catalyst for microwave-assisted synthesis of 4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromenes. This methodology is mild, high yielding, green and the catalyst could be easily recycled for several times.

  18. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of naturally occurring D-amino acids in sake.

    Gogami, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kaori; Oikawa, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    We measured all of the D- and L-amino acids in 141 bottles of sakes using HPLC. We used two precolumn derivatization methods of amino acid enantiomer detection with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, as well as (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate/1-aminoadamantane and one postcolumn derivatization method with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. We found that the sakes contained the D-amino acids forms of Ala, Asn, Asp, Arg, Glu, Gln, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Ser, Tyr, Val, Phe, and Pro. We were not able to detect D-Met, D-Thr D-Trp in any of the sakes analyzed. The most abundant D-Ala, D-Asp, and D-Glu ranged from 66.9 to 524.3 μM corresponding to relative 34.4, 12.0, and 14.6% D-enantiomer. The basic parameters that generally determine the taste of sake such as the sake meter value (SMV; "Nihonshudo"), acidity ("Sando"), amino acid value ("Aminosando"), alcohol content by volume, and rice species of raw material show no significant relationship to the D-amino acid content of sake. The brewing water ("Shikomimizu") and brewing process had effects on the D-amino acid content of the sakes: the D-amino acid contents of the sakes brewed with deep-sea water "Kaiyoushinosousui", "Kimoto yeast starter", "Yamahaimoto", and the long aging process "Choukijukusei" are high compared with those of other sakes analyzed. Additionally, the D-amino acid content of sakes that were brewed with the adenine auxotroph of sake yeast ("Sekishoku seishu kobo", Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without pasteurization ("Hiire") increased after storage at 25 °C for three months. PMID:21555255

  20. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  1. Determination of acute lethal and chronic lethal dose thresholds of valproic acid using 3D spheroids constructed from the immortal human hepatocyte cell line HepG2/C3A

    Fey, S. J.; Wrzesinski, K.

    2013-01-01

    describe here a culture system based on 3D spheroid culture of immortal hepatocytes which can determine the toxicity of valproic acid (or structurally or functionally related molecules) in vitro. The spheroids were used to follow changes in ATP production, glucose uptake and adenylate kinase following...

  2. USAID Construction Assessment

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from...

  3. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  4. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...

  5. Acid-Mediated N-H/α,β-C(sp(3))-H Trifunctionalization of Pyrrolidine: Intermolecular [3 + 2] Cycloaddition for the Construction of 2,3-Dihydro-1H-Pyrrolizine Derivatives.

    Zheng, Kai-Lu; Shu, Wen-Ming; Ma, Jun-Rui; Wu, Yan-Dong; Wu, An-Xin

    2016-08-01

    A one-pot acid-mediated reaction has been developed for the N-H/α,β-C(sp(3))-H trifunctionalization of pyrrolidine without any metallic reagents or external oxidants. This reaction involves the intermolecular [3 + 2] cycloaddition of in situ-generated azomethine ylides with acrylic esters to provide facile access to 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine derivatives in high yields under mild conditions. PMID:27396906

  6. Construction Management : Study Book

    Ilveskoski, Olli; Niittymäki, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    This publication is a summary of the Construction Management course handscript. The objective is that as the students gets involved with the Construction Management of Building Projects they will learn Construction Management topics like Building Process, Production planning, Quantity Take Off, Cost Estimation, Scheduling, Work Safety and Quality Control. The study book has been in use in Construction Management courses in Häme University of Applied Sciences.

  7. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION

    Saeli, .

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which has a vast number of possibilities in construction, ranging from energy conservation and coatings to structural enhancement and stress monitoring, has not yet made an important difference in construction compared to other major industries even when there has been a big progress in awareness and investigation in the last years. Nanotechnology has the potential to extend the limits of construction bringing new and enhanced products that can foster the construction activity...

  8. Track Construction Manual.

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  9. GPS Applications in Construction

    Stranger, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    This session will explore the use of GPS technology in the construction engineering aspects of highway projects. Discussion will include control of line and grade for construction equipment and how the state inspector can verify the construction is according to plans without physical surveying stakes.

  10. Engineering biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strains for amino acid, diamine and carotenoid production.

    Peters-Wendisch, P; Götker, S; Heider, S A E; Komati Reddy, G; Nguyen, A Q; Stansen, K C; Wendisch, V F

    2014-12-20

    The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum is auxotrophic for biotin. Besides the biotin uptake system BioYMN and the transcriptional regulator BioQ, this bacterium possesses functional enzymes for the last three reactions of biotin synthesis starting from pimeloyl-CoA. Heterologous expression of bioF from the Gram-negative Escherichia coli enabled biotin synthesis from pimelic acid added to the medium, but expression of bioF together with bioC and bioH from E. coli did not entail biotin prototrophy. Heterologous expression of bioWAFDBI from Bacillus subtilis encoding another biotin synthesis pathway in C. glutamicum allowed for growth in biotin-depleted media. Stable growth of the recombinant was observed without biotin addition for eight transfers to biotin-depleted medium while the empty vector control stopped growth after the first transfer. Expression of bioWAFDBI from B. subtilis in C. glutamicum strains overproducing the amino acids l-lysine and l-arginine, the diamine putrescine, and the carotenoid lycopene, respectively, enabled formation of these products under biotin-depleted conditions. Thus, biotin-prototrophic growth and production by recombinant C. glutamicum were achieved. PMID:24486440

  11. Towards green construction

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  12. A 3-D Metal-Organic Framework Constructed with Manganese(ΙΙ), 4,4'-Oxybis(benzoic acid) and 2,2'-Biphenyl: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Photoelectric Property Characterization

    Fu-Hou Lei; Kai-Sheng Diao; Yu-Qiu Ding; Long Li

    2012-01-01

    Assembly of 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid) (H2L) with manganese chloride in the presence of 2,2'-biphenyl (2,2'-bpy) affords a new coordination polymer [Mn3L3(2,2'-bpy)2]n (1), in which the [MnL2]n layers are extended by L bridges resulting in a three-dimensional (3-D) coordination framework. The network structure of 1 has unusual (2,6)-connectivity and represents a new type of (812·123)(8)(3) topology. These identical and complementary networks are entangled to generate a self...

  13. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  14. Tilt-up construction

    Crompton, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    CIVINS Tilt-up construction is a special form of precast concrete construction. The technique is used for constructing buildings by prefabricating concrete wall sections (panels) in a horizontal position on either the building's floor slab or on a temporary casting slab. Once the wall sections have cured, they are tilted to a vertical position using a mobile crane, they are temporarily braced in their final upright position, and finally, they are tied into the building's roof and floor sys...

  15. Construction Automation and Robotics

    Bock, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of the construction process and the stagnating technological development a long-term preparation is necessary to adapt it to advanced construction methods. Architects, engineers and all other participants of the construction process have to be integrated in this adaptation process. The short- and long-term development of automation will take place step-by-step and will be oriented to the respective application and requirements. In the initial phase existing building...

  16. Construction Project Organization

    Pytlíčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor‘s thesis deals with „Construction Project Organization“. The theoretical part of this thesis explains the basic concepts of project management, describes the project´s life cycle, time planning and deals with the change management at the end of the theoretical part. The practical part deals with the project management of construction and mainly with time planning done by construction work schedule. The issue is solved on a real project led by the Czech construction company, and t...

  17. HITACHI construction CAE system

    Construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants have important problems such as shortening the construction period and reducing the construction cost. Recently, the problem of insufficient construction labor has arisen, and as drastic strategic development has become a necessary counter-measure. The following four principles are included in the measures to be taken for efficient execution of the construction work within the short construction period: (1) reduction of on-site work and expansion of module block making, (2)improvement of the accuracy of the on-site work process, adjustment and expansion of the work in parallel with the construction process, (3)improvement of efficiency of the on-site work and mechanization and automation of the work, (4)improvement of the accuracy of the management of the construction. A three dimensional simulation system plant construction plan CAE, comprising five modules has been developed. A project management system was also developed to improve the accuracy and efficiency of management work in the field

  18. Five new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers constructed by 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, network topologies and luminescent properties

    Five Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers, [Zn2(BOABA)(bpp)(OH)]·0.5H2O (1), [Cd3(BOABA)2(bpp)2(H2O)6]·2H2O (2), [Cd3(BOABA)2(2,2′-bipy)3(H2O)4]·5.5H2O (3), [CdNa(BOABA)(H2O)]2·H2O (4) and [Cd2(BOABA)(bimb)Cl(H2O)2]·H2O (5) (H3BOABA=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid, bpp=1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, 2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, bimb=1,4-bis(imidazol-1′-yl)butane), have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra and TG analyses. 1 is an uninodal 4-connected 2D square grid network based on binuclear zinc clusters. 2 is 2D wavelike layer structure and further linked by hydrogen bonds into the final 3D (5,6,6)-connected topology network. 3 is 3-connected 2D topology network and the 2,2′-bipy ligands decorate in two different types. 4 is a (4,8)-connected 2D topology network with heterocaryotic {Cd2Na2} clusters and BOABA3– ligands. 5 can be rationalized as a (3,10)-connected 3D topology network with tetranuclear {Cd4Cl2} clusters and BOABA3– ligands. Meanwhile, photoluminescence studies revealed that these five coordination polymers display strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Five new d10 metal(II) coordination polymers based on H3BOABA ligand were obtained and characterized. They display different topological structures and luminescent properties. Highlights: ► Five d10 metal(II) polymers based on 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid were obtained. ► The polymers were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. ► Polymers 1–5 display different topological structures. ► They show strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state.

  19. Rural Infrastructure Construction in New Socialist Countryside Construction

    Guo, Hong-sheng; Guo, Yue-jun

    2012-01-01

    In the background of new socialist countryside construction, rural infrastructure construction is favorable to consolidating fundamental position of agriculture, expanding rural job opportunities, increasing farmers’ income, and favorable to development of rural economy and the national economy. Rural infrastructure construction mainly includes construction of agricultural basic production conditions, construction of rural ecological environment, construction of agricultural service system,...

  20. Personal Usability Constructs

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  1. Intentionality Versus Constructive Empiricism

    Buekens, F.A.I.; Muller, Archibald

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBy focussing on the intentional character of observation in science, we argue that Constructive Empiricism-B. C. van Fraassen's much debated and explored view of science-is inconsistent. We then argue there are at least two ways out of our Inconsistency Argument, one of which is more easily to square with Constructive Empiricism than the other.

  2. Nuclear reactor constructions

    A method of constructing a radiation shielding plug for use in the roof of the coolant containment vault of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described. The construction allows relative movement of that part of service cables and pipes which are carried by the fixed roof and that part which is carried by the rotatable plug. (U.K.)

  3. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  4. Curriculum Guide Construction Cluster.

    Kline, Ken

    As part of a model construction cluster curriculum development project, this guide was developed and implemented in the Beaverton (Oregon) School District. The curriculum guide contains 16 units covering the following topics: introduction to construction jobs; safety and first aid; blueprint readings; basic mathematics; site work; framing; roofing…

  5. Safety in construction?

    Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The available literature on Construction Safety is not very optimistic about the chances of evidence-based safety in the construction industry exerting a positive influence. Many articles indicate that the structures and processes that are designed to ensure safety in the industry are poor. Safety m

  6. A 3-D Metal-Organic Framework Constructed with Manganese(ΙΙ, 4,4'-Oxybis(benzoic acid and 2,2'-Biphenyl: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Photoelectric Property Characterization

    Fu-Hou Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid (H2L with manganese chloride in the presence of 2,2'-biphenyl (2,2'-bpy affords a new coordination polymer [Mn3L3(2,2'-bpy2]n (1, in which the [MnL2]n layers are extended by L bridges resulting in a three-dimensional (3-D coordination framework. The network structure of 1 has unusual (2,6-connectivity and represents a new type of (812·123(8(3 topology. These identical and complementary networks are entangled to generate a self-penetrating supramolecular lattice. Moreover, the fluorescence spectrum of 1 exhibits fluorescent emission in the solution of methanol at room temperature. Electrochemical investigation illustrates the electrochemical properties of the title compound. The structure (C62H40Mn3N4O15n is monoclinic with a = 14.2304(18, b = 17.019(2, c = 25.805(3 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 92.932(2° and space group C2/c.

  7. Different Dimensional and Structural Variations in Coordination Compounds of Cadmium, Manganese and Nickel Constructed from the Ligand 2,2'-Bipyidine-3,3',6,6'-tetracarboxylic Acid (H4bptc)

    The reactions of hydrated CdCl2, MnCl2, and NiCl2 with 2,2'-bipyidine-3,3',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4bptc) afforded the mononuclear [CdII(H2bptc)(H2O)3]·H2O (1), linear [Cd(H2bptc)(H2O)]·3H2On (2), 3-D hetero-bimetallic [NaCd(Hbptc)(H2O)] (3), layer [Mn(H2bptc)(H2O)]n (4) and a dinuclear compound [Ni2(H2bptc)-(H2O)2]·6H2O (5). These compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and their structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The thermal stabilities of 1-3 were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and their solid state luminescence properties together with the free ligand H4bptc were investigated at room temperature

  8. Different Dimensional and Structural Variations in Coordination Compounds of Cadmium, Manganese and Nickel Constructed from the Ligand 2,2'-Bipyidine-3,3',6,6'-tetracarboxylic Acid (H{sub 4}bptc)

    Xiang, Jing; Yang, Tiantian; Fu, Lulu; Luo, Ya; Wu, Jiashou [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    The reactions of hydrated CdCl{sub 2}, MnCl{sub 2}, and NiCl{sub 2} with 2,2'-bipyidine-3,3',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}bptc) afforded the mononuclear [Cd{sup II}(H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (1), linear [Cd(H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O{sub n} (2), 3-D hetero-bimetallic [NaCd(Hbptc)(H{sub 2}O)] (3), layer [Mn(H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O)]n (4) and a dinuclear compound [Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}bptc)-(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (5). These compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and their structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The thermal stabilities of 1-3 were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and their solid state luminescence properties together with the free ligand H{sub 4}bptc were investigated at room temperature.

  9. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  10. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  11. Operations management for construction

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  12. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  13. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H2L)(bix)(H2O)2]·2h2O}n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ni(L)0.5(bpp)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H4L=terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4‧-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H4L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework with H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]n ribbon chains motif, in which the H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η1 and μ1-η1:η0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H4L ligand displays a μ4-bridging coordination mode. The H4L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1-3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented.

  14. Folic Acid

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  15. Diversity in coordination behavior of dipicolinic acid with lead(II), calcium(II), and nickel(II) in the presence of pyrazine and 2-amino-4-methylpyridine spacers in construction of three supramolecular architectures

    Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Aghabozorg, Hossein; Mirzaei, Masoud; Amini, Mostafa M.; Chen, Ya-Guang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Roghayyeh

    2010-06-01

    Three coordination compounds, [Pb(pydc)] n ( 1), [Ca 2(pydc) 2(H 2O) 6]·2pydcH 2 ( 2), and [ampyH] 2[Ni(H 2O) 6][Ni(pydc) 2] 2·2H 2O ( 3) (pydc = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate ion and ampy = 2-amino-4-methylpyridine), have been prepared by the hydrothermal method and characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, 1H NMR spectroscopies, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1 the connection of Pb(II) atom and pydc in a double-bridge and double-chelation coordination mode creates a layer structure extending in [2 0 2¯] plane, there is a π-π stacking interaction between these layers with a short face-to-face distance of 3.289 Å. Compound 2 consists of two pydcH 2 molecules and a binuclear calcium(II) complex formed by the single-bridge and double-chelation coordination of pydc ligand. Compound 3 consists of two coordination anions [Ni(pydc) 2] 2-, one coordination cation, [Ni(H 2O) 6] 2+, two protonated organic cations, ampyH +, and two water molecules. In [Ni(pydc) 2] 2-, Ni1 is coordinated by two (pydc) 2- ligands in a double-chelate mode, exhibiting an octahedral geometry. The π-π stacking interactions between pydcH 2 and the Ca complex in 2 and between pydc ligands in 3, and also the hydrogen bonds between coordination water molecules and pydcH 2/pydc are the 3D supramolecular architecture constructing force. The protonation constants of ampy, pz (pyrazine) and pydcH 2, as the building blocks of the proton transfer systems (pydcH 2-ampy and pydcH 2-pz) and their corresponding stability constants were determined by potentiometric studies. The stoichiometry and stability constants of pydc-ampy complex with Ni 2+ and pydc-pz complexes with Ca 2+ and Pb 2+ was investigated by potentiometric technique in aqueous solution. The results from solution studies were compared with the solid state data, in details.

  16. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  17. Construction and Demolition Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... therefore should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This...

  18. Construction program management

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  19. Radon resistant new construction

    This paper consist of the awareness about the ill effects of radon gas and the methods adopted to detect the presence of radon gas and to remove the radon gas. It explains the installation of radon resistant structures during home construction. Radon is commonly found in the air and water, where it poses little risk. But radon that creeps into your home from the soil can be a much greater risk. Radon-resistant construction combines common building techniques and materials to seal entry points and route the gases outdoors, helping to prevent radon from entering the home. The benefits due to radon resistant construction is also explained in this paper. (author)

  20. Construction Experience Program (CONEX)

    A summary of the activities of the NEA WGRNR is introduced. In particular the following tasks related to the ConEx (Construction Experience Program) are presented: Rationale and goals of the ConEx program, Development of the event construction database ConEx and its structure, ConEx procedure for program management (uses of ConEx to create knowledge, conclusions of the ConEx synthesis first report on lessons learned during construction, Potential ConEx program uses for operating experience, training, etc.)

  1. Constructing supramolecular nanostructure by hydrogen-bonding

    LI YiBao; ZENG QingDao; WANG ZhiHui; QI GuiCun; GUAN Li; FAN XiaoLin; WANG Chen

    2008-01-01

    The diquinoxalino (2.3-2'.3'-a.c) phenazine (DQP), containing 6 nitrogen atoms, was synthesized, and its adsorption and self-assembling behavior on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ambient conditions. With 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid as a bridge, uniform two-dimensional arrays of 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid/DQP nanostrueture were suc-cessfully fabricated. The result illustrates that it is possible to construct and control supramolecular nanostructure by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.

  2. Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types

    P. Gendarz; M. Cielniak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the ...

  3. Utilization of acid tars

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  4. Pluto's Putative Cryovolcanic Constructs

    Singer, K. N.; White, O. L.; Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.; Spencer, J. R.; McKinnon, W. B.; Howard, A. D.; Stern, A. S.; Cook, J. C.; Grundy, W. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Beyer, R. A.; Umurhan, O.; Howett, C. J. A.; Parker, A. H.; Protopapa, S.; Lauer, T. R.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.

    2016-06-01

    New Horizons imaged two large mounds with deep central depressions on Pluto. Both features appear constructional, and have relatively young surfaces. This mapping is part of effort to characterize and assess the age and origin of the mounds.

  5. On Construction Grammar

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  6. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  7. Power plant construction method

    Each building is covered at upper than the position of a ceiling crane, each of the ceiling crane always disposed for every building is moved to an optional building to treat equipments and building materials by each of the ceiling crane. A plurality of ceiling cranes are used for transporting one large and heavy weighted equipment or each ceiling crane is used also individually to transport equipments to each building, construction operations are thus conducted using a plurality of ceiling cranes in one identical building or in each of buildings in a state undergoing no influences of the outer circumstance by covering the roofs. Large sized or heavy weighted equipments can be carried in, to proceed the construction smoothly, and in addition, since the construction can be performed in a state scarcely undergoing influence of outer circumstance, the period of time required for the construction can be shortened. (N.H.)

  8. Construction Minerals Operations

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Predictable grammatical constructions

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    My aim in this paper is to provide evidence from diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in grammar and consequently in human cognition, in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable grammatical units, suggesting that these...... predictable units should be considered grammatical constructions on a par with the nonpredictable constructions. Frequency has usually been seen as the only possible argument speaking in favor of viewing some formally and semantically fully predictable units as grammatical constructions. However, this paper...... semantically and formally predictable. Despite this difference, [méllo INF], like the other future periphrases, seems to be highly entrenched in the cognition (and grammar) of Early Medieval Greek language users, and consequently a grammatical construction. The syntactic evidence speaking in favor of [méllo...

  10. Employment and winter construction

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  11. Constructions of Peripherality

    Carter, Helen Frances Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    rural area of Northern Ireland, and the manner in which peripherality is constructed by a variety of different actors in this debate. In the case discussed in the article, peripherality is constructed in different ways by different actors, yet the debate becomes somewhat polarised into the environmental......In this paper I focus on the concept of peripheralisation. In particular, I consider how peripheries can be discursively constructed in the debates surrounding planning cases, and how this might serve to legitimate particular interests. This is related to the case of a proposed golf resort in a...... values of a periphery versus the ‘need’ for economic development in such a periphery. In this paper I will analyse these constructions of peripherality and discuss the manner in which different framings of the region affects planning, and perhaps legitimates certain developments. This offers a...

  12. Passive solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  13. Nuclear power plant construction

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  14. Construction of Permutation Snarks

    Hägglund, Jonas; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    A permutation snark is a snark which has a 2-factor $F_2$ consisting of two chordless circuits; $F_2$ is called the permutation 2-factor of $G$. We construct an infinite family $\\mathcal H$ of cyclically 5-edge connected permutation snarks. Moreover, we prove for every member $G \\in \\mathcal H$ that the permutation 2-factor given by the construction of $G$ is not contained in any circuit double cover of $G$.

  15. Education for sustainable construction

    Bragança, L.; Koukkari, Heli; Veljkovic, Milan; Borg, Ruben Paul

    2011-01-01

    The COST Action C25 "Sustainability of Constructions - Integrated Approach to Life-time Structural Engineering" is a network of scientists and researchers from 28 European countries and the EU Joint Research Centre in Ispra. It was established to promote science-based developments in sustainable construction in Europe through research on life-time structural engineering. The COST Action has been active since 2006.

  16. Steep Cut Construction

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the Steep Cut Construction. This project describes construction of a petrol filling station on Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. The project was unique in that the necessary area for the filling station was required to be cut from the base of a steeply sloping soil/rock slope adjacent to a busy highway.

  17. Constructing quantum codes

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  18. CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY

    ANTOANETA CLAUDIA BUTUZA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main types of contractual arrangements used worldwide in construction: traditional contracts, cost reimbursable type contracts, management contracts and other contractual arrangements such as partnership, offering two-phase, contracts in series and turnkey contracts. Also, based on a comparison of the main types of contractual arrangements a number of recommendations are suggested for choosing the appropriate type of contract construction project to be realized.

  19. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Srikrishna Karanam; Amarjot Singh; Devinder Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of acc...

  20. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  1. AP1000 construction schedule

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  2. Fat-1基因真核表达载体的构建及其对人口腔鳞癌细胞脂肪酸含量的影响%Construction of Fat-1 Eukaryotic Expression Vector and Its Effect on Fatty Acids Content of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    李栋; 聂代邦; 王海军; 段新平; 逄大欣; 欧阳红生

    2011-01-01

    目的:构建真核表达载体 pcDNA3.1-Fat1,线性化稳定转染人口腔鳞癌细胞株Tca8113,检测其细胞内脂肪酸含量变化.方法:通过重叠延伸PCR方法人工合成利于真核表达的Fat-1基因,用基因重组技术构建真核表达载体pcDNA3.1-Fat-1,用脂质体转染真核细胞的方法转染人口腔鳞癌细胞株Tca8113,用气相色谱仪检测脂肪酸的变化情况.结果:测序及酶切鉴定成功合成真核偏好表达的Fat-1基因.与对照组相比,转染Fat-1基因的口腔癌细胞的n-3脂肪酸明显增多,n-6/n-3明显下降.结论:成功构建真核表达载体 pcDNA3.1-Fat1,并对口腔鳞癌细胞内脂肪酸含量产生明显影响,为进一步研究Fat-1基因在口腔鳞癌中的生物学功能奠定了基础.%Objective: To construct eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-Fat1 and transfect human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line Tca8113, then tested the changes of fatty acids content in Tca8113.Methods: The Fat-1 gene was constructed by SOE-PCR.The pcDNA3.1-Fat1 was constructed by using recombinant DNA technology, human oral squamous carcinoma cells line Tca8113cells was transfected using lipofection method.The fatty acids content of the transfected Tca8113 cells was detected by using gas chromatography technology.Results: Eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.l-Fatl was successfully constructed and transfected into human oral squamous carcinoma cell lineTca8113.The cells that expressed the fat-1 gene had a lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with the cells that expressed the control vector.Conclusion: The pcDNA3.1-Fat1 is successfully constructed, and it has significant effect on the PUFAs content of Tca8113 cells, which makes a foundation in the future study on the biological function of Fat-1 gene in human oral squamous carcinoma.

  3. Uso de entulho de construção civil como sistema de cobertura para abatimento de drenagem ácida de mina em uma mina abandonada de pirita Use of solid residues from civil construction as a covering system for acid mine drainage abatement in an abandoned pyrite mine

    Natália Cristiane de Moraes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Em Ouro Preto/MG, pirita foi extraída em uma antiga mina, denominada Jazida de Pirita, durante os anos de 1930 a 1967. Considerada como uma das melhores jazidas de pirita no Brasil, essa mina foi explotada com o objetivo de atender à demanda por ácido sulfúrico, para fabricação de explosivos, da Fábrica Presidente Vargas em Piquete/SP. O local da mina está abandonado e tem, como principais passivos ambientais, a instabilidade das encostas e a geração de drenagem ácida. Atualmente, o local tem sido utilizado para lançamento clandestino de entulho na área o que contribui para o aumento do impacto ambiental. A Prefeitura de Ouro Preto, por sua vez, tem intenção de usar parte da área da mina para disposição de resíduo de construção civil. Esse artigo apresenta os resultados dos ensaios cinéticos realizados, em colunas de lixiviação, para avaliação do potencial de geração de drenagem ácida, em amostras coletadas da mina de pirita, e analisa a possibilidade de controle ou de minimização da drenagem ácida, utilizando-se do entulho como cobertura. Os resultados encontrados mostram que a utilização do entulho como sistema de cobertura foi eficiente na redução de acidez, na concentração de metais e sulfato presentes nas colunas analisadas.In Ouro Preto/MG, pyrite was exploited at an old mine from 1930 through 1967. Considered as one of the best resources of pyrite in Brazil, this mine was exploited in order to supply sulfuric acid for explosives manufacturing, at the President Vargas Plant in Piquete/SP. The mine site is abandoned and has slope instability and acid leakage generation as the main environmental liabilities. Lately, the site has been used for illegal deposition of all sorts of urban waste. The Ouro Preto Administration, on its turn, has the intention of using part of the mine site for the disposal of solid residues of civil construction. This paper presents the results of kinetic tests carried out, in

  4. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  5. Construction time of PWRs

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  6. Construction time of PWRs

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.b, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  7. Construction and Demolition Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and...... therefore should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This...

  8. Logic, construction, computation

    Berger, Ulrich; Diener, Hannes; Seisenberger, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades the interest of logicians and mathematicians in constructive and computational aspects of their subjects has been steadily growing, and researchers from disparate areas realized that they can benefit enormously from the mutual exchange of techniques concerned with those aspects. A key figure in this exciting development is the logician and mathematician Helmut Schwichtenberg to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 70th birthday and his turning emeritus. The volume contains 20 articles from leading experts about recent developments in Constructive set t

  9. Constructing populations in biobanking

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...... construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in...... relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations....

  10. Construction Management Meets Today's Realities.

    Day, C. William

    1979-01-01

    Construction management--the control of cost and time from concept through construction--grew out of a need to meet the realities of today's economy. A checklist of services a construction manager provides is presented. (Author/MLF)

  11. Rural Infrastructure Construction in New Socialist Countryside Construction

    2012-01-01

    In the background of new socialist countryside construction,rural infrastructure construction is favorable to consolidating fundamental position of agriculture,expanding rural job opportunities,increasing farmers’ income,and favorable to development of rural economy and the national economy. Rural infrastructure construction mainly includes construction of agricultural basic production conditions,construction of rural ecological environment,construction of agricultural service system,and construction of rural living facilities. Finally,we put forward approaches and methods for strengthening rural infrastructure construction: firstly,increase fund input to provide financial support for rural infrastructure construction; second ly,make scientific village planning to ensure sustainability of rural infrastructure construction; thirdly,arouse farmers’ enthusiasm and initiative to promote stable development of rural infrastructure construction.

  12. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  13. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  14. Increase of betulinic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by balancing fatty acids and betulinic acid forming pathways.

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Betulinic acid is a plant-based triterpenoid that has been recognized for its antitumor and anti-HIV activities. The level of betulinic acid in its natural hosts is extremely low. In the present study, we constructed betulinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering. Given the betulinic acid forming pathways sharing the common substrate acetyl-CoA with fatty acid synthesis, the metabolic fluxes between the two pathways were varied by changing gene expressions, and their effects on betulinic acid production were investigated. We constructed nine S. cerevisiae strains representing nine combinations of the flux distributions between betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways. Our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve the betulinic acid production in S. cerevisiae while keeping a desirable growth phenotype by optimally balancing the carbon fluxes of the two pathways. Through modulating the expressions of the key genes on betulinic acid and fatty acid pathways, the difference in betulinic acid yield varied largely in the range of 0.01-1.92 mg L(-1) OD(-1). The metabolic engineering approach used in this study could be extended for synthesizing other triterpenoids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24389702

  15. On the Kummer construction

    Andreatta, Marco; Wisniewski, Jaroslaw A.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of Kummer construction which, on the base of an integral representation of a finite group and local resolution of its quotient, produces a higher dimensional variety with trivial canonical class. As an application we compute cohomology of some generalized Kummer varieties.

  16. Mortality table construction

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  17. Principles of constructional change

    Fried, Mirjam

    Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2013 - (Hoffmann, T.; Trousdale, G.), s. 419-437 ISBN 978-0-19-539668-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/2021 Keywords : grammaticalization * gradualness of change * constructionalization * constructional map Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  18. Constructing Regional advantage

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  19. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  20. Construct for excellence II

    McInnis, A

    2001-01-01

    Professor Arthur McInnis continues his review of the Report of the Construction Industry Review Committee ('CIRC'). This month he looks at its recommendations on risk management, quality, value management, sub-contractor registration, structured site supervision and independent audits — as well as a proposed new institutional framework.

  1. Skin Problems in Construction

    ... 1926.95 www.osha.gov Check the Label & Safety Data Sheet: OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard – 29 CFR 1926.59 www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert ...

  2. Construction of Resilient Functions

    ZHANG Jie; WEN Qiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    Based on the relationship between nonlinearity and resiliency of a multi-output function, we present a method for constructing nonintersecting linear codes from packing design. Through these linear codes, we obtain n-variable, moutput, t-resilient functions with very high nonlinearity.Their nonlinearities are currently the best results for most of cases.

  3. Constructions in Wonderland

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard; Shibuya, Yoshikata

    -gram analysis to some different texts, including Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (AW), Mark Twain's 1884/5 novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (HF), and some US presidential speeches, to identify frequently (co)occurring words that may be indicative of underlying constructions...

  4. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  5. Energy-Friendly Construction

    2006-01-01

    A building is a base for human activities, but it also consumes a large amount of energy and resources. Of all the newly constructed buildings throughout China, it is estimated only 10 to 15 percent are up to the state standard, and over 80 percent require enormous energy consumption. This

  6. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  7. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  8. Mirror Symmetry Constructions

    Clader, Emily

    2014-01-01

    These expository notes are based on lectures by Yongbin Ruan during a special semester on the B-model at the University of Michigan in Winter 2014. They outline and compare the mirror symmetry constructions of Batyrev-Borisov, Hori-Vafa, and Bergland-Hubsch-Krawitz.

  9. Construction Management: Planning Ahead.

    Arsht, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explains that preconstruction planning is essential when undertaking the challenges of a school building renovation or expansion, focusing on developing a detailed estimate, creating an effective construction strategy, conducting reviews and value-engineering workshops, and realizing savings through effective risk analysis and contingency…

  10. Neuroeconomics: Constructing identity

    J.B. Davis

    2010-01-01

    The paper asks whether neuroeconomics will make instrumental use of neuroscience to adjudicate existing disputes in economics or be more seriously transformed by neuroscience in ways that might transform economics. The paper pursues the question by asking how neuroscience constructs an understanding

  11. Handley Page metal construction

    1929-01-01

    In this report Handley Page construction techniques are shown such as: solid-drawn tubular duralumin spars are used in the stabilizer; plain channel sections are used extensively for minor components; and the manner of assembling them into a stabilizer compression strut is shown.

  12. Constructive Approach Towards Protocells

    Sugawara, Tadashi; Kurihara, Kensuke; Suzuki, Kentaro

    2013-12-01

    In this chapter, we describe the construction of a self-reproducing giant vesicle (GV) and the replication of an informational substance (DNA) in the GV. The linkage between these two amplification dynamics has led to generation of a model protocell.

  13. Structural safety during construction

    Terwel, K.C.; Mud, M.; Frijters, A.

    2014-01-01

    Structural safety during construction is a main concern for the building industry. Collapses of temporary structures or incomplete permanent structures are a threat for the safety of persons. Based on data from Dutch Labour Inspectorate this study concluded that approximately 20% of the fatalities d

  14. Construction Mechanic 1 & C.

    Seitz, Thomas E.

    This Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package that will enable Naval Construction Mechanics First and Chief to fulfill the requirements of their rating. (Persons holding these ratings direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in maintaining, repairing, and overhauling automotive,…

  15. [Gastric Acid].

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  16. Quantitative constructional attributes selection in construction series of types

    P. Gendarz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of research was to analyze the selection process of quantitative constructional attributes in construction series of types.Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative constructional attributes selection process is based on constructional similarity theory.Findings: The constructional similarity theory allows to select the quantitative constructional attributes.Research limitations/implications: The final construction similarity is not complete because of adjusting the dimension values to preferred numbers, catalogue and standardized elements dimensions etc.Practical implications: Presented method was applied to generate the constructions series of types with the use of quantitative constructional attributes selection process.Originality/value: Described analysis presents the process of selecting the quantitative constructional attributes with computer aid.

  17. Total Synthesis of (±)-Mitorubrinic Acid

    Marsini, Maurice A.; Gowin, Kristoffer M.; Pettus, Thomas R. R.

    2006-01-01

    (±)-Mitorubrinic acid, a member of the azaphilone family of natural products, has been constructed in 12 steps. Key aspects of the synthesis include elaboration and oxidative dearomatization of an isocoumarin intermediate to provide the azaphilone nucleus with a disubstituted, unsaturated carboxylic acid side chain.

  18. The Specifications for Monitoring of Acid Rain

    Tang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Since China is a country seriously affected by acid rain pollution,it is a long-term fundamental work for acid rain pollution prevention and control in China by getting well informed of the characteristics of spatial and temporal changes in acid rain and long-term trends of these changes.In order to reach the national demand for acid rain monitoring data,the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began to construct the network of acid rain monitoring stations in 1992.By the end of 2010,the total number of monitoring stations has exceeded 340.

  19. Recycling construction waste and re – use in road construction

    Kumlanc, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Construction activities have a huge harmful influence on environment, caused by the explotation of natural resourcess, production and transportation of materials, construction and demolition and finally the building itself. To minimize construction activities on environment, we need to reduce usage of primary sources and attend to prepare secundary sources. The present work describes recycling construction and demolition waste and re-using in building roads and other construction. In Diploma ...

  20. Constructing futures : industry leaders and future thinking in construction.

    Chan, Paul; Cooper, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in future scenario planning of the construction industry but a disconnect between thinking about the future at the policy-making level and implementing real change. Constructing Futures: industry leaders and futures thinking in construction takes a thematic approach to the future of the UK construction industry by presenting the results of a series of in-depth interviews conducted with leading construction figures and structuring this material into chapters addressin...

  1. Foreign construction workers in Singapore.

    Ofori G

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the construction industry in Singapore. Studies the structure of the construction workforce, the terms of employment, policies towards worker, the effects of employment of foreign workers on local industry, the reducing reliance on foreign construction workers, and the future trends in Singapore's requirements for construction workers.

  2. Construction quality assurance report

    Roscha, V.

    1994-09-08

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  3. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  4. Constructing the Audience

    Willig, Ida

    2010-01-01

    No more than twenty years ago, the doors between the newsrooms and the marketing departments of Danish newspapers were tightly shut. Today, all major Danish newspapers work with reader profiles using marketing data to create journalistic concepts. This article identifies two dominant reader...... constructions in policy papers of Danish newspapers: the reader-as-citizen, which can be traced back to the late 1940s, and the reader-as-consumer, visible in the historically new reader profiles, where we also find a third reader construction, the reader-as-commodity. The development indicates a transformation...... from an Omnibus press system with a publicist logic of practice to a Segment press system with a commercial logic of practice....

  5. Constructing Time Machines

    Shore, Graham M

    2003-01-01

    The existence of time machines, understood as spacetime constructions exhibiting physically realised closed timelike curves (CTCs), would raise fundamental problems with causality and challenge our current understanding of classical and quantum theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate three proposals for time machines which share some common features: cosmic strings in relative motion, where the conical spacetime appears to allow CTCs; colliding gravitational shock waves, which in Aichelburg-Sexl coordinates imply discontinuous geodesics; and the superluminal propagation of light in gravitational radiation metrics in a modified electrodynamics featuring violations of the strong equivalence principle. While we show that ultimately none of these constructions creates a working time machine, their study illustrates the subtle levels at which causal self-consistency imposes itself, and we consider what intuition can be drawn from these examples for future theories.

  6. Construction quality assurance report

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project

  7. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  8. Construction of thyroid simulators

    Full text: This work exposes the methodology of construction of thyroid simulators; which was developed considering the mathematical model for the man of reference proposed by Cristy M. The physical models are designed for different ages and is conformed by two concentric cylinders of polyvynil chloride and its anatomic form was molded with silicone (polyimethyl siloxano). The cavities that represent the lobes of the thyroid contain a radioactive solution. It was made a theoretical calculation of the damping factors for this structure reproducing the values reported in literature with a rank of acceptable uncertainty within the margin of energies of photons emitted by the radionuclides ones but using. Here a protocol of construction of these simulators appears to be used like patterns in dosimetry in alive. (orig.)

  9. Construction with macromolecules

    Stefan Hecht

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of nanosized features via the bottom-up organization of individual atoms and molecules represents one of the most rapidly emerging fields in modern science and technology. In order to gain general and modular access to nanostructures, a construction kit consisting of molecular building blocks with defined nanoscale dimensions, shape, and functionality is required. While nature has developed a hierarchical strategy to construct sophisticated and complex nanostructures, chemistry is just starting to explore artificial macromolecules as a means to synthesize specific nano-objects. In this review, recent advances in achieving control over conformation within macromolecules and the interconnection of conformationally defined subunits by either covalent bonds or self-assembly are discussed in analogy to natural structure evolution.

  10. Identification of the enzymatic basis for δ-aminolevulinic acid auxotrophy in a hemA mutant of escherichia coli

    The hemA mutation of Escherichia coli K-12 confers a requirement for δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Cell extract prepared from the hemA strain SASX41B was incapable of producing ALA from either glutamate or glutamyl-tRNA, whereas extract of the hem+ strain HB101 formed colorimetrically detectable amounts of ALA and transferred label from 1-[14C]glutamate and 3,4-[3H]glutamyl-tRNA to ALA. Extracts of both strains converted glutamate-1-semialdehyde to ALA and were capable of aminoacylating tRNAGlu. Glutamyl-tRNA formed by extracts of both strains could be converted to ALA by the extract of hem+ cells. The extract of hemA cells did not convert glutamyl-tRNA formed by either strain to ALA. However, the hemA cell extract, when supplemented in vitro with glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase isolated from Chlorella vulgaris cells, formed about as much ALA as did the unsupplemented hem+ cell extract. We conclude from these observations that the enzyme activity that is lacking in the ALA auxotrophic strain carrying the hemA mutation is that of glutamyl-tRNA dehydrogenase

  11. Re-construction

    Bernadette Marie Devilat

    2013-01-01

    Re-construct: to build again. The necessary reconstruction process after an earthquake can be seen as an opportunity to improve previous conditions. All damaged buildings undergo a renovation process in which every piece is carefully returned to its original place. The photograph shows roof reconstruction work in San Pedro de Alcántara, a heritage area in the central valley of Chile, which was particularly affected by the 2010 earthquake. 

  12. Self constructing in adolescence

    Vranješević Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore “theories” adolescents have about themselves, i.e. about the changes in the ways they construe themselves in the period of middle adolescence: how they construe changes and estimate them according to some dimensions relevant for change (appreciation of change, its importance, expectancy, timing, comprehensiveness, intensity and visibility in social surroundings. The study was explorative and it was performed on the sample of 96 adolescents aged 15-17 (middle adolescence. Instruments used for the study were: interview and Role Construct Repertory Grid, adjusted to the need of study. The results show that the adolescents’ construct system is highly monolithic and tight in regard to constructs (black and white construing, but at the same time vague and predictively unclear in regard to elements, i. e. the stated changes, meaning that adolescents are not able to construe those changes according to certain constructs. It seems that this study included the beginning of the loosening phase (creativity cycle in which the system is still tight and, therefore, protects from threat and anxiety, while the elements are not predictively (this is what Erikson calls moratorium, i.e. the process of active experimenting. Changes which are fully predictively are those which refer to adults' roles, such as: self confident, experienced, independent and has responsibilities, worries. On the hand, changes which are predictably the most clear to adolescents (and not appreciated are depression and nervousness. Adolescents face an implicative dilemma: positive implications of maturity are not enough, while negative implications, such as nervousness, depression and not trusting people are clear, predictable and negative. This dilemma can be the cause of their ambivalence towards growing-up and accepting the roles of adults.

  13. Construct Graph Logic

    Tan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, author uses set theory to construct a logic model of abstract figure from binary relation. Based on the uniform quantified structure, author gives two logic system for graph traversal and graph coloring respectively, moreover shows a new method of cutting graph. Around this model, there are six algorithms in this paper including exact graph traversal, Algebra calculation of natural number, graph partition and graph coloring.

  14. Construction 'Work Study'

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data relating to approaches to 'Construction Work Study'. This is defined as 'A management service based on those techniques, particularly Method Study and Work Measurement, which are used in examining human work in all its contexts, and which lead to systematic investigation of all the resources and factors affecting the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order ...

  15. LEAR construction completed

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  16. Tactical Portfolio Construction

    Chen, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Modern portfolio theory says that unsystematic risk can always be diversified away. Although it is unrealistic to achieve perfect diversification, people developed different strategies trying to find an optimal portfolio. In this paper, issues of how to make a diversified portfolio are discussed. Six models of tactical portfolio construction strategies are used to make the optimal portfolios using the historical data from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2009. From the out-of-sample test by market data from...

  17. Pseudorandomness and Combinatorial Constructions

    Trevisan, Luca

    2006-01-01

    In combinatorics, the probabilistic method is a very powerful tool to prove the existence of combinatorial objects with interesting and useful properties. Explicit constructions of objects with such properties are often very difficult, or unknown. In computer science, probabilistic algorithms are sometimes simpler and more efficient than the best known deterministic algorithms for the same problem. Despite this evidence for the power of random choices, the computational theory of pseudorandom...

  18. Nuclear reactor constructions

    An improvement in the construction of liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors of the kind in which the fuel assembly is submerged in a pool of coolant contained by a primary vessel housed in a concrete vault, is described. In this modification the roof of the vault carries heat exchangers immersed in the pool of coolant, the lower ends of which are hydraulically damped against oscillation caused by seismic disturbances. (U.K.)

  19. Nature Conquers Construction

    Rosenberg, Ryan Michael

    2010-01-01

    This project began as a critique of the current notions of â greenâ architecture. It grew into the creation of a system for integrating nature with structure, the organic with the constructed. A grand entry for the Highline Park on the lower Westside of Manhattan is used as a means for generating a domain which plants, specifically hanging ivy, could thrive. Simple elements such as columns, cables, stairs and ramps, can become a means for creating immersive living volumes, fostering instan...

  20. Fullerene - Porphyrin constructs

    Boyd, PDW; Reed, CA

    2005-01-01

    Porphyrins and fullerenes are spontaneously attracted to each other. This new supramolecular recognition element can be used to construct discrete host-guest complexes, as well as ordered arrays of interleaved porphyrins and fullerenes. The fullerene-porphyrin interaction underlies successful Chromatographic separations of fullerenes, and there are promising applications in the areas of porous framework solids and photovoltaic devices. © 2005 American Chemical Society.

  1. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995 and Bar-On (1997 we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality traits.

  2. ISO: Isochrone construction

    Dotter, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    ISO transforms MESA history files into a uniform basis for interpolation and then constructs new stellar evolution tracks and isochrones from that basis. It is written in Fortran and requires MESA (ascl:1010.083), primarily for interpolation. Though designed to ingest MESA star history files, tracks from other stellar evolution codes can be incorporated by loading the tracks into the data structures used in the codes.

  3. Construct of emotional intelligence

    Sonja Pečjak in Andreja Avsec

    2003-01-01

    The article highlights the construct of emotional intelligence, that has appeared about then years ago. We present the popular and scientific comprehension of emotional intelligence, briefly describe the development of the concept and than in detail we propose the existing comprehension of emotional intelligence: through the models of Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) we present the comprehension of emotional intelligence as a non-cognitive (personality) traits.

  4. Constructing HSOC data platform

    HXMT is the only independent space astronomic secondary planet during 2006-2010 in China. Also it is the first independent astronomic secondary planet of China. HSOC, which is the data management sub-system, is the fundamental infrastructure of HXMT's scientific administration center. The data platform is the object of data management sub-system, which is an integrated platform supporting storage, share, exchange, query, statistics and management of data. The paper introduces the meaning and construction of HSOC data platform. (authors)

  5. 1997 construction & design survey.

    Pinto, C

    1997-03-31

    Managed care might seem to be putting a damper on healthcare construction, but in fact it's one of several industry changes creating opportunities for architectural and design firms. One example of a trend toward making surroundings as pleasant as possible is the west campus expansion at East Texas Medical Center in Tyler (left). Designed and built by Ellerbe Becket and completed in 1995, the project, including a nine-story medical office building, features artwork and rooftop gardens. PMID:10165801

  6. INFINITY construction contract signed

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  7. Toward a constructive physics

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2πGm/sub p/2) approx. = 1.7 x 1038). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved

  8. Toward a constructive physics

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  9. Automated Construction Data Management System

    McCullouch, Bob G.

    1991-01-01

    Project engineers and managers involved in construction spend a disproportionate amount of time collecting and processing construction data. This processing of data typically causes the construction manager to be distracted from the more important task of supervising and controlling the project. The amount of construction data will most likely continue to expand in the future creating more of a burden on the construction manager. So reducing the volume of data most likely will not occur. New ...

  10. Inception phase of construction project

    Zahirović, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    The thesis describes the construction project in terms of investment. The documentation is collected for the design and concept phase. In addition to the aforementioned investment documentation there is the environmental and spatial documentation and implementation path for the construction project start. Construction project coordination is interlinked with management, i.e. connection of two disciplines – economics and construction – into construction management, which is credite...

  11. Folic acid

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  12. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  13. ACID RAIN

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  14. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  15. Folic Acid

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  16. The Social Construction of Technology: The Case of LSD

    Hohauser, Robyn Lisa

    1995-01-01

    In this study, I use SCOT (Social Construction of Technology) theories to trace the history of lysergic acid diethylamide-25, which is commonly known as LSD. I show how the technological system of LSD corresponds to phases designated by SCOT theorist Thomas Hughes, specifically invention, development, innovation, growth, competition, and consolidation. I explain the importance of Timothy Leary and the CIA in the social construction of the LSD system, and their influences on the...

  17. Meaning construction in remembering

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    F.C. Bartlett and L.S.Vygotsky were two seminal figures in the psychological study of remembering. Both emphasized the role of meaning and imagination in this process. Bartlett did this by showing the systematic and holistic changes that ensue when cultural material is repeatedly reproduced outside...... of the group to which it belongs. Vygotsky, on the other hand, attended to the ways in which we construct meaningful ―signs‖ as artificial memory aids to solve memory problems that go beyond our natural capacities. These two approaches are brought together to show how we utilize various cultural resources...

  18. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...

  19. Constructive optimality theoretic syntax

    Zeevat, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents efforts at developing a constructive optimality theory. Several years ago, two 3rd year AI-students, Chris Regenboog and Jacco van Willegen, came up with an idea to implement optimality theory, in a special case —a system partially describing Dutch word order—. Me and some students have been trying to work out their ideas further in the period since, but many issues still remain open. This paper reports on a reconstruction of Bresnan's Optimal Syntax and a new integrated ...

  20. Provability Calculus of Constructions

    Nyblad, Kasten

    This thesis presents a type system, Provability Calculus of Constructions (PCoC) that can be used for the formalization of logic. In a theorem prover based on the system, the user can extend the prover with new inference rules in a logically consistent manner. This is done by representing PCoC as...... values and data types within PCoC. The new feature of PCoC is that results of the representation of PCoC can be lifted to PCoC itself. The lifting is fully formalized in PCoC, and the logic therefore supports reflection....

  1. Nuclear reactor constructions

    A nuclear reactor construction comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault. Control rods supported from the roof structure are insertable in the core which is carried on a support structure from the wall of the primary vessel. To prevent excessive relaxation of the support structure whereby the control rods would be displaced relative to the core, the support structure incorporates a normally inactive secondary structure designed to become effective in bracing the primary structure against further relaxation beyond a predetermined limit. (author)

  2. Reactor PIK construction

    The construction work at the 100 MW researches reactor PIK in year 2002 was in progress. The main activity was concentrated on mechanical, ventilation and electrical equipment. Some systems and subsystems are under adjustment. Hydraulic driving gear for beam shutters are finished in installation, rinsing, and adjusting. Regulating rods test assembling was done. On the critical assembly the first reactor fueling was tested to evaluate the starting neutron source intensity and a sufficiency of existing control and instrument board. Mainline of the PIK facility design and neutron parameters are presented. (author)

  3. Assessing the sustainable construction of large construction companies in Malaysia

    Adewale, Bamgbade Jibril; Mohammed, Kamaruddeen Ahmed; Nasrun, Mohd Nawi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Considering the increasing concerns for the consideration of sustainability issues in construction project delivery within the construction industry, this paper assesses the extent of sustainable construction among Malaysian large contractors, in order to ascertain the level of the industry's impacts on both the environment and the society. Sustainable construction explains the construction industry's responsibility to efficiently utilise the finite resources while also reducing construction impacts on both humans and the environment throughout the phases of construction. This study used proportionate stratified random sampling to conduct a field study with a sample of 172 contractors out of the 708 administered questionnaires. Data were collected from large contractors in the eleven states of peninsular Malaysia. Using the five-level rating scale (which include: 1= Very Low; 2= Low; 3= Moderate; 4= High; 5= Very High) to describe the level of sustainable construction of Malaysian contractors based on previous studies, statistical analysis reveals that environmental, social and economic sustainability of Malaysian large contractors are high.

  4. Innovations in nuclear concrete constructions

    The technical requirements and scope of concrete work on nuclear projects present significant engineering and construction challenges. These demands represent the extremes in many areas of construction operations. In meeting these challenges, engineering and construction forces have developed several innovations which can be beneficially applied to other types of construction. Innovative approaches in the general categories of engineering scope, construction input to engineering, work planning, special methods and techniques, and satisfaction of quality assurance requirements are given in this paper. The transfer of this technology to other segments of the construction industry will improve overall performance by avoiding the problem areas encountered on nuclear projects

  5. Construction of Monju

    The construction works was started in January, 1983. The main works can be divided into (1) the construction of the roads to the site including the repair of the prefectural road, (2) the preparation of the land for temporary installation outside the site, (3) the creation of the site, the excavation for building foundations, the change of the stream in the site, and the land side works of water intake and discharge facilities, (4) the sea area works of bank revetment, breakwaters and unloading quay, and (5) the manufacture of caissons and blocks in the Technoport Fukui about 60 km distant from the site. The main buildings are those for the reactor, reactor auxiliaries, maintenance and waste treatment, diesel engines, and the turbine. The aseismatic structure, the coolant temperature if it leaks were the main considerations. The manufacture, transport and installation of machinery and equipment are reported. The sodium of about 1700 t was imported from France. The MOX fuel for initial charge was produced, and the pellets were filled smoothly. (K.I.)

  6. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  7. Nuclear power constructions

    The feasibility study and the project design and their role in the process of nuclear power plant construction are analyzed in detail. From the point of view of systems aspects of scientific management, the nuclear power plant is considered to be an element of the power generation and transmission system as well as an intersection of capital investment, scientific and technical development and project designing. Foreign experience is summed up with the planning, designing and building of nuclear power plants. Attention is centred to the feasibility study and project design stages of nuclear power plant construction in the CSSR. The questions are discussed of capital investment, territorial planning activities, pre-project and project documentation; a survey is presented of legislative provisions involving the project design and capital investment spheres. Briefly outlined are topics for further rationalization of feasibility studies, such as standardization and complex project designs of WWER type nuclear power plants, the introduction of data processing in capital investment provision of WWER type nuclear power plants, and international scientific and technical cooperation including the establishment of a international consultancy centre for the designing and methodology of controlling the building, repairs, reconstruction and the decommissioning of WWER type nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 81 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  8. Okadaic acid

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  9. Priorities in Construction IT Research

    Gaarslev, Axel

    Gives the results of a survey of the use and needs of research in IT in relation to construction......Gives the results of a survey of the use and needs of research in IT in relation to construction...

  10. Risk Management in Construction Projects

    Jakše, Tadej

    2006-01-01

    Risk management in construction projects Each project is unique and therefore risk is associated with any project. Time limitation, dynamic and unstable character of construction project result in situations where new risks and uncertainties frequently appear. As a consequence, budget and deadlines specified by the construction project plan are often exceeded. Risk management in construction projects is required if adverse effects of project risks upon the project goals (time, ...

  11. Inductive types in constructive languages

    Bruin, Peter Johan de

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation deals with constructive languages: languages for the formal expression of mathematical constructions. The concept of construction does not only encompass computations, as expressed in programming languages,but also propositions and proofs, as expressed in a mathematical logic, and in particular the construction of structured mathematical objects like sequences and trees. Types may be conceived of as classes of such objects, and inductive types are types whose objects are gen...

  12. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the transcriptional organization at ribosome-mediated attenuation sites in Corynebacterium glutamicum and identified a novel attenuator involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis.

    Neshat, Armin; Mentz, Almut; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2014-11-20

    The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum belongs to the order Corynebacteriales and is used as a producer of amino acids at industrial scales. Due to its economic importance, gene expression and particularly the regulation of amino acid biosynthesis has been investigated extensively. Applying the high-resolution technique of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), recently a vast amount of data has been generated that was used to comprehensively analyze the C. glutamicum transcriptome. By analyzing RNA-seq data from a small RNA cDNA library of C. glutamicum, short transcripts in the known transcriptional attenuators sites of the trp operon, the ilvBNC operon and the leuA gene were verified. Furthermore, whole transcriptome RNA-seq data were used to elucidate the transcriptional organization of these three amino acid biosynthesis operons. In addition, we discovered and analyzed the novel attenuator aroR, located upstream of the aroF gene (cg1129). The DAHP synthase encoded by aroF catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid synthesis. The AroR leader peptide contains the amino acid sequence motif F-Y-F, indicating a regulatory effect by phenylalanine and tyrosine. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR suggests that the attenuator regulates the transcription of aroF in dependence of the cellular amount of tRNA loaded with phenylalanine when comparing a phenylalanine-auxotrophic C. glutamicum mutant fed with limiting and excess amounts of a phenylalanine-containing dipeptide. Additionally, the very interesting finding was made that all analyzed attenuators are leaderless transcripts. PMID:24910972

  13. Prefabrication in Building Construction: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is facing many problems in terms of construction waste, quality, environment, durability, safety and higher construction cost. Adoption of prefabrication is a possible solution to such problems. Accordingly, there is a need to study the prospects that would stimulate the appropriate discussion of the suitability of prefabrication and other construction methods for concrete buildings. Therefore, this study investigates the significance of advantages in adopting prefabrication along with hindrances through questionnaire survey. The data has been analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method as a MCDM approach. The results depict that main advantages of prefabrication are ?Shorter construction time? and ?Less construction site waste?. The top hindrances in adopting prefabrication as identified in this study are: ?Higher initial construction cost? and ?Inflexible for design changes?. Based on the survey results and apparent progress in the adoption of prefabrication around the world, it is concluded that the use of prefabrication is likely to increase in developing countries like Pakistan

  14. Prefabrication in building construction: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    Construction industry is facing many problems in terms of construction waste, quality, environment, durability, safety and higher construction cost. Adoption of prefabrication is a possible solution to such problems. Accordingly, there is a need to study the prospects that would stimulate the appropriate discussion of the suitability of prefabrication and other construction methods for concrete buildings. Therefore, this study investigates the significance of advantages in adopting prefabrication along with hindrances through questionnaire survey. The data has been analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method as a MCDM approach. The results depict that main advantages of prefabrication are Shorter construction time and Less construction site waste. The top hindrances in adopting prefabrication as identified in this study are: Higher initial construction cost and Inflexible for design changes. Based on the survey results and apparent progress in the adoption of prefabrication around the world, it is concluded that the use of prefabrication is likely to increase in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  15. Optimal Test Construction. Research Report.

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    This paper discusses optimal test construction, which deals with the selection of items from a pool to construct a test that performs optimally with respect to the objective of the test and simultaneously meets all test specifications. Optimal test construction problems can be formulated as mathematical decision models. Algorithms and heuristics…

  16. Complex performance in construction

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer;

    industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between......To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance of the...

  17. Constructing visual representations

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  18. TOTEM Construction Complete

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winter technical stop saw the final steps of the installation of the TOTEM experiment. After 8 years of development, the inelastic telescope T1 was successfully installed inside CMS at both sides of the interaction point. This detector joins the previously installed inelastic telescope T2 and the Roman Pots (147m and 220m from the CMS interaction point) to study both elastic and inelastic proton scattering.   The Genova team who designed and built the detector in front of the '+' arm of the T1 telescope after final insertion. All the detector chambers were assembled at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia. Major contributions to the construction of the support structure and the installation process came from CERN. “Installing the T1 detector was an important milestone for TOTEM,” says Joachim Baechler, Technical Coordinator for TOTEM. Enrico Robutti from Genova, responsible for the T1 project, added: "The T1 detector was carefully installed ...

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  20. Ascorbic Acid

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  1. Stearic Acid

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  2. Mefenamic Acid

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  3. Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass

    Baylor university

    2003-06-01

    the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  4. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  5. The Kemess Mines Ltd. tailings dam construction using tailings construction sand

    Rasmussen, G.; Hoffert, J.; Tucker, G.; Kinch, J. [Kemess Mine Ltd., Smithers, BC (Canada); Colwell, D. [Outokumpu Technology, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described the engineering and regulatory requirements of the tailings storage facility dam at the Kemess gold mine in north-central British Columbia. Northgate Exploration acquired the mine from receivership in 2000, and has since constructed one of the largest earth filled dam structures for tailings storage. The original construction design called for a 1 km wide rock dam made with 30 million tonnes of non-acid generating waste rock. Kemess saved costs by building the dam from suitable quality tailings sand. In order to meet the neutralizing potential ratio (NPR) specifications for dam construction, the tailings sand was subjected to cycloning and flotation to reduce pyrite concentration. The challenge was to remove the sulphides from the tailings and to obtain an NPR greater than 2:1 while providing a consistent sand product with a fines content of less than 15 per cent passing 200 mesh. The sand plant began operation at the end of 2002 with higher than expected production rates and sand quality. In addition to environmental benefits, the economic benefits of using cycloned sands for dam construction include reduced dam height and reduced construction costs. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs.

  6. Advanced construction methods in ACR

    The ACR - Advanced CANDU Reactor, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is designed with constructability considerations as a major requirement during all project phases from the concept design stage to the detail design stage. This necessitated a much more comprehensive approach in including constructability considerations in the design to ensure that the construction duration is met. For the ACR-700, a project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth replicated unit with a 36 month construction period duration from First Concrete to Fuel Load. An overall construction strategy that builds on the success of the construction methods that are proven in the construction of the Qinshan CANDU 6 project has been developed for the ACR. The overall construction strategy comprises the 'Open Top' construction technique using a Very Heavy Lift crane, parallel construction activities, with extensive modularization and prefabrication. In addition, significant applications of up to date construction technology will be implemented, e.g. large volume concrete pours, prefabricated rebar, use of climbing forms, composite structures, prefabricated permanent formwork, automatic welding, and utilization of the latest electronic technology tools such as 3D CADDs modelling yields a very high quality, clash free product to allow construction to be completed 'right the first time' and eliminates rework. Integration of 3D CADDs models and scheduling tools such as Primavera has allowed development of actual construction sequences and an iterative approach to schedule verification and improvement. Modularization and prefabrication are major features of the ACR design in order to achieve the project schedule. For the reactor building approximately 80% of the volume will be installed as modules or prefabricated assembles. This ensures critical path activities are achieved. This paper examines the advanced construction methods implemented in the design in order to

  7. A New Application of Carbon Nanotubes Constructing Biosensor

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes used for constructing biosensor was described for the first time. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were used to immobilize glucose oxidase forming a glucose biosensor. The biosensor response can be determined by amperometric method at a low applied potential (0.40 V).

  8. Inspection of Construction Works According to Polish Construction Law

    Czemplik, A.

    2015-11-01

    Construction regulations are still different in many European countries, even though the European Union directives have unified many acts for construction works and construction products in the member countries. The scheme of the construction process presented in the paper could be valid for most countries, despite of detailed regulations of legal systems. The number of construction regulations to be followed in order to get the Construction Permit in Poland is rather big, so the time between the start of the investment process and the day when the Construction Permit is issued could be several months. Only licensed professional engineers can play the role of site managers, site inspectors and designers, registered for the given construction project. Duties and responsibilities (civil liability) of these engineers are strictly defined by regulations. The obligatory inspection of construction works should be executed by the licensed site inspectors. Moreover, the works can be incidentally inspected by Authority, banks, insurance companies or designers. Foreign designers and foreign site engineers in order to be allowed by respective Authority to play official roles on Polish construction sites should present documents proving that they can do the same jobs in their countries as per regulations obligatory there.

  9. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  10. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    building process and includes all participants in the construction project. A general result from the analysis was that critical events that occurred when the site was not using Lean Construction evolved much longer than critical events that occurred in the period when Lean Construction was used. Another......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate...... cause-effects of failures and defects in the construction industry by using an analytical approach (The bowtie model) which is developed in the accident research. Using this model clarifies the relationships within the chain of failures that causes critical events with undesirable consequences. In this...

  11. Progress in ITER Construction

    Full text: Since the entry into force of the ITER Agreement in October 2007, the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies have made significant progress in the finalization of the ITER design and the establishment of the baseline. This paper will describe the main advances and achievements since the last IAEA conference. The Integrated Project Schedule has gone through a number of iterations following interactions with Domestic Agencies and their industries. With operating a First Plasma at the end of 2019 construction will be finished and the functionality of all major components will be demonstrated. Through a series of operation and installation campaigns in the following seven years full DT operation should be reached by 2026. The associated resource estimate for the cost of the ITER Organization has been reviewed by an independent panel and has been developed using common project management practices. Attention has been paid to the development of risk based assessments of the schedule giving confidence that this schedule can be achieved if no major unforeseen events happen. The ITER platform has been prepared by Agence ITER France and was finalized by the summer of 2009. The next stage will be the start of the excavation and construction of the anti-seismic support structure for the tokamak building. The road between the harbor of Marseille and the Cadarache site is ready to receive the first test convoys. Just under 90% of the components for ITER will provided in-kind by the Members through so-called Procurement Arrangements, which are bi-lateral agreements between the ITER Organization and the Domestic Agencies. Until now 34 Procurement Arrangements have been signed, representing almost half of the value of the total in-kind contributions. The first Procurement Arrangements concentrated on the long-lead items, such as the Magnet systems, Buildings and the Vacuum Vessel. Most of the Procurement Arrangements for these long-lead items have now been

  12. Sucker rod construction

    Anderson, R.A.; Goodman, J.L.; Tickle, J.D.; Liskey, A.K.

    1987-03-31

    A sucker rod construction is described comprising: a connector member being formed to define a rod receptacle having a closed axially inner end and an open axially outer end, the rod receptacle having axially spaced, tapered annular surfaces, a cylindrical fiberglass rod having an end having an outer surface being received within the rod receptacle through the outer end and cooperating therewith to define an annular chamber between the outer surface of the end of the rod and the tapered annular surfaces, and a bonding means positioned in the annular chamber for bonding to the outer surface of the end of the rod to confront the tapered annular surfaces, each annular surface having an angle of taper with respect to the outer surface of the fiberglass rod, and each angle of taper being progressively and uniformly less toward the open end by an amount between one and one-half degrees and two degrees, inclusive, and a collet connected to the connector member adjacent the open axially outer end of the rod receptacle and having an axial bore therethrough retaining the end of the rod in coaxial position within the rod receptacle.

  13. Constructing Sentient Androids

    AMOROSO; Richard; L.

    2015-01-01

    Generally the simplistic distinction between a humanoid robot,a computerized machine capable of replicating a variety of complex human functions automatically,and an android is one of appearance; an android is meant to look and act like a human being even to the extent of being indistinguishable. While one day a yottaflop(1024 bits per second) hyper-supercomputer could have a sufficient holographic database and processing power to be truly indistinguishable from a human being,the issue of the applicability of sentience(self-awareness) to an android comes to the forefront. The currently dominant cognitive model of awareness,closely aligned to the AI model,states that mind equals brain and that once correct algorithms are known all of human intelligence could be replicated artificially. This is the so-called mechanistic view: ‘The laws of physics and chemistry are sufficient to describe all living systems; no additional life principle is required’. In this work we develop the point of view that the regime of Unified Field Mechanics(UFM) supplies an inherent action principle driving both the evolution of complex Self-Organized Living Systems(SOLS) and the physical processes of awareness. These UFM parameters in conjunction with ‘conscious quantum computing’(class of quantum computer modeled with physical parameters of mind-body interaction) putatively leads directly to the construction of sentient(or sentient-like) Androids.

  14. Magnetic trap construction.

    Lionnet, Timothée; Allemand, Jean-François; Revyakin, Andrey; Strick, Terence R; Saleh, Omar A; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, techniques have been developed to study and manipulate single molecules of DNA and other biopolymers. In one such technique, the magnetic trap, a single DNA molecule is bound at one end to a glass surface and at the other to a magnetic microbead. Small magnets, whose position and rotation can be controlled, pull on and rotate the microbead. This provides a simple method to stretch and twist the molecule. The system allows one to apply and measure forces ranging from 10(-3) to >100 picoNewtons (pN). In contrast to other techniques, the force measurement is absolute and does not require calibration of the sensor. This protocol describes a procedure for building and using a magnetic trap. It gives a method for constructing a microchamber suitable for magnetic tweezers studies, including antibody coating and passivation. It also describes a series of simple steps to achieve end-labeling of DNA anchoring fragments. One anchoring fragment is biotin-labeled and the other is labeled with digoxigenin. The anchoring fragments are then digested and ligated to a central DNA region containing the sequence of interest. The biotinylated DNA is adsorbed onto streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and the DNA-bead mixture attaches specifically to the antidigoxigenin-coated surface of the microchamber. PMID:22194260

  15. Mega Construction Projects: using stakeholder management for enhanced sustainable construction

    Eyiah-Botwe, E; Aigbavboa, C; Thwala, WD

    2016-01-01

    The need for mega construction projects development for accelerated socio-economic growth is long overdue for developing countries. Some studies have considered stakeholder management and sustainable construction concepts separately without exploring the simultaneous use for mega projects delivery. This paper reviews the two concepts and suggests a process for enhanced sustainable construction delivery. This study forms part of a broader Ph.D. study on “Development of sustainable ...

  16. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2009-01-01

    Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 3...

  17. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  18. Integrated bioinformatics to decipher the ascorbic acid metabolic network in tomato.

    Ruggieri, Valentino; Bostan, Hamed; Barone, Amalia; Frusciante, Luigi; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Ascorbic acid is involved in a plethora of reactions in both plant and animal metabolism. It plays an essential role neutralizing free radicals and acting as enzyme co-factor in several reaction. Since humans are ascorbate auxotrophs, enhancing the nutritional quality of a widely consumed vegetable like tomato is a desirable goal. Although the main reactions of the ascorbate biosynthesis, recycling and translocation pathways have been characterized, the assignment of tomato genes to each enzymatic step of the entire network has never been reported to date. By integrating bioinformatics approaches, omics resources and transcriptome collections today available for tomato, this study provides an overview on the architecture of the ascorbate pathway. In particular, 237 tomato loci were associated with the different enzymatic steps of the network, establishing the first comprehensive reference collection of candidate genes based on the recently released tomato gene annotation. The co-expression analyses performed by using RNA-Seq data supported the functional investigation of main expression patterns for the candidate genes and highlighted a coordinated spatial-temporal regulation of genes of the different pathways across tissues and developmental stages. Taken together these results provide evidence of a complex interplaying mechanism and highlight the pivotal role of functional related genes. The definition of genes contributing to alternative pathways and their expression profiles corroborates previous hypothesis on mechanisms of accumulation of ascorbate in the later stages of fruit ripening. Results and evidences here provided may facilitate the development of novel strategies for biofortification of tomato fruit with Vitamin C and offer an example framework for similar studies concerning other metabolic pathways and species. PMID:27007138

  19. Challenges in PFBR civil construction

    Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. The construction of Nuclear Island Connected Buildings (NICB) raft was completed in three and a half months. This massive 100mx100m raft for NICB, requiring 35000 cubic meter of concrete was undertaken in twelve pours. This Herculean task required storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The construction of Turbo Generator (TG) building including TG mat and deck and interconnection with NICB posed enormous construction challenges that were well planned and executed. The intake and outfall structures too are exemplary construction handled effectively at PFBR. The excavation for the nuclear and power islands was large and deep. Rock out crops were found starting at various depths of excavation, requiring extensive planning controlled blasting and mechanization in excavation. This also required innovative dewatering procedures in sandy terrain often mixed with clay. Ground water table at PFBR site being high, water proofing for massive underground structure of PFBR was required to be carefully engineered and handled. This started with innovative grouting of excavated strata below the raft till required permeability was met and bone dry condition was achieved for laying of waterproofing membranes. Concurrent construction and regulatory reviews and stage wise clearance for civil construction required dynamic construction planning and sequencing. The scope of civil construction in PFBR expands to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were fabricated to intricate contours with

  20. A set of engineered Escherichia coli expression strains for selective isotope and reactivity labeling of amino acid side chains and flavin cofactors.

    Jennifer Mehlhorn

    Full Text Available Biological reactions are facilitated by delicate molecular interactions between proteins, cofactors and substrates. To study and understand their dynamic interactions researchers have to take great care not to influence or distort the object of study. As a non-invasive alternative to a site-directed mutagenesis approach, selective isotope labeling in combination with vibrational spectroscopy may be employed to directly identify structural transitions in wild type proteins. Here we present a set of customized Escherichia coli expression strains, suitable for replacing both the flavin cofactor and/or selective amino acids with isotope enriched or chemically modified substrates. For flavin labeling we report optimized auxotrophic strains with significantly enhanced flavin uptake properties. Labeled protein biosynthesis using these strains was achieved in optimized cultivation procedures using high cell density fermentation. Finally, we demonstrate how this approach is used for a clear assignment of vibrational spectroscopic difference signals of apoprotein and cofactor of a flavin containing photoreceptor of the BLUF (Blue Light receptors Using FAD family.

  1. Construction of Pseudomonas sp.M18 relA mutant and its regulation on phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis%假单胞菌M18relA突变株的构建及其对吩嗪-1-羧酸合成的调控

    王金英; 张明月; 王国昊; 魏雪; 李雅乾; 黄显清; 许煜泉

    2011-01-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas sp. M 18 can simultaneously produce two antibiotics:phenazine-1- carboxylic acid (PCA) and pyoluteorin. ppGpp, which is synthesized by Re1A, can mediate bacterial stringent response to nutritional starvation. The relA gene was PCR amplified from the M18 strain chromosomal DNA template. The relA mutant of M18 strain (M18RAG) was constructed through inserted inactivation of gentamicin resistance cassette and homologous recombination. PCA production was assayed in PPM media. It was showed that the relA mutation resulted in a significant enhancement of PCA production. PCA production of M 18RAG was about 1.5 to 2 times as much as that of the wild-type strain. The negative regulation of RelA on PCA biosynthesis and its gene expression was further confirmed by the trans complementation test of relA gene and the expression analysis of phzA '-'lacZ translational fusion.%假单胞菌M18是一株能同时合成吩嗪-1-羧酸(PCA)和藤黄绿菌素两种抗生素的植物根际分离细菌.RelA催化合成的效应分子ppGpp能介导细菌因营养饥饿引起的应激反应.以M18菌株染色体DNA为模板,PCR扩增获得relA基因,通过庆大霉素抗性片段插入失活与同源重组技术,构建假单胞菌M18的relA突变菌株M18RAG.在PPM培养基中进行PCA发酵分析,发现突变菌株M18RAG的PCA产量显著升高,约为野生型菌株的1.5-2倍.relA基因反式互补实验以及phzA'-'lacZ翻译融合测定结果,均进一步证明了RelA对PCA生物合成及其基因表达具有抑制作用.

  2. KSTAR construction and commissioning

    KSTAR's twelve years project has been officially completed by declaring the first plasma achievement on July 15th, 2008. KSTAR, the fist Nb3Sn-based fully superconducting tokamak device, has come a long path, overcoming many difficult situations. The detailed engineering design and infrastructure setup for R and D have been completed in 2001. In March 2008, after the construction period of seven years, the KSTAR assembly has been completed, by connecting the cryogenic transfer lines between the tokamak and the cryogenic distribution system within six months in the condition of preliminary study. The commissioning on KSTAR has been progressed from April to July, through the following four steps: vacuum, cryogenic cool down, superconducting magnet test, and plasma start-up. KSTAR has successfully passed the vacuum and cool down commissioning at the first trial. As scheduled, the basic environment with the vacuum at 3 x 10-8 mbar and the temperature below 4.5K has maintained without any cold helium leak. Next, all of the superconducting magnets have been conducted using the integrated plasma control system (PCS) for fast current and position control. The first plasma discharge has been initiated under time synchronized operation of the power supplies, the ECH pre-ionization system, the gas-puffing system, and the initial set of diagnostics systems. After about 400 successive test plasma discharges, during which plasma was successfully controlled with a flat-top current of 120 KA, duration of up to 800 ms has been obtained at KSTAR. All of the commissioning contents, such as objectives, must-check items, target parameters, and commissioning results, will be presented in this paper. Specifically, various histories, such as vacuum, temperature, stress, plasma shot, and machine failure, will be reported. (author)

  3. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and

  4. Construction Safety Forecast for ITER

    cadwallader, lee charles

    2006-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is poised to begin its construction activity. This paper gives an estimate of construction safety as if the experiment was being built in the United States. This estimate of construction injuries and potential fatalities serves as a useful forecast of what can be expected for construction of such a major facility in any country. These data should be considered by the ITER International Team as it plans for safety during the construction phase. Based on average U.S. construction rates, ITER may expect a lost workday case rate of < 4.0 and a fatality count of 0.5 to 0.9 persons per year.

  5. Conditions of contract for construction

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  6. Construction of the real numbers

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, there are described two standard constructions of the real numbers, these are the construction of real numbers via Dedekind cuts and the construction with metric fill of the rational numbers. Rational numbers are already a linearly ordered commutative field, so we first list the axioms of a linearly ordered commutative field. Then we take a look to the Dedekind's axiom, which only applies to real numbers and distinguishes between real and rational numbers. In thesis, there are...

  7. Spectral Tetris Fusion Frame Constructions

    Casazza, Peter G; Heinecke, Andreas; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengfang

    2011-01-01

    Spectral tetris is a flexible and elementary method to construct unit norm frames with a given frame operator having all of its eigenvalues greater than or equal to two. One important application of this method is the construction of fusion frames. We provide a sufficient condition for using spectral tetris to construct a fusion frame with prescribed eigenvalues for its fusion frame operator and with prescribed dimensions for its subspaces. This condition is shown to be also necessary in the tight case. We then generalize spectral tetris to construct unit norm tight frames of redundancy less than two and use it to derive non-equidimensional tight fusion frames.

  8. ABWR construction experience in Japan

    The construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6 and 7 (K6 and 7) owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), have been in service since November 1996 and September 1997 respectively, and are the first ABWRs in the world. Hitachi, Ltd. and Toshiba Corporation took part in the projects and achieved safety construction in 52- month schedule from rock inspection to turnover in cooperation with TEPCO and other contractors with broad experience in BWRs. Taking advantage of experience of the Kashiwazaki construction, the ABWR construction methods realize to satisfy with requests from electric power companies and to fit site conditions. The Chubu Electric Power Company's Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 5 (Hamaoka 5) and Hokuriku Electric Power Company's Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 2 (Shika 2), which are ABWRs, completed rock inspection in May 2000 and June 2001 respectively, and are under construction. The ABWR construction methods are proved their validity through four actual construction projects. Safe constructions with the highest quality have been advanced thus further aiming at the introduction of the latest technologies and contributing to reduce plant construction costs and also to shorten schedule. (author)

  9. Efficient on-site construction

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims to analyse the implementation of a German platform for housing projects through a successful case on modern methods of construction featuring efficient on-site construction. Through continuous development, the platform has been carefully designed to suit a carefully...... costing); and incremental rather than radical innovation. Originality/value – The findings challenge the predominant understanding of industrialisation of the construction processes, illustrating how substantial improvements can be achieved through platform thinking, on-site production and traditional...... construction practices....

  10. Challenges in PFBR civil construction

    Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. Thus Herculean task, require storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The civil construction scope in PFBR expanded to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were to be fabricated to intricate contours with tight tolerances and were required to be transported to locations from far off distances; this was well accomplished without loss of tolerances of fabricated structures. Novel construction practices and stringent quality control procedures were implemented to accomplish this critical requirement. Integration of cooling coils inside the safety vessel flanges after completing the reactor vault and safety vessel erection, required special contour bending for numerous reinforcement and development of special construction methodology. The neutron detector box integration with bottom shield was also a construction challenge posed and well addressed by site. Many mock ups were to be carried out for demonstrating the construction procedures and methodology for critical construction activities. Maintaining the stringent requirements such as clean room conditions was a major challenge and was met effectively. Equipment erection in parallel to civil works too required innovative solutions for clean condition maintenance while civil works are in progress. it can be said that the civil construction of PFBR has emerged as a marvel of technology handled professionally by competent engineers deploying scientific construction techniques and stringent quality control procedures. (author)

  11. Adaptive evolution of synthetic cooperating communities improves growth performance.

    Xiaolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Symbiotic interactions between organisms are important for human health and biotechnological applications. Microbial mutualism is a widespread phenomenon and is important in maintaining natural microbial communities. Although cooperative interactions are prevalent in nature, little is known about the processes that allow their initial establishment, govern population dynamics and affect evolutionary processes. To investigate cooperative interactions between bacteria, we constructed, characterized, and adaptively evolved a synthetic community comprised of leucine and lysine Escherichia coli auxotrophs. The co-culture can grow in glucose minimal medium only if the two auxotrophs exchange essential metabolites - lysine and leucine (or its precursors. Our experiments showed that a viable co-culture using these two auxotrophs could be established and adaptively evolved to increase growth rates (by ∼3 fold and optical densities. While independently evolved co-cultures achieved similar improvements in growth, they took different evolutionary trajectories leading to different community compositions. Experiments with individual isolates from these evolved co-cultures showed that changes in both the leucine and lysine auxotrophs improved growth of the co-culture. Interestingly, while evolved isolates increased growth of co-cultures, they exhibited decreased growth in mono-culture (in the presence of leucine or lysine. A genome-scale metabolic model of the co-culture was also constructed and used to investigate the effects of amino acid (leucine or lysine release and uptake rates on growth and composition of the co-culture. When the metabolic model was constrained by the estimated leucine and lysine release rates, the model predictions agreed well with experimental growth rates and composition measurements. While this study and others have focused on cooperative interactions amongst community members, the adaptive evolution of communities with other

  12. A Categorical Construction of Ultrafilters

    Litt, Daniel; Kominers, Scott D

    2007-01-01

    We provide a brief exposition of ultrafilters and offer a categorical construction for them in terms of the inverse limit of an inverse family of finite partitions. From this construction, we derive a result which answers the conjecture of E. Rosinger posed in arXiv:0709.0084v2 in the negative.

  13. Constructing Programs from Example Computations.

    Bierman, A. W.; Krishnaswamy, R.

    This paper describes the construction and implementation of an autoprogramming system. An autoprogrammer is an interactive computer programming system which automatically constructs computer programs from example computations executed by the user. The example calculations are done in a scratch pad fashion at a computer display, and the system…

  14. Building Construction Estimating, Carpentry: 901897.

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course for grades 11 and 12 in carpentry designed to provide instructions in mathematics and its application to determining construction costs. Students completing the course will be expected to have the skills and knowledge of building construction plans, concrete forms, walls, roofs, doors and stairs, in addition…

  15. About Hebei Jianxin Construction Group

    2007-01-01

    @@ Hebei Jianxin Construction (Group) Ltd. was incorporated in August 1984. As the holding company, Hebei Jianxin Construction (Group)Ltd. along with five companies under its holding, such as Baoding New Generation Real Estate Development Co., Ltd. and Baoding New Generation Property Management Co., Ltd., formed Hebei Jianxin Architectural Group (hereafter, the Group).

  16. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    article uses insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can...

  17. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However...

  18. On construction of quality culture

    This paper mainly addresses the formation, the function and the structure of Quality Culture, and the content, objective and method for the construction of Quality Culture. It gives a train of thoughts to the construction of Quality Culture in NPIC. (authors)

  19. Direct construction of code loops

    Nagy, Gabor P.

    2004-01-01

    Code loops were introduced by R. L. Griess. R.L. Griess and T. Hsu gave methods to construct the corresponding code loop from any given doubly even binary code; both these methods used some kind of induction. In this paper, we present a global construction of the loop, where we apply the correspondance between the concepts of Moufang loops and groups with triality.

  20. Construction processes in schizophrenic patients

    Filip, Miroslav

    Belgrade: Serbian Constructivist Association, 2011, s. 213-227. ISBN 978-86-913427-1-5. [European Personal Construct Association Conference /10./. Belgrade (RS), 09.04.2010-12.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP406/09/P604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : schizophrenia * personal construct psychology * loosening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  1. Combinatorial designs constructions and analysis

    Stinson, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    Created to teach students many of the most important techniques used for constructing combinatorial designs, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in combinatorial design theory. The text features clear explanations of basic designs, such as Steiner and Kirkman triple systems, mutual orthogonal Latin squares, finite projective and affine planes, and Steiner quadruple systems. In these settings, the student will master various construction techniques, both classic and modern, and will be well-prepared to construct a vast array of combinatorial designs. Design theory offers a progressive approach to the subject, with carefully ordered results. It begins with simple constructions that gradually increase in complexity. Each design has a construction that contains new ideas or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas previously introduced. A new text/reference covering all apsects of modern combinatorial design theory. Graduates and professionals in computer science, applie...

  2. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  3. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  4. Construction of the adamantane core of plukenetione-type polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols.

    Takagi, Ryukichi; Inoue, Yuta; Ohkata, Katsuo

    2008-12-01

    The construction of a highly functionalized adamantane core of plukenetione-type polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) is described. The method features the construction of the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core (3) by successive Michael reactions and the construction of the adamantane core of plukenetione-type PPAPs by acid-catalyzed cyclization of a bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane precursor (2). PMID:18980328

  5. Dehydroabietic acid

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Dattwyler, Raymond J. (Setauket, NY); Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C. (New York, NY); Luft, Benjamin J. (East Setauket, NY); Dunn, John J.(Bellport, NY)

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  7. Dual-Scale Polymeric Constructs as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Federica Chiellini; Paulo Bártolo; Dario Puppi; Cesare Errico; Dinuccio Dinucci; Carlos Mota

    2011-01-01

    This research activity was aimed at the development of dual-scale scaffolds consisting of three-dimensional constructs of aligned poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microfilaments and electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers. PCL constructs composed by layers of parallel microsized filaments (0/90° lay-down pattern), with a diameter of around 365 μm and interfilament distance of around 191 μm, were produced using a melt extrusion-based additive manufacturing technique. PLGA electrospun...

  8. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  9. Data Policy Construction Set - Building Blocks from Childhood Constructions

    Fleischer, Dirk; Paul-Stueve, Thilo; Jobmann, Alexandra; Farrenkopf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A complete construction set of building blocks usually comes with instructions and these instruction include building stages. The products of these building stages usually build from very general parts become highly specialized building parts for very unique features of the whole construction model. This sounds very much like the construction or organization of an interdisciplinary research project, institution or association, doesn't it! The creation process of an overarching data policy for a project group or institution is exactly the combination of individual interests with the common goal of a collaborative data policy and can be compared with the building stages of a construction set of building blocks and the building instructions. Keeping this in mind we created the data policy construction set of textual building blocks. This construction set is subdivided into several building stages or parts each containing multiple building blocks as text blocks. By combining building blocks of all subdivisions it is supposed to create a cascading data policy document. Cascading from the top level as a construction set provider for all further down existing levels such as project, themes, work packages or Universities, faculties, institutes down to the working level of working groups. The working groups are picking from the remaining building blocks in the provided construction set the suitable blocks for its working procedures to create a very specific policy from the available construction set provided by the top level community. Nevertheless, if a working group realized that there are missing building blocks or worse that there are missing building parts, then they have the chance to add the missing pieces to the construction set of direct an future use. This cascading approach enables project or institution wide application of the encoded rules from the textual level on access to data storage infrastructure. This structured approach is flexible enough to allow for

  10. Social Construction: Understanding Construction in a Human Context

    Slivon, Christine; Howell, Gregory; Koskela, Lauri; Rooke, John

    2010-01-01

    As lean construction has evolved as a practice, efforts have been made to develop theoretical foundations for understanding it. These efforts have been informed by our understanding of lean manufacturing, a source of many of the seminal ideas for lean construction. One key insight has been the shift from the understanding of a process as the transformation of materials from inputs to outputs to the view of a process as a flow of materials through a sequence of steps or operations. Another ...

  11. Lean construction: Prospects for the German construction industry

    Johansen, Eric; Walter, Lorenz

    2007-01-01

    There is little, if any, information available about the range and dissemination of lean concepts among construction companies in Germany. Building on the methodologies and conceptual frameworks used in earlier work in the UK (Common et al., 2000) and the Netherlands (Johansen et al., 2002) this study carried out a similar survey among German construction companies to discover the current understanding of lean principles, perceptions of lean and trends in lean development. Qualitative and qua...

  12. Constructional similarity in process of ordered construction families creating

    P. Gendarz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main reason for starting research concerning theory of constructional similarity was need to substitute traditional method of creating ordered families by new algorithmic methods orientated on computer aiding.Design/methodology/approach: The following paper treats about development and putting into practice rules of theory of constructional similarity as a main method realizing γ assignation (which determines relations between parameters of the future technical feature and its design features.Findings: The main achievements presented in this paper are developed theory of constructional similarity orientated on computer aiding, and used in designing process of new technical features. Moreover, method is highly susceptible to parameterization.Research limitations/implications: Analyzed methods develop algorithmisation of designing environment and support integration with the process of preparing the production. Intense research on the theory of technological similarity is being made nowadays.Practical implications: Described methods were being developed on practical examples of creating the module systems of hydraulic cylinders used in mining, slag cars used in metallurgy and gears series of types. Nowadays the gripping devices series of types is being made.Originality/value: Presented in the paper method of construction similarity is basis of selection of design features in the process of ordered construction families (series of types and module systems of constructions creating. Presented method supports intensive development of the types of technical features and affects their competitiveness on the ready market.

  13. Sedimentation basin performance at highway construction sites.

    Kalainesan, Sujaya; Neufeld, Ronald D; Quimpo, Rafael; Yodnane, Precha

    2009-02-01

    Sedimentation basins (SBs) are commonly used during highway construction for erosion and sedimentation pollution control as well as for attenuation of overland storm waters. In order to evaluate the sediment removal capacity of these SBs, four basins were selected for monitoring from a new highway construction that extends I-99 to I-80, in Pennsylvania. Between September 2004 and August 2005, ten sampling trips were conducted during which basin inlet and outlet water samples were obtained. The SB samples were analyzed for pH, color, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total and dissolved iron, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, calcium, sulfate and phosphate. The data showed peaks in concentrations of TSS, total aluminum, total manganese, total iron and total phosphate that closely correlated to localized rainfall peaks. For certain samples, the concentration of TSS in the outlet was higher than the TSS concentration at the basin inlet, suggesting sediment re-suspension. In general SBs managed high flows during wet weather events, but were not effective in capturing particulates. This paper discusses the need for Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the design of SBs that reflect contemporary concerns for management of particle removal and to control the release of particulate-bound metals. This paper also evaluates the water quality impacts of naturally occurring acidic drainages into SBs, as several acidic seeps with pH in the range of 5-6 and having high dissolved concentrations of metals (Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca), sulfate and phosphate were observed draining into the SBs. PMID:18362049

  14. Landscape Construction in Dynamical Systems

    Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    The idea of landscape has been recently applied to study various of biological problems. We demonstrate that a dynamical structure built into nonlinear dynamical systems allows us to construct such a global optimization landscape, which serves as the Lyapunov function for the ordinary differential equation. We find exact constructions on the landscape for a class of dynamical systems, including a van der Pol type oscillator, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, and a chaotic system. The landscape constructed provides a new angle for understanding and modelling biological network dynamics.

  15. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  16. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing the...... period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  17. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  18. What Should Guide Reality Construction?

    Ravn, Ib

    1991-01-01

    in constructivism, which, in its simplest form, is put in the title of the present chapter: What should guide reality construction? What principles or values should guide our construction of economic institutions, foreign policies, roles for the sexes, schooling, care for the sick? This values...... role in co-constructing the reality of her hosts. This acknowledgement implies responsibility and, hence, a personal set of values. If the values problem is central in constructivism as a general outlook on the world, it is even more so in the practice of constructivist research, since the values...

  19. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.

    Riethmiller, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

  20. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of mycocerosic acid

    ter Horst, B.; Feringa, B.L.; J. Minnaard, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of mycocerosic acid was achieved via the application of iterative enantioselective 1,4-addition reactions and allows for the efficient construction of 1,3-polymethyl arrays with full stereocontrol; further exemplified by the synthesis of tetramethyl-dec

  1. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  2. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  3. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT

    Constructed wetlands have been demonstrated effective in removing organic, metal, and nutrient elements including nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewaters, mine drainage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff. The technology is waste stream-specific, requiring...

  4. Teen Brain: Still Under Construction

    ... Teen Brain Reprints For more information Share The Teen Brain: Still Under Construction Download PDF Download ePub ... emotional health. The Changing Brain and Behavior in Teens One interpretation of all these findings is that ...

  5. Transformation processes in constructed wetlands

    Dragounová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, constructed wetlands have become a very popular alternative for wastewater treatment, mainly because of its advantages such as long life of the systems, easy maintenance, low operating costs and mainly due to the wide range of substances that can be with the help of constructed wetlands removed from wastewater. The removal of nutrients and other substances from wastewater is influenced by a number of biological, chemical and physical processes. Of these processes are in t...

  6. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova; Natalia L. Khmeleva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world ta...

  7. Pathwise construction of stochastic integrals

    Nutz, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to construct the stochastic integral simultaneously under a non-dominated family of probability measures. Path-by-path, and without referring to a probability measure, we construct a sequence of Lebesgue-Stieltjes integrals whose medial limit coincides with the usual stochastic integral under essentially any probability measure such that the integrator is a semimartingale. This method applies to any predictable integrand.

  8. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  9. Guidance manual for constructed wetlands.

    Ellis, John Bryan; Shutes, R. Brian E.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2003-01-01

    This Guidance Manual was produced to provide up to date information on the design, costs, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of highway runoff. Information is provided on the different types of wetlands and their mode of operation, the design and planting of a wetland system and the retrofitting of treatment structures, the performance and costs of wetlands and their operation and maintenance requirements. The benefits of wetlands in encoura...

  10. Constructing a modern city machine

    Lindegaard, Hanne; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures.......Based on the Copenhagen sewers debates and constructions the role of changing perceptions of water, hygiene and environment is discussed in relation to the modernisation of cities by machinating flows and infrastructures....

  11. A theory of construction management?

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-01-01

    The links between theory and construction management (CM), and for that matter construction economics (CE), are not strong (see de Valence 2011). This may be one of the reasons why they have not gained complete acceptance as academic disciplines and are not seen as distinct branches of economics and management respectively. Another reason may be that products and production (the focus of management and economic theories respectively) are not the same as projects and project management in gene...

  12. Macroeconomies as Constructively Rational Games

    Sinitskaya, Ekaterina; Tesfatsion, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Real-world decision-makers are forced to be locally constructive, in the sense that their actions are constrained by the interaction networks, limited information, and computational capabilities at their disposal. This study poses the following question: Suppose utility-seeking consumers and profit-seeking firms in an otherwise standard dynamic macroeconomic model are required to be locally constructive decision-makers, unaided by the external imposition of global coordination conditions. Wha...

  13. Financial management of construction contractors.

    Lacaria, Chris J.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to discuss the financial management of a construction contractor. This paper attempts to approach this subject in a logical and systematic way. It communicates the importance of financial analysis and planning along with cash planning and profit planning. This report is not intended to be an all inclusive discussion of financial management in construction. Contractor's Financial Management is an extremely important subject. It has been told ...

  14. Random Construction of Riemann Surfaces

    Brooks, Robert; Makover, Eran

    2001-01-01

    We develop a new approach for the study of “typical” Riemann surfaces with high genus. The method that we use is the construction of random Riemann surfaces from oriented cubic graphs. This construction enables us to get a control over the global geometry properties of compact Riemann surfaces. We use the theory of random regular graphs to show that almost all such surfaces have large first eigenvalues and large Cheeger constants. Moreover a closer analysis of the probability space of oriente...

  15. ConStruct: Improved construction of RNA consensus structures

    Steger Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aligning homologous non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs correctly in terms of sequence and structure is an unresolved problem, due to both mathematical complexity and imperfect scoring functions. High quality alignments, however, are a prerequisite for most consensus structure prediction approaches, homology searches, and tools for phylogeny inference. Automatically created ncRNA alignments often need manual corrections, yet this manual refinement is tedious and error-prone. Results We present an extended version of CONSTRUCT, a semi-automatic, graphical tool suitable for creating RNA alignments correct in terms of both consensus sequence and consensus structure. To this purpose CONSTRUCT combines sequence alignment, thermodynamic data and various measures of covariation. One important feature is that the user is guided during the alignment correction step by a consensus dotplot, which displays all thermodynamically optimal base pairs and the corresponding covariation. Once the initial alignment is corrected, optimal and suboptimal secondary structures as well as tertiary interaction can be predicted. We demonstrate CONSTRUCT's ability to guide the user in correcting an initial alignment, and show an example for optimal secondary consensus structure prediction on very hard to align SECIS elements. Moreover we use CONSTRUCT to predict tertiary interactions from sequences of the internal ribosome entry site of CrP-like viruses. In addition we show that alignments specifically designed for benchmarking can be easily be optimized using CONSTRUCT, although they share very little sequence identity. Conclusion CONSTRUCT's graphical interface allows for an easy alignment correction based on and guided by predicted and known structural constraints. It combines several algorithms for prediction of secondary consensus structure and even tertiary interactions. The CONSTRUCT package can be downloaded from the URL listed in the Availability and

  16. Workshop presentation: research guidelines for Construction Management

    Marco Alvise Bragadin

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the European economic system challenges the construction sector to take part to industrial recovery of western countries. In co-operation with the Construction Production research group of the Tampere University of of research about construction management tools and methods were detected. Research guidelines: 1) Construction management: tools and methods to manage construction projects 2) environmental impact of construction projects 3) construction management and safety 4) project p...

  17. Retarded acid emulsion

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  18. Mega Construction Projects: using stakeholder management for enhanced sustainable construction

    Eyiah-Botwe, E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for mega construction projects development for accelerated socio-economic growth is long overdue for developing countries. Some studies have considered stakeholder management and sustainable construction concepts separately without exploring the simultaneous use for mega projects delivery. This paper reviews the two concepts and suggests a process for enhanced sustainable construction delivery. This study forms part of a broader Ph.D. study on “Development of sustainable stakeholder management framework for construction projects” aimed at improving stakeholder management process and project delivery. A qualitative research method approach was adopted. An extensive literature review on stakeholder management and sustainable construction was conducted using filtering method for four major journals from the institution database. Identified concepts were developed into a conceptual framework and validated using face to face semi-structured interviews involving ten key stakeholders. The findings are that stakeholder management and sustainability concepts are yet to embrace. This paper suggests a seven-step approach for project managers. (1 Embracing stakeholder management and sustainability concepts, (2 identify stakeholder approach and sustainable principle to adopt, (3 identify and classify project stakeholders, (4 engage stakeholders, (5 analyze stakeholders, (6 manage stakeholders and sustainable principle, (7 monitor and support process.

  19. Construction of a model secretion system for oral streptococci.

    Shiroza, T; Kuramitsu, H K

    1993-01-01

    A DNA fragment corresponding to the secretory domain from the Streptococcus mutans GS-5 gtfB gene, which encodes the putative 38-amino-acid signal peptide of the glucosyltransferase I (GTF-I) enzyme product, has been constructed. This fragment was fused with the alpha-amylase structural gene from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain 707. This hybrid gene as well as the intact amylase gene were introduced into an Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle vector consisting of three components: the E. ...

  20. Review on Chlorobenzoic Acids Biodegradation and Their Environmental Impacts

    LuWenming; QiYun; ZhaoLin; TanXin

    2005-01-01

    Chlorobenzoic Acids are toxic organic compounds largely distributed in soils and sediments. They can be degraded to various products by microorgans. This paper is a review of the literature on biodegradability of the chlorobenzoic acids. The degradation pathways, degradation genes, role of transposable elements, and construction of strains are discussed. A brief introduction is given on the environmental impacts and the pollution control.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN FOODSTUFFS

    Prosekov, A.; Babich, O.; Bespomestnykh, K.

    2013-01-01

    Universal genus-specific primers for comparative analysis of two aligned 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences of lactic acid bacteria were constructed. The method to identify lactic acid bacteria and a comprehensive plan for their genus and species identification may be used to characterize isolated strains of the Lactobacillus genus bacteria and in quality control of foodstuffs enriched with Lactobacillus.

  2. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  3. ACR-1000 - Designed for constructability

    Full text: One of the key aspects to be considered in the delivery of a Nuclear Power Plant is the security of the construction schedule and the need for lower construction costs. Many industries are using skids, modules and prefabrications to enhance construction productivity, reduce schedules and thus reduce costs. The leaders in this regard have traditionally been in the off-shore oil and gas, chemical, refinery and ship building industries. The concept of using modules has been utilized in Nuclear Power Plant design and construction. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has had considerable success at the Qinshan Nuclear Power project in China with the use of modularization, which proved extremely effective in the ability to organize parallel construction activities and shortening the schedule. Extensive use has been made of skids and modules in Japan and this also has proven effective in shortening schedules in the construction of nuclear power plants. Secondary benefits of modularization and prefabrication include decreased site congestion and logistical issues, increased worker safety and better quality control of fabrication. Modules and prefabrication allow work to be shifted to areas where skilled trades are more readily available from a site where skilled trades are very limited. One of the objectives of the ACR-1000 project is to produce a design that allows for a very secure construction schedule. The construction method and strategy, consisting of extensive use of prefabrication and modularization was defined very early in the ACR-1000 conceptual phase of the layout and design process. This has been achieved through a constructability programme that integrates the civil design with site erection and module installation. This approach takes the concept of modularization to an entirely new level, in which the use of modules is built into the design from the start, rather than backfitting modular construction into a conventionally designed plant. This

  4. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  5. Shortening of construction period of nuclear power plant. Activities of construction industry on construction period shortening

    Total construction period could be shorten by prefabricating structures efficiently in another yard and reducing working hours on site, which would reduce work at height or congestion work and also upgrade safety at work. Construction period shortening would surely reduce expenses during work and advance operation start of electric utilities. Construction of reactor building, turbine building, water intake and drainage canal was performed on a relatively large scale and a big share of whole schedule. This article summarized basic technologies to shorten construction period for reactor building/turbine building and water intake and drainage canal. Advanced methods of reactor building/turbine building; (1) modularization of equipment and skeleton, (2) utilization of concrete mold, reinforcing bar and steel frame, (3) precedent steel frame method and (4) steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) method, were outlined and their application examples were shown to reduce work on site and improve work efficiency. As for water intake and drainage canal construction, (1) precast concrete method, (2) SC method and (3) steel plate shell method were described with application examples. Construction procedures and problems using mega block method for water intake and drainage canal were also introduced. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  7. National construction, Denmark. Flat roofs

    Rode, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Paris meeting of IEA Annex 24 (held in the spring of 1991) declared a set of typical building constructions, the Heat, Air and Moisture characteristics of which should be dealt with as part of the Annex work. Each type of construction was assigned to one or more countries as their National Construction, and it has been the responsibility of each country to prepare a report on what may be regarded as common knowledge in the country on the hygrothermal behaviour of their construction. This knowledge is in part due to experimental work carried out by research bodies in the countries, and due to experience form practice. This report has two main sections: Section 2 gives a general overview of the design of the most common variants of flat roofs and common knowledge reported for such roofs. Section 3 gives an account of research projects carried out in Denmark on flat roofs to analyze their hygrothermal performance. Whenever possible, an emphasis will be put on the hygrothermal consequences of thermally insulating such constructions. (EG) 19 refs.

  8. Modification Management for Construction Processes

    Wolfgang Huhnt; Sven Richter; Felix Enge

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to handle different types of subsequent modifications in con-struction processes. It is focused on a formalized approach with the objective that effects of subsequent modifications are detected automatically. The approach presented in this paper makes use of an existing modeling technique specifically focused on construction processes. The modeling techniques result in a process description where all technological interdependencies between construction activities are consid-ered and where consistency between the sequence of activities and the history of components is guaran-teed. This modeling technique is expanded by an existing concept for handling versions and dependencies between objects. The integration of these different concepts makes it possible to track effects of relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes on a formalized basis. Effects of subsequent modifications are detected by algorithms, different versions can be compared by algorithms and different versions are stored so that subsequent modifications are documented. The innovation of the approach pre-sented is the completeness. Effects of different relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes are tracked on a formalized basis.

  9. Plasma amino acids

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  10. Acid Lipase Disease

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  11. Hyaluronic acid and tendon lesions

    Kaux, Jean-François; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods this review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The key words hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results in total, 28 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including 13 for the in vitro part, 7 for the in vivo animal part and 8 for the human section. Conclusions preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. PMID:26958533

  12. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  13. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  14. Seismic pipe support construction practices

    During the mid 1970's the regulatory agencies controlling the design and construction of nuclear power plants began to demand stricter adherence to already existing codes and standards in addition to evoking new requirements. This increased scrutiny in addition to the advent of the NF subsection of the ASME code brought pipe hangers into the spotlight of nuclear plant design and construction. What before had been a minor item of low visibility became a significant contributor to plant delays and cost overruns. The following few words detail some of the problems, their origins, and suggestions to reduce their impact. The opinions presented represent information collected from several nuclear plants being constructed by various contractors

  15. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  16. Space environment model construction technology

    Nishimoto, Hironobu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa

    1992-08-01

    A space environment model was constructed based on the results of the review on space environment model conducted in Fiscal Year 1986 and 1987. The space environment model was constructed to collect theories and data required for grasping various physical entities such as radiation, plasma, and spacecraft fragments and so forth, and to enable quantitative prediction of their time wise, spacial distribution and their effects such as electrification and material deterioration, and its system structure and functions were shown. The Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) installed onboard the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5) consist of various satellite environment monitors and component and material deterioration monitors for the purpose of acquiring technical data required for design and evaluation for satellite development. Review was conducted to clarify the correlation between each TEDA data and to apply the result in constructing the satellite environment model. Correlation between each TEDA data was made clear.

  17. Utilizing platforms in industrialized construction

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of a platform-based project execution in the industrialised construction sector, with a focus on systematically balancing cost and value. Offering custom-tailored buildings at reasonable costs has been a growing concern for many...... construction companies. A promising approach adapted by operations management and design theory regards individual building projects as the adjustment and recombination of components and processes from a set of predefined platforms, while configuration systems assure feasible building solutions. Design...... platform strategies, this research highlights key aspects of adapting platform-based developed theory to industrialised construction. Building projects use different layers of product, process and logistics platforms to form the right cost – value ratio for the target market application, while modelling...

  18. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally......Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...

  19. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  20. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units "Standard Construction" and "Preframed Construction".

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    The standards that should be applied to the construction of supplementary classroom units are discussed in this report. Areas dealt with are--(1) general mechanical and electrical work, (2) concrete, (3) masonry, (4) miscellaneous steel and iron, (5) metal windows, (6) carpentry at site, (7) millwork, (8) acoustic treatment, (9) thermal…

  1. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..

  2. PRIORITISING LEAN CONSTRUCTION BARRIERS IN UGANDA'S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Engaging in lean construction efforts could prove to be highly rewarding for building firms in Uganda. However, lean construction is risky and can be disastrous if not properly managed. Lean production efforts in some other countries have not been successful due to the many barriers to its successful implementation. To enable sound lean construction efforts and to increase the chances of success in eliminating waste, a thorough investigation of the barriers is essential. This study presents 31 barriers and investigates their influence (strength on the success of lean construction initiatives. Structured interviews were carried out with technical managers of building firms to assess their perception of the barriers to lean production based on their experience at their firms. The strongest barrier is the provision of inputs exactly when required. Additionally, the barriers were ranked according to the ease of overcoming each. The easiest barrier to overcome is keeping the required items in the right place. Finally, a graphical aid is provided to enable decision makers to concentrate their efforts on the influential (strong, yet easy to overcome barriers. A lack of buildable designs and a participative management style for the workforce are the most important barriers to successful waste reduction in terms of strength and ease of overcoming. On the other hand, a lack of an organisational culture that supports teamwork, a lack of prefabrication and a lack of knowledgeable and skilled workers are regarded as low in strength, and at the same time difficult to overcome.

  3. L-缬氨酸产生菌JVHK597的选育及无机盐对其产酸量的影响%Breeding of of L-valine Producing Strain JVHK597 and Influence of Inorganic Salt on Its Acid Production

    刘焕民; 葛向阳; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选L-缬氨酸高产菌株并研究其发酵条件.[方法]以黄色短杆菌(Brebvibacterium flavum)突变株ZGH61.28为出发菌株,采用紫外线(UV)、硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)3种诱变剂进行诱变处理,通过摇瓶培养筛选出L-缬氨酸高产突变菌株.[结果]经过UV、DES和NTG3种诱变剂处理菌株ZGH6128,逐步获得菌株JVHK597,并具有Leu营养缺陷、Ile营养缺陷、Met营养缺陷、α-AB抗性、2-TA抗性5种遗传标记.在未优化的条件下,菌株JVHK597摇瓶发酵72 h的产酸量达41.2 g/L.8次传代试验结果表明,菌株JVHK597的产酸能力稳定,经鉴定,菌株JVHK597的基因型为(Leu-,Ile-,Met-,α-ABr,2 -TAr),遗传标记具有稳定性.发酵培养基中硫酸镁( MgSO4·7H2O)和磷酸二氢钾的含量分别为0.6和1.4 g/L时,最有利于菌株生产L-缬氨酸.[结论]试验筛选出了L-缬氨酸高产菌株JVHK597,并为其发酵培养提供了指导.%[Objective]The aim was to screen superior strain of L-valine and study its fermentation condition. [ Method] With the mutant strain ZGH6128 of Brebvibacterium flavum as initial strain, 3 kinds of mutagens of ultraviolet (UV), diethyl sulfate (DES) and nitrosoguani-dine (NTG) were used in its mutagene treatments, its superior mutant strain of L-valine was screened out through shaking culture. [ Result] The strain ZGH6128 was treated with 3 kinds of mutagens of UV, DES and NTG and the mutant strain JVHK597 was obtained progressively. This mutant strain possessed 5 genetic marks of Leu auxotroph, Ile auxotroph, Met auxotroph, a-AB resistance and 2-TA resistance. Under non-optimized condition, the production of acid from the strain JVHK597 reached 41.2 g/L after fermentation for 72 h. The experimental results of 8 passages showed that the acid producing ability of the strain JVHK597 was stable and its genotype was identified to be (Leu-, Ile-, Met-, α-AB', 2-TA') and its genetic marks had stability. When the contents of bitter salt (Mg

  4. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  5. You can manage construction risks.

    Macomber, J D

    1989-01-01

    A construction project is about the riskiest thing any company does in the normal course of business. Hundreds of things can go wrong, dozens will. But officers who analyze and manage every other sort of risk often ignore construction risk as if it were uncontrollable. The truth is, it can't be eliminated, but it can be controlled. Construction is not a product but a confusing and often exasperating service. A group of experts--architects, bankers, consultants, contractors, engineers, users, city officials--coordinate the activities of an army of suppliers, laborers, designers, subcontractors, and inspectors. The job of the company officers is to coordinate the coordinators; to make prompt, informed decisions as the work progresses; to take and retain project responsibility at the highest level; and to analyze and manage the entire process in the following seven stages: 1. Study the types and phases of construction risk. 2. Assess the risks of the company's particular project. 3. Match these risks with the in-house capabilities. 4. Define a building strategy. 5. Pick the right kind of contract. 6. Choose a contractor. 7. Monitor construction. Analyzing risk is largely a matter of assessing the complexity of the building, the site, the financing, the schedule, and the special uses and problems of the project. This analysis then drives the choice of contract and contractor. The range runs from low-cost providers, lump sum contracts and very little teamwork at one end of the spectrum to highly differentiated construction companies, guaranteed-maximum-prince contracts, and consultative coordination at the other. PMID:10292513

  6. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  7. Constructing the Virtual Production Line

    孙连胜; 宁汝新

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the constructing technology of virtual production line, the structure model of virtual production line was presented, and the object-oriented technique was used to establish its basic classes and relevant models, including solid model, behavior model and object-oriented Petri net based control model, and based on this, the constructing of virtual production line was realized. The application proved that the virtual production line had many good characteristics, such as visualization, interaction, multi-layer and reusability, and it's an efficient tool of analyzing and modeling for layout planning and rapidly reconfiguring of production line.

  8. Construction of UHVAC Test Base

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the UHVAC test base of SGCC is an important component of the pilot project on UHVAC power transmission and transformation in China. This paper introduces the layout, technical requirements and main test functions of the UHVAC test base as well as difficulties during construction. It lays stress on the characterization of a 1 000-kV single-circuit test line, a 1 000-kV one-tower double-circuit test line, a full voltage test site for UHV equipment, a climate laboratory, a corona cage and a...

  9. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Krishna Mochtar; David Arditi

    2000-01-01

    Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility model...

  10. Minimal surfaces for architectural constructions

    Velimirović Ljubica S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimal surfaces are the surfaces of the smallest area spanned by a given boundary. The equivalent is the definition that it is the surface of vanishing mean curvature. Minimal surface theory is rapidly developed at recent time. Many new examples are constructed and old altered. Minimal area property makes this surface suitable for application in architecture. The main reasons for application are: weight and amount of material are reduced on minimum. Famous architects like Otto Frei created this new trend in architecture. In recent years it becomes possible to enlarge the family of minimal surfaces by constructing new surfaces.

  11. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  12. Construction organization Design and Project Cost

    Xu, Minyuan

    2015-01-01

    With the construction and building market continuously deepening of reform the management sys-tem, the aim of this thesis is that improve the project quality, shorten the construction period, reduce the project cost and realize a safe and civilized construction, it must use scientific methods to optimize the design of construction organization to co-ordinate the whole construction process. I used to work in Savoniallina PR-Urakointi Oy. It is a construction company which focus on house an...

  13. Knowledge Management in Composition of Construction Contracts

    Eva Trinkūnienė; Vaidotas Trinkūnas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a model which will allow knowledge management in construction contracts composition. It was decided to investigate the possibilities to manage knowledge in constructions contracts composition. The complexity of construction process interested parties, construction contract life cycle, multilayer construction contracts modelling possibilities were evaluated. In the following research, model of information system for construction contracts structu...

  14. Construction Management--Exploding Some Myths.

    Kluenker, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Construction management on educational facility projects provides boards of education with documentation showing the project is on track. Eight "myths" surrounding construction management are explained. (MLF)

  15. Hotel Cubo - Construction Phase Analysis

    Kuzmanović, Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the project of renovation of the object with respect to the planned and actual realisation. All changes in circumstances and conditions during the construction are defined. On the basis of their impact and consequences, the time and financial analysis of the project's success is carried out.

  16. Construction of Mass Migration Process

    Fajfrová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    A general model of conservative particle systems on $/Zd$ is treated in this report. We call it the Mass Migration Process. We bring out a construction of an appropriate Markov process, we set conditions on existence, attractiveness and we present many particular examples.

  17. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  18. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  19. Gendered Construction: A Portfolio Extravaganza

    Goins, Terilyn J.

    2007-01-01

    Even through simplistic nursery rhymes, communication provides a powerful medium through which people formulate and create impressions, images, and ideologies. Communication, verbal and nonverbal, clearly plays a significant role in individual gender construction. Through words and action, people create meaning for others and themselves. One's…

  20. TRANSITIVITY AND THE BA CONSTRUCTION

    Pei-Jung Kuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the legitimacy of positing a Transitivity Projection (= TrP cf. Bowers 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2002 in the BA construction in Mandarin Chinese. BA has been proposed to be a semantically-bleached verb, inserted in the v position (Huang 1997 and Lin 2001. Several pieces of evidence such as manner adverbial placement (cf. Huang, Li and Li 2009 and GEI-insertion (cf. Tang 2001 indicate that there must be a functional projection between the vP and VP to host the BA NP. I propose that a TrP is probably the most apt candidate for the XP. I also argue, in contrast to the proposal by Huang, Li and Li (2009, that the present proposal which employs a TrP captures most of the properties of the BA construction. A comparison with the structure of the BEI construction also shows that the TrP proposal fits into the general picture of current linguistic theory on transitive constructions without extra stipulations.

  1. The worlds retail buyers construct

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction and...

  2. Wood construction under cold climate

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and...

  3. Clarifying the Construct of Perfectionism

    Stairs, Agnes M.; Smith, Gregory T.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Combs, Jessica L.; Settles, Regan E.

    2012-01-01

    The construct of perfectionism is related to many important outcome variables. However, the term "perfectionism" has been defined in many different ways, and items comprising the different existing scales appear to be very different in content. The overarching aim of the present set of studies was to help clarify the specific unidimensional…

  4. International Construction Disputes in Denmark

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses whether the very peculiar Danish system of resolution of construction disputes, which is an hybrid between arbitration and State-Court proceedings, is geared for disputes involving non-Danish parties, comes to the conclusion that it is not, and proposes amendments to the...

  5. Parallel Construction of Irreducible Polynomials

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    Let arithmetic pseudo-NC^k denote the problems that can be solved by log space uniform arithmetic circuits over the finite prime field GF(p) of depth O(log^k (n + p)) and size polynomial in (n + p). We show that the problem of constructing an irreducible polynomial of specified degree over GF(p) ...

  6. INNOVATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    David Arditi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper%2C existing innovation models are reviewed. The influence of technology and market-driven schools of thought on the creation and diffusion of innovation is examined. Incremental vs. radical models and autonomous vs. systemic models are considered in the context of the construction industry. The concept of %93technology adoption life cycle%94 is investigated to understand better the acceptance of new technology by key parties. A new model of innovation is proposed. In this model%2C the transformation process of invention into adoption flows through a cyclical mechanism encompassing six phases%3A 1%29 need%2C 2%29 creation%2C 3%29 invention%2C 4%29 innovation%2C 5%29 diffusion%2C and 6%29 adoption. This model clearly shows the interaction of the three most influential domains%3A users%2C changes%2C and the environment. The model also takes into consideration the influence of technology and market-driven forces on the creation and diffusion of innovation. As a consequence of their particular function in the construction activity%2C construction management firms should perform as catalysts in the generation and diffusion of technological advances in the Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Innovation%2C+invention%2C+innovation+models%2C+technology+adoption+life+cycle%2C+construction+management.+

  7. Quality assurance during site construction

    Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants under consideration of pipe assembling. Flow of Quality Requirements during: - Desing - Construction - Procurement - Prefabrication - Site. Organizational Requirements and Measurements during Erection: - Incoming Control - Material Storage - Surveillance of Tools - Weld Surveillance - Nondestructive Testing - Cleaning - Final Documentation. Qualification and Training of QA Personnel. (orig.)

  8. Constructions of Rank Modulation Codes

    Mazumdar, Arya; Zémor, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation is a way of encoding information to correct errors in flash memory devices as well as impulse noise in transmission lines. Modeling rank modulation involves construction of packings of the space of permutations equipped with the Kendall tau distance. We present several general constructions of codes in permutations that cover a broad range of code parameters. In particular, we show a number of ways in which conventional error-correcting codes can be modified to correct errors in the Kendall space. Codes that we construct afford simple encoding and decoding algorithms of essentially the same complexity as required to correct errors in the Hamming metric. For instance, from binary BCH codes we obtain codes correcting $t$ Kendall errors in $n$ memory cells that support the order of $n!/(\\log_2n!)^t$ messages, for any constant $t= 1,2,...$ We also construct families of codes that correct a number of errors that grows with $n$ at varying rates, from $\\Theta(n)$ to $\\Theta(n^{2})$. One of our constr...

  9. Constructive criterion of catastrophe inevitability

    A mathematical procedure is proposed for the constructive criteria of nuclear catastrophe inevitability. It was concluded that the procedure can fulfill the objective set, and it allows to make a full formal safety classification of object states. (N.T.). 1 ref., 1 fig

  10. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  11. Civil works for NPPs construction

    Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs

  12. The ITER project construction status

    Motojima, O.

    2015-10-01

    The pace of the ITER project in St Paul-lez-Durance, France is accelerating rapidly into its peak construction phase. With the completion of the B2 slab in August 2014, which will support about 400 000 metric tons of the tokamak complex structures and components, the construction is advancing on a daily basis. Magnet, vacuum vessel, cryostat, thermal shield, first wall and divertor structures are under construction or in prototype phase in the ITER member states of China, Europe, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, and the United States. Each of these member states has its own domestic agency (DA) to manage their procurements of components for ITER. Plant systems engineering is being transformed to fully integrate the tokamak and its auxiliary systems in preparation for the assembly and operations phase. CODAC, diagnostics, and the three main heating and current drive systems are also progressing, including the construction of the neutral beam test facility building in Padua, Italy. The conceptual design of the Chinese test blanket module system for ITER has been completed and those of the EU are well under way. Significant progress has been made addressing several outstanding physics issues including disruption load characterization, prediction, avoidance, and mitigation, first wall and divertor shaping, edge pedestal and SOL plasma stability, fuelling and plasma behaviour during confinement transients and W impurity transport. Further development of the ITER Research Plan has included a definition of the required plant configuration for 1st plasma and subsequent phases of ITER operation as well as the major plasma commissioning activities and the needs of the accompanying R&D program to ITER construction by the ITER parties.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Data Construction

    Hai Ha Le

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the route to a spatio-temporal geoscience information system, an appropriate data model for geo-objects in space and time has been developed. In this model, geo-objects are represented as sequences of geometries and properties with continuous evolution in each time interval. Because geomodeling software systems usually model objects at specific time instances, we want to interpolate the geometry and properties from two models of an object with only geometrical constraints (no physical or mechanical constraints. This process is called spatio-temporal data construction or morphological interpolation of intermediate geometries. This paper is strictly related to shape morphing, shape deformation, cross-parameterization and compatible remeshing and is only concerned with geological surfaces. In this study, two main sub-solutions construct compatible meshes and find trajectories in which vertices of the mesh evolve. This research aims to find an algorithm to construct spatio-temporal data with some constraints from the geosciences, such as cutting surfaces by faulting or fracturing phenomena and evolving boundaries attached to other surfaces. Another goal of this research is the implementation of the algorithm in a software product, namely a gOcad plug-in. The four main procedures of the algorithm are cutting the surfaces, setting up constraints, partitioning and calculating the parameterizations and trajectories. The software has been tested to construct data for a salt dome and other surfaces in regard to the geological processes of faulting, deposition and erosion. The result of this research is an algorithm and software for the construction of spatio-temporal data.

  14. Bioprinting Cellularized Constructs Using a Tissue-specific Hydrogel Bioink.

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Seol, Young-Joon; Forsythe, Steven D; Bishop, Colin; Shupe, Thomas; Soker, Shay; Atala, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting has emerged as a versatile biofabrication approach for creating tissue engineered organ constructs. These constructs have potential use as organ replacements for implantation in patients, and also, when created on a smaller size scale as model "organoids" that can be used in in vitro systems for drug and toxicology screening. Despite development of a wide variety of bioprinting devices, application of bioprinting technology can be limited by the availability of materials that both expedite bioprinting procedures and support cell viability and function by providing tissue-specific cues. Here we describe a versatile hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin-based hydrogel system comprised of a multi-crosslinker, 2-stage crosslinking protocol, which can provide tissue specific biochemical signals and mimic the mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. Biochemical factors are provided by incorporating tissue-derived extracellular matrix materials, which include potent growth factors. Tissue mechanical properties are controlled combinations of PEG-based crosslinkers with varying molecular weights, geometries (linear or multi-arm), and functional groups to yield extrudable bioinks and final construct shear stiffness values over a wide range (100 Pa to 20 kPa). Using these parameters, hydrogel bioinks were used to bioprint primary liver spheroids in a liver-specific bioink to create in vitro liver constructs with high cell viability and measurable functional albumin and urea output. This methodology provides a general framework that can be adapted for future customization of hydrogels for biofabrication of a wide range of tissue construct types. PMID:27166839

  15. Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the duplex-constructed wetland and the constructed wetroof

    Zapater Pereyra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Maribel Zapater Pereyra Abstract thesis:  Design and development of two novel constructed wetlands: the Duplex-constructed wetland and the Constructed wetroof Constructed wetlands (CWs) are among the few natural treatment systems that can guarantee an efficient wastewater treatment and an appe

  16. 76 FR 63878 - New Source Performance Standards Review for Nitric Acid Plants

    2011-10-14

    ... of the Nitric Acid Plants NSPS was completed on June 19, 1979 (44 FR 35265). An additional review was... ) emission limit, which applies to each nitric acid production unit commencing construction, modification, or... questions about these proposed standards for nitric acid production units, contact Mr. Chuck French,...

  17. Synthesis of New Chrial Building Blocks for Novel Peptide Nucleic Acids

    WU,Jie; XU,Xiao-Yu; LIU,Ke-Liang

    2003-01-01

    N-Boc protected amino acids of analogues of peptide nucleic acid (PNA),which are a class of conformationally constrained building blocks based on 4-aminoproline backbone with chirality at 2-c and 4-c,have been synthesized.Those monomers can be used for the construction of novel peptide nucleic acid analogues.

  18. Construction, calibration and testing of a micro-combustion calorimeter

    An isoperibolic micro-combustion calorimeter was designed, built and set up in our laboratory, taking as base a 1107 Parr combustion bomb of 22 cm3 of volume. Taken into account the geometrical form of the bomb, it was designed and constructed a vessel and a submarine chamber in brass. All of the pieces of the calorimeter were chromium-plated to reduce heat loss by radiation. The calorimeter was calibrated by using pellets of standard benzoic acid (mass approximate of 40 mg) leading to the energy equivalent of ε(calor) = (1283.8 ± 0.6) J . K-1. In order to test the calorimeter, combustion experiments of salicylic acid were performed leading to a value of combustion energy of Δc u 0 = -(21,888.8 ± 10.9) J . g-1, which agrees with the reported literature values. The combustion of piperonylic acid was carried out as a further test leading to a value of combustion energy of Δc u 0 = -(20,215.9 ± 10.4) J . g-1 in accordance with the reported literature value. The uncertainty of the calibration and the combustion of salicylic acid and piperonylic acid was 0.05%

  19. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  20. 10 CFR 60.31 - Construction authorization.

    2010-01-01

    ... authorize construction if it determines: (a) Safety. That there is reasonable assurance that the types and... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction authorization. 60.31 Section 60.31 Energy... REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.31 Construction authorization. Upon review...

  1. Construction Technology of Long Span Bridges

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    A large variety of construction methods are used during construction of major bridges, and in many cases the final structural system must be chosen with due respect to the construction process. Today the preferred construction methods are: the free-cantilever method, the launching method and the ...... full-span erection method....

  2. 23 CFR 772.19 - Construction noise.

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction noise. 772.19 Section 772.19 Highways... ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.19 Construction noise. The following general... may be affected by noise from construction of the project. The identification is to be...

  3. Disability: An Exclusionary Narrative Construction

    María Inés Baquero Torres

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The identity that culture attributes to people with disabilities is supported by narratives of exclusion that translate into discursive models of discrimination and abuse of power, represented in standards and exclusionary stereotypes that deny their capabilities and threaten their recognition to participate in conditions of equality in social and political life. In this sense, the analysis of exclusionary narratives can reveal such discriminatory practices. This study is divided into three parts: (1 the disability as a social construction translated into rules and exclusionary stereotypes; (2 discursive models of disability that part of the question: what are the discourses that have tried to define disability?; and (3 school as a place for the transformation of exclusionary narratives into narratives of diversity and respect for human rights. The article analyzes the category disability from a discursive framework of narratives of exclusion, in the construction of the identities of people with disabilities.

  4. Fusion Frames: Existence and Construction

    Calderbank, Robert; Heinecke, Andreas; Kutyniok, Gitta; Pezeshki, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Fusion frame theory is an emerging mathematical theory that provides a natural framework for performing hierarchical data processing. A fusion frame is a frame-like collection of subspaces in a Hilbert space, thereby generalizing the concept of a frame for signal representation. In this paper, we study the existence and construction of fusion frames. We first present a complete characterization of a special class of fusion frames, called Parseval fusion frames. The value of Parseval fusion frames is that the inverse fusion frame operator is equal to the identity and therefore signal reconstruction can be performed with minimal complexity. We then introduce two general methods -- the spatial complement and the Naimark complement -- for constructing a new fusion frame from a given fusion frame. We then establish existence conditions for fusion frames with desired properties. In particular, we address the following question: Given $M, N, m \\in \\NN$ and $\\{\\lambda_j\\}_{j=1}^M$, does there exist a fusion frame in ...

  5. General Construction of Tubular Geometry

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of locally describing tubular geometry around a submanifold embedded in a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold in its general form. Given the geometry of ambient space in an arbitrary coordinate system and equations determining the submanifold in the same system, we compute the tubular expansion coefficients in terms of this {\\it a priori data}. This is done by using an indirect method that crucially applies the tubular expansion theorem for vielbein previously derived. With an explicit construction involving the relevant coordinate and non-coordinate frames we verify consistency of the whole method up to quadratic order in vielbein expansion. Furthermore, we perform certain (long and tedious) higher order computation which verifies the first non-trivial spin connection term in the expansion for the first time. Earlier a similar method was used to compute tubular geometry in loop space. We explain this work in the light of our general construction.

  6. Superselectors: Efficient Constructions and Applications

    Cicalese, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new combinatorial structure: the superselector. We show that superselectors subsume several important combinatorial structures used in the past few years to solve problems in group testing, compressed sensing, multi-channel conflict resolution and data security. We prove close upper and lower bounds on the size of superselectors and we provide efficient algorithms for their constructions. Albeit our bounds are very general, when they are instantiated on the combinatorial structures that are particular cases of superselectors (e.g., (p,k,n)-selectors, (d,\\ell)-list-disjunct matrices, MUT_k(r)-families, FUT(k, a)-families, etc.) they match the best known bounds in terms of size of the structures (the relevant parameter in the applications). For appropriate values of parameters, our results also provide the first efficient deterministic algorithms for the construction of such structures.

  7. Program Construction by Verifying Specification

    林洪; 陈国良

    1998-01-01

    A program construction method based on Gamma language is proposed.The problem to be solved is specified by first-order predicate logic and a semantic verification program is constructed directly from the specification.Ways for improving efficiency of the program are also studied.The method differs from the one proposed by Manna and Waldinger,where a program is extracted from the proof of the existence of an object meeting the given specification.On the other hand,it also differs from the classical one used for deriving Gamma programs of Banatre and Le metayes,which consists in decomposing the specification into an invariant and a termination conditon.

  8. Status of the NCSX construction

    Dudek, Lawrence E.; Chrzanowski, James H.; Heitzenroeder, Philip J.; Raftopoulos, Stephen; Viola, Michael E.; Neilson, George H.; Rej, Donald [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cole, Michael J.; Goranson, Paul; Freudenberg, Kevin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The stellarator core is designed to produce a compact 3D plasma that combines stellarator and tokamak physics advantages. The complex geometry and tight fabrication tolerances of NCSX create some unique engineering and assembly challenges. The NCSX project was cancelled in May 2008; construction activities are presently being phased out in an orderly fashion. This paper will describe the progress of the fabrication and assembly activities of NCSX. Completion of the coil fabrication is on track for the summer of 2008. All three of the vacuum vessel 120 deg. sections have been delivered. Assembly of vacuum vessel services began in May 2006 and is now complete. Assembly of the modular coils into 3-packs for safe storage is presently underway.

  9. Status of the NCSX construction

    Dudek, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chrzanowski, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heitzenroeder, P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raftopoulos, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Viola, M. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Neilson, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); George, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Rej, D. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Goranson, Paul L [ORNL; Freudenberg, Kevin D [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been under construction at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The stellarator core is designed to produce a compact 3D plasma that combines stellarator and tokamak physics advantages. The complex geometry and tight fabrication tolerances of NCSX create some unique engineering and assembly challenges. The NCSX project was cancelled in May 2008; construction activities are presently being phased out in an orderly fashion. This paper will describe the progress of the fabrication and assembly activities of NCSX. Completion of the coil fabrication is on track for the summer of 2008. All three of the vacuum vessel 120 degrees sections have been delivered. Assembly of vacuum vessel services began in May 2006 and is now complete. Assembly of the modular coils into 3-packs for safe storage is presently underway. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  11. Construction, emplacement, and retrievability (preclosure)

    Each of the three preclosure subgroups of the Construction, Emplacement, and Retrievability Working Group adopted a six-step approach to identify and assess current needs in geotechnical modeling and characterization. This approach may be summarized as follows: identify phenomena related to emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes, identify types of models which are required to calculate the phenomena, establish the input data needs for the models, assess the current availability of the models, assess the current status of documentation, verification, and validation of the models, and determine the adequacy of instrumentation and measurement techniques to (a) validate the models, where necessary, and (b) obtain input data for design. Systematic application of these six steps leads to the establishment of the research requirements for geotechnical modeling and characterization. A summary of modeling techniques which apply to the three subsequent sections on construction, emplacement, and retrievability is presented. Research needs, which apply to all preclosure activities, are summarized

  12. The construction of teaching professionality

    Heloisa Helena Oliveira de Azevedo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared by the results of a research of a investigation about the formative strategies developed by educators related to the construction of the professionality of future childhood and elementary school teachers.From the analysis of the content of the interviews, we want to know what the educators think about the teaching profession and conducting training activities aimed at building the professionalism of future teachers.With theoretical bases for analyses related to the historical-critical conception of education, we inferred that educators have tried to break with the traditional paradigm of teacher’s education, creating new learning alternatives and stimulating the construction of a new professionality that overcomes the culture of isolated an individual thinking

  13. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  14. Construct Measurement in Management Research

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Far too often do management scholars resort to crude and often inappropriate measures of fundamental constructs in their research; an approach which calls in question the interpretation and validity of their findings. Scholars often legitimize poor choices in measurement with a lack of availability...... of better measures and/or that they are simply following existing research in adopting previously published measures without critically assessing the validity, appropriateness, and applicability of such measures in terms of the focal study. Motivated by a recent dialog in Journal of Business Research......, this research note raises important questions about the use of proxies in management research and argues for greater care in operationalizing constructs with particular attention to matching levels of theory and measurement....

  15. Using fly ash for construction

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  16. On the weak project construction cost management

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  17. On the weak project construction cost management

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    @@@@the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  18. Divisors in residue classes, constructively

    Coppersmith, Don; Howgrave-Graham, Nick; Nagaraj, S. V.

    2008-03-01

    Let r,s,n be integers satisfying 0 leq r 1/4 , and let gcd(r,s)D1 . Lenstra showed that the number of integer divisors of n equivalent to r pmod s is upper bounded by O((alpha-1/4)^{-2}) . We re-examine this problem, showing how to explicitly construct all such divisors, and incidentally improve this bound to O((alpha-1/4)^{-3/2}) .

  19. Constructal Hypothesis for Mechanical Deformation

    Atanu Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mild Steel specimen, when subjected to tensile forces shows considerable plastic deformation before fracture. A cross-section of the fractured specimen has the familiar cup – cone form and shows traces of a three – dimensional parabolic geometry. The morphing of the steel specimen from a volume to a point as a spontaneous, entropy producing or energy dispersing process is analysed using the Constructal law.

  20. Automatically constructing the semantic web

    Becerra, Victor Manuel; Brown, Matthew; Nasuto, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    The storage and processing capacity realised by computing has lead to an explosion of data retention. We now reach the point of information overload and must begin to use computers to process more complex information. In particular, the proposition of the Semantic Web has given structure to this problem, but has yet realised practically. The largest of its problems is that of ontology construction; without a suitable automatic method most will have to be encoded by hand. In this paper we disc...

  1. Essentials of Constructive Heterodoxy: Profit

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2015-01-01

    The goal of theoretical economics is to explain how the actual economy works. Since Adam Smith economists have consistently failed to clarify the nature and magnitude of overall profit. No economist, though, would deny that profit is an important phenomenon. Yet, obviously economists are still mired in utter confusion about the most fundamental concept of their discipline. Hence, in the strict sense, there is no valid economics. From all this follows for a methodologically ambitious Construct...

  2. CONSTRUCTING ACCOUNTING UNCERTAINITY ESTIMATES VARIABLE

    Nino Serdarevic

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research results on the BIH firms’ financial reporting quality, utilizing empirical relation between accounting conservatism, generated in created critical accounting policy choices, and management abilities in estimates and prediction power of domicile private sector accounting. Primary research is conducted based on firms’ financial statements, constructing CAPCBIH (Critical Accounting Policy Choices relevant in B&H) variable that presents particular internal control sys...

  3. Electrical measurements during magnet construction

    Throughout the construction phase of the cold mass for SSC magnets, electrical tests are made to determine that no faults in the coil structure have developed. These tests include ones designed to measure turn-to-turn voltage hold-off, hypot tests to ground, coil resistance, and instrumentation checks. These various tests will be described and the test parameters that are used will be covered. 4 figs

  4. Urban construction and safety project

    Hogarth, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Technology utilization projects in the area of urban construction and safety included the following: development of undercarpet and baseboard flat conductor cables, flood insurance studies, tornado safety engineering, the Project TECH house at the Langley Research Center, assistance to the City of Atlanta in their environmental habitability and resource allocation program, and market assessment of a solid state diesel engine controller. The flat conductor cable and the flood insurance studies are given particular attention.

  5. Site news from Fairey Construction

    The article lists the current work undertaken by Fairey Construction Company for the U.K. nuclear industry. At Heysham and Torness, the work concerns the site erection of the reactor internals including the reactor core, secondary shutdown system, fuel and interstitial guide tubes, and thermocouple systems. At Dounreay, a Radioactive Specimen Preparation Facility, designed and manufactured by the Company, is being installed; whilst at Sellafield, the Company is engaged on work on Pond 5. (U.K.)

  6. Leadership in construction partnering projects

    Thurairajah, N.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of partnering in construction. Central to any successful partnering arrangement is the change in cultural and behavioural characteristics towards mutual trust and understanding. Leadership is originally the source of the beliefs and values which forms shared assumptions of organisational culture. This paper builds on the leadership literature which has so ably demonstrated the influence of powerful leaders. As Bueno a...

  7. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der FU, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  8. Fluid management in space construction

    Snyder, Howard

    1989-01-01

    The low-g fluids management group with the Center for Space Construction is engaged in active research on the following topics: gauging; venting; controlling contamination; sloshing; transfer; acquisition; and two-phase flow. Our basic understanding of each of these topics at present is inadequate to design space structures optimally. A brief report is presented on each topic showing the present status, recent accomplishings by our group and our plans for future research. Reports are presented in graphic and outline form.

  9. Semirigid construction of topological supergravities

    We show how to construct topological N = 1 and 2 supergravity theories from appropriately constrained N = 3 and 4 ghost plus matter systems. In particular N = 4 susy is not needed to obtain the N = 1 topological theory. We give a description of the relevant supermoduli spaces which must be integrated to obtain the amplitudes of these theories, as well as explicit formulas for the ingredients entering the integrands, in particular the various supercurrents with their inhomogeneous terms

  10. The construction of teaching professionality

    Heloisa Helena Oliveira de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    This article was prepared by the results of a research of a investigation about the formative strategies developed by educators related to the construction of the professionality of future childhood and elementary school teachers.From the analysis of the content of the interviews, we want to know what the educators think about the teaching profession and conducting training activities aimed at building the professionalism of future teachers.With theoretical bases for analyses related to the h...

  11. Constructive use of holographic projections

    Revisiting the old problem of existence of interacting models of QFT with new conceptual ideas and mathematical tools, one arrives at a novel view about the nature of QFT. The recent success of algebraic methods in establishing the existence of factorizing models suggests new directions for a more intrinsic constructive approach beyond Lagrangian quantization. Holographic projection simplifies certain properties of the bulk theory and hence is a promising new tool for these new attempts. (author)

  12. Distributed construction of quantum fingerprints

    Ambainis, Andris; Shi, Yaoyun

    2003-01-01

    Quantum fingerprints are useful quantum encodings introduced by Buhrman, Cleve, Watrous, and de Wolf (Physical Review Letters, Volume 87, Number 16, Article 167902, 2001; quant-ph/0102001) in obtaining an efficient quantum communication protocol. We design a protocol for constructing the fingerprint in a distributed scenario. As an application, this protocol gives rise to a communication protocol more efficient than the best known classical protocol for a communication problem.

  13. EPR project construction cost control

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  14. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  15. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  16. Analysis of amino acids network based on distance matrix

    Ali, Tazid; Akhtar, Adil; Gohain, Nisha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have constructed a distance matrix of the amino acids. The distance is defined based on the relative evolutionary importance of the base position of the corresponding codons. From this distance matrix a network of the amino acids is obtained. We have argued that this network depicts the evolutionary pattern of the amino acids. To examine the relative importance of the amino acids with respect to this network we have discussed different measures of centrality. We have also investigated the correlation coefficients between different measures of centrality. Further we have explored clustering coefficient as well as degree of distribution.

  17. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    S Aravinda; N Shamala; Rituparna S Roy; P Balaram

    2003-10-01

    An overview of the use of non-protein amino acids in the design of conformationally well-defined peptides, based on work from the author’s laboratory, is discussed. The crystal structures of several designed oligopeptides illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and -amino acid residues have been used to expand the range of designed polypeptide structures.

  18. hERG blocking potential of acids and zwitterions characterized by three thresholds for acidity, size and reactivity

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk;

    2014-01-01

    Ionization is a key factor in hERG K+ channel blocking, and acids and zwitterions are known to be less probable hERG blockers than bases and neutral compounds. However, a considerable number of acidic compounds block hERG, and the physico-chemical attributes which discriminate acidic blockers from...... acidic non-blockers have not been fully elucidated. We propose a rule for prediction of hERG blocking by acids and zwitterionic ampholytes based on thresholds for only three descriptors related to acidity, size and reactivity. The training set of 153 acids and zwitterionic ampholytes was predicted with a...... concordance of 91% by a decision tree based on the rule. Two external validations were performed with sets of 35 and 48 observations, respectively, both showing concordances of 91%. In addition, a global QSAR model of hERG blocking was constructed based on a large diverse training set of 1374 chemicals...

  19. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  20. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHWAYS

    ЛІСНІЧЕНКО, Т. В.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2016-01-01

    It proposed and studied the life cycle of the construction of public roads. We considere allphases of construction: from design to repiar. The scheme of the life cycle of the constructionof public roads is proposed. Construction of highway is seen as a project. The life cycle of theproject, known as a set of logically interrelated works in the completion of which achieved oneof the main results of the project. The complex of road construction works related to construction,reconstruction and r...

  1. Potentialities of lightweight construction solutions for sustainability

    Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Bragança, L.; Mendonça, Paulo, ed. lit.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of waste produced every year, the exhaustion of resources and the construction solutions currently used in construction may not be sustainable in the future. All these issues lead to the research on new construction techniques, on recycling of waste into useful materials, on re-use of construction materials, etc. Most of the new and innovative solutions arise from the general feeling that something should be done to change the conventional way of construction in order to give an an...

  2. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  3. Innovation and Learning in Construction Companies

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been characterized as a slow to change sector where knowledge is underexploited. The ability to learn from past errors is crucial for companies working in a project-based environment, such as the construction industry. This thesis explores how factors relating to the organization and management of craftsmen can contribute to learning and innovation in construction companies. A qualitative interview study in two selected construction projects in a construction com...

  4. SYSTEM OF STANDARTIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS ARRANGEMENT

    Oleynik Pavel Pavlovich; Brodskiy Victor Isaevich

    2012-01-01

    In the proposed article, management of construction operations is represented as a multi-level system; it is considered with the framework of projects including new construction, restructuring and overhaul of buildings and structures. The system of management of construction operations is to be composed of the following three constituent parts. They include a construction and assembling entity, project and operations, and a procurement base. Such matters as the quality of construction pro...

  5. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  6. Special aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    The very strict safety and quality requirements as well as the necessity of strengthened schedule and investment control make good project management even more important to the construction of nuclear power plant than conventional projects. For developing countries, to increase the extent of local participation becomes an essential way to reduce the construction costs and improve the nuclear competitiveness. Modular construction approach and design for construct ability are discussed as viable means to further reduce construction time and costs

  7. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  8. Screening, Identification and Fermentation Property of a Yeast Strain R6 Accumulating Alpha-ketoglutaric Acid%酵母 R6中α-酮戊二酸的筛选、鉴定和发酵性能的研究

    陈静; 张春杨; 李超

    2015-01-01

    A yeast strain R6 was obtained by the method of thiamine(VB1) auxotroph-ic negative selection from the edible oil-pol uted soil in Zibo, China. Physiological and biochemical experiments revealed that strain R6 shared common feature with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa according to the API 20 C AUX yeast identification sys-tem which has been tested previously. Furthermore, the 18S rDNA gene of strain R6 was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S rDNA sequence and the relatives indicated that R6 shared 99% homologies with the members of R. mucilaginosa, suggesting that strain R6 belonged to R. mucilaginosa. Investigation showed that strain R6 possessed the capacity of accumulating exocel-lular alpha-ketoglutaric acid (alpha-KG). Final y, the fermentation conditions of R6 to accumulate alpha-KG was optimized by control ing each single fermenting variable and detected through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that both VB1 and CaCO3 in fermentation medium were the key factors in-fluencing the cumulant of alpha-KG. The discovery of natural auxotrophic strain R6 not only broadened the microbial resource which can achieve lots of alpha-KG pro-duction through fermentation, but also laid a foundation for further fermentation regu-lation to achieve excessive alpha-KG accumulation.%该研究通过硫胺素( VB1)营养缺陷型负选择法,从中国淄博食用油污染的土壤中获得一株酵母属菌株 R6。该菌株具有累积胞外α-酮戊二酸(α-KG)的能力。生理学和生物化学实验表明该 R6菌株与已测试的 API 20 C AUX酵母鉴别系统中的胶红酵母具有共同特征。此外,R6菌株的18S rDNA 基因已经获得并测序,基于该序列以及同源菌属所得到的系统进化学分析表明菌株 R6与胶红酵母属成员具有99%的同源性。因此,菌株 R6被鉴别为胶红酵母属的一员。随后,本实验通过控制单一发酵变量以及高效液相

  9. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  10. Construction, transfection and production of recombinant vigilin in mammalian expression system

    Sayed Kamel Areida

    2006-01-01

    Vigilin is an abundant, highly conserved, ubiquitous protein containing 15 related, but non-identical, K-homolous nucleic acid binding domains. The construction, transfection and production of recombinant vigilin in mammalian expression system were investigated. The whole length of vigilin was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligated to pCEP-PU vector. The recombinant construct pCEP-PU with vigilin was produced and transfected into Human embryonic kidney cells in a specific cu...

  11. A statistical proxy for sulphuric acid concentration

    S. Mikkonen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous sulphuric acid is a key precursor for new particle formation in the atmosphere. Previous experimental studies have confirmed a strong correlation between the number concentrations of freshly formed particles and the ambient concentrations of sulphuric acid. This study evaluates a body of experimental gas phase sulphuric acid concentrations, as measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS during six intensive measurement campaigns and one long-term observational period. The campaign datasets were measured in Hyytiälä, Finland, in 2003 and 2007, in San Pietro Capofiume, Italy, in 2009, in Melpitz, Germany, in 2008, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in 2002, and in Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA, in 2007. The long term data were obtained in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, during 1998 to 2000. The measured time series were used to construct proximity measures ("proxies" for sulphuric acid concentration by using statistical analysis methods. The objective of this study is to find a proxy for sulfuric acid that is valid in as many different atmospheric environments as possible. Our most accurate and universal formulation of the sulphuric acid concentration proxy uses global solar radiation, SO2 concentration, condensation sink and relative humidity as predictor variables, yielding a correlation measure (R of 0.87 between observed concentration and the proxy predictions. Interestingly, the role of the condensation sink in the proxy was only minor, since similarly accurate proxies could be constructed with global solar radiation and SO2 concentration alone. This could be attributed to SO2 being an indicator for anthropogenic pollution, including particulate and gaseous emissions which represent sinks for the OH radical that, in turn, is needed for the formation of sulphuric acid.

  12. A statistical proxy for sulphuric acid concentration

    S. Mikkonen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous sulphuric acid is a key precursor for new particle formation in the atmosphere. Previous experimental studies have confirmed a strong correlation between the number concentrations of freshly formed particles and the ambient concentrations of sulphuric acid. This study evaluates a body of experimental gas phase sulphuric acid concentrations, as measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS during six intensive measurement campaigns and one long-term observational period. The campaign datasets were measured in Hyytiälä, Finland, in 2003 and 2007, in San Pietro Capofiume, Italy, in 2009, in Melpitz, Germany, in 2008, in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in 2002, and in Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA, in 2007. The long term data were obtained in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany, during 1998 to 2000. The measured time series were used to construct proximity measures ("proxies" for sulphuric acid concentration by using statistical analysis methods. The objective of this study is to find a proxy for sulfuric acid that is valid in as many different atmospheric environments as possible. Our most accurate and universal formulation of the sulphuric acid concentration proxy uses global solar radiation, SO2 concentration, condensation sink and relative humidity as predictor variables, yielding a correlation measure (R of 0.87 between observed concentration and the proxy predictions. Interestingly, the role of the condensation sink in the proxy was only minor, since similarly accurate proxies could be constructed with global solar radiation and SO2 concentration alone. This could be attributed to SO2 being an indicator for anthropogenic pollution, including particulate and gaseous emissions which represent sinks for the OH radical that, in turn, is needed for the formation of sulphuric acid.

  13. The Effects of Extracellular Matrix on Tissue Engineering Construction of Cartilage in Vitro

    YU Li; LI Fa-tao; TANG Ming-qiao; YAN Wei-qun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of various cartilage extracellular matrix on the construction of rabbit growth plate cartilage tissue in vitro were studied. The results show that collagen, proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid can promote the growth of cultured chondrocytes but the effects of various cartilage extracellular matrix(ECM)on chondrocyte differentiation are different. Collagen can promote the hypertrophy of chondrocytes while proteoglycan and hyaluronic acid inhibit the transition of mature chondrocytes into hypertrophied chondrocytes.

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  16. Sustainable development and construction industry in Malaysia

    Suliman L. Kh. M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a way for the building and infrastructure industry to move towards achieving sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues. Differing approaches and differing economic markets lead to different priorities. This paper presents the construction scenario of Malaysia and the developments in sustainable construction taking place in this country. Barriers to the implementation of sustainable construction are discussed. A list of recommendation was proposed to drive sustainable construction in this country. In conclusion, the status of sustainable construction in Malaysia is still in its infancy. The lack of awareness, training and education, ineffective procurement systems, existing public policies and regulatory frameworks are among the major barriers for sustainable construction in Malaysia. Besides the needs for capacities, technologies and tools, total and ardent commitment by all players in the construction sectors including the governments and the public atlarge are required in order to achieve sustainable construction in Malaysia.

  17. Construction Managers’ Perception of the Factors Affecting Sustainability in Construction Projects

    Reza Taheriattar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a comprehensive concept which requires long-term planning. Moreover, construction managers play a key role in leading, planning and scheduling of a construction project. As a result, sustainability of construction projects can be affected by construction managers’ decisions. In addition, for greater development of sustainable construction, affecting factors should firstly be notified. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate construction managers’ perception of the factors affecting sustainability in construction projects. To quantify managers’ perspective of construction sustainability, a survey involving 15 construction managers from Iran construction industry was employed. A statistical comparative analysis used to identify the most important factors affecting sustainability performance at project-level. The results show that most of the factors affecting sustainable construction can be addressed by management teams. The findings will be useful for managers to improve construction sustainability performance at project-level.

  18. Facility design, construction, and operation

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l'Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec's contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides' all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date

  19. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world taking into account the increasing of information flows and socio-economic changes are defined. The definition of the concept «infantilism» including its main features is given. Infantilism is defined as the personal organization including features and models of the previous age period not adequate for the real age stage with emphasis on immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. Scientific novelty. The main psychological characteristics of adulthood are described as the reflection, requirement to work and professional activity, existence of professional self-determination, possession of labor skills, need for selfrealization, maturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. As objective adulthood characteristics are considered the following: transition to economic and territorial independence of a parental family, and also development of new social roles, such as a worker, spouse, and parent. Two options of a possible operationalization of concept are allocated: objective (existence / absence in real human life of objective criteria of adulthood and subjective (the self-report on subjective feeling of existence / lack of psychological characteristics of adulthood. Practical significance consists in a construct operationalization of «infantilism» which at the moment has so many interpretations. That operationalization is necessary for the further analysis and carrying out various researches. 

  20. Facility design, construction, and operation

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l`Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l`Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec`s contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides` all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date.