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Sample records for acid ascorbyl palmitate

  1. 21 CFR 182.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ascorbyl palmitate. 182.3149 Section 182.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product. Ascorbyl palmitate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3149 - Ascorbyl palmitate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ascorbyl palmitate. 582.3149 Section 582.3149 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3149 Ascorbyl palmitate. (a) Product. Ascorbyl palmitate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with c...

  5. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  6. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to the side effects mentioned above by different channel blockers, these drugs can cause arterial wall damage, thereby contributing to vascular wall structure destabilization and promoting events facilitating rupture of plaques. Collagen synthesis is regulated by ascorbic acid, which is also essential for its optimum structure as a cofactor in lysine and proline hydroxylation, a precondition for optimum crosslinking of collagen and elastin. Therefore, the main objective in this study was to evaluate effects of various types of channel blockers on intracellular accumulation and cellular functions of ascorbate, specifically in relation to formation and extracellular deposition of major collagen types relevant for vascular function. Effects of select Na- and Ca- channel blockers on collagen synthesis and deposition were evaluated in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and aortic smooth muscle cells by immunoassay. All channel blockers tested demonstrated inhibitory effects on collagen type I deposition to the ECM by fibroblasts, each to a different degree. Ascorbic acid significantly increased collagen I ECM deposition. Nifedipine (50 µM), a representative of channel blockers tested, significantly reduced ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate-dependent ECM deposition of collagen type l and collagen type lV by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. In addition, nifedipine (50 µM) significantly reduced ascorbate-dependent collagen type l and type lV synthesis by cultured aortic smooth

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers. Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is unlikely to be a skin sensitiser. This conclusion is extrapolated to sodium ascorbyl phosphate. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking. Since ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate are authorised for use as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary.

  8. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Morales-Medina, R.; García-Moreno, P. J.; Muñío, M. M.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate) for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV), which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm), high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm) and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV), which minimizes secondary oxi...

  9. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate on oxidative stability of chemically interesterified cottonseed and olive oils

    Javidipour, Issa; Tüfenk, Remzi; Baştürk, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of 400 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on fatty acids composition, tocopherol, peroxide value (PV) and malonaldehyde (MAD) contents of refined cottonseed oil (CO) and virgin olive oil (OO) during chemical interesterification (CI), and storage at 60 °C for 28 days were investigated. CI significantly decreased (p 

  10. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate

    GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA; Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at ...

  11. Ascorbyl palmitate interaction with phospholipid monolayers: electrostatic and rheological preponderancy.

    Mottola, Milagro; Wilke, Natalia; Benedini, Luciano; Oliveira, Rafael Gustavo; Fanani, Maria Laura

    2013-11-01

    Ascorbyl palmitate (ASC16) is an anionic amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest due to its antioxidant properties. We found that ASC16 strongly interacted with model membranes. ASC16 penetrated phospholipid monolayers, with a cutoff near the theoretical surface pressure limit. The presence of a lipid film at the interface favored ASC16 insertion compared with a bare air/water surface. The adsorption and penetration time curves showed a biphasic behavior: the first rapid peak evidenced a fast adsorption of charged ASC16 molecules to the interface that promoted a lowering of surface pH, thus partially neutralizing and compacting the film. The second rise represented an approach to the equilibrium between the ASC16 molecules in the subphase and the surface monolayer, whose kinetics depended on the ionization state of the film. Based on the Langmuir dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine+ASC16 monolayer data, we estimated an ASC16 partition coefficient to dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of 1.5×10(5) and a ΔGp=-6.7kcal·mol(-1). The rheological properties of the host membrane were determinant for ASC16 penetration kinetics: a fluid membrane, as provided by cholesterol, disrupted the liquid-condensed ASC16-enriched domains and favored ASC16 penetration. Subphase pH conditions affected ASC16 aggregation in bulk: the smaller structures at acidic pHs showed a faster equilibrium with the surface film than large lamellar ones. Our results revealed that the ASC16 interaction with model membranes has a highly complex regulation. The polymorphism in the ASC16 bulk aggregation added complexity to the equilibrium between the surface and subphase form of ASC16, whose understanding may shed light on the pharmacological function of this drug. PMID:23806650

  12. Ascorbyl palmitate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: characteristic and polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to produce ascorbyl palmitate (AP)-loaded nanoparticles in order to inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in bananas. AP-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using acetic acid and citric acid (denoted as CS/AA and CS/CA nanoparticles, respectively). As the initial AP concentration increases, the particle size significantly decreases, and the zeta potential, entrapment and loading efficiency significantly increases. The PPO inhibitory activity of AP was effectively improved when AP was nano-encapsulated by chitosan compared to no encapsulation. These results suggest that chitosan nano-encapsulation can be used to enhance the PPO inhibitory activity of AP. PMID:23247266

  13. Electrochemical assay of the antioxidant ascorbyl palmitate in mixed medium.

    Teneva, Olga; Dimcheva, Nina

    2016-07-15

    Electrooxidation of ascorbyl palmitate (AP) over gold screen-printed electrode (AuSPE) and gold nanoparticles modified graphite (AuNPs/gr) was examined in mixed water-alcohol medium. Voltammetric and amperometric studies showed that: (i) AP oxidation on the AuSPE proceeds at higher potential than on AuNPs/gr; (ii) the current density on AuNPs/gr was 2.4 times higher than on AuSPE; (iii) the linear dynamic range for AuNPs/gr doubled that for AuSPE. At the optimal for AuNPs/gr operating potential (250 mV) the following operational parameters were determined: sensitivity 1.627 ± 0.138 μA mM(-1) mm(-2); linearity up to 500 μM; LOD=5.8 μM. Quantification of the AP content in a real sample - stabilised flaxseed oil, was performed. PMID:26948586

  14. Ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE-PEG nanocarriers for oral iron delivery: preparation, characterisation and in vitro evaluation.

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Farnaud, Sebastien; Merchant, Zahra; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to encapsulate iron in nanocarriers formulated with ascorbyl palmitate and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) for oral delivery. Blank and iron (Fe) loaded nanocarriers were prepared by a modified thin film method using ascorbyl palmitate and DSPE-PEG. Surface charge of the nanocarriers was modified by the inclusion of chitosan (CHI) during the formulation process. Blank and iron loaded ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE nanocarriers were visualised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and physiochemical characterisations of the nanocarriers carried out to determine the mean particle size and zeta potential. Inclusion of chitosan imparted a net positive charge on the nanocarrier surface and also led to an increase in mean particle size. Iron entrapment in ascorbyl palmitate-Fe and ascorbyl palmitate-CHI-Fe nanocarriers was 67% and 76% respectively, suggesting a beneficial effect of chitosan on nanocarrier Fe entrapment. Iron absorption was estimated by measuring Caco-2 cell ferritin formation using ferrous sulphate as a reference standard. Iron absorption from ascorbyl palmitate-Fe (592.17±21.12 ng/mg cell protein) and ascorbyl palmitate-CHI-Fe (800.12±47.6 ng/mg, cell protein) nanocarriers was 1.35-fold and 1.5-fold higher than that from free ferrous sulphate, respectively (505.74±23.73 ng/mg cell protein) (n=6, p<0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time preparation and characterisation of iron loaded ascorbyl palmitate/DSPE PEG nanocarriers, and that engineering of the nanocarriers with chitosan leads to a significant augmentation of iron absorption. PMID:24333557

  15. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  16. A New Approach for Increasing Ascorbyl Palmitate Stability by Addition of Non-irritant Co-antioxidant

    Obreza, Aleš; Pečar, Slavko; Gosenca, Mirjam; GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test innovative approach for enhancing ascorbyl palmitate stability in microemulsions for topical application by addition of newly synthesized co-antioxidant 4-(tridecyloxy)benzaldehyde oxime (TDBO) and to investigate its antioxidant activity and finally to evaluate cytotoxicity of TDBO-loaded microemulsions on keratinocyte cells. TDBO significantly increased ascorbyl palmitate stability in oil-dispersed-in-water (o/w) microemulsions, most presumably due to reducti...

  17. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    TORRES R.; Salam, M.; Pérez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J; Romero, N; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L

    2002-01-01

    Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

  18. Dermal delivery of ascorbyl palmitate: the potential of colloidal delivery systems

    Gosenca, Mirjam; GAŠPERLIN, MIRJANA

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the suitability of various colloidal systems for ascorbyl palmitate (AP) skin delivery. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram for Tween 80/lecithin/butanol, isopropyl myristate (IPM), and water was constructed and regions of lipophilic (w/o) or hydrophilic (o/w) microemulsions (MEs), and emulsions (EMs) were identified. Afterwards, various phase transition systems on the selected dilution line, as well as liquid crystal (LC) as a delivery system on the same dilution line (b...

  19. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate on oxidative stability of chemically interesterified cottonseed and olive oils.

    Javidipour, Issa; Tüfenk, Remzi; Baştürk, Ayhan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of 400 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on fatty acids composition, tocopherol, peroxide value (PV) and malonaldehyde (MAD) contents of refined cottonseed oil (CO) and virgin olive oil (OO) during chemical interesterification (CI), and storage at 60 °C for 28 days were investigated. CI significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the tocopherol contents of CO and OO. PVs and MAD contents of oil samples considerably increased up to 20 min of CI, followed by a reduction at 30 min. The unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) ratios of the samples showed slight but significant (p < 0.05) reduction during accelerated oxidation process. Oils with added 400 ppm AP had higher tocopherol, and lower PVs and MAD contents than their counterparts without AP during CI, and storage at 60 °C. AP increased the oxidative stability of interesterified and non-interesterified CO and OO. PMID:25694696

  20. 抗坏血酸及抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的稳定性研究%Study on stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    刘奕博; 任国谱

    2012-01-01

    The effects of light, temperature, pH, oxidant, antioxidant, metal ions, saccharides on stabilities of ascorbic acid(AA) and ascorbyl palmitate(AP) were studied.Results showed that they were destroyed by sunlight, high temperature, oxidant in different extent and sensitive in neutral and alkaline conditions and AP was more stable than AA.Vitamin E (VE) could protect AP effectively.Cu^2 + , Fe^3+ and Mn^2 + could lead to large loss of AA, Mn^2+ had obvious effect on AP.They were stable when glucose and sucrose existed.%研究了光照、温度、pH、氧化剂、抗氧化剂、金属离子、糖类对抗坏血酸(AA)及抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(AP)稳定性的影响。结果表明:目光、高温、氧化剂、中性及碱性环境都会不同程度地对两者造成损失,其中抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的稳定性要强于抗坏血酸。维生素E可以有效保护AP。铜离子、铁离子、锰离子会引起AA较大的损失,锰离子对AP稳定性有显著影响。糖类对两者稳定性基本没有影响。

  1. Lecithin based lamellar liquid crystals as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system for ascorbyl palmitate.

    Gosenca, Mirjam; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Gašperlin, Mirjana

    2013-09-27

    Liquid crystalline systems with a lamellar structure have been extensively studied as dermal delivery systems. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) is one of the most studied and used ascorbic acid derivatives and is employed as an antioxidant to prevent skin aging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize skin-compliant dermal delivery systems with a liquid crystalline structure for AP. First, a pseudoternary phase diagram was constructed using Tween 80/lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water at a Tween 80/lecithin mass ratio of 1/1, and the region of lamellar liquid crystals was identified. Second, selected unloaded and AP-loaded lamellar liquid crystal systems were physicochemically characterized with polarizing optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and rheology techniques. The interlayer spacing and rheological parameters differ regarding quantitative composition, whereas the microstructure of the lamellar phase was affected by the AP incorporation, resulting either in additional micellar structures (at 25 and 32 °C) or being completely destroyed at higher temperature (37°C). After this, the study was oriented towards in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of lamellar liquid crystal systems on a keratinocyte cell line. The results suggest that the lamellar liquid crystals that were developed could be used as a physiologically acceptable dermal delivery system. PMID:23643736

  2. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1 of...... antioxidant, and overall peroxide values and volatiles were reduced by approximately 70 and 77-86%, respectively. Conversely, prooxidant effects were observed with a high concentration of ascorbyl palmitate (300 µg g-1 of fish oil), whereas a low concentration was slightly antioxidative (50 µg/g of fish oil......). Finally, a combination of all three antioxidants completely inhibited oxidation during storage, indicating that the prooxidant effects of ascorbyl palmitate were reverted or overshadowed by EDTA and γ-tocopherol....

  3. Palmitato de ascorbil e acetato de tocoferol como antioxidantes metabólicos em larvas de dourado Ascorbyl palmitate and tocopherol acetate as metabolic antioxidants in dourado larvae

    Daniel Okamura

    2008-08-01

    palmitate, ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, total length, weight and height of the head. Ascorbyl palmitate provided an increase in the total length and in the weight of the larvae after 15 days of feeding. For head height, differences were observed among the three doses of tested ascorbyl palmitate. The supplementation of ascorbyl palmitate increased the vitamin C concentrations. Although vitamin E has not influenced the development sizes, it acted as a metabolic pro-oxidant, which increased the dehydroascorbic acid.

  4. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources. PMID:27413218

  5. Molecular encapsulation of ascorbyl palmitate in preformed V-type starch and amylose.

    Kong, Lingyan; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, we introduce a simple method to prepare inclusion complexes by "inserting" guest molecules into preformed "empty" V-type amylose helices. Ascorbyl palmitate (AscP) was used as a model guest material to investigate the effect of solvent environment, complexation temperature, annealing and guest concentration on inclusion complex formation. High complexation temperature was not necessary for encapsulating guest molecules in amylose helices, avoiding thermal degradation of guest compounds. This method would also avoid the wasting of guest materials because uncomplexed guest can be reused. It was found in the study that intermediate ethanol and acetone concentrations (generally 40-60%, v/v) at room temperature were appropriate for the complexation between V-amylose and AscP. Annealing, i.e. heat treatment in ethanol solutions at elevated temperatures (45-70 °C), was able to significantly increase the crystallinity of V-amylose and V-starch to as high as 65% and facilitate greater complexation evidenced from higher enthalpies, probably due to more regularly arranged helical cavities in larger crystalline phase. The complexation between V-amylose and AscP was also found to be enhanced with AscP concentration, while the dissociation temperature experienced a slight decrease. PMID:25037350

  6. Study of the influence of ascorbyl palmitate and amiodarone in the stability of unilamellar liposomes.

    Benedini, Luciano; Antollini, Silvia; Fanani, Maria Laura; Palma, Santiago; Messina, Paula; Schulz, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMI) is a low water-solubility drug, which is very useful in the treatment of severe cardiac disease. Its adverse effects are associated with toxicity in different tissues. Several antioxidants have been shown to reduce, and prevent AMI toxicity. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomal carriers doped with ascorbyl palmitate (Asc16) as antioxidant, in order to either minimize or avoid the adverse effects produced by AMI. The employment of liposomes would avoid the use of cosolvents in AMI formulations, and Asc16 could minimize the adverse effects of AMI. To evaluate the partition and integration of AMI and Asc16 in lipid membranes, penetration studies into DMPC monolayers were carried out. The disturbance of the liposomes membranes was studied by generalized polarization (GP). The stability of liposomes was evaluated experimentally and by means of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The size particle and zeta potential (ζ) values of the liposomes were used for application in calculations for attractive and repulsive forces in DLVO theory. In experimental conditions all of these vesicles showed stability at time 0, but only DMPC + Asc16 10% + AMI 10% liposomes kept their size stable and ζ during 28 days. These results are encouraging and suggest that such systems could be suitable for AMI delivery formulations. PMID:24650150

  7. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. PMID:23775704

  8. L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的酶法合成%Synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate catalyzed by lipase

    李红; 陶静; 李颖

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate catalyzed by lipase in organic phase was studied.The optimized process conditions,such as enzyme,solvent,temperature,reactants and additive were determined.In the presence of 0.05g Novozyme435 as catalyst,0.3g of 4A molecular sieve and 0.3g of n-Bu4NBr as additive in 3mL tert-amyl alcohol at 50℃,16.6mg/mL of L-ascorbyl palmitate was obtained in the reaction of palmitic acid and VC with the molar ratio of 3:1 after 72h.%详细研究了脂肪酶在有机溶剂中催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的反应,并且对影响产物浓度的几种主要因素进行讨论(如脂肪酶、溶剂、温度、底物比、添加剂),首次通过加入相转移剂提高反应产物浓度,确定了合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的最适反应条件:3mL叔戊醇为溶剂,催化剂为Novozyme435,其最佳用量为0.05g,底物棕榈酸与抗坏血酸摩尔比3:1,0.3g4A分子筛作为吸水剂,0.3g四丁基溴化铵作为相转移剂,反应温度50℃,反应时间72h,得到产物浓度为16.6mg/mL。

  9. HPLC法快速测定乳粉中VC棕榈酸酯的含量%Rapid Determination of Content of Ascorbyl Palmitate in Milk Powder by HPLC

    杜淑霞; 徐丽; 廖延智; 司徒满泉; 李文清

    2015-01-01

    建立了利用高效液相色谱仪快速测定乳粉中Vc棕榈酸酯含量的方法。以含0.1%草酸的乙醇溶液为提取剂,以甲醇和0.15%草酸(体积比为90∶10)为流动相,经Inertsil ODS-SP色谱柱分离,采用二极管阵列检测器,在245 nm波长下进行测定。VC棕榈酸酯的质量浓度在0.5μg/mL~100μg/mL浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系。以3倍基线噪声所对应的浓度计算VC棕榈酸酯的检出限为2μg/g。加标回收率在92.01%~105.84%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在1.02%~2.70%之间。%The method for rapid determination of the content of ascorbyl palmitate in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was established. It was separated through Inertsil ODS-SP chromatographic column with ethanol containing 0.1%oxalic acid as extraction agent and with methanol and 0.15%oxalic acid ( vol/vol=90∶10) as mobile phase, and then was measured under 245 nm wavelength with a diode array detector. There was a good linear relationship between mass concentration of ascorbyl palmitate and peak area when the mass concentration was from 0.5 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. Detection limit of ascorbyl palmitate was calculated as 2μg/g by the concentration which corresponded to 3 times baseline noise. Standard addition recovery was 92.01%-105.84%, and relative standard deviation (n=6) was 1.02%-2.70%.

  10. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations. PMID:25764181

  11. 棕榈酸维生素C酯的酶催化合成%Enzymatic Synthesis of Ascorbyl Palmitate by Transesterification in Non-Aqueous Medium

    安庆大; 董晓丽; 王少君; 马金辉

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of ascorbyl palmitate from methyl palmitate and ascorbic acid was studied. The reaction was carried out in non-aqueous medium with an immobilized Lipase-LIPOZYM IM as biocatalyst. The influence of the initial molar ratio of substrates, the amount of Lipase, reaction temperature and time was investigated, the optimum of reaction conditions were established. The reaction product has perfectly regioselective.%以棕榈酸甲酯和维生素C为原料,以脂肪酶(LIPOZYM IM)为催化剂,催化合成了棕榈酸维生素C酯.详细研究了几种因素(维生素C与棕榈酸甲酯的摩尔比,反应温度,反应时间及脂肪酶用量)对合成反应的影响,确立了棕榈酸维生素C酯的较佳合成条件:底物摩尔比为3:1,反应温度55℃,反应时间8h,脂肪酶用量为反应体系的3%(重量),产品一次收率为68.2%.

  12. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Stojanović Marija M.; Carević Milica B.; Mihailović Mladen D.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully use...

  13. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  14. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  15. 1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑三氟甲磺酸盐催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯%Chemical synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate in [ BMIM] OTF

    刘瑞瑾; 纪俊敏

    2011-01-01

    L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯是一种高效安全的脂溶性抗氧化剂,是近几年被国际上认可的一种新型食品添加剂,广泛地用于粮油、食品、医药、保健品化妆品等领域.1 -丁基-3-甲基咪唑三氟甲磺酸盐( [BMIM] OTF)是一种常用的室温离子液体催化剂,可有效催化乙酰化反应,具有高效、底物普适性好和对水稳定的特点,本文研究了 [BMIM] OTF催化棕榈酸与L-抗坏血酸合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯,考察了[BMIM] OTF的用量、反应物摩尔比、反应温度、反应时间、对反应转化率的影响.采用正交设计实验法优化工艺条件,得到较佳工艺条件,离子液体用量为反应物质量的3%,棕榈酸∶维生素C为1∶1.2,反应温度为30℃,反应时间为24h,产率达到66.44%.产品质量符合GB16314 - 1996标准.%L - ascorbyl palmitate is a safe and highly efficient lipophilic antioxidant. It is an widely accepted new food antioxidant in recent years and can be used in oil, food, medicine, health protection and cosmetics. 1 - butyl - 3 -methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ( [ BMIM] OTF) is a versatile ionic liquid promoter in the room temperature. It can effectively improve acetylization and has the advantage on substrate universality and water soluble stability. In this paper we use [ BMIM ] OTF as a promoter to synthesise L - ascorbyl palmitate. We discussed the impact of dosage of ionic liquid, mole ratio of reaction, temperature and time on the conversion rate. The optimized conditions by orthogonal experiment was: the amount of ionic liquids for the quality of reactant was 3% , the ratio of palmitic acid : VC was 1 : 1. 2, the reaction temperature was 30℃ , and the reaction time was 24h. Under the above condition, L - ascorbyl palmitate conversion rate was 66. 44% . The product was met the requirement of GB16314 - 1996.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  17. Coating of peanuts with edible whey protein film containing alpha-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate.

    Han, J H; Hwang, H-M; Min, S; Krochta, J M

    2008-10-01

    Physical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) coating solution incorporating ascorbic palmitate (AP) and alpha-tocopherol (tocopherol) were characterized, and the antioxidant activity of dried WPI coatings against lipid oxidation in roasted peanuts were investigated. The AP and tocopherol were mixed into a 10% (w/w) WPI solution containing 6.7% glycerol. Process 1 (P1) blended an AP and tocopherol mixture directly into the WPI solution using a high-speed homogenizer. Process 2 (P2) used ethanol as a solvent for dissolving AP and tocopherol into the WPI solution. The viscosity and turbidity of the WPI coating solution showed the Newtonian fluid behavior, and 0.25% of critical concentration of AP in WPI solution rheology. After peanuts were coated with WPI solutions, color changes of peanuts were measured during 16 wk of storage at 25 degrees C, and the oxidation of peanuts was determined by hexanal analysis using solid-phase micro-extraction samplers and GC-MS. Regardless of the presence of antioxidants in the coating layer, the formation of hexanal from the oxidation of peanut lipids was reduced by WPI coatings, which indicates WPI coatings protected the peanuts from oxygen permeation and oxidation. However, the incorporation of antioxidants in the WPI coating layer did not show a significant difference in hexanal production from that of WPI coating treatment without incorporation of antioxidants. PMID:19019105

  18. Adsorption and inhibition effect of Ascorbyl palmitate on corrosion of carbon steel in ethanol blended gasoline containing water as a contaminant

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Inhibition performance was studied using weight loss and EIS methods. •The addition of ethanol and water to gasoline increase the corrosion rate of C-steel. •Ascorbyl palmitate has good inhibition efficiency for C-steel in blend fuel. •Efficiency more than 96% was obtained with 120 mg l−1 AP at 298 K. •The adsorption of AP on C-steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The adsorption and inhibition effect of Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) on carbon steel in ethanol blended gasoline containing water as a contaminant (GE10 + 1%water) was studied by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The results showed that the addition of ethanol and water to gasoline increase the corrosion rate of carbon steel. AP inhibits the corrosion of carbon steel in (GE10 + 1% water) solution to a remarkable extent. The adsorption of AP on the carbon steel surface was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The values of activation energy (Ea) and various thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed

  19. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted

  20. L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯抗氧化活性%Study on the Antioxidant Activities of L-ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters

    刘建伟; 赵海珍; 吕凤霞; 别小妹; 张充; 陆兆新; 彭杨

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were studied by the items of hydroxyl radical system, superoxide anion free radical system, system of DPPH · , and reducing power.Its antioxidant effects was further evaluated by adding into the lard and bead oil.The results indicated that L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters within the given concentration range in doseeffect relationship showed good antioxidant activities on both the clearance of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion free radical and DPPH · and the reducing power.Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were comparable with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate.When 0.2% (w/w) of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were added in the lard for a 20 h forced oxidation at 100 ℃, the POV of lard was 42.8 meq/kg, which illustrated L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters had significant antioxidant activities.When 0.2% (w/w) of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were added in the soybean oil for a 14 h forced oxidation at 100 ℃, the POV of soybean oil was 11.9 meq/ kg.The antioxidant ability of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters for soybean oil was higher than that of TBHQ, but was close with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate.Thus, L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were demonstrated to be potential food antioxidants.%从羟基自由基体系、超氧阴离子自由基体系、二苯苦味肼基自由基体系及还原力测试等方面研究L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯(VC脂肪酸酯)体外抗氧化活性,并将其添加到猪油和大豆油当中,评价其抗氧化效果.结果表明,在一定的质量浓度范围内,VC脂肪酸酯对羟自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、DPPH自由基均有较好的清除效果,还原能力也较强,并呈一定量效关系,其抗氧化活性与L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯相当.VC脂肪酸酯在猪油中的添加质量分数为0.2%,100℃下强制氧化20h时,猪油的过氧化值为42.8 meq/kg,具有明显的抗氧化活性;在大豆油中添加质量分数0.2%,

  1. Enzymatic Synthesis of l-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters Under Ultrasonic Irradiation and Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activity and Stability.

    Jiang, Chen; Lu, Yuyun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Cunzhi; Yan, Rian

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were synthesized by catalization of Novozym(®) 435 under ultrasonic irradiation and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their properties especially antioxidant activity and stability were investigated. The results showed that the reducing power, the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were decreased with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in fatty acid. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were better than that of tert-butylhydroquinone. The induction period in lipid oxidation of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters and tert-butylhydroquinone were longer than that of l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters and l-ascorbic acid both in soybean oil and lard. Besides, the l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters showed different stabilities in different conditions by comparing with l-ascorbic acid, and the l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were more stable than l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters in ethanol solution. PMID:27100741

  2. Uptake of palmitic acid by rabbit alveolar type II cells

    Alveolar type II cells require a source of palmitic acid for synthesis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major constituent of pulmonary surfactant. Previous studies indicated that maximal rates of DPPC synthesis are achieved only if exogenous palmitate is available to the type II cell. Little is known of the mechanisms by which fatty acids enter type II cells. To determine if uptake is mediated by a membrane carrier system, as described in other cell types, we examined the kinetics of palmitate uptake. Using freshly isolated rabbit type II cells, we demonstrated that radiolabeled palmitate uptake was maximal and linear for 45 s; after 1 min the apparent rate of uptake declined. The initial uptake phase was taken as a measure of cellular fatty acid influx because intracellular radiolabeled palmitate remained 80% nonesterified at this time but was 55% esterified by 2 min. Cellular influx of palmitate showed saturation kinetics with increasing concentration of nonalbumin bound palmitate. Michaelis constant was 52.6 nM, and maximum velocity was 152 pmol.10(6) cells-1.min-1. The hypothesis that saturable cellular influx of palmitate is likely linked to the previously identified membrane fatty acid binding protein (MFABP) was supported by Western-blot analysis of rat lung tissue with an antibody to MFABP that demonstrated the presence of this carrier protein in lung tissue. These data suggest that palmitate uptake by type II cells is saturable and may be mediated by a membrane-associated carrier as described in other cell types

  3. Palmitic Acid in Early Human Development.

    Innis, Sheila M

    2016-09-01

    Palmitic acid (16:0) is a saturated fatty acid present in the diet and synthesized endogenously. Although often considered to have adverse effects on chronic disease in adults, 16:0 is an essential component of membrane, secretory, and transport lipids, with crucial roles in protein palmitoylation and signal molecules. At birth, the term infant is 13-15% body fat, with 45-50% 16:0, much of which is derived from endogenous synthesis in the fetus. After birth, the infant accumulates adipose tissue at high rates, reaching 25% body weight as fat by 4-5 months age. Over this time, human milk provides 10% dietary energy as 16:0, but in unusual triglycerides with 16:0 on the glycerol center carbon. This paper reviews the synthesis and oxidation of 16:0 and possible reasons why the infant is endowed with large amounts of fat and 16:0. The marked deviations in tissues with displacement of 16:0 that can occur in infants fed vegetable oil formulas is introduced. Assuming fetal fatty acid synthesis and the unusual delivery of 16:0 in human milk evolved to afford survival advantage to the neonate, it is timely to question if 16:0 is an essential component of tissue lipids whereby both deficiency and excess are detrimental. PMID:25764297

  4. Application of l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) in topical cosmetic formulations: stability studies

    The present study aimed to formulate and subsequently evaluate a topical skin-care cream (o/w emulsion) from l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives (sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) at 2% versus its vehicle (Control). Formulations were developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of o/w emulsion and were stored at 8 degree C, 25 degree C and 40 degree C (in incubator) for a period of four weeks to investigate their stability. In the physical analysis, the evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, centrifugation, and liquefaction. Chemical stability of both derivatives was established by HPLC analysis. In the chemical analysis, the formulation with sodium ascorbyl phosphate was more stable than those with magnesium ascorbyl phosphate and l-ascorbic acid. The microbiological stability of the formulations was also evaluated. The findings indicated that the formulations with l-ascorbic acid and its derivatives were efficient against the proliferation of various spoilage microorganisms, including aerobic plate counts as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast and mold counts. The results presented in this work showed good stability throughout the experimental period. Newly formulated emulsion proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. (author)

  5. Protective effects of equimolar mixtures of monomer and dimer of dehydrozingerone with α-tocopherol and/or ascorbyl palmitate during bulk lipid autoxidation.

    Kancheva, Vessela; Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Delogu, Giovanna; Janiak, Michał; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2014-08-15

    Protective effects of recently synthesised dehydrozingerone, M1OH (which is one half of the molecule of curcumin) and dimer of dehydrozingerone, D1(OH)2, as individual compounds (1 mM) and as equimolar binary (1:1) and ternary (1:1:1) mixtures with α-tocopherol (TOH) and/or ascorbyl palmitate (AscPH), were studied during bulk lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. The highest oxidation stability of lipid substrate, in the presence of individual compounds, was found for TOH, followed by D1(OH)2 and M1OH, determined from the main kinetic parameters (antioxidant efficiency, reactivity and capacity). AscPH did not show any protective effect. Synergism was obtained for the binary mixtures of (TOH+AscPH) [42.4%], (M1OH+TOH) [32.4%] and (M1OH+AscPH) [35.6%] and for the ternary mixture of (M1OH+TOH+AscPH) [28.7%]. Different protective effects observed were explained on the basis (of results) of TOH regeneration and its content determined by HPLC. These antioxidant binary and ternary mixtures can be used as functional components of foods with health-promoting effects. PMID:24679780

  6. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  7. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs or carrier components. Ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives have been formulated as antioxidants or anticancer drugs for nanoparticle formulations such as micelles, microemulsions, and liposomes. ASC-P vesicles called aspasomes are submicron-sized particles that can encapsulate hydrophilic drugs. Several transdermal and injectable formulations of ascorbyl n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives were used, including ascorbyl palmitate.

  8. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of an ascorbyl unstaturated fatty acid ester with ecofriendly biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran as cosolvent.

    Hu, Ying-Dan; Qin, Ye-Zhi; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid, was reported with biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as the cosolvent. Of the immobilized lipases tested, Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) showed the highest activity for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate. Effect of reaction media on the enzymatic reaction was studied. The cosolvent mixture, t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4, v/v) proved to be the optimal medium, in which not only ascorbic acid had moderate solubility, but also CAL-B showed a high activity, thus addressing the major problem of the solvent conflict for dissolving substrate and keeping satisfactory enzyme activity. In addition, the enzyme was much more stable in MeTHF and t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) than in previously widely used organic solvents, t-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and acetone. The much higher initial reaction rate in this cosolvent mixture may be rationalized by the much lower apparent activation energy of this enzymatic reaction (26.6 vs. 38.1-39.1 kJ/mol) and higher enzyme catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km , 8.4 vs. 1.3-1.4 h(-1) ). Ascorbyl undecylenate was obtained with the yields of 84-89% and 6-regioselectivity of >99% in t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) at supersaturated substrate concentrations (60 and 100 mM) after 5-8 h. PMID:24891225

  9. Synthesis of ascorbyl oleate by transesterification of olive oil with ascorbic acid in polar organic media catalyzed by immobilized lipases.

    Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Filice, Marco; Guisan, Jose M; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of transesterification between oils (e.g., olive oil) and ascorbic acid in polar anhydrous media (e.g., tert-amyl alcohol) catalyzed by immobilized lipases for the preparation of natural liposoluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbyl oleate) was studied. Three commercial lipases were tested: Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML). Each lipase was immobilized by three different protocols: hydrophobic adsorption, anionic exchange and multipoint covalent attachment. The highest synthetic yields were obtained with CALB adsorbed on hydrophobic supports (e.g., the commercial derivative Novozym 435). The rates and yields of the synthesis of ascorbyl oleate were higher when using the solvent dried with molecular sieves, at high temperatures (e.g. 45°C) and with a small excess of oil (2 mol of oil per mol of ascorbic acid). The coating of CALB derivatives with polyethyleneimine (PEI) improved its catalytic behavior and allowed the achievement of yields of up to 80% of ascorbyl oleate in less than 24h. CALB adsorbed on a hydrophobic support and coated with PEI was 2-fold more stable than a non-coated derivative and one hundred-fold more stable than the best TLL derivative. The best CALB derivative exhibited a half-life of 3 days at 75°C in fully anhydrous media, and this derivative maintained full activity after 28 days at 45°C in dried tert-amyl alcohol. PMID:23891831

  10. Influence of Palmitic Acid and Amino Acids Addition on Iturin A Productivity by Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS

    YULIAR

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of palmitic acid and amino acids on enhancement of iturin A productivity using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. The concentrations of palmitic acid examined were 0.8%, 1.6%, and 3.2%. A good yield was observed when 1.6% palmitic acid was added to Polypepton S medium. The production of iturin A increased about 18% than the control. Addition of 3.2% palmitic acid was not effective on iturin A production. It gave lower pH and slightly higher viable ce...

  11. Studies on Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Palmitate in Non-aqueous Phase%非水相脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的研究Ⅰ

    汤鲁宏; 张浩

    2000-01-01

    The investigation on the reaction media and lipases (NOVO435、MML、LIPOLASE、PPL) for enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl palmitate as well as the factors effecting initial rate of synthesis reaction (rotation speed, temperature, water content,enzyme concentration,and substrate concentration) is presented. Among these investigated solvents and lipases, amyl alcohol and NOVO435 is the optimum pair. The reaction conditions have been optimized:200r/min, 55℃ , water content = 0, the amount of enzyme= 12.5 % of the substrate' s quantity.%对催化合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯反应的脂肪酶(NOVO435、MML、LIPOLASE、PPL)和反应介质进行比较,得出最佳酶种为NOVO435,最佳介质为叔戊醇;同时对影响合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯反应的初速度的因素(转速、温度、水分含量、酶浓度和底物浓度)进行了探讨,确定了最适反应条件:转速为200r/min,温度为55℃,水分含量为0,酶浓度为12.5%。

  12. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health

    Annamaria Mancini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  13. Influence of fatty acid on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl esters and their free radical scavenging capacity.

    Stojanović, Marija; Carević, Milica; Mihailović, Mladen; Veličković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters are recently emerging food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical additives, which can be prepared in an eco-friendly way by using lipases as catalysts. Because they are amphiphilic molecules, which possess high free radical scavenging capacity, they can be applied as liposoluble antioxidants as well as emulsifiers and biosurfactants. In this study, the influence of a wide range of acyl donors on ester yield in lipase-catalyzed synthesis and ester antioxidant activity was examined. Among saturated acyl donors, higher yields and antioxidant activities of esters were achieved when short-chain FAs were used. Oleic acid gave the highest yield overall and its ester exhibited a high antioxidant activity. Optimization of experimental factors showed that the highest conversion (60.5%) in acetone was achieved with 5 g L(-1) of lipase, 50 mM of vitamin C, 10-fold molar excess of oleic acid, and 0.7 mL L(-1) of initial water. Obtained results showed that even short- and medium-chain ascorbyl esters could be synthesized with high yields and retained (or even exceeded) free radical scavenging capacity of l-ascorbic acid, indicating prospects of broadening their application in emulsions and liposomes. PMID:25224149

  14. System Development from Organic Solvents to Ionic Liquids for Synthesiz-ing Ascorbyl Esters with Conjugated Linoleic Acids

    Yang, Zhiyong; Schultz, Lise; Guo, Zheng;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to screen suitable reaction systems for the modification of antioxidants through enzy-matic synthesis. Enzymatic esterification of ascorbic acid with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated as a mod-el. Four organic solvents and five different enzymes were evaluated....... Results show that only Novozym® 435 turned out to be a useful enzymatic preparation for the production of ascorbyl-CLA ester. The optimum reaction conditions in the or-ganic solvent system were 4 h at 55°C and at a molar ratio of 5 (CLA/ascorbic acid). The esterification reaction was trans-ferred to an...... ascorbyl-CLA ester when using Novozym® 435 as biocatalyst. It was possible to significantly increase the productivity (150 g/l) through the increase of ascorbic acid sol-ubility in ionic liquids by super saturation together with the increase of reaction temperature to 70°C, far beyond than that in organic...

  15. Phase equilibrium measurements and modelling of ternary system (carbon dioxide + ethanol + palmitic acid)

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary system (palmitic acid + ethanol + CO2). The motivation of this research relies on the fact that palmitic acid is the major compound of several vegetable oils. Besides, equilibrium data for palmitic acid in carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent are scarce in the literature. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 20 MPa and mole fraction of palmitic acid from 0.0199 to 0.2930. Vapour-liquid and solid-fluid transitions were visually observed for the system studied. The Peng-Robinson equation of state, with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule was employed for thermodynamic modelling of the system investigated with a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated values.

  16. The mechanism of downregulation of apolipoprotein M mediated by palmitic acid

    施媛萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether palmitic acid downregulates ApoM expression and further to investigate its mechanism.Methods Human hepatoma cell line,HepG2 cells were treated with the media containing palmitic acid(1 mmol/L)and/or PI-3K inhibitor LY294002(10μmol/L),protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X(GFX,2μmol/L)and/or PARβ/δantagonist GSK3787

  17. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design. PMID:26188153

  18. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  19. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  20. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Mashiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 and diazepam as site-2 specific probe. Results: Different analysis of binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin suggested two sets of association constants: high affinity association constant (k1 = 11.0 x 105 M-1 with low capacity (n1 = 2 and low affinity association (k2 = 4.0×105 M-1 constant with high capacity (n2 = 8 at pH 7.4 and 27°C. During concurrent administration of palmitic acid and metoprolol succinate in presence or absence of ranitidine or diazepam, it was found that palmitic acid displaced metoprolol succinate from its binding site on BSA resulting reduced binding of metoprolol succinate to BSA. The increment in free fraction of metoprolol succinate was from 26.27% to 55.08% upon the addition of increased concentration of palmitic acid at a concentration of 0×10-5 M to 16×10-5 M. In presence of ranitidine and diazepam, palmitic acid further increases the free fraction of metoprolol succinate from 33.05% to 66.95% and 40.68% to 72.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This data provided the evidence of interaction at higher concentration of palmitic acid at the binding sites on BSA, which might change the pharmacokinetic properties of metoprolol succinate.

  1. Palmitic acid analogs exhibit nanomolar binding affinity for the HIV-1 CD4 receptor and nanomolar inhibition of gp120-to-CD4 fusion.

    Elena E Paskaleva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and efficient CD4 fusion inhibitor to HIV-1 entry and infection. In the present report, based on in silico modeling of the novel CD4 pocket that binds PA, we describe discovery of highly potent PA analogs with increased CD4 receptor binding affinities (K(d and gp120-to-CD4 inhibition constants (K(i. The PA analogs were selected to satisfy Lipinski's rule of drug-likeness, increased solubility, and to avoid potential cytotoxicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PA analog 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP was most efficacious with K(d approximately 74 nM and K(i approximately 122 nM, ascorbyl palmitate (6-AP exhibited slightly higher K(d approximately 140 nM and K(i approximately 354 nM, and sucrose palmitate (SP was least efficacious binding to CD4 with K(d approximately 364 nM and inhibiting gp120-to-CD4 binding with K(i approximately 1486 nM. Importantly, PA and its analogs specifically bound to the CD4 receptor with the one to one stoichiometry. SIGNIFICANCE: Considering observed differences between K(i and K(d values indicates clear and rational direction for improving inhibition efficacy to HIV-1 entry and infection. Taken together this report introduces a novel class of natural small molecules fusion inhibitors with nanomolar efficacy of CD4 receptor binding and inhibition of HIV-1 entry.

  2. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  3. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-03-05

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat.

  4. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  5. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Mashiur Rahman; Farzana Prianka; Mohammad Shohel; Md. Abdul Mazid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED) at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 a...

  6. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry. PMID:27477075

  7. Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosan.

    Yalinca, Z; Yilmaz, E; Taneri, B; Bullici, F; Tuzmen, S

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbyl chitosan was synthesized by heating chitosan with ascorbic acid in isopropanol. The products were characterized by FTIR and C-13 NMR spectroscopies, SEM, and elemental analysis. Blood contact properties of ascorbyl chitosans were evaluated. The ascorbyl chitosans demonstrated to have increased lipid-lowering activity in comparison to chitosan alone upon contact with human blood serum in in vitro conditions. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL ratio was improved towards the desirable ideal values after three hours contact with ascorbyl chitosan samples. The lipid-lowering activity increased with ascorbyl substitution. The inherent nonspecific adsorption capability of chitosan due to its chelating power with several different functional groups was exhibited by ascorbyl chitosans as well. This behavior was exemplified in a simultaneous decrease in the total iron values of the volunteers together with lower lipid levels. Furthermore, ascorbyl chitosans were observed to have less hemocompatibility but increased anticoagulant activity when compared to chitosan alone. Additional in vivo studies are necessary to support these results and to investigate further the advantages and disadvantages of these materials to prove their safety prior to clinical applications. PMID:23862665

  8. Study on preparation, structure and thermal energy storage property of capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite phase change materials

    Highlights: → Capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCMs are prepared by vacuum method. → The composite PCMs is form-stable. → There is no chemical reaction between the capric-palmitic acid and attapulgite. → The phase change temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCM is 21.71 oC and 48.2 J/g, respectively. - Abstract: Fatty acid phase change materials (PCMs) have some advantages such as less corrosivity, no separation of subcooling phase and low price. In this paper, capric acid and palmitic acid are composited according to a certain mass ratio to prepare binary fatty acid. Capric-palmitic acid are absorbed into attapulgite by vacuum method to prepare capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCMs. Analysis methods such as differential scanning analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and specific surface analysis (BET method) are used to test the thermal properties, structure and composition of the prepared composite PCM. The results indicate that the pore structure of the caplic-paltimic acid/attapulgite composite PCM is open-ended tubular capillary, which is beneficial to the adsorption. Capric acid and palmitic acid can be absorbed uniformly into attapulgite and the optimum absorption ratio of capric-palmitic binary fatty acid is 35%. There is no chemical reaction between the capric-palmitic acid and attapulgite. The phase change temperature of the capric-palmitic acid/attapulgite composite PCM is 21.71 oC and the latent heat is 48.2 J/g.

  9. Histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies of ascorbic acid and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in a skin care formulation.

    Silva, G M; Maia Campos, P M

    2000-06-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been widely used in cosmetics and dermatological formulations due to its inhibitory effect on melanogenesis by affecting collagen synthesis and scavenger properties. However, ascorbic acid (AA) is quickly oxidized and decomposes in aqueous solution and to solve this problem, vitamin C derivatives were synthesized. In the present investigation, histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies were carried out to investigate the possible alterations caused by formulations containing AA or magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) in the epidermis. Gel creams either with or without 2% AA or its derivative were selected for investigation. Guinea-pigs were shaved on the back, and four areas of 1.5 cm(2) each were used for the experiments. One untreated area was used for control and the others for the application of gel cream formulations either with or without AA or its derivatives. The formulations were applied daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and biopsies were then obtained from each area using a dermatological punch. The material collected was analysed by histopathological, morphometric and stereological techniques. We observed that, under the present experimental conditions, whole formulations acted on the epidermis causing a thickening of the epithelium, with cells of larger volume in the granulose and spinous layers. PMID:18503473

  10. Influence of Palmitic Acid and Amino Acids Addition on Iturin A Productivity by Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS

    YULIAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the influence of palmitic acid and amino acids on enhancement of iturin A productivity using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. The concentrations of palmitic acid examined were 0.8%, 1.6%, and 3.2%. A good yield was observed when 1.6% palmitic acid was added to Polypepton S medium. The production of iturin A increased about 18% than the control. Addition of 3.2% palmitic acid was not effective on iturin A production. It gave lower pH and slightly higher viable cell number of RB14-CS than control and the others addition concentration. Whereas the addition of 0.8% of each of the following amino acids; L-arg, L-asn , L-gln , L-glu, L-gly, L-leu, L-lys, L-trp, L-tyr, and L-val could not increase iturin A productivity, but changed the proportion of iturin A peaks. L-leu, L-val, and L-asn addition produced the highest proportion of peak 3, 4, and 1 respectively.

  11. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2003-01-01

    commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid and...

  12. Inhibition of collagen synthesis by select calcium and sodium channel blockers can be mitigated by ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; RATH, MATTHIAS

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers are widely prescribed medications for a variety of health problems, most frequently for cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, angina pectoris and other disorders. However, chronic application of channel blockers is associated with numerous side effects, including worsening cardiac pathology. For example, nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker was found to be associated with increased mortality and increased risk for myocardial infarction. In addition...

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well. PMID:25342261

  14. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid

    Mingyue Zhao; Lihui Lu; Song Lei; Hua Chai; Siyuan Wu; Xiaoju Tang; Qinxue Bao; Li Chen; Wenchao Wu; Xiaojing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardi...

  15. The kinetics of the solidification of highly supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid: a comparison between two models

    RAMIRO RICO-MARTINEZ; JOSE ALBERTO GALLEGOS-INFANTE

    1999-01-01

    The crystallization of fatty acids is very important in industrial applications and biological systems. A comparison between theoretical models and experimental data helps in clarifying mechanistic aspects of these systems. In this contribution, we compare the performance of two models in fitting data from the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid. One of the models was developed by Avrami and the other is based on considering diffusion as limiting (the D-...

  16. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPARβ/δ antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid and palmitic acid reciprocally modulate monocyte activation in part through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Snodgrass, Ryan G; Huang, Shurong; Namgaladze, Dmitry; Jandali, Ola; Shao, Tiffany; Sama, Spandana; Brüne, Bernhard; Hwang, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    Palmitic acid (C16:0) and TLR2 ligand induce, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits monocyte activation. C16:0 and TLR2 or TLR4 ligand induce certain ER stress markers; thus, we determined whether ER stress induced by these agonists is sufficient to induce monocyte activation, and whether the ER stress is inhibited by DHA which is known to inhibit C16:0- or ligand-induced TLR activation. Monocyte activation and ER stress were assessed by TLR/inflammasome-induced IL-1β production, and phosphorylation of IRE-1 and eIF2 and expression of CHOP, respectively in THP-1 cells. TLR2 ligand Pam3CSK4 induced phosphorylation of eIF2, but not phosphorylation of IRE-1 and CHOP expression. LPS also induced phosphorylation of both IRE-1 and eIF2 but not CHOP expression suggesting that TLR2 or TLR4 ligand, or C16:0 induces different ER stress responses. C16:0-, Pam3CSK4-, or LPS-induced IL-1β production was inhibited by 4-phenylbutyric acid, an inhibitor of ER stress suggesting that IL-1β production induced by these agonists is partly mediated through ER stress. Among two ER stress-inducing molecules, thapsigargin but not tunicamycin led to the expression of pro-IL-1β and secretion of IL-1β. Thus, not all types of ER stress are sufficient to induce inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in monocytes. Although both C16:0 and thapsigargin-induced IL-1β secretion was inhibited by DHA, only C16:0-mediated ER stress was responsive to DHA. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of DHA are at least in part mediated through modulating ER homeostasis and that the propensity of ER stress can be differentially modulated by the types of dietary fat we consume. PMID:27142735

  18. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Melrose Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astroglia from two different rat brain regions, cortex (region affected in AD and cerebellum (unaffected region, were treated with 0.2 mM of palmitic acid. The conditioned media were then transferred to the cortical neurons to study the possible effects on the two main, AD-associated protein abnormalities, viz. BACE1 upregulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau. The conditioned media from palmitic-acid treated cortical astroglia, but not the cerebellar astroglia, significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated tau and BACE1 in cortical neurons as compared to controls (47 ± 7% and 45 ± 4%, respectively. Conclusion The present data provide an experimental explanation for the region-specific damage observed in AD brain; higher fatty acid-metabolizing capacity of cortical astroglia as compared to cerebellar astroglia, may play a causal role in increasing vulnerability of cortex in AD, while sparing cerebellum.

  19. The kinetics of the solidification of highly supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid: a comparison between two models

    RAMIRO RICO-MARTINEZ

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of fatty acids is very important in industrial applications and biological systems. A comparison between theoretical models and experimental data helps in clarifying mechanistic aspects of these systems. In this contribution, we compare the performance of two models in fitting data from the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid. One of the models was developed by Avrami and the other is based on considering diffusion as limiting (the D-model. The D-model fitted the data better than the Avrami model in all cases. The D-model has a low value of the regression coefficient (r2, lower than 0.9 in only three cases. For these points, the thermodynamic force was smaller. Differences in the parameter n (an index of dimensionality were observed; these differences indicate that clusters were present previous to the crystallization process. Furthermore, there appears to be a difference in the mechanism of crystallization of pure solutions of palmitic acid and solutions with a small fraction of oleic acid. Thus, one is lead to the conclusion that the rate of crystallization of fatty acids at high concentrations is limited by diffusion.

  20. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications. PMID:27300134

  1. Phase equilibria of oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids in supercritical CO2

    P. L. Penedo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the phase equilibrium is one of the most important factors to study the design of separation processes controlled by the equilibrium. Fatty acids are present in high concentration as by-products in vegetable oils but the equilibrium data involving these components is scarce. The objective of this work is the experimental determination of the liquid-vapor equilibrium of five binary different systems formed by carbon dioxide and palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2 and linolenic acid (C18:3. The equilibrium experimental data was collected at 40, 60 and 80ºC at 60, 90 and 120 bar, at the extract and raffinate phases, using an experimental apparatus containing an extractor, a gas cylinder and pressure and temperature controllers. The data was modeled using the cubic equation of state of Peng-Robinson with the mixing rule of van der Waals with binary interaction parameters. The model was adequate to treat the experimental data at each temperature and at all the temperatures together. The best model that includes the van der Waals mixing rule with two parameters has maximum deviation of 17%. The distribution coefficients were also analyzed and it was concluded that the fractionation of the fatty acids is possible using supercritical carbon dioxide.

  2. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  3. PALMITIC AND OLEIC ACIDS AND THEIR ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    V. N. Titov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the cause of a noninfectious disease whose occurrence in a population is more than 5–7% is an impaired biological function or reaction to the environment. From the general biology viewpoint, high mortality rate related to cardio-vascular diseases and atherosclerosis (intercellular deficiency of polyenic fatty acids (PFA is just extinction of the Homo sapiens population upon adaptation to new environmental factors. The biological function of throphology (feeding and biological reaction of exotrophy (external feeding are impaired in several aspects, the major of which is nonphysiologically high dietary content of saturated fatty acids, primarily, of palmitic fatty acid (FA. The lipoprotein system formed at early stages of phylogenesis cannot transport and provide physiological deposition of great amounts of palmitic FA, which leads to the development of an adaption (compensatory and accumulation disease. This results in hypermipidemia, impaired bioavailability of PFA to cells, compesatory production of humoral mediators from ω-9 eicosatrienoic mead FA, disorders in physiological parameters of cell plasma membrane and integral proteins, nonphysiological conformation of apoВ-100 in lipoproteins, formation of ligandless lipoproteins (biological litter and impairments in the biological function of endoecology, utilization of ligandless lipoproteins in arterial intima by phylogenetically early macrophages that do not hydrolyze polyenic cholesterol esters, increase in the intensity of the biological reaction of inflammation, and destructive and inflammatory lesions in arterial intima of an atheromatosis or atherothrombosis type. Atheromatous masses are catabolites of PFA which were not internalized by phylogenetically late cells via receptor-mediated pathway.

  4. Hydrolytic degradation behaviour of sucrose palmitate reinforced poly(lactic acid) nanocomposites.

    Valapa, Ravi Babu; G, Pugazhenthi; Katiyar, Vimal

    2016-08-01

    This work discusses the influence of novel biofiller, "sucrose palmitate" (SP) on the hydrolytic degradation behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocomposites. The influence of temperature and pH of the solution on the hydrolytic degradation behavior of PLA and PLA-SP nanocomposites was investigated. The variation in the crystallinity of PLA and PLA composites subjected to the hydrolytic degradation process is verified by XRD and DSC analysis. The morphological changes that occurred during the degradation process are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermo-gravimetric analysis confirms the loss of thermal stability of the neat PLA as well as composites after hydrolytic degradation process. Transparency measurements support the enhancement in opacity of both the PLA and PLA-SP nanocomposites with progress in hydrolytic degradation period. PMID:27095433

  5. Comparison of microwave processing and excess steam jet cooking for spherulite production of from starch:palmitic acid inclusion complexes

    It was previously shown that toroid and spherical/lobed spherulites were formed upon slow cooling of aqueous dispersions of corn starch and palmitic acid after passing through an excess steam jet cooker. Spherulite yield was 86% based on amylose. In order to determine whether excess steam jet cookin...

  6. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides

  7. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Xu, Q.; Chen, S.Y.; Deng, L.D.; Feng, L.P.; Huang, L.Z.; Yu, R.R. [Department of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  8. Research progress of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester%脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯的研究进展

    蒋相军; 胡燚; 刘维明; 黄和

    2011-01-01

    To broaden the applications of L-ascorbic acid, it is an economical and feasible way to convert L-aseorbic acid into L-ascorbyl organic acid ester. The recent research progress of enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester is summarized, by focusing on enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid ester, unsaturated fatty acid ester and mixed fatty acid ester in organic solvents. The types of lipase, organic solvents and methods of separation and purification in the synthesis are discussed. Furthermore, the prospect of enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl organic acid ester is also presented.%为了拓宽L-抗坏血酸酯在维护人体健康中的应用,将L-抗坏血酸转化成L-抗坏血酸酯是经济可行的手段。综述了近年来酶催化L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯的研究进展,重点介绍了有机相中L-抗坏血酸饱和脂肪酸酯、不饱和脂肪酸酯、脂肪酸混合酯的酶促合成,对于酶的种类、有机溶剂的选择及分离纯化方法进行了探讨,并对酶催化L-抗坏血酸有机酸酯合成前景进行了展望。

  9. T cells cooperate with palmitic acid in induction of beta cell apoptosis

    Miljković Djordje

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is characterized by progressive failure of insulin producing beta cells. It is well known that both saturated fatty acids and various products of immune cells can contribute to the reduction of beta cell viability and functionality during diabetes pathogenesis. However, their joint action on beta cells has not been investigated, so far. Therefore, we explored the possibility that leukocytes and saturated fatty acids cooperate in beta cell destruction. Results Rat pancreatic islets or insulinoma cells (RIN were co-cultivated with concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated rat lymph node cells (LNC, or they were treated with cell-free supernatants (Sn obtained from ConA-stimulated spleen cells or from activated CD3+ cells, in the absence or presence of palmitic acid (PA. ConA-stimulated LNC or Sn and PA cooperated in inducing caspase-3-dependent RIN cell apoptosis. The observed effect of PA and Sn on RIN cell viability was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-signaling and was achieved through auto-destructive nitric oxide (NO production. The cooperative effect of Sn was mimicked with the combination of interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Conclusion These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis.

  10. Dietary Triacylglycerols with Palmitic Acid in the sn-2 Position Modulate Levels of N-Acylethanolamides in Rat Tissues

    Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lisai, Sara; Sirigu, Annarita; Piras, Antonio; Collu, Maria; Batetta, Barbara; Gambelli, Luisa; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Background Several evidences suggest that the position of palmitic acid (PA) in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) influences different biological functions. We aimed at evaluating whether dietary fat with highly enriched (87%) PA in sn-2 position (Hsn-2 PA), by increasing PA incorporation into tissue phospholipids (PL), modifies fatty acid profile and biosynthesis of fatty acid—derived bioactive lipids, such as endocannabinoids and their congeners. Study Design Rats were fed for 5 weeks diets con...

  11. Withaferin A protects against palmitic acid-induced endothelial insulin resistance and dysfunction through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation

    Kalaivani Batumalaie; Muhammad Arif Amin; Dharmani Devi Murugan; Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar; Nor Azizan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) by free fatty acids (FFA) in obesity gives rise to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Withaferin A (WA), possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore would be a good strategy to suppress palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and hence, insulin resistance and dysfunction in the endothelium. Effect of WA on PA-induced insulin resistance in human umbilical vein e...

  12. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

    RAMON CANELA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.

    Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol.


    RESUMEN

    En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.

    Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  14. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    M. Mendez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  16. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  17. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between...

  18. Phase change material: Optimizing the thermal properties and thermal conductivity of myristic acid/palmitic acid eutectic mixture with acid-based surfactants

    In this study the addition of surfactant to fatty acids as phase change materials (PCMs) for solar thermal applications is proposed. The incorporation of surfactant additives into a eutectic mixture of fatty acids can significantly increase the value of latent heat storage and can suppress undercooling. We report the preparation of myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) eutectic mixture as Phase Change Material (PCM) with addition of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% sodium myristate (SM), sodium palmitate (SP), and sodium stearate (SS), the influence of surfactant additives on thermal properties and thermal conductivity of eutectic mixtures. It was found that the addition of 5% SM, 5% SP, and 5% SS to MA/PA eutectic mixture is very effective in depressing the liquid/solid phase change temperature, reducing the undercooling and increasing the amount of latent heat of fusion as well as thermal conductivity of eutectic PCM compared to eutectic PCM without surfactants. Furthermore MA/PA + 5%SS has the highest latent heat of fusion of 191.85 J g−1, while MA/PA + 5%SM showed the least undercooling of 0.34 °C and the highest thermal conductivity of 0.242 W m−1 K−1. -- Highlights: • Myristic acid (MA) and palmitic acid (PA) are fatty acids component. • The eutectic composition ratio of MA/PA obtained at 70/30, wt.%. • 5% each acid-based surfactants were reduces the melting and undercooling temperature of MA/PA (70/30, wt.%). • Thermal conductivity and ΔHf of MA/PA (70/30, wt.%) were increased by adding 5% surfactants. • MA/PA + 5% acid-based surfactants have a great potential to apply in LHTES applications

  19. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  20. UPR in palmitate-treated pancreatic beta-cells is not affected by altering oxidation of the fatty acid

    Sol E-ri; Sargsyan Ernest; Bergsten Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Elevated levels of lipids are detrimental for beta-cell function and mass. One of the mechanisms of how fatty acids induce apoptosis is development of the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is still far from understood how fatty acids activate the UPR, however. Methods We examined how palmitate-induced activation of the UPR was affected by altering the metabolism of the fatty acid in insulin-secreting INS-1E and MIN6 cell lines and intact human islets. To increase oxidati...

  1. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  2. AKTIVITAS DAN STABILITAS RADICAL SCAVENGING L-ASKORBIL PALMITAT HASIL SINTESIS SECARA ENZIMATIK [Activity and Stability of Radical Scavenging of L- Palmitate Synthesized Enzymatically

    Tri Agus Siswoyo1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available L-ascorbyl palmitate (AsA-Pal-Enz was synthesized by using an immobilized lipase from Aspergillus niger. A comparison of antioxidative effects between L-ascorbic acid (AsA and AsA-Pal-Enz was determined in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical–scavenging. The results indicate that the AsA-Pal-Enz was effective in preventing lipid oxidation, while the antioxidative activity in authentic AsA-Pal was lower. The activity of AsA-Pal-Enz was very stable than AsA-Pal standard during heating.

  3. AKTIVITAS DAN STABILITAS RADICAL SCAVENGING L-ASKORBIL PALMITAT HASIL SINTESIS SECARA ENZIMATIK [Activity and Stability of Radical Scavenging of L- Palmitate Synthesized Enzymatically

    Tri Agus Siswoyo; Tri Ardiyati 2)

    2009-01-01

    L-ascorbyl palmitate (AsA-Pal-Enz) was synthesized by using an immobilized lipase from Aspergillus niger. A comparison of antioxidative effects between L-ascorbic acid (AsA) and AsA-Pal-Enz was determined in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical–scavenging. The results indicate that the AsA-Pal-Enz was effective in preventing lipid oxidation, while the antioxidative activity in authentic AsA-Pal was lower. The activity of AsA-Pal-Enz was very stable than AsA-Pal standard duri...

  4. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  5. Absorption of 14C-stearic acid and 3H-palmitic acid from the intestines of a re-entrant cannulated sheep

    A sheep fitted with a rumen cannula, a simple cannula at the proximal end and a re-entrant cannula at the ileal end of the duodenum, was fed with a normal diet of hay and concentrate. Chromic oxide impregnated on paper and equivalent to 1.5 g, was daily pushed through the rumen during the preliminary feeding period. On the day of the experiment, a mixture of 3H-methyl palmitate and 14C-methyl stearate was introduced into the rumen and the samples of blood, digesta from rumen, upper and lower cannulae were collected at 3 h intervals over a period of 36 hours. The 3H and 14C specific activity time curves of palmitic, stearic and total fatty acids showed a sort of precursor product relationship, in the order of rumen upper and lower cannula, but such a curve for serum lipoprotein fatty acids gave two to three peaks. The percentage absorption between upper and lower cannula was 83.5 for total fatty acids, 85.4 for palmitic acid and 85.2 for stearic acid. (author)

  6. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  7. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice. PMID:27142741

  8. Dietary ascorbic acid requirements during the hatchery production of turbot larvae

    Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Dhert, Ph.; Garcia Ulloa Gómez, M.; Nelis, H.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the high ascorbic acid (AA) levels transferred through enriched live food was evaluated for turbot Scophthalmus maximus larvae in two consecutive feeding experiments. The same feeding strategy was applied to all treatments, except for the AA content in the live food which was manipulated through bioencapsulation with ascorbyl palmitate. This resulted finally in a low, medium and high-AA treatment. The AA incorporation levels in the turbot larvae (up to 1400 µg AA g DW-1) were co...

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  11. The difluoromethylene (CF2) group in aliphatic chains: Synthesis and conformational preference of palmitic acids and nonadecane containing CF2 groups.

    Wang, Yi; Callejo, Ricardo; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2014-01-01

    The syntheses of palmitic acids and a nonadecane are reported with CF2 groups located 1,3 or 1,4 to each other along the aliphatic chain. Specifically 8,8,10,10- and 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorohexadecanoic acids (6b and 6c) are prepared as well as the singly modified analogue 8,8-difluorohexadecanoic acid (6a). Also 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) is prepared as a pure hydrocarbon containing a 1,4-di-CF2 motif. The modified palmitic acids are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine melting points and phase behaviour relative to palmitic acid (62.5 °C). It emerges that 6c, with the CF2 groups placed 1,4- to each other, has a significantly higher melting point (89.9 °C) when compared to the other analogues and palmitic acid itself. It is a crystalline compound and the structure reveals an extended anti-zig-zag chain. Similarly 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) adopts an extended anti-zig-zag structure. This is rationalized by dipolar relaxation between the two CF2 groups placed 1,4 to each other in the extended anti-zig-zag chain and suggests a design modification for long chain aliphatics which can introduce conformational stability. PMID:24454560

  12. Modelling the influence of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids on apparent heat resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus NTCC 11145 and Clostridium sporogenes Pasteur 79.3

    Mvou Lekogo, Brice; Coroller, Louis; Mathot, Anne Gabrielle; Mafart, Pierre; Leguérinel, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Heat resistance of spores is affected by many factors such as temperature, pH, water activity (aw) and others. Previous studies have reported that free fatty acids can affect the germination and growth of bacterial spores. In this study, we investigated the influence of free fatty acids in heating medium or in recovery medium on the heat resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus NTCC 11145 and Clostridium sporogenes Pasteur 79.3. Four free fatty acids were studied: palmitic, palmitoleic, steari...

  13. Formulation and evaluation of hydrous and anhydrous skin whitening products containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate and kojic acid dipalmitate / Marike Ganz

    Ganz, Marike

    2006-01-01

    In Asia skin lightening products have grown to be the best selling skin care products, whereas in the Western hemisphere, including Europe and North America, the main demand is for the treatment of age spots and skin even toning. For African and Asian women, skin lightening is part of their culture, as lighter skin signifies increased wealth and social status. It is believed that blending vitamin C, or its derivates, with kojic acid, or its esters, could synergistically inhibit...

  14. Increase in radioactivity of the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction of the vitamin A-deficient rat retina and its reversal by retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency on body weight of rats, protein content of their retinas and the in vitro incorporation of [3H]leucine, [14C]glucosamine and [3H]fucose into the TCA-insoluble material of these retinas were studied. The results showed that: (1) rats maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet stopped growing after about 4 weeks on the diet. They maintained a more or less constant weight for about 4 more weeks and then lost weight precipitously. Rats that had been on the vitamin A-deficient diet for 7 weeks resumed growth 2 to 3 weeks after intraperitoneal injection of retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid. (2) Neither vitamin A-deficiency nor its reversal by either retinyl palmitate or retinoic acid had any effect on the protein content of the retinas. (3) The incorporation of [3H]leucine, [14C]glucosamine and [3H]fucose into the TCA-insoluble fraction of the incubated retina was significantly higher in the deficient retina than in the vitamin A-supplemented control. (4) One week after the intraperitoneal injection of deficient rats with retinyl palmitate the incorporation of [14C]glucosamine and [3H]fucose was returned to a level that was not significantly different from that observed in the control. (5) Intraperitoneal injection of deficient rats with retinoic acid decreased the incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into the TCA-insoluble fraction of the retina to a level which was not significantly different from that observed in the control. (author)

  15. Withaferin A protects against palmitic acid-induced endothelial insulin resistance and dysfunction through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Batumalaie, Kalaivani; Amin, Muhammad Arif; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways via reactive oxygen species (ROS) by free fatty acids (FFA) in obesity gives rise to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Withaferin A (WA), possesses both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore would be a good strategy to suppress palmitic acid (PA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and hence, insulin resistance and dysfunction in the endothelium. Effect of WA on PA-induced insulin resistance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by evaluating insulin signaling mechanisms whilst effect of this drug on PA-induced endothelial dysfunction was determined in acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in isolated rat aortic preparations. WA significantly inhibited ROS production and inflammation induced by PA. Furthermore, WA significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 production in endothelial cells by specifically suppressing IKKβ/NF-κβ phosphorylation. WA inhibited inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and improved the impaired insulin PI3-K signaling, and restored the decreased nitric oxide (NO) production triggered by PA. WA also decreased endothelin-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 levels, and restored the impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated aortic preparations. These findings suggest that WA inhibited both ROS production and inflammation to restore impaired insulin resistance in cultured endothelial cells and improve endothelial dysfunction in rat aortic rings. PMID:27250532

  16. Effects of substrate availability and acute ischemia on regional myocardial metabolism demonstrated noninvasively with F-18 deoxyglucose, C-11 palmitic acid and positron computed tomography

    The results indicate that both, F-18 deoxyglucose and C-11 palmitic acid accurately trace different aspects of myocardial metabolism and their changes induced by altered substrate availability and by reduced oxygen supply. Through the pattern of tissue clearance of C-11 palmitic acid, the metabolic fate of Free fatty acids (FFA) can be assessed. Size and turnover rate of the early phase indicate the fraction of C-11 palmitic acid entering immediate oxidation and the rate of oxidation, yet the absence of such a phase does not indicate a metabolic abnormality but merely a shift in myocardial sustrate utilization from FFA to glucose or lactic acid. The normal variability is no longer present when oxygen supply is limited as for example in acute ischemia and this restriction in substrate utilization can be demonstrated with positron computed tomography (PCT). Not only is FFA uptake reduced in proportion to blood flow, but the fraction entering the oxidative pool and its turnover rate are depressed. The regional shift to glucose utilization in acute ischemia is also demonstrated noninvasively by FDG uptake in excess of blood flow and oxygen supply. These studies from the basis for evaluating alternate substrate utilization and tissue viability in myocardial disease

  17. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. PMID:25112873

  18. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  19. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  20. Enteric neuropathy can be induced by high fat diet in vivo and palmitic acid exposure in vitro.

    Ulrikke Voss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obese and/or diabetic patients have elevated levels of free fatty acids and increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal symptoms. Since the enteric nervous system is pivotal in regulating gastrointestinal functions alterations or neuropathy in the enteric neurons are suspected to occur in these conditions. Lipid induced intestinal changes, in particular on enteric neurons, were investigated in vitro and in vivo using primary cell culture and a high fat diet (HFD mouse model. DESIGN: Mice were fed normal or HFD for 6 months. Intestines were analyzed for neuronal numbers, remodeling and lipid accumulation. Co-cultures of myenteric neurons, glia and muscle cells from rat small intestine, were treated with palmitic acid (PA (0 - 10(-3 M and / or oleic acid (OA (0 - 10(-3 M, with or without modulators of intracellular lipid metabolism. Analyses were by immunocyto- and histochemistry. RESULTS: HFD caused substantial loss of myenteric neurons, leaving submucous neurons unaffected, and intramuscular lipid accumulation in ileum and colon. PA exposure in vitro resulted in neuronal shrinkage, chromatin condensation and a significant and concentration-dependent decrease in neuronal survival; OA exposure was neuroprotective. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 inhibition, L-carnitine- or alpha lipoic acid supplementation all counteracted PA-induced neuronal loss. PA or OA alone both caused a significant and concentration-dependent loss of muscle cells in vitro. Simultaneous exposure of PA and OA promoted survival of muscle cells and increased intramuscular lipid droplet accumulation. PA exposure transformed glia from a stellate to a rounded phenotype but had no effect on their survival. CONCLUSIONS: HFD and PA exposure are detrimental to myenteric neurons. Present results indicate excessive palmitoylcarnitine formation and exhausted L-carnitine stores leading to energy depletion, attenuated acetylcholine synthesis and oxidative stress to be main

  1. EGFR Inhibition Blocks Palmitic Acid-induced inflammation in cardiomyocytes and Prevents Hyperlipidemia-induced Cardiac Injury in Mice.

    Li, Weixin; Fang, Qilu; Zhong, Peng; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Lintao; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jingying; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggest that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonism may be effective for the treatment of angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study was performed to demonstrate if EGFR plays a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia/obesity-related cardiac injuries. The in vivo studies using both wild type (WT) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) showed the beneficial effects of small-molecule EGFR inhibitors, AG1478 and 542, against obesity-induced myocardial injury. Administration of AG1478 and 542 significantly reduced myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and dysfunction in both two obese mouse models. In vitro, EGFR signaling was blocked by either siRNA silencing or small-molecule EGFR inhibitors in palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated cardiomyocytes. EGFR inhibition attenuated PA-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, we found that PA-induced EGFR activation was mediated by the upstream TLR4 and c-Src. This study has confirmed the detrimental effect of EGFR activation in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced cardiac inflammatory injuries in experimental mice, and has demonstrated the TLR4/c-Src-mediated mechanisms for PA-induced EGFR activation. Our data suggest that EGFR may be a therapeutic target for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27087279

  2. Study of Enzymatic Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters in Tert-amyl Alcohol%叔戊醇体系中酶法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的研究

    张洪勇; 钱俊青

    2011-01-01

    研究以棕榈油为酰基供体和L-抗坏血酸在有机相中利用脂肪酶催化酯交换反应合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.对催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯的反应介质进行了比较,系统考察了底物浓度、溶剂用量、底物摩尔比、温度、水活度、分子筛加入时间和加入量对酶催化反应的影响,确定了最适反应条件:在20 mL用分子筛充分除水的叔戊醇中,0.352g·L-1抗坏血酸和4.535 g棕榈油(L-抗坏血酸和脂肪酸的底物摩尔比为1∶8)在14.2%(w/w,酶/L-抗坏血酸)的脂肪酶Novo435催化作用下,反应初始加入50 g·L-1的分子筛,温度55℃,摇床转速200 r ·min-1,反应24 h后底物转化率可达65%,产物浓度可达22 g·L-1.%The synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters through transesterification of ascorbic acid and palm oil in tert-amy\\ alcohol catalyzed by immobilized lipase was studied. A series of solvents used for the reaction were investigated, among them the tert-amyl alcohol was found to be the most suitable reaction media for the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters. The addition of the molecular sieves was found to be helpful for reaction system to keep the water activity and to make the equilibrium go to the product. The factors affecting catalytic leaction, such as the substrate concentration, amount of solvent, substrate molar ratio, temperature, water activity and the addition of molecular sieve, were investigated. The results show that, when 0.352 g ascorbic acid and 4.535 g palm oil (the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to fatty acid is 1:8) are catalyzed by 14.2% Novo435 (weight % of ascorbic acid) in 20 mL terf-amyl alcohol with 50 g·L-1 molecular sieve added and rotation speed of 200 r·min-1, the conversion of ascorbic acid can reach 65% and the concentration of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters is 22 g·L-1 after 24 h reaction at 55℃.

  3. Induction of Gnrh mRNA expression by the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and the saturated fatty acid palmitate in a GnRH-synthesizing neuronal cell model, mHypoA-GnRH/GFP.

    Tran, Dean Q; Ramos, Ernesto H; Belsham, Denise D

    2016-05-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons coordinate reproduction. However, whether GnRH neurons directly sense free fatty acids (FFAs) is unknown. We investigated the individual effects of the FFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), palmitate, palmitoleate, and oleate (100 μM each) on Gnrh mRNA expression in the mHypoA-GnRH/GFP neuronal cell model. We report that 2 h exposure to palmitate or DHA increases Gnrh transcription. Using the inhibitors AH7614, K252c, U0126, wortmannin, and LY294002, we demonstrate that the effect of DHA is mediated through GPR120 to downstream PKC/MAPK and PI3K signaling. Our results indicate that the effect of palmitate may depend on palmitoyl-coA synthesis and PI3K signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that both DHA and palmitate increase Gnrh enhancer-derived RNA levels. Overall, these studies provide evidence that GnRH neurons directly sense FFAs. This will advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying FFA sensing in the brain and provides insight into the links between nutrition and reproductive function. PMID:26923440

  4. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  5. Brain region-specificity of palmitic acid-induced abnormalities associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Melrose Joseph; Balu Deebika; Patil Sachin; Chan Christina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting "differential free fatty acid metabolism in the different brain areas" as a potentially important factor in causing the region-specific damage observed in AD brain. Findings The astrog...

  6. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic 11C-Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    Li, Yinlin; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhong, Min; Walker, Natalie N.; He, Jiang; Berr, Stuart S.; Keller, Susanna R.; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring FA metabolism with partial volume (PV) and spill-over (SP) corrections using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Methods Twenty-minute dynamic 11C-palmitate PET scans of four 18–20 week old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus 120 PET scanner. A model corrected blood input function (MCIF), by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1−k5) are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic 11C-palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial FA oxidation (MFAO), myocardial FA esterification (MFAE), myocardial FA utilization (MFAU) and myocardial FA uptake (MFAUp). Results The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03±43.83 nmoles/min/g. This compares well with the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmoles/g/min and 400 nmoles/min/g. Conclusions FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic 11C-palmitate PET in a 4-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model were validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo. PMID:26462138

  7. Palmitic Acid Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1β, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α via a NF-κB-Dependent Mechanism in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether palmitic acid can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations. Secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as the cell proliferation ability were measured at the end of the treatment and after 24 hours of recovery. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a selective chemical inhibitor of NF-κB and goat anti-human IL-6 polyclonal neutralizing antibody were used to inhibit NF-κB activation and IL-6 production, respectively. Our results showed that palmitic acid induced an upregulation of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β secretions, accompanied by NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, the effect of palmitic acid was accompanied by PPARα activation and Stat3 phosphorylation. Palmitic acid-induced IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions were attenuated by NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Palmitic acid was administered in amounts able to elicit significant hyperproliferation and can be attenuated by IL-6 blockage. These data demonstrate for the first time that palmitic acid can stimulate IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions in HaCaT keratinocytes and cell proliferation, thereby potentially contributing to acne inflammation and pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization.

  8. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of vinyl and l-ascorbyl phenolates and their inhibitory effects on advanced glycation end products.

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    This study successfully established the feasibility of a two-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis of l-ascorbyl phenolates. Intermediate vinyl phenolates were first chemically produced and then underwent trans-esterification with l-ascorbic acid in the presence of Novozyme 435® (Candida Antarctica lipase B) as a catalyst. Twenty vinyl phenolates and 11 ascorbyl phenolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to investigate their inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Among them, vinyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (17VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamate (20VP), ascorbyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18AP) and ascorbyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate (19AP) showed 2-10 times stronger inhibitory activities than positive control (aminoguanidine and its precursors). These results indicated that chemo-enzymatically synthesized compounds have AGE inhibitory effect and thus are effective in either preventing or retarding glycation protein formation. PMID:27507531

  9. Pulmonary lung surfactant synthetic peptide concentration-dependent modulation of DPPC and POPG acyl chain order in a DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid lipid mixture.

    Krill, S L; Gupta, S L; Smith, T

    1994-05-01

    Lung surfactant-associated protein interaction with lipid matrices and the effects on lipid thermotropic phase behavior are areas of active research. Many studies limit the lipids to a single or two-component system. The current investigation utilizes a three-lipid component matrix (DPPC:POPG:palmitic acid) to investigate the impact of a synthetic surfactant protein B fragment (SP-B 53-78 DiACM) on the dynamic surface activity of the lipid admixture as measured by a Wilhelmy surface balance. Also, the modulation of the individual lipid acyl chain order by the peptide within the lipid matrix is studied through the use of thermal perturbation FTIR spectroscopy. The data clearly demonstrate a concentration-dependent effect of the peptide on the surface activity with an improvement in the dynamic surface tension diagram characteristics (decreased surface tension and increased collapse plateau) especially at low, 0.36 M%, peptide concentrations. These effects are diminished upon further addition of the peptide. FTIR spectral data demonstrate that the peptide addition results in a significant increase in the acyl chain order of the DPPC and POPG components as measured by the position of the methylene stretching vibrational bands. DPPC is most sensitive to the peptide presence, while the palmitic acid is least affected. The transition temperatures of the individual lipids are also increased with the addition of the peptide. The presence of POPG in the matrix achieves the surface activity similarly seen with natural lung surfactant relative to a DPPC/palmitic acid lipid matrix alone. Its presence increases the sensitivity of the DPPC acyl chains to the presence of the peptide. These effects on the chain order are most probably related to the increased acyl chain fluidity which POPG imparts to the lipid matrix because of the presence of the cis double bond. The phosphatidylglycerol headgroup also adds a negative charge to the lipid matrix which enhances the peptide

  10. Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Lipophilic Ascorbic Acid Derivatives and Extract from Kadsura Coccinea Using Hydrophobic Organic-Aqueous Two-Phase Solvent Systems

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Li, Heran; Kitanaka, Susumu; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives and the crude extract from Kadsura Coccinea was performed using the type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge with a hydrophobic organic-aqueous two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/aqueous 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at the volume ratio of (5 : 5 : 6 : 2). The lipophilic ascorbic acid derivatives were separated in the order of L-ascrobyl 2,6-dibutyrate, L-ascorbyl 6-palmitate a...

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of {sup 18}F-labeled 4-thia palmitate as a PET tracer of myocardial fatty acid oxidation

    DeGrado, Timothy R. E-mail: trd@petsparc.mc.duke.edu; Wang Shuyan; Holden, James E.; Nickles, R. Jerome; Taylor, Michael; Stone, Charles K

    2000-04-01

    Interest remains strong for the development of a noninvasive technique for assessment of regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the myocardium. {sup 18}F-labeled 4-thia palmitate (FTP, 16-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-thia-hexadecanoic acid) has been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated as a metabolically trapped probe of myocardial fatty acid oxidation for positron emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer is synthesized by Kryptofix 2.2.2/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} assisted nucleophilic radiofluorination of an iodo-ester precursor, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and by purification by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution studies in rats showed high uptake and long retention of FTP in heart, liver, and kidneys consistent with relatively high fatty acid oxidation rates in these tissues. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-I caused an 80% reduction in myocardial uptake, suggesting the dependence of trapping on the transport of tracer into the mitochondrion. Experiments with perfused rat hearts showed that the estimates of the fractional metabolic trapping rate (FR) of FTP tracked inhibition of oxidation rate of palmitate with hypoxia, whereas the FR of the 6-thia analog 17-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid was insensitive to hypoxia. In vivo defluorination of FTP in the rat was evidenced by bone uptake of radioactivity. A PET imaging study with FTP in normal swine showed excellent myocardial images, prolonged myocardial retention, and no bone uptake of radioactivity up to 3 h, the last finding suggesting a species dependence for defluorination of the omega-labeled fatty acid. The results support further investigation of FTP as a potential PET tracer for assessing regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the human myocardium.

  12. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 18F-labeled 4-thia palmitate as a PET tracer of myocardial fatty acid oxidation

    Interest remains strong for the development of a noninvasive technique for assessment of regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the myocardium. 18F-labeled 4-thia palmitate (FTP, 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thia-hexadecanoic acid) has been synthesized and preliminarily evaluated as a metabolically trapped probe of myocardial fatty acid oxidation for positron emission tomography (PET). The radiotracer is synthesized by Kryptofix 2.2.2/K2CO3 assisted nucleophilic radiofluorination of an iodo-ester precursor, followed by alkaline hydrolysis and by purification by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution studies in rats showed high uptake and long retention of FTP in heart, liver, and kidneys consistent with relatively high fatty acid oxidation rates in these tissues. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-I caused an 80% reduction in myocardial uptake, suggesting the dependence of trapping on the transport of tracer into the mitochondrion. Experiments with perfused rat hearts showed that the estimates of the fractional metabolic trapping rate (FR) of FTP tracked inhibition of oxidation rate of palmitate with hypoxia, whereas the FR of the 6-thia analog 17-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid was insensitive to hypoxia. In vivo defluorination of FTP in the rat was evidenced by bone uptake of radioactivity. A PET imaging study with FTP in normal swine showed excellent myocardial images, prolonged myocardial retention, and no bone uptake of radioactivity up to 3 h, the last finding suggesting a species dependence for defluorination of the omega-labeled fatty acid. The results support further investigation of FTP as a potential PET tracer for assessing regional fatty acid oxidation rate in the human myocardium

  13. In Vivo RNAi Efficacy of Palmitic Acid-Conjugated Dicer-Substrate siRNA in a Subcutaneous Tumor Mouse Model.

    Kubo, Takanori; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Seyama, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Short interfering RNAs are used in RNA interference technology and are powerful tools for target gene silencing in a sequence-specific manner. In this study, we synthesized Dicer-substrate siRNAs consisting of 27-nt double-stranded RNAs conjugated with palmitic acid at the 5'-end of the sense strand and investigated their RNA interference efficacies in vitro and in vivo. The palmitic acid-conjugated 27-nt DsiRNAs (C16-Dsi27RNAs) were prepared by our simple synthesis strategy and achieved a good yield. C16-Dsi27RNAs showed enhanced in vitro RNA interference potency compared with not only non-modified Dsi27RNAs but also cholesterol-conjugated Dsi27RNAs against both an exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein and the endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor gene in a human scirrhous-type gastric cancer cell line that stably expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (GCIY-eGFP). Additionally, C16-Dsi27RNAs had potent gene silencing activity against both enhanced green fluorescent protein and vascular endothelial growth factor as target genes in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model generated from GCIY-eGFP cells administered by intratumoral injection. These results suggest that the C16-Dsi27RNAs will be useful next-generation RNA interference molecules that can overcome the problems associated with RNA interference technology. PMID:26800111

  14. Lipidomic-based investigation into the regulatory effect of Schisandrin B on palmitic acid level in non-alcoholic steatotic livers

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Niu, Xuyan; Dai, Wenlin; Tong, Tiejun; Chao, Xiaojuan; Su, Tao; Chan, Chi Leung; Lee, Kim Chung; Fu, Xiuqiong; Yi, Hua; Yu, Hua; Li, Ting; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Aiping; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Schisandrin B (SchB) is one of the most abundant bioactive dibenzocyclooctadiene derivatives found in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of SchB on non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In lipidomic study, ingenuity pathway analysis highlighted palmitate biosynthesis metabolic pathway in the liver samples of SchB-treated high-fat-diet-fed mice. Further experiments showed that the SchB treatment reduced expression and activity of fatty acid synthase, expressions of hepatic mature sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and hepatic level of palmitic acid which is known to promote progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. Furthermore, the treatment also reduced hepatic fibrosis, activated nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 which is known to attenuate the progression of NASH-related fibrosis. Interestingly, in fasting mice, a single high-dose SchB induced transient lipolysis and increased the expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase and phospho-hormone sensitive lipase. The treatment also increased plasma cholesterol levels and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity, reduced the hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression in these mice. Our data not only suggest SchB is a potential therapeutic agent for NAFLD, but also provided important information for a safe consumption of SchB because SchB overdosed under fasting condition will have adverse effects on lipid metabolism. PMID:25766252

  15. Comparison of 11-C-Palmitic Acid (CPA), and 123-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in human heart

    This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered

  16. Comparison of 11-C-Palmitic Acid (CPA), and 123-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in human heart

    Notohamiprodjo, G.; Schmid, A.; Spohr, G.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the results obtained with IHA in the investigation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism (MFAM) with those obtained by the use of CPA.- 8 patients (pts) without clinical signs of heart or metabolic disease were investigated under rest and fasting condition by dynamic PET following i.v. injection of 3 mCi CPA and by conventional scintigraphy following i.v. injection of 3 mCi IHA. Data were collected over a period of 90 min (frame rate was 1/min) and corrected for blood activity and catabolically released 123-I.-In 6 pts a good agreement between CPA and IHA data was observed. The activity release from the myocardium in these cases was biexponential. The ratio Q ranged between 0.7 and 6.7. -In the remaining 2 pts significant discrepancies between CPA and IHA data were observed. Since these pts were known to have cardiac neurosis and the first measurement was carried out with CPA, the authors assumed that the anxiety of the pt during CPA examination is responsible for the changing of the MFAM. This was confirmed by examination of these pts with IHA under mental stress. In both vases the data obtained by the use of CPA agree closely with those obtained by the use of IHA under mental stress. These data indicate that both CPA and IHa are applicable for studying MFAM and that in external assessment of MFAM, not only the dietary status, but also the mental state of the pts should be considered.

  17. Effects of Artemia enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin C on growth, survival and resistance Salmo trutta caspius larvae

    Javaheri baboli, Mehran

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using n-3 HUFA and Vitamin C enriched Artemia urmiana Nauplii Five difference treament were tested: for Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) larvae compare with artificial food in five treatment: (1) Artificial food, (2) Newly hatched Artemia (3) n-3 HUFA enriched Artemia (4) n-3 HUFA + 10% Ascorbyl Palmitate enriched Artemia (5) n-3 HUFA+20% Ascorbyl palmitate enriched Artemia during 15 days then all treatment were fe...

  18. Ternary Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Systems of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester(Methyl Palmitate/Methyl Stearate)+Ethanol+Glycerol at Atmospheric Pressure

    夏淑倩; 罗慧娟; 马沛生

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of two ternary systems methyl palmitate+ethanol+glycerol and methyl stearate+ethanol+glycerol at(318.2 and 333.2)K and atmospheric pressure were measured. The values of distri-bution coefficient and selectivity were calculated, which indicates that glycerol can be separated from fatty acid ester by using ethanol as an extraction solvent. The consistency of the isothermal tie-line data were checked by the Othmer-Tobias equation. The correlation coefficients R2 are higher than 0.993,9 for all the fitted curves. The NRTL activity coefficient model was applied to the correlation of the measured tie-line data. The root mean square devia-tion(RMSD)values are less than 0.007 for all the systems, which shows a good predictive capability of this model for such systems.

  19. Monocyte adhesion induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and palmitic acid in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-cultures

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2016-01-01

    Free palmitic acid (PA) is a potential pro-atherogenic stimulus that may aggravate particle-mediated cardiovascular health effects. We hypothesized that the presence of PA can aggravate oxidative stress and endothelial activation induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in vitro. We...... investigated the interaction between direct exposure to MWCNTs and PA on THP-1 monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as on indirect exposure in an alveolar-endothelial co-culture model with A549 cells and THP-1-derived macrophages exposed in inserts and the effect...... monocultures. Both effects were found to be independent of the presence of PA. MWCNT exposure significantly increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs, and co-exposure to PA aggravated the NM400-mediated adhesion but decreased the NM402-mediated adhesion. For the co-cultures, the exposure of A549 cells did...

  20. Preparation of carbon-11 labelled acetate and palmitic acid for the study of myocardial metabolism by emission-computerised axial tomography

    Methods have been developed for the labelling of acetate and palmitic acid with the positron-emitting radionuclide, 11C(T=20.4 min). Labelling was achieved via carbonation of the appropriate alkyl magnesium bromide (methyl magnesium bromide or n-pentadecyl magnesium bromide) with 11C-labelled carbon dioxide produced by the 14Np(p,α)11C nuclear reaction. The radiochemical yield and speed of each method of labelling are such that a radiochemically pure product is obtained in injectable form and in activity (>10 mCi) suitable for the study of myocardial metabolism by emission-computerised axial tomography. High pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to assess the radiochemical purity of each radiopharmaceutical. The specific activity of 11C-labelled acetate was estimated by an enzymic procedure to be greater than 0.5 Ci/μmole. (author)

  1. 酶催化合成维生素C脂肪酸酯的反应条件优化%Optimization of the enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters

    宋秋红; 王熙; 田平芳

    2009-01-01

    以维生素C(Vc)和若干种脂肪酸为底物,采用自制假丝酵母Candida sp. 99-125固定化脂肪酶,催化合成维生素C脂肪酸酯.结果表明,在该酯化反应中,油酸为最佳脂肪酸底物,丙酮为最佳反应介质.同时研究了各反应因素对Vc转化率的影响,优化后的反应条件为:当Vc浓度为0.06mol/L时,温度40*#℃,固定化酶量1.5*#g,油酸与Vc物质的量比为5∶1,反应时间48*#h,分子筛添加量0.5*#g,底物Vc分4次流加,Vc转化率可达91%,批次实验表明该固定化酶在重复使用10次后仍具较高活力.%The enzymatic synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters (AFAE) has been studied using a self-made immobilized lipase generated by Candida sp. 99 - 125 as the biocatalyst. Oleic acid was found to be the best source of a fatty acid acyl group in the synthesis of AFAEs. Through screening of different reaction media, ace-tone was found to be the most suitable solvent for the esterification. The effects of various other factors on the synthesis of AFAEs were also investigated. Under the following optimized reaction conditions: initial ascorbic acid (vitamin C) concentration (Vc) of 0.06mol/L at 40℃, 1.5g of immobilized enzyme, substrate molar ratio of 5:1, reaction time of 48 h, content of molecular sieve of 0.5 g and four times fed-batch addition of the sub-strate, an esterification ratio of 91 % was obtained. Furthermore, repeated batch reactions revealed the durabili-ty of the immobilized lipase, which retained high activity after sequential reaction for 10 rounds.

  2. Evaluation of the antiaggregant activity of ascorbyl phenolic esters with antioxidant properties.

    Lopez, Esther; del Carmen Ortega-Liébana, María; Salido, Sofía; Salido, Ginés M; Altarejos, Joaquín; Rosado, Juan A; Redondo, Pedro C

    2015-09-01

    Beneficial effects of the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid (Asc) in human health are well known. Its particular role in hemostasis deserves further consideration, since it has been described a dose-dependent effect of Asc in platelet activity. Contrary, it has been demonstrated that phenolic compounds have inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by the physiological agonist thrombin (Thr). Here, we have evaluated the actions of three synthetic phenolic esters of Asc: L-ascorbyl 6-protocatechuate (Prot Asc), L-ascorbyl 6-gallate (Gal Asc), and L-ascorbyl 6-caffeate (Caf Asc). All these Asc derivatives exhibited greater radical scavenging activity than Asc, and in experiments using human platelets from healthy subjects, they do not evoke changes in platelet viability upon their administration. Nevertheless, these compounds altered platelet calcium homeostasis in response to Thr, although Prot Asc induced a smaller effect than Gal Asc, Caf Asc, and Asc. As a consequence, platelet aggregation was also impaired by these compounds, reporting Prot Asc and Caf Asc a weaker antiaggregant action than Gal Asc and Asc. Treatments with Gal Asc and Caf Asc altered in larger extent the phosphorylation pattern of pp60(Src) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) evoked by stimulating human platelets with Thr. Summarizing, Prot Asc is the ascorbyl phenolic ester with the strongest antioxidant properties and weakest antiaggregant actions, and its use as antioxidant may be safer than the rest of derivatives in order to prevent thrombotic alteration in patients that need treatment with antioxidant therapies. PMID:26081024

  3. The effect of chronic exposure to high palmitic acid concentrations on the aerobic metabolism of human endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

    Broniarek, Izabela; Koziel, Agnieszka; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-09-01

    A chronic elevation of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) is associated with diseases like obesity or diabetes and can lead to lipotoxicity. The goals of this study were to assess the influence of chronic exposure to high palmitic acid (PAL) levels on mitochondrial respiratory functions in endothelial cells and isolated mitochondria. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) were grown for 6 days in a medium containing either 100 or 150 μM PAL. Growth at high PAL concentrations induced a considerable increase in fatty acid-supplied respiration and a reduction of mitochondrial respiration during carbohydrate and glutamine oxidation. High PAL levels elevated intracellular and mitochondrial superoxide generation; increased inflammation marker, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and superoxide dismutase 2 expression; and decreased hexokinase I and pyruvate dehydrogenase expression. No change in aerobic respiration capacity was observed, while fermentation was decreased. In mitochondria isolated from high PAL-treated cells, an increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine, a decrease in the oxidation of pyruvate, and an increase in UCP2 activity were observed. Our results demonstrate that exposure to high PAL levels induces a shift in endothelial aerobic metabolism toward the oxidation of fatty acids. Increased levels of PAL caused impairment and uncoupling of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Our data indicate that FFAs significantly affect endothelial oxidative metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and cell viability and, thus, might contribute to endothelial and vascular dysfunction. PMID:27417103

  4. Drug Nanoparticle Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid Derivatives

    Kunikazu Moribe; Waree Limwikrant; Kenjirou Higashi; Keiji Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Drug nanoparticle formulation using ascorbic acid derivatives and its therapeutic uses have recently been introduced. Hydrophilic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl glycoside have been used not only as antioxidants but also as food and pharmaceutical excipients. In addition to drug solubilization, drug nanoparticle formation was observed using ascorbyl glycoside. Hydrophobic ascorbic acid derivatives such as ascorbyl mono- and di-n-alkyl fatty acid derivatives are used either as drugs...

  5. Palmitic Acid-Induced Neuron Cell Cycle G2/M Arrest and Endoplasmic Reticular Stress through Protein Palmitoylation in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Yung-Hsuan Hsiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with elevated saturated fatty acids (SFAs in the brain. An increase in SFAs, especially palmitic acid (PA, triggers neuron cell apoptosis, causing cognitive function to deteriorate. In the present study, we focused on the specific mechanism by which PA triggers SH-SY5Y neuron cell apoptosis. We found that PA induces significant neuron cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data further showed that G2/M arrest is involved in elevation of endoplasmic reticular (ER stress according to an increase in p-eukaryotic translation inhibition factor 2α, an ER stress marker. Chronic exposure to PA also accelerates beta-amyloid accumulation, a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, SFA-induced ER stress, G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis were reversed by treatment with 2-bromopalmitate, a protein palmitoylation inhibitor. These findings suggest that protein palmitoylation plays a crucial role in SFA-induced neuron cell cycle G2/M arrest, ER stress and apoptosis; this provides a novel strategy for preventing SFA-induced neuron cell dysfunction.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters%脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯

    郑大贵; 祝显虹; 余泗莲; 彭化南; 张小兰

    2012-01-01

    The lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L.-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters were studied by direct es-terification and transesterification,respectively. The structures of products were confirmed by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR and MS. It was found that the yield of the direct esterification were higher than that of the corresponding transesterification under the similar synthetic conditions. The raw material fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters could be recycled and reused.%用固定化脂肪酶Lipozyme 435作催化剂,分别用直接酯化法和酯交换法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.产物结构经IR、1HNMR、13CNMR和MS表征.结果表明,对于同一目标化合物,相似条件下,直接酯化法的效果优于酯交换法,原料脂肪酸和脂肪酸甲酯均可回收循环使用.

  7. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.;

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  8. Synthesis of lipase-catalyzed L-ascorbyl decanoate in ultrasonic field and determination of its antioxidant activity%超声波强化酶法合成L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯及其抗氧化性研究

    李卓; 晏日安; 曾永青

    2013-01-01

    The esterification of decanoic acid with L-ascorbic acid in the presence of tert-butanol acid as the solvent and immobilized lipase (Novozym(R) 435) as the catalyst by means of ultrasonic irradiation to obtain L-ascorbyl decanoate (L-AD) was studied. By using ultrasound the dissolution rate of the reactants could be accelerated greatly,the reaction time of esterification could be reduced from 48 to 4h. The optimal actual yield was 78.48%.The purity of target product was above 98.6% after recrystallized. The immobilized lipase could be reused 4 times in ultrasonic field. In antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl decanoate were studied by the items of hydroxyl radical system, system of DPPH· ,and reducing power. Its antioxidant effect were further evaluated by adding into the soybean and sunflower oil. The result indicated that L-ascorbyl decanoate within the given concentration range in dose-effect relationship showed good antioxidant activities on the clearance of hydroxyl radical,superoxide anion free radical and the reducing power of DPPh·.Furthermore,antioxidant activities of L-ascorbyl decanoate were comparable with that of L-ascorbyl palmitate,and the first two indexes were higher than that of TBHQ. Thus,L-ascorbyl decanoate was demonstrated to be a potential food antioxidant.%研究了在超声波场中以固定化脂肪酶(Novozvm(R)435)为催化剂,在叔丁醇中合成L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯.超声波可以显著加速底物的溶解,并使反应时间由48h缩短到4h.产率可达到78.48%,产物纯度为98.6%,超声波处理下固定化脂肪酶可重复利用的次数为4次.抗氧化实验结果表明在一定质量浓度范围内,L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯具有很强的还原力、清除羟自由基、DPPH自由基能力能力,在等质量浓度下与L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯相当,且前两个指标优于TBHQ;将L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯添加到油脂中,其抗氧化能力也较优,说明L-抗坏血酸癸酸酯是一种很有潜力的抗氧化剂.

  9. Effect of a bovine lung surfactant protein isolate (SP-B/C) on egg phosphatidylglycerol acyl chain order in a lipid mixture with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid.

    Krill, S L; Gupta, S L

    1994-04-01

    Dynamic surface tension measurements of films of a d62 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine:L-alpha-phosphatidyl-DL - glycerol:d31 palmitic acid (d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA) lipid matrix in the presence of a bovine pulmonary surfactant protein isolate (SP-B/C) demonstrate the improved surface activity over that of the lipids alone. Thus, significant interaction of the proteins with the lipid matrix is demonstrated. The effect of SP-B/C on the acyl chain order of the negatively charged EggPG within a d62-DPPC:EggPG:d31-PA lipid matrix in D2O saline was investigated in thermal perturbation Fourier transform IR spectroscopic studies. The EggPG thermotropic phase behavior was determined independently of the other lipid components with perdeuterated lipids and D2O. The data demonstrate the high degree of EggPG acyl chain disorder in the absence of the protein isolate. A broad transition occurs between 30 and 40 degrees C. The addition of the protein isolate did not alter the acyl chain order at 0.281 and 1.46 mg/mL of protein. However, alterations in the lipid carbonyl vibrational mode were observed. PMID:8046609

  10. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in ex vivo cervical tissue model of human vagina by palmitic acid; implications for a microbicide development.

    Xudong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of all new HIV-1 infections are acquired through sexual contact. Currently, there is no clinically approved microbicide, indicating a clear and urgent therapeutic need. We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and entry. Mechanistically, PA inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor and blocks efficient gp120-to-CD4 attachment. Here, we wanted to assess the ability of PA to inhibit HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue ex vivo model of human vagina, and determine its effect on Lactobacillus (L species of probiotic vaginal flora. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that treatment with 100-200 µM PA inhibited HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue by up to 50%, and this treatment was not toxic to the tissue or to L. crispatus and jensenii species of vaginal flora. In vitro, in a cell free system that is independent of in vivo cell associated CD4 receptor; we determined inhibition constant (Ki to be ∼2.53 µM. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate utility of PA as a model molecule for further preclinical development of a safe and potent HIV-1 entry microbicide inhibitor.

  11. Glycation of bovine serum albumin by ascorbate in vitro: Possible contribution of the ascorbyl radical?

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Galiniak, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been reported to be both pro-and antiglycating agent. In vitro, mainly proglycating effects of AA have been observed. We studied the glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by AA in vitro. BSA glycation was accompanied by oxidative modifications, in agreement with the idea of glycoxidation. Glycation was inhibited by antioxidants including polyphenols and accelerated by 2,​2'-​azobis-​2-​methyl-​propanimidamide and superoxide dismutase. Nitroxides, known to oxidize AA, did not inhibit BSA glycation. A good correlation was observed between the steady-state level of the ascorbyl radical in BSA samples incubated with AA and additives and the extent of glycation. On this basis we propose that ascorbyl radical, in addition to further products of AA oxidation, may initiate protein glycation. PMID:26202868

  12. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain

    Fatty acids in maize kernels are important for human and livestock health. We combined linkage and association analysis to fine-map the major QTL-Pal9 to a 90-kb region, in which only one candidate gene was identified. The gene was named ZmFatB and is orthologous to FatB in Arabidopsis, with a simil...

  13. Effects of Ghrelin on Triglyceride Accumulation and Glucose Uptake in Primary Cultured Rat Myoblasts under Palmitic Acid-Induced High Fat Conditions

    Lingling Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effects of acylated ghrelin on glucose and triglyceride metabolism in rat myoblasts under palmitic acid- (PA- induced high fat conditions. Rat myoblasts were treated with 0, 10−11, 10−9, or 10−7 M acylated ghrelin and 0.3 mM PA for 12 h. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by Oil-Red-O staining and the glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-peroxidase enzymatic method, and glucose uptake was determined by isotope tracer. The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Compared to 0.3 mM PA, ghrelin at 10−9 and 10−7 M reduced triglyceride content (5.855 ± 0.352 versus 5.030 ± 0.129 and 4.158 ± 0.254 mM, P<0.05 and prevented PA-induced reduction of glucose uptake (1.717 ± 0.264 versus 2.233 ± 0.333 and 2.333 ± 0.273 10−2 pmol/g/min, P<0.05. The relative protein expression of p-AMPKα/AMPKα, UCP3, and p-ACC under 0.3 mM PA was significantly reduced compared to controls (all P<0.05, but those in the 10−9 and 10−7 M ghrelin groups were significantly protected from 0.3 mM PA (all P<0.05. In conclusion, acylated ghrelin reduced PA-induced triglyceride accumulation and prevented the PA-induced decrease in glucose uptake in rat myoblasts. These effects may involve fatty acid oxidation.

  14. Palmitate impairs cytokinesis associated with RhoA inhibition

    Jianhua Zhang; Ying Yang; Jiarui Wu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Excess fatty acid accumulation in non-adipose tissues results in lipotoxicity, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes [1]. A number of tissue culture systems have been used to study lipotoxicity by supplementation of culture media with palmitate, which is a major saturated free fatty acid in human plasma and has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cell types [2]. Here we report that palmitate causes formation of binucleate cells as a consequence of cytokinetic impairment. Our results reveal a novel toxic effect of palmitate on cell division and extend the implication of lipotoxicity to cytokinetic failure.

  15. Overexpression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in rat aortic endothelial cells attenuates palmitic acid-induced inflammation and reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability

    Tian Dai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction is a well documented evidence for the onset of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Lipids disorder is among the main risk factors for endothelial dysfunction in these diseases. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR, one of the cholesterol transporters, plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular lipid homeostasis. However, the effect of StAR on endothelial dysfunction is not well understood. Palmitic acid (PA has been shown to decrease eNOS activity and induce inflammation, both are the causes of endothelial dysfunction, in an endothelial cell culture model. Methods StAR gene was introduced into primary rat aortic endothelial cells by adenovirus infection. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the relative genes and proteins expression level to elucidate the underlying mechanism. The free fatty acid and cholesterol quantification kits were used to detect total cellular free fatty acid and cholesterol. The levels of inflammatory factors and nitric oxide were determined by ELISA and classic Griess reagent methods respectively. Results We successfully overexpressed StAR in primary rat aortic endothelial cells. Following StAR overexpression, mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNFα, IL6 and VCAM-1 and protein levels of IL-1β, , TNFα and IL-6 in culture supernatant were significantly decreased, which duing to blocke NFκB nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, StAR overexpression attenuated the PA-induced reduction of nitric oxide bioavailability by protecting the bioactivity of pAkt/peNOS/NO pathway. Furthermore, the key genes involved in lipid metabolism were greatly reduced following StAR overexpression. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, cerulenin and lovastatin, the inhibitor of fatty acid and cholesterol synthase, were added prior to PA treatment. The results showed that both cerulenin and lovastatin had a similar effect as

  16. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    Knoll, Nadine [Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University, Dornburger Strasse 25, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Weise, Anja [Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Friedrich Schiller University, Kollegiengasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Claussen, Uwe [Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Friedrich Schiller University, Kollegiengasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Sendt, Wolfgang [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Clinic for Surgery, Friedrich Schiller University, Erlanger Allee 101, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Marian, Brigitte [Institute for Cancer Research, University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Glei, Michael [Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University, Dornburger Strasse 25, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L. [Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University, Dornburger Strasse 25, D-07743 Jena (Germany)]. E-mail: b8pobe@uni-jena.de

    2006-02-22

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 {mu}M). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression.

  17. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 μM). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression

  18. Monocyte adhesion induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and palmitic acid in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-cultures.

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Free palmitic acid (PA) is a potential pro-atherogenic stimulus that may aggravate particle-mediated cardiovascular health effects. We hypothesized that the presence of PA can aggravate oxidative stress and endothelial activation induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in vitro. We investigated the interaction between direct exposure to MWCNTs and PA on THP-1 monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as on indirect exposure in an alveolar-endothelial co-culture model with A549 cells and THP-1-derived macrophages exposed in inserts and the effect measured in the lower chamber on HUVECs and THP-1 cells. The exposure to MWCNTs, including a short (NM400) and long (NM402) type of entangled fibers, was associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in the intracellular glutathione concentration in HUVEC and A549 monocultures. Both effects were found to be independent of the presence of PA. MWCNT exposure significantly increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs, and co-exposure to PA aggravated the NM400-mediated adhesion but decreased the NM402-mediated adhesion. For the co-cultures, the exposure of A549 cells did not promote THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs in the lower chamber. When THP-1 macrophages were present on the cell culture inserts, there was a modest increase in the adhesion and an increase in interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in the lower chamber whereas no tumor necrosis factor was detected. Overall, this study showed that direct exposure of HUVECs to MWCNTs was associated with oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion and the presence of PA increased the adhesion when exposed to NM400. PMID:26067756

  19. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  20. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  1. Hydrophobic interactions between polymeric carrier and palmitic acid-conjugated siRNA improve PEGylated polyplex stability and enhance in vivo pharmacokinetics and tumor gene silencing.

    Sarett, Samantha M; Werfel, Thomas A; Chandra, Irene; Jackson, Meredith A; Kavanaugh, Taylor E; Hattaway, Madison E; Giorgio, Todd D; Duvall, Craig L

    2016-08-01

    Formation of stable, long-circulating siRNA polyplexes is a significant challenge in translation of intravenously-delivered, polymeric RNAi cancer therapies. Here, we report that siRNA hydrophobization through conjugation to palmitic acid (siPA) improves stability, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and tumor gene silencing of PEGylated nanopolyplexes (siPA-NPs) with balanced cationic and hydrophobic content in the core relative to the analogous polyplexes formed with unmodified siRNA, si-NPs. Hydrophobized siPA loaded into the NPs at a lower charge ratio (N(+):P(-)) relative to unmodified siRNA, and siPA-NPs had superior resistance to siRNA cargo unpackaging in comparison to si-NPs upon exposure to the competing polyanion heparin and serum. In vitro, siPA-NPs increased uptake in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (100% positive cells vs. 60% positive cells) but exhibited equivalent silencing of the model gene luciferase relative to si-NPs. In vivo in a murine model, the circulation half-life of intravenously-injected siPA-NPs was double that of si-NPs, resulting in a >2-fold increase in siRNA biodistribution to orthotopic MDA-MB-231 mammary tumors. The increased circulation half-life of siPA-NPs was dependent upon the hydrophobic interactions of the siRNA and the NP core component and not just siRNA hydrophobization, as siPA did not contribute to improved circulation time relative to unmodified siRNA when delivered using polyplexes with a fully cationic core. Intravenous delivery of siPA-NPs also achieved significant silencing of the model gene luciferase in vivo (∼40% at 24 h after one treatment and ∼60% at 48 h after two treatments) in the murine MDA-MB-231 tumor model, while si-NPs only produced a significant silencing effect after two treatments. These data suggest that stabilization of PEGylated siRNA polyplexes through a combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between siRNA cargo and the polymeric carrier improves in vivo pharmacokinetics and

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Ascorbyl Palmitate%酶促反应合成棕榈酸Vc酯

    孙燕; 夏木西 卡玛尔; 吾满江·艾力; 贾殿增

    2006-01-01

    讨论了以黑曲霉脂肪酶为催化剂,以抗坏血酸和棕榈酸甲酯为底物的酯交换反应及其影响因素.考察了在摇床速度为200r/min,叔丁醇为溶剂下,底物的摩尔比、温度、脂肪酶浓度、时间、含水量对转化率的影响.结果表明,底物棕榈酸甲酯与Vc的摩尔比为1.3:1.0、反应温度为36℃、反应时间为24h、脂肪酶浓度为15%、含水量为1%时,Vc的转化率为23%.合成的棕榈酸Vc酯,无需和底物分离,可以直接作为油脂食品的添加剂.

  3. An investigation of the likely role of (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids in meibomian lipid films using (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid as a model.

    Schuett, Burkhardt S; Millar, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    (O-acyl) ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) are a recently found group of polar lipids in meibum. Since these lipids can potentially serve as a surfactant in the tear film lipid layer, the surface properties of a molecule of this lipid class was investigated and compared with a structurally related wax ester and a fatty acid. (O-oleyl) ω-hydroxy palmitic acid was synthesized and used as the model OAHFA. It was spread either alone or mixed with human meibum on an artificial tear buffer in a Langmuir trough, and pressure-area isocycle profiles were recorded at different temperatures and compared with those of palmityl oleate and oleic acid. These measurements were accompanied by fluorescence microscopy of meibum mixed films during pressure-area isocycles. The pressure area curves indicated that pure films of the model OAHFA are as surface active as oleic acid films, cover a much larger surface area than either palmityl oleate or oleic acid and show a distinct biphasic pressure-area isocycle profile. The OAHFAs appeared to remain on the aqueous surface and show only a minor re-arrangement into multi-layered structures during repetitive pressure area isocycles. All these properties can be explained by OAHFAs binding weakly to the aqueous surface via an ester group and strongly via a carboxyl group. By contrast, the pressure area profiles of palmityl oleate films indicate that they form multi-layers and oleic acid presumably forms micelles and desorbs into the subphase. When mixed with meibum, similar features as for pure films were observed. In addition, meibum-OAHFA films appeared very homogeneous; a feature not seen with other mixtures. In conclusion these data support the notion that the tested OAHFA is a very potent surfactant which is important in spreading and stabilising meibomian lipid films. PMID:23792170

  4. Lipidomic-based investigation into the regulatory effect of Schisandrin B on palmitic acid level in non-alcoholic steatotic livers

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Niu, Xuyan; Dai, Wenlin; Tong, Tiejun; Chao, Xiaojuan; Su, Tao; Chan, Chi Leung; Lee, Kim Chung; Fu, Xiuqiong; Yi, Hua; Yu, Hua; Li, Ting; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Pan, Si-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Schisandrin B (SchB) is one of the most abundant bioactive dibenzocyclooctadiene derivatives found in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of SchB on non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). In lipidomic study, ingenuity pathway analysis highlighted palmitate biosynthesis metabolic pathway in the liver samples of SchB-treated high-fat-diet-fed mice. Further experiments showed that the SchB treatment reduced expression and activity of fat...

  5. Preparation of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Probes through Polyaniline Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) Coating for the Extraction of Palmitic Acid and Oleic Acid in Organic Solvents

    Khajeamiri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    A fiber coating from polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically prepared and employed for Solid phase micreoextraction (SPME). The PANI film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface using cyclic voltametry (CV) technique. The same method was applied for the preparation of SPME fiber coated by polyaniline multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PANI/MWCNTs) composite. The concentration of sulfuric acid for electropolymerization was 0.1 M in the presence of 0.045 M aniline in aqueous solu...

  6. Palmitic acid interferes with energy metabolism balance by adversely switching the SIRT1-CD36-fatty acid pathway to the PKC zeta-GLUT4-glucose pathway in cardiomyoblasts.

    Chen, Yeh-Peng; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic regulation is inextricably linked with cardiac function. Fatty acid metabolism is a significant mechanism for creating energy for the heart. However, cardiomyocytes are able to switch the fatty acids or glucose, depending on different situations, such as ischemia or anoxia. Lipotoxicity in obesity causes impairments in energy metabolism and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. We utilized the treatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells palmitic acid (PA) as a model for hyperlipidemia to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in these processes. Our results show PA induces time- and dose-dependent lipotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Moreover, PA enhances cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and reduces glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) pathway protein levels following a short period of treatment, but cells switch from CD36 back to the GLUT4 pathway after during long-term exposure to PA. As sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) play important roles in CD36 and GLUT4 translocation, we used the SIRT1 activator resveratrol and si-PKCζ to identify the switches in metabolism. Although PA reduced CD36 and increased GLUT4 metabolic pathway proteins, when we pretreated cells with resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or transfected si-PKCζ, both were able to significantly increase CD36 metabolic pathway proteins and reduce GLUT4 pathway proteins. High-fat diets affect energy metabolism pathways in both normal and aging rats and involve switching the energy source from the CD36 pathway to GLUT4. In conclusion, PA and high-fat diets cause lipotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and adversely switch the energy source from the CD36 pathway to the GLUT4 pathway. PMID:27133433

  7. Palmitic acid (16:0) competes with omega-6 linoleic and omega-3 ɑ-linolenic acids for FADS2 mediated Δ6-desaturation.

    Park, Hui Gyu; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; DeAllie, Christian; Liu, Lei; Liang, Allison; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Sapienic acid, 16:1n-10 is the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid on human skin where its synthesis is mediated by FADS2 in the sebaceous glands. The FADS2 product introduces a double bond at the Δ6, Δ4 and Δ8 positions by acting on at least ten substrates, including 16:0, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3. Our aim was to characterize the competition for accessing FADS2 mediated Δ6 desaturation between 16:0 and the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the human diet, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3, to evaluate whether competition may be relevant in other tissues and thus linked to metabolic abnormalities associated with FADS2 or fatty acid levels. MCF7 cells stably transformed with FADS2 biosynthesize 16:1n-10 from exogenous 16:0 in preference to 16:1n-7, the immediate product of SCD highly expressed in cancer cell lines, and 16:1n-9 via partial β-oxidation of 18:1n-9. Increasing availability of 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 resulted in decreased bioconversion of 16:0 to 16:1n-10, simultaneously increasing the levels of highly unsaturated products. FADS2 cells accumulate the desaturation-elongation products 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-3 in preference to the immediate desaturation products 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 implying prompt/coupled elongation of the nascent desaturation products. MCF7 cells incorporate newly synthesized 16:1n-10 into phospholipids. These data suggest that excess 16:0 due to, for instance, de novo lipogenesis from high carbohydrate or alcohol consumption, inhibits synthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids, and may in part explain why supplemental preformed EPA and DHA in some studies improves insulin resistance and other factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome aggravated by excess calorie consumption. PMID:26597785

  8. Investigation of the Interaction of Naringin Palmitate with Bovine Serum Albumin: Spectroscopic Analysis and Molecular Docking

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Lin; Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Zhili; Su, Jianyu; Huang, Jianrong; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine serum albumin (BSA) contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA), as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was c...

  9. Activation of PPARδ up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a β-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPARδ), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPARδ mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPARδ up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPARδ plays an important role in protecting pancreatic β-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  10. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  11. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca(2+). Palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca(2+) pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca(2+) depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA

  12. Possible Involvement of Palmitate in Pathogenesis of Periodontitis.

    Shikama, Yosuke; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Funaki, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity and higher concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma. Among FFAs, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), such as palmitate, have been suggested to promote inflammatory responses. Although many epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and T2D, little is known about the clinical significance of SFAs in periodontitis. In this study, we showed that gingival fibroblasts have cell-surface expression of CD36, which is also known as FAT/fatty acid translocase. Moreover, CD36 expression was increased in gingival fibroblasts of high-fat diet-induced T2D model mice, compared with gingival fibroblasts of mice fed a normal diet. DNA microarray analysis revealed that palmitate increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Consistent with these results, we confirmed that palmitate-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and CXCL1 secretion in HGF, using a cytokine array and ELISA. SFAs, but not an unsaturated fatty acid, oleate, induced IL-8 production. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly suppressed palmitate-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production. Treatment of HGF with a CD36 inhibitor also inhibited palmitate-induced pro-inflammatory responses. Finally, we demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) lipopolysaccharide and heat-killed P.g. augmented palmitate-induced chemokine secretion in HGF. These results suggest a potential link between SFAs in plasma and the pathogenesis of periodontitis. PMID:25921577

  13. Uptake of palmitate by hepatocyte suspensions: facilitation by albumin?

    Pond, S M; Davis, C K; Bogoyevitch, M A; Gordon, R A; Weisiger, R A; Bass, L

    1992-05-01

    Albumin-dependent uptake of unbound [3H]palmitic acid by hepatocytes isolated from female rat livers was studied and the experimental results compared with the predictions of a noncompartmental diffusion-reaction theory for the cellular uptake of protein-bound ligands. The outright theoretical predictions involve values for the parameters of the system, some newly measured (hepatocyte radii and the rate constant for the dissociation of palmitate-albumin complex) and some taken from the literature (diffusion coefficients and the equilibrium association constant for the palmitate-albumin complex). The measured unbound clearance of [3H]palmitic acid, defined as the initial uptake velocity divided by the unbound [3H]palmitic acid concentration in the medium, was enhanced 6.6-fold as the concentration of human serum albumin was increased from approximately 5 to 480 microM. This enhancement factor was predicted by the theory, according to which the enhancement reflects codiffusion of bound ligand across the unstirred layer adjacent to the cell membrane and, therefore, an increased delivery of unbound ligand to the cell surface. In contrast, the absolute magnitude of the unbound clearance was consistent with the theory only for the lowest published value for the equilibrium association constant, 15 microM-1. For higher published values (62 and 94 microM-1), the magnitude of the unbound clearance observed experimentally was severalfold higher than that predicted by the theory. If in fact the association constant exceeds 30 microM-1, the data would imply that an albumin-dependent facilitation mechanism exists which enhances the availability of palmitate to the cell over and above the enhancement predicted by the diffusion-reaction theory. PMID:1590397

  14. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  15. Effect of dl-ethionine on the intestinal absorption and transport of palmitic acid-1-14C and tripalmitin-14C. Role of intramucosal factors in the uptake of luminal lipids

    Kessler, Jacques I.; Mishkin, S.; Stein, J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of DL-ethionine on the uptake and transport of lipid by the rat small intestine was investigated. A cottonseed oil emulsion containing 14C-labeled tripalmitin or palmitic acid was administered intragastrically to rats pretreated with DL-ethionine, DL-ethionine plus methionine, or saline, and the rats were sacrificed 2, 4, and 6 hr later. Lipids from the plasma, the stomach, the colon, the luminal contents of the small intestine, and the wall of the small intestine were extracted, fractionated, and their radioactivity assayed. Ethionine markedly inhibited the uptake of lipids by the small intestine. This inhibition was not related to impairment of intraluminal lipolysis since analagous inhibitions were observed when palmitic acid or predigested triglyceride (TG), obtained through a jejunal fistula from normal animals, was administered instead of tripalmitin. Ethionine also inhibited the transport of lipid from the wall of the small intestine. A significant fraction of the administered lipid remained in the wall of the small intestine, and only a small fraction was transported to the blood stream. Although most of the wall radioactivity was in the form of TG, significant proportions were also found in the free fatty acid (FFA) and partial glyceride fractions, indicating a marked inhibition of mucosal reesterification to TG. The degree of inhibition of mucosal reesterification and the degree of inhibition of transport of wall lipids were directly related to the degree of inhibition of uptake of luminal radioactivity. This relationship suggests that the rate of reesterification, the level of mucosal FFA, and the rate of transport of intramucosal TG may be of importance in determining the extent of uptake of intraluminal lipid by the mucosal cells. Since a significant fraction of the wall radioactivity was in the form of TG, the decreased transport of wall lipids was attributed to an impairment of chylomicron completion due to inhibition of either the

  16. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  17. Improved production of postlarval white shrimp through supplementation of L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate in their diet

    Kontara, E.K.M.; Merchie, G.; Lavens, P.; Robles, R; Nelis, H.; De leenheer, A P; Sorgeloos, P.

    1997-01-01

    L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (ApP) was used as a vitamin C source to study the ascorbic acid (AA) requirements for the early postlarval stages of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). First the stability of ApP in the diets was determined: ApP losses after pelletizing and 10 min immersion in seawater were 25-35% and 30%, respectively. Semipurified diets with five levels of ApP (0, 20, 40, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 expressed as active AA were fed ad libitum to P. vannamei (PL-14 stage, mean dry weight 0.73...

  18. Surfactantlipid biosynthesis: Regulation of transmembrane transport of palmitate

    Guthmann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Considering the mechanisms by which antenatal maturation of lung can be induced, the role of long chain fatty acids as precursors of surfactant lipid synthesis has not been thoroughly investigated. To specifically increase surfactant synthesis during the fetal and/or neonatal period we studied the regulation of de novo phosphatidyl synthesis in type II pneumocytes. First, we characterised the transmembrane transport of palmitate, a long chain fatty acid prevalent in surfactant lipids, with...

  19. Enhanced In Vitro Skin Deposition Properties of Retinyl Palmitate through Its Stabilization by Pectin.

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Cho, Seong-Wan; Yun, Gyiae; Choi, Sung-Up; Lee, Jaehwi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stabilization of retinyl palmitate (RP) on its skin permeation and distribution profiles. Skin permeation and distribution study were performed using Franz diffusion cells along with rat dorsal skin, and the effect of drug concentration and the addition of pectin on skin deposition profiles of RP was observed. The skin distribution of RP increased in a concentration dependent manner and the formulations containing 0.5 and 1 mg of pectin demonstrated significantly increased RP distributions in the epidermis. Furthermore, it was found that skin distribution of RP could be further improved by combined use of pectin and ascorbyl palmitate (AP), due largely to their anti-oxidative effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the skin deposition properties of RP can be improved by stabilizing RP with pectin. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that pectin could be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations as an efficient stabilizing agent and as skin penetration modulator. PMID:24596625

  20. Ascorbyl coumarates as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents that inhibit melanogenesis and enhance collagen synthesis.

    Kwak, Jun Yup; Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-09-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA) are naturally occurring antioxidants that are known to enhance collagen synthesis and inhibit melanin synthesis, respectively. The purpose of this study was to examine hybrid compounds between AA and p-CA as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents. Ascorbyl 3-p-coumarate (A-3-p-C), ascorbyl 2-p-coumarate (A-2-p-C), and their parent compounds were tested for their effects on cellular melanin synthesis and collagen synthesis. At 100 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C decreased melanin content of human dermal melanocytes stimulated by L-tyrosine, by 65 and 59%, respectively, compared to 11% inhibition of AA and 70% inhibition of p-CA. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were less effective than p-CA but more effective than AA at inhibiting tyrosinase activity. A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C were more effective than p-CA at inhibiting the autoxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. At 100-300 μM, A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C augmented collagen release from human dermal fibroblasts by 120-144% and 125-191%, respectively, compared to 126-133% increase of AA and 120-146% increase of p-CA. They increased procollagen type I C-peptide release (A-3-p-C, and A-2-p-C) like AA, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 1 level (A-2-p-C) like p-CA, implicating that they might regulate collagen metabolism by multiple mechanisms. This study suggests that A-3-p-C and A-2-p-C could be used as multifunctional cosmeceutical agents for the attenuation of certain aspects of skin aging. PMID:26078014

  1. Study on the antioxidation activity of D-isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters%异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯的抗氧化性能研究

    余泗莲; 余彬; 祝显虹; 毛刘量; 郑大贵

    2012-01-01

    新鲜猪油中添加异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯和对照的抗氧化剂,按照GB/T5009.37-2003的方法,进行强氧化试验,测定过氧化值(POV);二苯代苦味肼基自由基(DPPH.)无水乙醇溶液中添加异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯和对照的抗氧化剂,用分光光度法测定DPPH.清除率(SA).POV数据表明,参照中国规定的最高允许浓度往猪油中分别添加抗氧化剂,异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯抗氧化能力与异VC棕榈酸酯和TBHQ相当,但比维生素C棕榈酸酯强.SA数据表明,在受试物浓度高于1.666710-4mol·L-1,并且浓度相同时,异VC山茶油脂肪酸酯表现出比异VC棕榈酸酯、VC棕榈酸酯和TBHQ更强的清除能力.%D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was added in lard and peroxide value ( POV) in lard sample was tested according to GB/T5009. 37-2003. The scavenging activity (SA) of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters on DPPH free - radical was tested by spectrophotometry. The POV data showed that the antioxidation activity of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was better than that of L - ascorbyl palmitate, and was almost the same as that of D - isoascorbyl palmitate and TBHQ at the highest permitted amount by China food additives regulation. The SA data showed that when the concentration of samples was higher than 1. 666710 -4mol · L-1, the activity of scavenging DPPH of D - isoascorbyl camellia oil fatty acid esters was higher than that of D - isoascorbyl palmitate, L - ascorbyl palmitate and TBHQ.

  2. Short Term Palmitate Supply Impairs Intestinal Insulin Signaling via Ceramide Production.

    Tran, Thi Thu Trang; Postal, Bárbara Graziela; Demignot, Sylvie; Ribeiro, Agnès; Osinski, Céline; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Leturque, Armelle; Rousset, Monique; Ferré, Pascal; Hajduch, Eric; Carrière, Véronique

    2016-07-29

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic diseases is increasing, and there are global recommendations to limit consumption of certain nutrients, especially saturated lipids. Insulin resistance, a common trait occurring in obesity and type 2 diabetes, is associated with intestinal lipoprotein overproduction. However, the mechanisms by which the intestine develops insulin resistance in response to lipid overload remain unknown. Here, we show that insulin inhibits triglyceride secretion and intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression in vivo in healthy mice force-fed monounsaturated fatty acid-rich olive oil but not in mice force-fed saturated fatty acid-rich palm oil. Moreover, when mouse intestine and human Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were treated with the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, the insulin-signaling pathway was impaired. We show that palmitic acid or palm oil increases ceramide production in intestinal cells and that treatment with a ceramide analogue partially reproduces the effects of palmitic acid on insulin signaling. In Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes, ceramide effects on insulin-dependent AKT phosphorylation are mediated by protein kinase C but not by protein phosphatase 2A. Finally, inhibiting de novo ceramide synthesis improves the response of palmitic acid-treated Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes to insulin. These results demonstrate that a palmitic acid-ceramide pathway accounts for impaired intestinal insulin sensitivity, which occurs within several hours following initial lipid exposure. PMID:27255710

  3. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R.; Choi, S-K; T.T. Nguyen; Quan, X.; Choi, S. J.; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C. B.; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently i...

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models.

    Saeed, Noha M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M; Algandaby, Mardi M; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. PMID:22842335

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  7. Síntese, caracterização e análise térmica dos sais de lítio, sódio e potássio do ácido palmítico e do seu éster etílico Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of lithium, sodium and potassium salts of the palmitic acid and its ethyl ester

    André Luis Castro de Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline salts of the palmitic acid were synthesized and characterized from aqueous and ethanolic medium. The salts were characterized by elemental analysis (EA and infrared spectroscopy (IR. EA and IR, being its synthesis comproved, also characterized the ethyl palmitate. All the salts and the ester were submitted to thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG, and differential thermal analysis (DTA in the temperature ranging from room to 700 ºC under air dynamic atmosphere. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements were taken from -90 ºC up to temperatures close to the starting of the decomposition temperature, determined by thermogravimetry, using heating and cooling cycles.

  8. 生物法合成维生素C棕榈酸酯%Biological Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Palmitate

    徐凤杰; 谭天伟

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同的脂肪酶在有机溶剂体系中催化合成L-维生素C棕榈酸酯的反应.针对维生素C在有机溶剂中溶解度较低这一问题,对催化合成维生素C棕榈酸酯反应的脂肪酶和反应介质进行比较,同时对影响合成维生素C棕榈酸酯反应的因素(温度、底物浓度、底物摩尔比、反应时间和酶量等)进行探讨,优化了反应条件:在10mL的丙酮中,1.094g棕榈酸与0.107g维生素C在酶量为20%(W/W,固定化酶/维生素C)的固定化脂肪酶催化下,初始含0.4nm分子筛20%,温度为60℃,转速为200r/min,反应48h转化率可以达到80%,产物维生素C棕榈酸酯的浓度可达20g/L.

  9. Electron Spin Resonance of Ascorbyl (Vitamin C) Radicals in Synthetic CaCO3 by UV Irradiation

    Sato, Hideo; Tani, Atsushi; Ikeya, Motoji

    2003-02-01

    Free radicals ascribed to ascorbic acid (AscH2), vitamin C, in the solid matrix of synthetic calcium carbonate have been studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) after UV irradiation. A new ESR signal with g-factors of g\\|=2.0024 and g\\bot=2.0053 was found together with a broad singlet signal around g=2.005 and a doublet signal at g=2.0053 separated by 0.18 mT due to the ascorbyl radical (Asc•-). The molecular orbitals of Asc•- and two other types of ascorbyl radical (AscH•-) were calculated using the semi-empirical PM3 unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) method, which indicated that the hyperfine splitting due to hydrogen bonded to one of the carbons in the pentagonal ring was dominant. The axial signal was ascribed to AscH•-, while the doublet signal was ascribed to Asc•- in CaCO3. Possible pharmaceutical and nutritional applications of embedding unstable active molecules into the crystalline lattice of CaCO3 and a new nondestructive method for determination of vitamin C contents are discussed because the vitamin C has higher thermal stability in the carbonate than that in aqueous solution.

  10. Investigation of the interaction of naringin palmitate with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking.

    Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine serum albumin (BSA contains high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds and has been used to replace human serum albumin (HSA, as these two compounds share a similar structure. Naringin palmitate is a modified product of naringin that is produced by an acylation reaction with palmitic acid, which is considered to be an effective substance for enhancing naringin lipophilicity. In this study, the interaction of naringin palmitate with BSA was characterised by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between naringin palmitate and BSA under physiological conditions, and differences in naringin and naringin palmitate affinities for BSA were further compared and analysed. The formation of naringin palmitate-BSA was revealed by fluorescence quenching, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV was found to decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting that a static quenching mechanism was involved. The changes in enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS for the interaction were detected at -4.11 ± 0.18 kJ·mol(-1 and -76.59 ± 0.32 J·mol(-1·K(-1, respectively, which indicated that the naringin palmitate-BSA interaction occurred mainly through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond formation. The negative free energy change (ΔG values of naringin palmitate at different temperatures suggested a spontaneous interaction. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the α-helical content of BSA decreased after interacting with naringin palmitate. Displacement studies suggested that naringin palmitate was partially bound to site I (subdomain IIA of the BSA, which was also substantiated by the molecular docking studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, naringin palmitate was transported by BSA and was easily removed afterwards. As a consequence, an extension of naringin applications for use in food, cosmetic

  11. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  12. Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells

    Cho Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4. To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1 palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PERK (PKR-like ER kinase, PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in a time dependent-manner, 2 both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3 CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis.

  13. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Kai Lin; Le Chang; Chun-Gu Xia; Yan Wang; Tie Liu; Jia-Ying Xin

    2012-01-01

    Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.04 and 0.0072 resp...

  14. Reaction kinetics of isopropyl palmitate synthesis

    Lili Fu; Yinge Bai; Gaozhi L; Denggao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the kinetics of isopropyl palmitate synthesis including the reaction mechanism was studied based on the two-step noncatalytic method. The liquid-phase diffusion effect on the reaction process was eliminated by adjusting the stirring rate. The results showed that the two-step reaction followed a tetrahedral mechanism and conformed to second-order reaction kinetics. Nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon afforded an intermedi-ate, containing a tetrahedral carbon center. The intermediate ultimately decomposed by elimination of the leav-ing group, affording isopropyl palmitate. The experimental data were analyzed at different temperatures by the integral method. The kinetic equations of the each step were deduced, and the activation energy and frequency factor were obtained. Experiments were performed to verify the feasibility of kinetic equations, and the result showed that the kinetic equations were reliable. This study could be very significant to both industrial application and determining the continuous production of isopropyl palmitate.

  15. 维生素C衍生物的制备及其在化妆品中的应用%Preparation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives and their application in cosmetics

    谷雪贤

    2011-01-01

    维生素C衍牛物克服了维生素C易被氧化不稳定的缺点,被广泛用于化妆品中.阐述了维生素C衍生物围内外的研究情况,主要对维生素C的磷酸酯盐、糖苷、棕榈酸酯、乙基醚、甲基硅基等衍生物的制备方法进行了总结.介绍了其在化妆品中的应用情况,指出了维生素C衍生物的发展趋势.%The L-ascorbic acid derivatives overcomes the shortcoming of L-ascorbic acid which is easy to be oxidized,and has been broadly applied in cosmetics.The recent development situation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives is reviewed,and the preparation methods and the application on cosmetics of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives such as L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, ascorbic acid glucoside, ascorbyl palmitate were summarized.The trendency of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives is proposed also.

  16. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA, a...

  17. Efficacy and safety of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates in men with moderate dyslipidemia

    Vissers, Maud N; Trip, Mieke D; Pritchard, P. Haydn; Tam, Patrick; Lukic, Tatjana; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G.; de Barse, Martina; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor, FM-VP4, comprising disodium ascorbyl sitostanol phosphate (DASP) and disodium ascorbyl campestanol phosphate (DACP). Methods In phase 1, 30 men received a single dose of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 2,000 mg FM-VP4 or placebo. In phase 2, 100 men were treated with 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/day of FM-VP4 or placebo for 4 weeks. Results The drug was well tolera...

  18. Surprisingly Long-Lived Ascorbyl Radicals in Acetonitrile: Concerted Proton-Electron Transfer Reactions and Thermochemistry

    Warren, Jeffrey J.; Mayer, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions and thermochemistry of 5,6-isopropylidene ascorbate (iAscH−) have been examined in acetonitrile solvent.iAscH− is oxidized by 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2O• and by excess TEMPO• to give the corresponding 5,6-isopropylidene ascorbyl radical anion (iAsc•−), which persists for hours at 298 K in dry MeCN solution. The stability of iAsc•− is surprising in light of the transience of the ascorbyl radical in aqueous solutions, and is due to the lack of the protons ...

  19. 棕榈酸在三酰甘油中的位置分布对大鼠营养吸收的影响%Effect of positional distribution of palmitic acid in triglycerides on the absorption of the nutrition in rats

    宋秋; 刘亚东; 李晓敏; 杨丽杰

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of the position of palmitic acid in triglyceride on the absorption of fatty acids and mineral were studied. Feeding experiment was performed by using four groups of young male Wistar rats. Fat raw materials with different proportions of sn-2 position palmitic acid were added into fat-free diets which were the OPO ( 1,3- dioleoyl- 2- palmitoyl triglyceride ) structural fat, the vegetable oil mixture with imitating the composition of OPO,the infant formula containing OPO and the common infant formula. The proportions of the experimental fat in each groups were all 10% ,as for the sn-2 position palmitic acid in four groups were respectively 45.40% ,13.29% ,48.04% ,and 28.66%. After 2 weeks feeding,the contents of lipid,calcium and magnesium in the fecal were analyzed. The results showed that the fat absorption after intake of OPO and the infant formula containing OPO were higher than the other two groups significantly with much less calcium excreting. In conclusion,high content of sn-2 position palmitic acid could promote the absorption of fat in rats, reduce the formation of fatty acid soap and improve the calcium absorption.%研究了棕榈酸在三酰甘油中的不同位置分布对脂肪酸及矿质元素吸收的影响。以幼龄雄性Wistar大鼠为动物模型,将含不同比例sn-2位棕榈酸的脂肪原料添加到无脂饲料中,分别为:OPO(1,3-二油酸-2-棕榈酸甘油酯)结构脂肪,组成模拟OPO的混合植物油,含OPO的婴儿配方奶粉以及常规婴儿配方奶粉。饲料实验脂肪含量均为10%,各组sn-2位棕榈酸相对含量分别为45.40%、13.29%、48.04%、28.66%。喂养两周后,分析大鼠粪便中的脂质及钙、镁元素。结果显示,OPO组和OPO婴儿配方奶粉组的大鼠对脂肪的吸收显著高于另外两组,并且钙排泄较少。由此可得出结论:高含量的sn-2位棕榈酸可以促进大鼠对脂肪的吸收,减少脂肪酸皂的形成,并能改善对钙的吸收。

  20. The flux control coefficient of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I on palmitate beta-oxidation in rat hepatocyte cultures.

    Spurway, T D; Sherratt, H A; Pogson, C I; Agius, L

    1997-01-01

    Two important factors that determine the flux of hepatic beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids are the availability of fatty acid and the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I). Using Metabolic Control Analysis, the flux control coefficient of CPT I in rat hepatocyte monolayers was determined by titration with 2-[6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir), which is converted to Etomoxir-CoA, an irreversible inhibitor of CPT I. We measured CPT I activity and flux through beta-oxidation at 0.2 mM and 1.0 mM palmitate to simulate substrate concentrations in fed and fasted states. Rates of beta-oxidation were 4.5-fold higher at 1. 0 mM palmitate compared with 0.2 mM palmitate. Flux control coefficients of CPT I, estimated by two independent methods, were similar: 0.67 and 0.79 for 0.2 mM palmitate, and 0.68 and 0.77 for 1 mM palmitate. It is concluded that the regulatory potential of CPT I is similar at low and high physiological concentrations of palmitate. PMID:9173869

  1. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  2. Increased incorporation of 14C-palmitate into tissue lipids by isolated heart myocytes in endotoxic shock

    The incorporation of 14C-palmitate into various classes of tissue lipids by isolated adult dog heart myocytes was studied in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction during endotoxic shock. The results showed that the incorporation of 14C-palmitate into phospholipids was increased by 85.3% and 108.8% at 0.5 hours and two hours, respectively, following endotoxin (0.5 mg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide B per kg body weight) administration. Incorporation of radioactive palmitate into triglycerides was increased by 50.9% and 107.2% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, postendotoxin. Incorporation of 14C-palmitate into diglycerides was stimulated by 51.9% and 64.5% at 0.5 and two hours, respectively, after endotoxin injection. The incorporation of 14C-palmitate into tissue-free fatty acids and unaltered at 0.5 hours but it was increased by 211.7% at two hours postendotoxin. These data demonstrated that myocardial membrane lipid profile was greatly altered by increased incorporation of 14C-palmitate into phospholipids and neutral lipids after endotoxin administration. An alteration in myocardial lipid profile, as reported in this study, may contribute to the development of myocardial dysfunction during shock

  3. A single prior bout of exercise protects against palmitate-induced insulin resistance despite an increase in total ceramide content.

    Thrush, A Brianne; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian; Gulli, Roberto; Stefanyk, Leslie; Dyck, David J

    2011-05-01

    Ceramide accumulation has been implicated in the impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle following saturated fatty acid (FA) exposure. Importantly, a single bout of exercise can protect against acute lipid-induced insulin resistance. The mechanism by which exercise protects against lipid-induced insulin resistance is not completely known but may occur through a redirection of FA toward triacylglycerol (TAG) and away from ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG). Therefore, in the current study, an in vitro preparation was used to examine whether a prior bout of exercise could confer protection against palmitate-induced insulin resistance and whether the pharmacological [50 μM fumonisin B(1) (FB1)] inhibition of ceramide synthesis in the presence of palmitate could mimic the protective effect of exercise. Soleus muscle of sedentary (SED), exercised (EX), and SED in the presence of FB1 (SED+FB1) were incubated with or without 2 mM palmitate for 4 h. This 2-mM palmitate exposure impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport (-28%, P TAG accumulation in the SED group (P TAG (P net increase in ceramide content in response to palmitate exposure in the EX group was not different compared with SED, despite the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. The incubation of soleus from SED rats with FB1 (SED+FB1) prevented the detrimental effects of palmitate and caused a redirection of FA toward TAG accumulation (P < 0.05). Therefore, this research suggests that although inhibiting ceramide accumulation can prevent the detrimental effects of palmitate, a single prior bout of exercise appears to protect against palmitate-induced insulin resistance, which may be independent of changes in ceramide content. PMID:21325642

  4. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  5. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  6. Sheep erythrocyte membrane binding and transfer of long-chain fatty acids

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants......Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants...

  7. Retinyl Palmitate Supplementation Modulates T-bet and Interferon Gamma Gene Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Niyaz; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdolahi, Mina; Abedi, Elahe; Bitarafan, Sama; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Feridoun; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Chahardoli, Reza; Zareei, Mahnaz; Salehi, Eisa; Geranmehr, Maziyar; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin A derivatives such as retinoic acid may improve the impaired balance of CD4+ T cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study is a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate the effect of vitamin A (as form of retinyl palmitate) supplementation on multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups were followed for 6 months. The experimental group received 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate daily, while the control group received a placebo. Before and after the study, the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and T-bet genes was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients by RT-PCR. The results showed that after 6 months of supplementation, expression of IFN-γ and T-bet was significantly decreased. These data suggest that retinyl palmitate supplementation can modulate the impaired balance of Th1 and Th2 cells and vitamin A products that may be involved in the therapeutic mechanism of vitamin A in MS patients. This study provides information regarding the decreased gene expression of IFN-γ and T-bet in MS by retinyl palmitate supplementation. PMID:27122150

  8. Inhibition of uncoupling protein 2 with genipin exacerbates palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis

    Ma Shuangtao; Yang Dachun; Li; Tan Yan; Tang Bing; Yang Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was reported to be involved in lipid metabolism through regulating the production of superoxide anion. However, the role of UCP2 in hepatocytes steatosis has not been determined. We hypothesized that UCP2 might regulate hepatic steatosis via suppressing oxidative stress. Results We tested this hypothesis in an in vitro model of hepatocytic steatosis in HepG2 cell lines induced by palmitic acid (PA). We found that treatment with PA induced an obv...

  9. 维生素C多聚磷酸酯合成工艺研究%Synthesis of Ascorbyl Polyphosphate

    王敬臣; 崔凤霞; 曹琳青; 郑利宇; 曹晓伟

    2011-01-01

    采用单因素及正交试验研究了在敞开系统中,各种因素对以维生素C为原料在水溶液体系中直接酰化反应生成维生素C多聚磷酸酯的影响,结果表明,最佳反应条件:维生素C含量95%~100%,三偏磷酸钠含量70%,维生素C与三偏磷酸钠的质量比1∶1∶1,维生素C与氯化钙的摩尔比1∶0.075,反应温度40—50℃,反应溶液pH=10维生素C多聚磷酸酯的效价可达到36.87%,收率达96.84%.%Taking the ascorbic acid as raw material, through single factor and orthogonal experiment in the open systems, various factors is disscussed in aqueous solution of ascorbic acid directly acylation reaction of polyphosphate, the results show that the optimum reaction conditions: the ascorbic acid content is 95% ~100%, the sodium trimetaphosphat content is 70%, ascorbic acid and sodium trimetaphosphatin in the mass ratio of 1 : 1, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride in the molar ratio of 1 : 0. 075, the reaction temperature is 40~50 ℃ , the reaction solution pH of 10, the content of ascorbyl polyphosphate is up to 36. 87% and the yield is up to 96. 84%.

  10. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate Regulates the Expression of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Cultured Sebocytes

    Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Sang Lim; Choe, Yoon Seok; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is an inflammatory skin disorder caused by inflammatory biomarkers. Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) is a stable precursor of vitamin C. It achieves a constant delivery of vitamin C into the skin and has antioxidative effects. Objective We performed this study to evaluate the effect of MAP on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers in cultured sebocytes. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed fo...

  11. Mechanisms of Ascorbyl Radical Formation in Human Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Kou-Gi Shyu; Chao-Chien Chang; Yu-Chieh Yeh; Joen-Rong Sheu; Duen-Suey Chou

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many clinical reports have suggested that the ascorbyl free radical (Asc∙) can be treated as a noninvasive, reliable, real-time marker of oxidative stress, but its generation mechanisms in human blood have rarely been discussed. In this study, we used upstream substances, enzyme inhibitors, and free radical scavengers to delineate the mechanisms of Asc∙ formation in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Our results show that the doublet signal was detected in PRP samples by using electr...

  12. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  13. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  14. In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling

    Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes;

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle...... satellite cells were isolated from premenopausal (n = 6) and postmenopausal (n = 5) women. In an in vitro model, the myotubes were treated with palmitate (300 µM) for one-, two- or three days during differentiation. Effects on lipid accumulation, inflammation and insulin signaling were studied. Palmitate......, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p = 0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine...

  15. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  16. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  17. Fatty Acid Induced Remodeling within the Human Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein*

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against ...

  18. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS Estudio cinético de la esterificación del ácido palmítico catalizado por células en reposo de Rhizopus oryzae

    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    Full Text Available In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk.En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk

  19. Palmitato de ascorbil e acetato de tocoferol como antioxidantes metabólicos em larvas de dourado Ascorbyl palmitate and tocopherol acetate as metabolic antioxidants in dourado larvae

    Daniel Okamura; Felipe Guedes de Araújo; Priscila Viera Rosa Logato; Ulisses Simon da Silveira; Luis David Solis Murgas; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito e a interação entre a suplementação de palmitato de ascorbil e acetato de tocoferol, na alimentação de larvas de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis), durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas: nas parcelas, em arranjo fatorial (2x3) com seis rações constituídas pela combinação de duas concentrações de acetato de tocoferol (0 e 250 mg kg-1) e três concentrações de ...

  20. Study on lipase-catalytic synthesis of ascorbyl palmitate%脂肪酶催化合成棕榈酸维生素C酯的研究

    夏木西卡玛尔; 吾满江·艾力

    2007-01-01

    在溶剂相中,用固定化脂肪酶催化合成棕榈酸维生素C酯.研究了反应体系含水量、溶剂、反应温度、加酶量、加入分子筛等因素对反应的影响.结果表明,最佳反应条件为:Novo 435脂肪酶用量为反应物质量的4%,叔丁醇作溶剂,反应温度55℃,摇床转速200 r/min,反应时间36 h,转化率52%,产品纯度95%.

  1. 酰氯法合成L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的研究%Synthesis of L-ascorbyl Palmitate with Acyl Chloride Method

    许肇成; 何松; 陈永恒; 林富强

    2010-01-01

    本文对酰氯法反应制备L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的反应介质、提取液和催化剂进行初步探讨,结果表明甲基乙酰胺和二氯甲烷为反应介质、以氯化亚砜或氯化氢作催化剂对产率有较大提高,氯仿为提取液可以提高产品纯度.

  2. Study on Antioxidation Effect of Ascorbyl Palmitate%L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的抗氧化效果研究

    高荫榆; 雷占兰; 谢何融; 郭磊

    2007-01-01

    L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(AP)是具有功能性、营养性、无毒、高效的抗氧化剂,应用范围广泛.本实验以乌桕脂棕榈酸甲酯为原料,采用化学法将其与抗坏血酸合成AP,并将其应用到大豆油与菜籽油当中,与BHA、TBHQ、VE及AP/VE效果相比较,评价其抗氧化效率.结果表明,AP具有显著的抗氧化性,是一种安全、高效的抗氧化剂和增效剂.

  3. HPLC Determination of Ascorbyl Palmitate in Foods%高效液相色谱法测定食品中抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯

    陆志芸; 张辉; 赵敏; 葛宇; 林毅侃; 周耀斌

    2010-01-01

    提出了快速测定油脂食品、焙烤食品和方便米面食品中抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的高效液相色谱法.以柠檬酸和异抗坏血酸为稳定剂,甲醇为样品提取剂,以甲醇-乙腈(1+1)及磷酸(1+99)溶液为流动相,经反相C18色谱柱梯度洗脱,在243 nm波长处,用光电二极管阵列检测器进行测定.抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的质量浓度在0.50~100.0 mg·L-1范围内与其峰面积呈线性关系,测定下限(10S/N)为0.005 g·kg-1.加标回收率在85%~104%之间,相对标准偏差(n=6)在1.1%~3.9%之间.

  4. Study on the antioxidation of L-ascorbyl palmitate%L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的抗氧化性研究

    雷琳

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(L-AP)的抗氧化性.方法:将L-AP应用到猪油、大豆油与菜籽油当中,与CMG、BHA、TSHQ、维生素E及AP/维生素E效果比较.评价其抗氧化效率.结果:L-AP的加入对油脂的各种品质有明显的改善作用.结论:L-AP具有显著的抗氧化性,是一种安全、高效的抗氧化剂和增效剂.

  5. L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的合成及应用%Synthesis and application of L-ascorbyl palmitate

    曹会兰; 杨建武

    2003-01-01

    研究了一种以L-抗坏血酸和棕榈酸为原料,合成出L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(AP)的改进方法,产率为86%.并探讨了AP作为抗氧剂在棉籽油中的应用,结果表明AP的抗氧效果优于BHA和BHT.

  6. Advances in Research on Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Palmitate%L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的合成研究进展

    刘长波; 高瑞昶

    2003-01-01

    L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯是优良的天然抗氧化剂.综述了L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯合成研究进展,归纳了L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的几种合成方法,如化学合成法和酶催化法,为其合成研究提供一些线索.

  7. Effect of surface-potential modulators on the opening of lipid pores in liposomal and mitochondrial inner membranes induced by palmitate and calcium ions.

    Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Agafonov, Alexey V; Penkov, Nikita V; Samartsev, Victor N; Lemasters, John J; Mironova, Galina D

    2015-10-01

    The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. Pore formation was monitored by sulforhodamine B release from liposomes and swelling of mitochondria. ζ-potential in liposomes was determined from electrophoretic mobility. Replacement of sucrose as the osmotic agent with KCl decreased negative ζ-potential in liposomes and increased resistance of both mitochondria and liposomes to the pore inducers, palmitic acid, and Ca2+. Micromolar Mg2+ also inhibited palmitate/Ca2+-induced permeabilization of liposomes. The rate of palmitate/Ca2+-induced, cyclosporin A-insensitive swelling of mitochondria increased 22% upon increasing pH from 7.0 to 7.8. At below the critical micelle concentration, the cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (10 μM) and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (10-50 μM) made the ζ-potential less and more negative, respectively, and inhibited and stimulated opening of mitochondrial palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pores. Taken together, the findings indicate that surface potential regulates palmitate/Ca2+-induced lipid pore opening. PMID:26014488

  8. Dynamic nuclear polarization-magnetic resonance imaging at low ESR irradiation frequency for ascorbyl free radicals

    Shinji Ito; Fuminori Hyodo

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-soluble ubiquinone-0 (CoQ0) reacts with ascorbate monoanion (Asc) to mediate the production of ascorbyl free radicals (AFR). Using aqueous reaction mixture of CoQ0 and Asc, we obtained positively enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-magnetic resonance (MR) images of the AFR at low frequency (ranging from 515 to 530 MHz) of electron spin resonance (ESR) irradiation. The shape of the determined DNP spectrum was similar to ESR absorption spectra with doublet spectral peaks. T...

  9. Associations between hepatic metabolism of propionate and palmitate in liver slices from transition dairy cows.

    McCarthy, M M; Piepenbrink, M S; Overton, T R

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=95) were used to evaluate changes in hepatic propionate and palmitate metabolism and liver composition over time during the transition period, along with the relationships of these variables with cumulative increases in nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate during the periparturient period. Data from 3 previous experiments were used to address the study objectives, accounting for a total of 95 multiparous Holstein cows. Liver slices from biopsies on d -21, 1, and 21 relative to parturition were used to determine conversion of [1-(14)C]palmitate to CO2 and esterified products (EP) and the conversion of [1-(14)C]propionate to CO2 and glucose. Hepatic glycogen content was highest on d -21 and was 26.9 and 36.5% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. Liver triglyceride content was lowest at d -21 and was 271 and 446% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. We detected no difference in the capacity for the liver to oxidize [1-(14)C]palmitate to CO2 between d -21 and d 1; however, on d 21, oxidation was 84% of prepartum values. The capacity of the liver to convert [1-(14)C]palmitate to EP was 148 and 139% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. The capacity of liver to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to CO2 was 127 and 83% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, and the capacity of liver to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose was 126 and 85% of prepartum values on d 1 and 21, respectively. Correlation relationships suggest that overall, cows with elevated prepartum liver triglyceride content had elevated triglycerides throughout the transition period along with increased [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation and conversion to EP and a decreased propensity to convert [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose. Cows with increased [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation had increased conversion of [1-(14)C]propionate to glucose throughout the transition period. Overall, conditions that lead to impairments in fatty acid metabolism during the

  10. Lipophilization of ascorbic acid: a monolayer study and biological and antileishmanial activities.

    Kharrat, Nadia; Aissa, Imen; Sghaier, Manel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sellami, Mohamed; Laouini, Dhafer; Gargouri, Youssef

    2014-09-17

    Ascorbyl lipophilic derivatives (Asc-C2 to Asc-C(18:1)) were synthesized in a good yield using lipase from Staphylococcus xylosus produced in our laboratory and immobilized onto silica aerogel. Results showed that esterification had little effect on radical-scavenging capacity of purified ascorbyl esters using DPPH assay in ethanol. However, long chain fatty acid esters displayed higher protection of target lipids from oxidation. Moreover, compared to ascorbic acid, synthesized derivatives exhibited an antibacterial effect. Furthermore, ascorbyl derivatives were evaluated, for the first time, for their antileishmanial effects against visceral (Leishmania infantum) and cutaneous parasites (Leishmania major). Among all the tested compounds, only Asc-C10, Asc-C12, and Asc-C(18:1) exhibited antileishmanial activities. The interaction of ascorbyl esters with a phospholipid monolayer showed that only medium and unsaturated long chain (Asc-C10 to Asc-C(18:1)) derivative esters were found to interact efficiently with mimetic membrane of leishmania. These properties would make ascorbyl derivatives good candidates to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical lipophilic formulations. PMID:25148258

  11. Palmitate-induced changes in energy demand cause reallocation of ATP supply in rat and human skeletal muscle cells.

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with obesity-related muscle insulin resistance, but the causality of this association is controversial. The notion that mitochondrial oxidative capacity may be insufficient to deal appropriately with excessive nutrient loads is for example disputed. Effective mitochondrial capacity is indirectly, but largely determined by ATP-consuming processes because skeletal muscle energy metabolism is mostly controlled by ATP demand. Probing the bioenergetics of rat and human myoblasts in real time we show here that the saturated fatty acid palmitate lowers the rate and coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under conditions it causes insulin resistance. Stearate affects the bioenergetic parameters similarly, whereas oleate and linoleate tend to decrease the rate but not the efficiency of ATP synthesis. Importantly, we reveal that palmitate influences how oxidative ATP supply is used to fuel ATP-consuming processes. Direct measurement of newly made protein demonstrates that palmitate lowers the rate of de novo protein synthesis by more than 30%. The anticipated decrease of energy demand linked to protein synthesis is confirmed by attenuated cycloheximide-sensitivity of mitochondrial respiratory activity used to make ATP. This indirect measure of ATP turnover indicates that palmitate lowers ATP supply reserved for protein synthesis by at least 40%. This decrease is also provoked by stearate, oleate and linoleate, albeit to a lesser extent. Moreover, palmitate lowers ATP supply for sodium pump activity by 60-70% and, in human cells, decreases ATP supply for DNA/RNA synthesis by almost three-quarters. These novel fatty acid effects on energy expenditure inform the 'mitochondrial insufficiency' debate. PMID:27154056

  12. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone: optimization of reaction conditions and lipase reusability.

    Stojanović, Marija; Velićković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed ascorbyl oleate synthesis is eco-friendly and selective way of production of liposoluble biocompatible antioxidants, but still not present on an industrial level due to the high biocatalyst costs. In this study, response surface methodology was applied in order to estimate influence of individual experimental factors, identify interactions among them, and to determine optimum conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone, in terms of limiting substrate conversion, product yield, and yield per mass of consumed enzyme. As a biocatalyst, commercial immobilized preparation of lipase B from Candida antarctica, Novozym 435, was used. In order to develop cost-effective process, at reaction conditions at which maximum amount of product per mass of biocatalyst was produced (60°C, 0.018 % (v/v) of water, 0.135 M of vitamin C, substrates molar ratio 1:8, and 0.2 % (w/v) of lipase), possibilities for further increase of ester yield were investigated. Addition of molecular sieves at 4(th) hour of reaction enabled increase of yield from 16.7 mmol g⁻¹ to 19.3 mmol g⁻¹. Operational stability study revealed that after ten reaction cycles enzyme retained 48 % of its initial activity. Optimized synthesis with well-timed molecular sieves addition and repeated use of lipase provided production of 153 mmol per gram of enzyme. Further improvement of productivity was achieved using procedure for the enzyme reactivation. PMID:23985489

  13. Insulin Resistance Is Correlated with Palmitic Acid Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells%棕榈酸的组织吸收分布及对骨骼肌胰岛素抵抗的影响

    彭恭; 刘延波; 李凌海; 刘平生

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) play important roles in the maintenance of various tissues in the adult vertebrate and are essential for diverse embryological processes. As a member of retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives), retinoic acid (RA) has been extensively investigated in embryopathology. However, the mechanisms by which RA influences these processes are not completely understood. In the present study, we found that embryonic RA exposure via maternal treatment with gavage-fed 3 successive doses of RA on day 8 of gestation led to a high incidence (96.77%, 30/31) of rachischisis with myeloschisis, I.e., spina bifida aperta, among the surviving day 18 fetuses. Using microarray technology, we identified 134 genes in the spinal cords of mice that exhibit at least a 1.5-fold change between mice with spina bifida and control samples. Several downstream genes of RA signaling involved in lipid metabolism were regulated at the transcriptional level after maternal RA exposure. Furthermore, a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) implicate many altered expression of genes, involved in pro- or anti-apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration, cytoskeleton components, and cell or focal adhesion, which are associated which the spina bifida induced by the maternal RA exposure. This indicates that defective functions of these cell components and biological processes preceded the abnormal development of neural tube. Our study provides a global analysis of gene expression patterns in spina bifida and will help the understanding of the etiology and pathology of neural tube defects.%脂肪酸代谢紊乱是Ⅱ型糖尿病的主要致病因素之一.棕榈酸是血液中含量最高的游离脂肪酸.我们建立了大鼠颈静脉置管输注棕榈酸的模型,发现血液中的大部分棕榈酸被骨骼肌组织所吸收.以棕榈酸处理的C2C12骨骼肌细胞为实验模型发现,棕榈酸进入骨骼肌细胞后的中间代谢产物(磷脂和甘油二酯)的累

  14. Effect of the alkyl chains and of the headgroups on the thermal behavior of ascorbic acid surfactants mixtures.

    Venturini, Chiara; Pomposi, Cristina; Ambrosi, Moira; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-03-20

    The role of the alkyl chain length and of the headgroup on the thermal behavior of mixtures of ASC8 (ascorbyl octanoate) and ASC16 (ascorbyl hexadecanoate) was investigated through differential scanning calorimetry, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. The formation of two eutectics and of a peritectic point was found from the phase diagram, and their structural properties were studied. The results were compared by investigating the thermal behavior of mixtures of octanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The findings provide insights into the role of the ascorbyl headgroups on the intermolecular interactions that determine the phase behavior of the two ascorbic acid based surfactants in the solid state. PMID:24555769

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Palmitate Ester Self-Assembly with Diclofenac

    Abu Bakar Salleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil-based esters (POEs are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model.

  16. VC复合脂肪酸酯的合成及抗氧化性能%SYNTHESIS AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF ASCORBYL COMPOSITE ALIPHATIC ESTER

    冯光炷; 谢文磊

    2001-01-01

    猪油与甲醇进行酯交换制备复合脂肪酸甲酯,得率97.2%.再以浓硫酸为溶剂和催化剂,VC和复合脂肪酸甲酯进行酯交换合成VC复合脂肪酸酯.考察了反应时间、反应物配比及浓硫酸用量对酯交换反应的影响,结果表明,最适宜的反应条件为:n(VC)∶n(复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶1.2,反应时间为26h,n(浓H2SO4)∶n(VC+复合脂肪酸酯)为1∶0.15,反应温度为25℃,产率达76%.产品的抗氧化性能测试表明VC复合脂肪酸酯是一种优良的无毒抗氧化剂.%Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester was synyhesized by transesterificantion of L-ascorbic acid with methyl composite aliphatic ester which is synthesized from lard and methyl alcohol using concentrated sulfuric acid as sol ve nt and catalyst. The yield was up to 76%. The effects of reaction temperature, r atio of reactant, amount of concentrated sulfuric acid on transesterification ha ve been investigated. The optimum synthetic conditions are that the ratio of Vc to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶1.2,reaction time is 26 h, the ratio of conce ntrated H2SO4 to composite aliphatic ester is 1∶0.15,reaction temperatur e is 25 ℃ .The test of antioxidant shows that Ascorbyl composite aliphatic ester is a good oxidant without poison.

  17. Levels of retinyl palmitate and retinol in the skin of SKH-1 mice topically treated with retinyl palmitate and concomitant exposure to simulated solar light for thirteen weeks.

    Yan, J; Xia, Q; Wamer, W G; Boudreau, M D; Warbritton, A; Howard, P C; Fu, P P

    2007-11-01

    Retinyl esters account for more than 70% of the endogenous vitamin A found in human skin, and retinyl palmitate is one of the retinyl esters in this pool. Human skin is also exposed to retinyl palmitate exogenously through the topical application of cosmetic and skin care products that contain retinyl palmitate. To date, there is limited information on the penetration and distribution of retinyl palmitate and vitamin A within in the skin. In this study, the accumulation of retinyl palmitate and generation of retinol in the skin of male and female SKH-1 mice that received repeated topical applications of creams containing 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 5.0%, 10%, or 13% of retinyl palmitate 5 days a week for a period of 13 weeks were studied. Because products containing retinyl palmitate are frequently applied to sun-exposed skin, and because it is well established that exposure to sunlight and UV light can alter cutaneous levels of retinoids, mice in this study were additionally exposed 5 days a week to simulated solar light. The results showed that retinyl palmitate diffused into the skin and was partially hydrolyzed to retinol. The levels of retinyl palmitate in the skin of mice that were administered retinyl palmitate cream were higher than control values, and levels of both retinyl palmitate and retinol increased with the application of higher concentrations of retinyl palmitate in the cream. Our results indicate that topically applied retinyl palmitate may alter the normal physiological levels of retinyl palmitate and retinol in the skin of SKH-1 mice and may have a significant impact on vitamin A homeostasis in the skin. PMID:18717516

  18. Application of antioxidants during short-path distillation of structured lipids

    Timm-Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2007-01-01

    A specific structured lipid was produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. The antioxidative effect of adding alpha-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate or citric acid (each in three different concentrations) was investigated before and after the purification process (short-path distillation), and...... was compared with a control without addition of antioxidant. The oxidative status and stability were characterized by peroxide and anisidine values, secondary volatile oxidation products and induction period. The antioxidants affected the oxidative status compared with the control: citric acid was...... prooxidative at low concentrations, but antioxidative at high concentrations. Addition of ascorbyl palmitate had an antioxidative effect at all concentrations employed. alpha-Tocopherol showed less antioxidative activity compared with ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid, and its efficacy was slightly decreased...

  19. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Enver Demirel Yılmaz; Sedat Motor; Fatih Sefil; Neslihan Pınar; Hanifi Kokacya; Mustafa Kisa; Suleyman Oktar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old). Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL). PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water) by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmita...

  20. Effect of exogenous fatty acids on biotin deprived death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    The effect of exogeneous fatty acids on cell growth and death of the biotin-requiring yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA-1 was examined with respect to the mechanism of synthetic pathway of fatty acid under biotin starvation. At a growth temperature of 300C, exogeneous unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids which promote the cell growth and suppress death effectively, were incorporated intactly into the cellular fatty acids, whereas the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, which supports growth but some what inhibits death, was once incorporated, and about 60% of incorporated palmitic acid was found to be desaturated. However, at an elevated temperature of 360C, even palmitic acid showed similar effects to unsaturated fatty acids in cell growth and death; following by an increased desaturation of palmitic acid. Thus the data indicate that palmitic aicd, as well as unsaturated fatty acids directly compensate for the deficiency of endogenously synthesized fatty acids caused by biotin starvation. (auth.)

  1. The efficacy of compounds with different polarities as antioxidant in emulsions with omega-3 lipids

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Decker, Eric A.;

    2011-01-01

    evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants [ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl CLA and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)] with different polarities in two different emulsion systems: o/w emulsion (5% oil) and w/o emulsion (98% oil) stabilized with citrem and PGPR, respectively. The efficacy of the...... antioxidants was compared to their partitioning in an o/w emulsion system and to results obtained from different antioxidant assays: iron reducing power, chelating activity and radical scavenging activity. For the w/o emulsions the efficacy of the antioxidants followed the polar paradox hypothesis: ascorbyl...

  2. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  3. Radiolytical oxidation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions

    Complete text of publication follows. Ascorbic acid, AsA (vitamin c), has been widely studied as an antioxidant or as an initiator of some technological processes, for example polymerization or nanoparticles formation. AsA can be easily oxidized to ascorbyl radical, in the first stage, and to dehydroascorbic acid, DHA, in the second stage. It has been found that several different ascorbyl radicals are formed during AsA oxidation but the main radical exists as the anion with the unpaired electron delocalized on a highly conjugated tricarbonyl system. Absorption spectrum of ascorbyl radical shows two bands with maxima at 300 and 360 nm, however only that at 360 nm is proportional to the dose and thus this wavelength was chosen for observations. We studied the oxidation of AsA by the following oxidizing radicals generated by the pulse radiolysis method ·OH, (SCN)2-·, Cl2-·, N3· and NO2·. The observed dependence of the yield and the formation rate of the AsA radical on the reduction potential of the oxidizing radical is discussed. The results obtained in water are compared with those obtained with AsA enclosed in the water pools of reverse micelles formed by AOT in n-heptane or by Igepal CO-520 in c-hexane. Somewhat surprising observation of different ascorbyl radical in pulse irradiated reverse micelles containing DHA is also commented.

  4. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  5. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    Dialysis experiments were performed with an acetylcellulose membrane between two identical sample solutions; a trace amount of radiolabelled palmitate was added on one side and the rate of dialytic equilibration of the label was measured. By comparison with rates measured in standard experiments...

  6. Enzyme-controlled scavenging of ascorbyl and 2,6-dimethoxy-semiquinone free radicals in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    Pethig, R; Gascoyne, P R; McLaughlin, J. A.; Szent-Györgyi, A

    1985-01-01

    The rate of scavenging by Ehrlich ascites cells of anionic ascorbyl and 2,6-dimethoxy-p-semiquinone free radicals has been investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy both for viable cells and for subcellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation. The scavenging activity is concluded to be associated with an NAD(P)H enzyme containing an active sulfhydryl group. Attempts to identify the enzyme with the reported properties of either semi-dehydro-ascorbate reductase or DT-di...

  7. Stability evaluation of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate in isolation and incorporated in cosmetic formulations using thermal analysis

    Mariana Mandelli de Almeida; Cibele Rosana Ribeiro de Castro Lima; Joyce Santos Quenca-Guillen; Elder Moscardini Filho; Lucildes Pita Mercuri; Maria Inês Rocha Miritello Santoro; Erika Rosa Maria Kedor-Hackmann

    2010-01-01

    In view of the increase in the number of cosmetic preparations containing antioxidant vitamins, chiefly, due to their action in preventing the process of skin aging, there is a need to develop pre-formulation studies and to validate analytical methods in order to obtain high quality products. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the thermal behavior of tocopheryl acetate and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate as raw materials, and incorporated into a base cream. Thermograv...

  8. Study on stability of L-ascorbyl decanoate, L-ascorbyl laurate and L-ascorbyl palmitate%抗坏血酸癸酸酯、抗坏血酸月桂酸酯和抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯的稳定性研究

    江晨; 刘柳; 黄才欢; 汪勇; 晏日安

    2015-01-01

    利用碘量法测定含量,探究了光照、温度、pH及金属离子对抗坏血酸癸酸酯、抗坏血酸月桂酸酯和抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯乙醇溶液稳定性的影响.结果表明:光照、高温和碱性条件都会不同程度地对三者的稳定性造成影响,而酸性、中性条件以及体系中添加的金属离子Mg2+、Ca2+、Na+、Fe2+对三者稳定性的影响均不大.除光照条件外,其他条件下三者稳定性差异并不大.

  9. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K;

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  10. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine