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Sample records for acid alleviates decreases

  1. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  3. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation

    Khan, M. Iqbal R.; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40°C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glut...

  4. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  5. Role of salicylic acid in alleviating oxidative damage in rice roots (Oryza sativa) subjected to cadmium stress

    Time-dependent changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were investigated in roots of rice (Oryza sativa) grown hydroponically with Cd, with or without pretreatment of salicylic acid (SA). Exposure to 50 μM Cd significantly decreased root growth, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but increased the concentrations of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and non-protein thiols (NPT). However, pretreatment with 10 μM SA enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, but lowered the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA in the Cd-stressed rice compared with the Cd treatment alone. Pretreatment with SA alleviated the Cd-induced inhibition of root growth. The results showed that pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance. The possible mechanism of SA-induced H2O2 signaling in mediating Cd tolerance was discussed. - Pretreatment with SA enhanced the antioxidant defense activities in Cd-stressed rice, thus alleviating Cd-induced oxidative damage and enhancing Cd tolerance

  6. Glycyrrhizic acid alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    Lili eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and lethal form of interstitial lung disease that lacks effective therapies at present. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a natural compound extracted from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Glycyrrhiza glabra, was recently reported to benefit lung injury and liver fibrosis in animal models, yet whether GA has a therapeutic effect on pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of GA on pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The results indicated that GA treatment remarkably ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and attenuated BLM-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activation of tansforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the lungs. Further, we demonstrated that GA treatment inhibited proliferation of 3T6 fibroblast cells, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro, implying that GA-mediated suppression of fibroproliferation may contribute to the anti-fibrotic effect against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary, our study suggests a therapeutic potential of GA in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. EPA/DHA and Vitamin A Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Alleviates the Age-related Decrease in Hippocampal RXRγ and Kinase Expression in Rats

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ, and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT, and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging. PMID:27242514

  8. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

    Anne eLétondor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs. Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging.

  9. EPA/DHA and Vitamin A Supplementation Improves Spatial Memory and Alleviates the Age-related Decrease in Hippocampal RXRγ and Kinase Expression in Rats.

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a similar way. Therefore, we investigated in middle-aged rats the behavioral and molecular effects of supplementations with EPA/DHA and vitamin A alone or combined. 18-month-old rats exhibited reference and working memory deficits in the Morris water maze, associated with a decrease in serum vitamin A and hippocampal EPA/DHA contents. RARα, RXRβ, and RXRγ mRNA expression and CAMKII, AKT, ERK1/2 expression were decreased in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. A combined EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial additive effect on reference memory but not in working memory in middle-aged rats, associated with an alleviation of the age-related decrease in RXRγ, CAMKII, AKT, and ERK1 expression in the hippocampus. This study provides a new combined nutritional strategy to delay brain aging. PMID:27242514

  10. Alleviative effects from boswellic acid on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury.

    Chen, Lung-Che; Hu, Li-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2016-06-01

    Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver. BA intake at both doses alleviated subsequent APAP-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing ROS and GSSG formations, reserving activity and expression of GR and HO-1 in liver, and lowering hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and expression. APAP treatment enhanced hepatic levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BA pre-intake diminished APAP-induced release of those inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. APAP upregulated hepatic protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50, NF-κB p65 and JNK. BA pre-intake at both doses suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-JNK, and only at 0.1% down-regulated hepatic TLR-3, TLR-4 and MyD88 expression. APAP led to obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, determined by H&E stain. BA intake at both doses attenuated hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that boswellic acid is a potent hepatoprotective agent. PMID:27161000

  11. Autophagy Alleviates Melamine-Induced Cell Death in PC12 Cells Via Decreasing ROS Level.

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Na; Li, Zhigui; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Since melamine was illegally added to raw milk for increasing the apparent protein content, such a scandal has not been quite blown out. Previous studies showed that melamine induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It is well known that autophagy is closely related to oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined whether autophagy played an important role in protecting PC12 cells, which were damaged by melamine. Immunofluorescence assay showed that melamine enhanced the number of punctuate dot, indicating the increase of autophagosomes. Western blot assay presented that melamine significantly elevated the expression level of autophagy markers including LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, beclin-1, and Atg 7. Rapamycin further enhanced the effect, whereas 3-methyadenine (3-MA) inhibited it. MTT assay exhibited that rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability (P < 0.01), while 3-MA considerably reduced it in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01). Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed that rapamycin considerably reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of the cells (P < 0.01), but 3-MA increased the generation of ROS (P < 0.01). Additionally, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was notably increased by rapamycin in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01), while the activity of which was prominently decreased by 3-MA (P < 0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay showed that rapamycin remarkably decreased the MDA level of the cells (P < 0.05), while 3-MA increased it (P < 0.01). Consequently, this study demonstrated that autophagy protected PC12 cells from melamine-induced cell death via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. Regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine. PMID:25724280

  12. Gibberellic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation and expression of IRT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jiang, Tao [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lei, Gui Jie [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd reduces endogenous GA levels in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA exogenous applied decreases Cd accumulation in plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GA suppresses the Cd-induced accumulation of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased NO level downregulates the expression of IRT1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppressed IRT1 expression reduces Cd transport across plasma membrane. - Abstract: Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in not only plant growth and development but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here it was found that treating the plants with GA concentrations from 0.1 to 5 {mu}M for 24 h had no obvious effect on root elongation in the absence of cadmium (Cd), whereas in the presence of Cd{sup 2+}, GA at 5 {mu}M improved root growth, reduced Cd content and lipid peroxidation in the roots, indicating that GA can partially alleviate Cd toxicity. Cd{sup 2+} increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the roots, but GA remarkably reduced it, and suppressed the up-regulation of the expression of IRT1. In contrary, the beneficial effect of GA on alleviating Cd toxicity was not observed in an IRT1 knock-out mutant irt1, suggesting the involvement of IRT1 in Cd{sup 2+} absorption. Furthermore, the GA-induced reduction of NO and Cd content can also be partially reversed by the application of a NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]). Taken all these together, the results showed that GA-alleviated Cd toxicity is mediated through the reduction of the Cd-dependent NO accumulation and expression of Cd{sup 2+} uptake related gene-IRT1 in Arabidopsis.

  13. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  14. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  15. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR; Hassan BAYAT; Hossein NEAMATI

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA) plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs) of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and were ...

  16. Biochar alleviates combined stress of ammonium and acids by firstly enriching Methanosaeta and then Methanosarcina.

    Lü, Fan; Luo, Chenghao; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-03-01

    This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of biochar of different particle sizes in alleviating ammonium (NH4(+)) inhibition (up to 7 g-N/L) during anaerobic digestion of 6 g/L glucose. Compared to the control treatment without biochar addition, treatments that included biochar particles 2-5 mm, 0.5-1 mm and 75-150 μm in size reduced the methanization lag phase by 23.9%, 23.8% and 5.9%, respectively, and increased the maximum methane production rate by 47.1%, 23.5% and 44.1%, respectively. These results confirmed that biochar accelerated the initiation of methanization during anaerobic digestion under double inhibition risk from both ammonium and acids. Furthermore, fine biochar significantly promoted the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Comparative analysis on the archaeal and bacterial diversity at the early and later stages of digestion, and in the suspended, biochar loosely bound, and biochar tightly bound fractions suggested that, in suspended fractions, hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium was actively resistant to ammonium. However, acetoclastic Methanosaeta can survive at VFAs concentrations up to 60-80 mmol-C/L by improved affinity to conductive biochar, resulting in the accelerated initiation of acetate degradation. Improved methanogenesis was followed by the colonization of the biochar tightly bound fractions by Methanosarcina. The selection of appropriate biochar particles sizes was important in facilitating the initial colonization of microbial cells. PMID:26724437

  17. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  18. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093

  19. Short-term alleviation of aluminum phytotoxicity by urea application in acid soils from south China.

    Qing-ru, Zeng; Bo-han, Liao; Li-tian, Zhang; Xi-hong, Zhou; Hong-xiao, Tang

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study effects of urea fertilizer on the chemical composition of soil solutions over time, and to determine Al toxicity as a function of rates of urea application. The experiment revealed that addition of urea fertilizer to soils caused drastic changes in soil pH during the hydrolysis and nitrification stages of urea transformation in the experiment. These pH changes, depending on the N rate of urea application and time courses, had variable effects on soil exchangeable Al, extracted with artificial solutions containing 1 mol l(-1) KCl. The Al mobilization rate could be resolved into two phases: A declining phase for Al was attributed to the urea-induced hydrolysis while a second rising phase was dependent with the nitrification of added N fertilizer. The decreases in exchangeable Al reached the greatest in 4-7 days after fertilization, consistent with soil pH increase. Decreased Al availability had been observed as a consequence of increasing urea addition and soil pH when using Root elongation of maize seedlings as the estimators. Results from the present study demonstrate that urea fertilizer to the surface of soils may lead to a temporary immobilization of Al and, therefore, alleviated Al toxicity to plant seedlings. PMID:16169044

  20. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mungbean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress

    Nafees Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA, a naturally occurring plant hormone, is an important signal molecule known to have diverse effects on biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Its growth-promoting effect on various plants has been shown, but the information on the response of mungbean, an important leguminous plant, to SA application under salt stress is limited. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cultivar Pusa Vishal plants grown with 50 mM NaCl were sprayed with 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mM SA and basic physiological processes were studied to substantiate our understanding of their role in tolerance to salinity-induced oxidative stress and how much such processes are induced by SA application. Treatment of plants with 0.5 mM SA resulted in a maximum decrease in the content of Na+, Cl-, H2O2, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and electrolyte leakage under saline conditions compared to the control. In contrast, this treatment increased N, P, K, and Ca content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content, photosynthesis, and yield maximally under nonsaline and saline conditions. The application of higher concentration of SA (1.0 mM either proved inhibitory or was of no additional benefit. It was concluded that 0.5 mM SA alleviates salinity-inhibited photosynthesis and yield through a decrease in Na+, Cl-, H2O2, and TBARS content, and electrolyte leakage, and an increase in N, P, K, and Ca content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione content.

  1. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik A.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Brandt N, De Bock K, Richter EA, Hespel P. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E215-E224, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00098.2010.-Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptatio...

  2. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response. PMID:26416125

  3. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. PMID:26703213

  4. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  5. Alleviation of Osmotic Stress Effects by Exogenous Application of Salicylic or Abscisic Acid on Wheat Seedlings

    Katarzyna Cyganek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings. This was accomplished by determining the impact of the acids applied exogenously on seedlings grown under osmotic stress in hydroponics. The investigation was unique in its comprehensiveness, examining changes under osmotic stress and other conditions, and testing a number of parameters simultaneously. In both drought susceptible (SQ1 and drought resistant (CS wheat cultivars, significant physiological and biochemical changes were observed upon the addition of SA (0.05 mM or ABA (0.1 μM to solutions containing half-strength Hoagland medium and PEG 6000 (−0.75 MPa. The most noticeable result of supplementing SA or ABA to the medium (PEG + SA and PEG + ABA was a decrease in the length of leaves and roots in both cultivars. While PEG treatment reduced gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content in CS, and osmotic potential, and conversely, increased lipid peroxidation, soluble carbohydrates in SQ1, proline content in both cultivars and total antioxidants activity in SQ1, PEG + SA or PEG + ABA did not change the values of these parameters. Furthermore, PEG caused a two-fold increase of endogenous ABA content in SQ1 and a four-fold increase in CS. PEG + ABA increased endogenous ABA only in SQ1, whereas PEG + SA caused a greater increase of ABA content in both cultivars compared to PEG. In PEG-treated plants growing until the harvest, a greater decrease of yield components was observed in SQ1 than in CS. PEG + SA, and particularly PEG + ABA, caused a greater increase of these yield parameters in CS compared to SQ1. In conclusion, SA and ABA ameliorate, particularly in the tolerant wheat cultivar, the harmful effects and after effects of osmotic stress induced by PEG in hydroponics through better osmotic adjustment achieved by an increase in proline and carbohydrate content as well as by an increase in antioxidant

  6. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  7. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the problematic degradation and what factors could be relevant to degradation, temperature, relative molecular mass, Differential Scanning Calorimeter and X-ray Diffraction patterns before and after spinning were investigated and compared with each other. Results showed that fibers were facile shorten and fractured when spun at 245°C while the relative molecular mass of PLA fibers decreased markedly as compared with that spun at 210°C. To hinder the degradation, couple of experimental efforts were implemented with adding antioxidants, raising spinning voltage, lowering temperature, and reducing residence time. After such efforts, it was observed that the relative molecular mass of the PLA fibers was higher than those without inputting any efforts. The effect of antioxidant 1010 was found the most promising on the alleviation of PLA problematic thermal degradation.

  8. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling

    Nagao Koji

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC are proven to exhibit various biological activities. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA. After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation. Results Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c. Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC. Conclusions According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of β-oxidation via PPARα activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.

  9. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  10. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Chinese Cabbages (Brassica chinensis

    Felicite Obono Mba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the effects of Salicylic Acid (SA on physiological changes of plants under cadmium stress one cultivar of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis cadmium resistance, Changkenxiaobaicai (tolerance were studied with pots cultures. Like other organisms Plants have adaptatives mechanisms whereby they are able to respond to both nutrient deficiency and toxicities. Plants materials were originated from the vegetable market in Wuhan, Hubei China. The seeds were tested on the pot cultures in the green house. The results of our experiments were quite different between the treatments. The combined treatment Cd 5 ppm + SA 500 mmol L-1 during our experiment showed that the activity of peroxidase and superoxidase dismutase in the cabbages were induced, the total chlorophyll content increased significally by 25.38%, chl a/b about 43.01% and total biomass about 41.67%, both in comparison with the control. The soluble sugar content increased significantly to about 25.47% in comparison with the control. The electrolyte leakages were less affected. Under SA treatment only, the chlorophyll content, chl a/b content increased to about 18.85%, in comparison with the control. Plant biomass increased about 18.90% with the addition of SA in the culture. SA treatment can increase or decrease the Chinese cabbages metabolism. Plants were exposed to 5 ppm CdCl2 for 5 days under natural light. Then they were cultivated with Hoagland nutrient solution, which served as control, nutrient solution supplemented with 5 ppm CdCl2. Five days after Cd treatment, seedlings were harvested. The experiment was performed in triplicate.

  11. A high affinity kidney targeting by chitobionic acid-conjugated polysorbitol gene transporter alleviates unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats.

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kim, Sanghwa; Firdous, Jannatul; Lee, Ah-Young; Hong, Seong-Ho; Seo, Min Kyeong; Park, Tae-Eun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-01

    Aside from kidney transplantation - a procedure which is exceedingly dependent on donor-match and availability leading to excessive costs - there are currently no permanent treatments available which reverse kidney injury and failure. However, kidney-specific targeted gene therapy has outstanding potential to treat kidney-related dysfunction. Herein we report a novel kidney-specific targeted gene delivery system developed through the conjugation of chitobionic acid (CBA) to a polysorbitol gene transporter (PSGT) synthesized from sorbitol diacrylate and low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) carrying hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene to alleviate unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats. CBA-PSGT performed exceptionally well for targeted delivery of HGF to kidney tissues compared to its non-targeted counterparts (P type I and II), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and the expressions of ICAM-1, TIMP-1 and α-SMA which play a critical role in obstructive kidney functions. Therefore, CBA-PSGT should be further investigated because of its potential to alleviate UUO and kidney-related diseases using high affinity kidney targeting. PMID:27318934

  12. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  13. Salicylic Acid and Sodium Salicylate Alleviate Cadmium Toxicity to Different Extents in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Gondor, Orsolya Kinga; Pál, Magda; Darkó, Éva; Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The role of salicylic acid in Cd tolerance has attracted more attention recently but no information is available on the efficiency of different forms of salicylic acid. The aim was thus to investigate whether both the acid and salt forms of salicylic acid provide protection against Cd stress and to compare their mode of action. Young maize plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. One group of 10-day-old seedlings were treated with 0.5 mM SA or NaSA for 1 day then half of the pants were treated with 0.5 mM Cd for 1 day. Another group of seedlings was treated with 0.5 mM CdSO4 for 1 day without pre-treatment with SA or NaSA, while a third group was treated simultaneously with Cd and either SA or NaSA. Both salicylic acid forms reduced the Cd accumulation in the roots. Treatment with the acidic form meliorated the Cd accumulation in the leaves, while Na-salicylate increased the phytochelatin level in the roots and the amount of salicylic acid in the leaves. Furthermore, increased antioxidant enzyme activity was mainly induced by the acid form, while glutathione-related redox changes were influenced mostly by the salt form. The acidic and salt forms of salicylic acid affected the two antioxidant systems in different ways, and the influence of these two forms on the distribution and detoxification of Cd also differed. The present results also draw attention to the fact that generalisations about the stress protective mechanisms induced by salicylic acid are misleading since different forms of SA may exert different effects on the plants via separate mechanisms. PMID:27490102

  14. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  15. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  16. miR-30b inhibits autophagy to alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via decreasing the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate

    Li, Shi-Peng; He, Jin-Dan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Yao; Fu, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role and potential mechanism of miR-30b regulation of autophagy in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: An animal model of hepatic IRI was generated in C57BL/6 mice. For in vitro studies, AML12 cells were immersed in mineral oil for 1 h and then cultured in complete Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM)/F12 to simulate IRI. Mice and cells were transfected with miR-30b agomir/mimics or antagomir/inhibitor to examine the effect of miR-30b on autophagy to promote hepatic IRI. The expression of miR-30b was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal uridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and cell viability was detected by methylthiazole tetrazolium assay. The expression of light chain 3, autophagy-related gene (Atg)12, Atg5, P62, and caspase-3 were detected by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: miR-30b levels were significantly downregulated after hepatic IRI, and the numbers of autophagosomes were increased in response to IRI both in vivo and in vitro. These findings demonstrate that low levels of miR-30b could promote hepatic IRI. Furthermore, we found that miR-30b interacted with Atg12-Atg5 conjugate by binding to Atg12. Overexpression of miR-30b diminished Atg12 and Atg12-Atg5 conjugate levels, which promoted autophagy in response to IR. In contrast, downregulation of miR-30b was associated with increased Atg12-Atg5 conjugate levels and increased autophagy. CONCLUSION: miR-30b inhibited autophagy to alleviate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury via decreasing the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate. PMID:27182160

  17. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  18. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  19. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  20. Salicylic acid alleviates cold-induced photosynthesis inhibition and oxidative stress in Jasminum sambac

    CAI, HAN; He, Mengying; Ma, Kun; HUANG, YONGGAO; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a signal molecule that mediates many biotic and abiotic stress-induced physiological responses in plants. In the current study the protective effects of SA on cold stress-caused oxidative damage and photosynthesis inhibition in jasmine plants (Jasminum sambac) were examined. Jasmine seedlings were pretreated with 100 µM SA for 3 days and then subjected to cold stress (4 °C) for 15 days. The amounts of superoxide radicals (O_2^{-}) and hydrogen peroxide (H_{2}O_{2}) sign...

  1. MDG-1, an Ophiopogon polysaccharide, alleviates hyperlipidemia in mice based on metabolic profile of bile acids.

    Shi, Linlin; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a chronic metabolic disorder with systemic complications that is prevalent worldwide. MDG-1, a water-soluble β-d-fructan polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicas has potent hypolipidemic and weight-control effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MDG-1 on lipid metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese mice based on the metabolic profile of bile acids. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high fat mixed with 1‰ (w/w) MDG-1 diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that MDG-1 inhibited body weight gain and lowered serum and liver total cholesterol contents in obese mice. In addition, MDG-1 could adsorb bile acids in the gut lumen and reduce their reabsorption, thus promoting cholesterol catabolism. Furthermore, MDG-1 inhibited the expression of the farnesoid X receptor, but activated the liver X receptor. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of MDG-1 in the control of lipids. PMID:27312615

  2. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  3. Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats

    Zhang Bei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The present study was undertaken to explore the preventive effect of dietary sea cucumber cerebroside (SCC extracted from Acaudina molpadioides in fatty liver rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured. Results Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS, malic enzyme (ME and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats. Conclusions These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.

  4. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed

  5. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  6. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  7. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    Liu Yong; Zhao Fengwen; Zhang Chi; Zhang Jianming; Yang Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the ...

  8. Branched-chain amino acids, arginine, citrulline alleviate central fatigue after 3 simulated matches in taekwondo athletes: a randomized controlled trial

    Chen, I-Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background The decline in cognitive performance has been shown after fatiguing exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been suggested to alleviate exercise-induced central fatigue. Arginine and citrulline could remove the excess NH3 accumulation accompanied with BCAA supplementation by increasing nitric oxide biosynthesis and/or urea cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on central fatigue after...

  9. Exercise pre‑conditioning alleviates brain damage via excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 following ischemic stroke in rats.

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Min; Feng, Rui; Li, Wen-Bin; Ren, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that physical exercise may exert a neuroprotective effect in humans as well as animals. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of exercise has remained to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible signaling pathways involved in the protective effect of pre‑ischemic treadmill training for ischemic stroke in rats. A total of 36 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided at random into three groups as follows (n=12 for each): Sham surgery group; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group; and exercise with MCAO group. Following treadmill training for three weeks, the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 90 min in order to induce ischemic stroke, followed by reperfusion. Following 24 h post‑reperfusion, six rats from each group were assessed for neurological deficits and then sacrificed to calculate the infarct volume. The remaining rats (n=6 for each group) were sacrificed and the expression levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT‑2) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected using western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that rats that underwent pre‑ischemic exercise intervention had a significantly decreased brain infarct volume and neurological deficits; in addition, the pre‑ischemic exercise group showed decreased overexpression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and increased expression of EAAT‑2 following ischemic stroke. In conclusion, treadmill training exercise prior to ischemic stroke alleviated brain damage in rats via regulation of EAAT‑2 and ERK1/2. PMID:25370789

  10. Influence of sericin in alleviating the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in silkworm Bombyx mori: role of the amino acids

    AS Micheal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is an important peptide derived from silk fibre spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori and has various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to characterize the major constituents of sericin that are providing cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes of silkworm. Extracted sericin was subjected to LCMS analysis for amino acid composition. Isolated cells of midgut and hemocytes were incubated with sericin or with mixture of serine and aspartic acid prior to suboptimal concentration of hydrogen peroxide treatment. Sericin as well as amino acid mixture reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes triggered by hydrogen peroxide, inhibited oxidative derivatives such as protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde and increased antioxidant capacity in both the cells studied. Furthermore, sericin and amino acid mixture significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species as assessed by fluorescent detection. These results suggest that major constituent amino acids of sericin defend midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species rather than activating antioxidant enzyme system thereby inhibiting cell damage.

  11. UV-C-Induced alleviation of transcriptional gene silencing through plant-plant communication: Key roles of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways.

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Deng, Chenguang; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2016-08-01

    Plant stress responses at the epigenetic level are expected to allow more permanent changes of gene expression and potentially long-term adaptation. While it has been reported that plants subjected to adverse environments initiate various stress responses in their neighboring plants, little is known regarding epigenetic responses to external stresses mediated by plant-plant communication. In this study, we show that DNA repetitive elements of Arabidopsis thaliana, whose expression is inhibited epigenetically by transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) mechanism, are activated by UV-C irradiation through airborne plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications, accompanied by DNA demethylation at CHH sites. Moreover, the TGS is alleviated by direct treatments with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Further, the plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications are blocked by mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA), indicating that JA and SA pathways are involved in the interplant communication for epigenetic responses. For the plant-plant-plant communication, stress cues are relayed to the last set of receiver plants by promoting the production of JA and SA signals in relaying plants, which exhibit upregulated expression of genes for JA and SA biosynthesis and enhanced emanation of MeJA and MeSA. PMID:27131397

  12. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

    Létondor, Anne; Buaud, Benjamin; Vaysse, Carole; Richard, Emmanuel; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Alfos, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in ...

  13. EPA/DHA and vitamin A supplementation improves spatial memory and alleviates the age-related decrease in hippocampal RXRγ and kinase expression in rats

    Anne eLétondor; Benjamin eBuaud; Carole eVaysse; Emmanuel eRichard; Sophie eLaye; Véronique ePallet; Serge eAlfos

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and vitamin A are critical to delay aged-related cognitive decline. These nutrients regulate gene expression in the brain by binding to nuclear receptors such as the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Moreover, EPA/DHA and retinoids activate notably kinase signaling pathways such as AKT or MAPK, which includes ERK1/2. This suggests that these nutrients may modulate brain function in a...

  14. Alleviating Effect of Phenol Compounds on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt and Mechanism

    YUAN Fei; ZHANG Chun-lan; SHEN Qi-rong

    2003-01-01

    The amount of phenol compounds in the soil increased after adding organic material into the soil. It was found that p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and frulic acid alleviated Fusarium wilt of cucumber, the alleviating effect of p-hydroxybenzoic acid was the best, followed by p-coumaric acid and frulic acid. The total amount of bacterial, actinomyces and fungus in high phenol compounds treatment decreased than that of control treatment, while the microorganisms' amount in low phenol compounds treatment increased. Phenol compounds inhibit the growth of pathogen.

  15. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    rats and mice were fed diets high (45 energy% fat) in either triacylglycerol or free fatty acids for 7-14 days, and jejunal NAE and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) levels were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In rats, reduced levels of anorectic NAEs could...... mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  16. Arsenic induced toxicity in broiler chicks and its alleviation with ascorbic acid: a toxico-patho-biochemical study

    Khan, Ahrar; Sharaf, Rabia; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2013-01-01

    To find out toxico-pathological effects of arsenic (As) and ameliorating effect of ascorbic acid (Vit C), broilers birds were administered 50 and 250 mg/kg arsenic and Vit C, respectively alone/in combination. As-treated birds exhibited severe signs of toxicity such as dullness, depression, increased thirst, open mouth breathing and watery diarrhea. All these signs were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. As-treated birds showed a significant decrease in serum total proteins while serum enzymes, urea and creatinine were significantly increased. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase completely whereas proteins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine were partial ameliorated in birds treated with As+Vit C as compared to As-treated and control birds. Pale and hemorrhagic liver and swollen kidneys were observed in As-treated birds. Histopathologically, liver exhibited congestion and cytoplasmic vacuolation while in kidneys, condensation of tubular epithelium nuclei, epithelial necrosis, increased urinary spaces, sloughing of tubules from basement membrane and cast deposition were observed in As-treated birds. Pathological lesions were partially ameliorated with the treatment of Vit C. It can be concluded that arsenic induces biochemical and histopathological alterations in broiler birds; however, these toxic effects can be partially attenuated by Vit C.

  17. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25616451

  18. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  19. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  20. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  1. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  2. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  3. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  4. Amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide synergistically alleviate the toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

    Yao, Wenwu; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Zhuang, Xiangjin; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-06-15

    Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains, and is the causative agent of a lethal enterotoxemia in livestock animals and possibly in humans. However, many details of ETX structure and activity are not known. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between ETX structure and activity. To explore the effect and mechanism of ETX amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide on toxicity, four recombinant proteins, rETX (without 13 N-terminal peptides and 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX-C (rETX with 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX(Y196E) (rETX with an amino acid residue substitution at Y196) and rETX(Y196E)-C (rETX-C with a Y196E mutation), were constructed in this study. Both the amino acid residue Y196E substitution and the C-terminal peptide reduce ETX toxicity to a similar extent, and the two factors synergistically alleviate ETX toxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that the C-terminal peptides and Y196E amino acid mutation reduce the toxin toxicity in two different pathways: the C-terminal peptides inhibit the binding activity of toxins to target cells, and the Y196E amino acid mutation slightly inhibits the pore-forming or heptamer-forming process. Interaction between the two factors was not observed in pore-forming or binding assays but toxicity assays, which demonstrated that the relationship between domains of the toxin is more complicated than previously appreciated. However, the exact mechanism of synergistic action is not yet clarified. PMID:25912943

  5. Salicylic acid and cysteine contribute to arbutin-induced alleviation of angular leaf spot disease development in cucumber.

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Wielanek, Marzena; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Piątek, Milena; Gajewska, Ewa; Skłodowska, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Arbutin induced suppression of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber resulting from lower populations of Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans in the infected tissues. This study provides insight into mechanisms that may potentially account for this effect. In the absence of the pathogen, exogenous arbutin-induced expression of PR1, the marker of salicylic acid signaling, increased the content of salicylic acid and modulated the cysteine pool. This suggested that arbutin promoted cucumber plants to a "primed" state. When challenged with the pathogen, the arbutin-treated plants showed strongly reduced infection symptoms 7 days after inoculation. At this time point, they were characterized by higher contents of free and protein-bound cysteine due to higher cysteine biosynthetic capacity related to increased activities of serine acetyltransferase and cysteine synthase when compared with plants infected without arbutin treatment. Moreover, in the arbutin-treated and infected plants the contents of free salicylic acid and its conjugates were also increased, partly owing to its biosynthesis via the phenylpropanoid pathway. We suggest that arbutin-induced abrogation of angular leaf spot disease in cucumber could be mediated by salicylic acid and cysteine-based signaling. PMID:25955697

  6. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl2.H2O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to reduce

  7. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  8. Influence of sericin in alleviating the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in silkworm Bombyx mori: role of the amino acids

    AS Micheal; Subramanyam, M

    2014-01-01

    Sericin is an important peptide derived from silk fibre spun by the silkworm Bombyx mori and has various biological activities. The aim of the present study was to characterize the major constituents of sericin that are providing cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in midgut epithelial cells and hemocytes of silkworm. Extracted sericin was subjected to LCMS analysis for amino acid composition. Isolated cells of midgut and hemocytes were incubated with sericin o...

  9. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  10. Humic acid decreases acute toxicity and ventilation frequency in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to acid mine drainage.

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global problem leading to the acidification of freshwaters, as well as contamination by heavy metals. The ability of humic substances (HS) such as humic acid (HA) to decrease toxicity of heavy metals is widely known, whereas limited studies have examined the ability of HS to decrease toxicity linked with multiple stressors such as those associated with AMD. This study investigated the ability of HA to decrease acute toxicity defined as morbidity and ventilation frequency (measured via the time elapsed for ten operculum movements) in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to the multiple stressors of AMD-driven heavy metal concentrations, together with low pH. Water from the Mount Morgan open pit (a now closed gold and copper mine site), located at Mount Morgan, Central Queensland, Australia, was used as the AMD source. Fish were exposed to zero per cent (pH 7.3), two per cent (pH 6.7), three per cent (pH 5.7) and four per cent (pH 4.6) AMD in the presence of 0, 10 and 20mg/L Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) over 96h. HA was shown to significantly decrease the acute toxicity of AMD and its adverse effects on ventilation frequency. These results are important in showing that HA can influence toxicity of metal mixtures and low pH, thus indicating a potential role for HA in decreasing toxicity of multiple environmental stressors more widely, and possible value as a rehabilitation aid. PMID:25173849

  11. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  12. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  13. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  14. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  15. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  16. Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids alleviate hyperlipidemia in B6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid pathways.

    He, Kai; Hu, Yinran; Ma, Hang; Zou, Zongyao; Xiao, Yubo; Yang, Yong; Feng, Min; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) alkaloids exert their hypolipidemic effects primarily by targeting the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids (at a daily dose of 140mg/kg for 35days) in high-fat and high-cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic B6 mice. After treatment, serum lipid parameters were determined, the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and pathways such as the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and bile acid signaling in mice were also investigated. Meanwhile, Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota of B6 mice. The results indicated that RC alkaloids reduced the body weight gain and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA) and lipopolysaccharide of B6 mice. Liver fat deposition and epididymal adipose cell size were also deceased in therapy group. RC alkaloids feeding significantly promoted the abundance of Sporobacter termitidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut of mice, whereas, the abundance of Escherichia coli, Desulfovibrio C21_c20, Parabacteroides distasonis was suppressed. The observed antihyperlipidemic effects of RC alkaloids can also be attributed to their action as agonists of FXR and TGR5, activators for SREBP2, LDLR, UCP2 and CYP7A1, inhibitors of HMGCR, TXNIP, TLR4 and JNK. Therefore, this study expands current knowledge on hypolipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids and presents new evidence supporting a key role for RC alkaloids as regulators of lipid homeostasis by modulation gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:27287254

  17. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  18. Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado-Joseph disease neurological phenotype.

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C; Manjunath, N; Pereira de Almeida, Luís

    2016-03-01

    Others and we showed that RNA interference holds great promise for the treatment of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorders such as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), for which there is no available treatment. However, successful experiments involved intracranial administration of viral vectors and there is a need for a safer and less invasive procedure. In this work, we successfully generated stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), incorporating a short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG-9r) and encapsulating small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can target mutant ataxin-3. The developed formulation exhibited important features that make it adequate for systemic administration: high encapsulation efficiency of siRNAs, ability to protect the encapsulated siRNAs, appropriate and homogeneous particle size distribution. Following optimization of the formulation and in vitro validation of its efficacy to silence the MJD-causing protein - mutant ataxin-3 - in neuronal cells, in vivo experiments showed that intravenous administration of RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs efficiently silenced mutant ataxin-3 reducing neuropathology and motor behavior deficits in two mouse models of MJD. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing beneficial impact of a non-viral gene silencing strategy in MJD and the first time that a non-invasive systemic administration proved to be beneficial on a polyglutamine disorder. Our study opens new avenues towards MJD therapy that can also be applied to other neurodegenerative diseases linked to the production of pathogenic proteins. PMID:26757259

  19. Sulfur alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing its accumulation and modulating proteome, amino acids and thiol metabolism in rice leaves

    Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Amit; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Deeba, Farah; Kumar, Smita; Suman, Shankar; Adhikari, Bijan; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Pandey, Vivek; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of water is a global concern and rice consumption is the biggest dietary exposure to human posing carcinogenic risks, predominantly in Asia. Sulfur (S) is involved in di-sulfide linkage in many proteins and plays crucial role in As detoxification. Present study explores role of variable S supply on rice leaf proteome, its inclination towards amino acids (AA) profile and non protein thiols under arsenite exposure. Analysis of 282 detected proteins on 2-DE gel revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 80 were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. The identified proteins were mostly involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, AA biosynthesis, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, stress and energy metabolism. Among these, glycolytic enzymes play a major role in AA biosynthesis that leads to change in AAs profiling. Proteins of glycolytic pathway, photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also validated by western blot analysis. Conclusively S supplementation reduced the As accumulation in shoot positively skewed thiol metabolism and glycolysis towards AA accumulation under AsIII stress.

  20. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    ,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within......Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  1. Targeting the γ-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor α4 Subunit in Airway Smooth Muscle to Alleviate Bronchoconstriction.

    Yocum, Gene T; Gallos, George; Zhang, Yi; Jahan, Rajwana; Stephen, Michael Rajesh; Varagic, Zdravko; Puthenkalam, Roshan; Ernst, Margot; Cook, James M; Emala, Charles W

    2016-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs), and that GABAAR agonists acutely relax ASM. Among the GABAAR α subunits, human ASM cells express only α4 and α5, providing the opportunity for selective pharmacologic targeting. Novel GABAAR-positive allosteric modulators designed for enhanced α4/α6 subunit selectivity were synthesized using iterative computational analyses (CMD-45 and XHe-III-74). Studies using oocyte heterologous expression systems confirmed that CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 led to significantly greater augmentation of currents induced by a 3% maximal effective concentration (EC3) of GABA [EC3]-induced currents in oocytes expressing α4 or α6 subunits (along with β3 and γ2) compared with other α subunits. CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 also led to greater ex vivo relaxation of contracted wild-type mouse tracheal rings compared with tracheal rings from GABAAR α4 subunit (Gabra4) knockout mice. Furthermore, CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 significantly relaxed precontracted human ASM ex vivo, and, at a low concentration, both ligands led to a significant leftward shift in albuterol-mediated ASM relaxation. In vivo, inhaled XHe-III-74 reduced respiratory system resistance in an asthmatic mouse model. Pretreatment of human ASM cells with CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 inhibited histamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations in vitro, an effect that was lost when calcium was omitted from the extracellular buffer, suggesting that inhibition of calcium influx due to alterations in plasma membrane potential may play a role in the mechanism of ASM relaxation. Selective targeting of the GABAAR α4 subunit with inhaled ligands may be a novel therapeutic pathway to treat bronchoconstriction, while avoiding sedative central nervous system effects, which are largely mediated by α1-3 subunit-containing GABAARs in the brain. PMID:26405827

  2. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1 in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM. Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants.

  3. Alleviation of Lead Toxicity by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Is Related to Elevated Growth, Photosynthesis, and Suppressed Ultrastructural Damages in Oilseed Rape

    Tian, Tian; Qin, Yebo; Gill, Rafaqat A.; Ali, Shafaqat

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a widely spread pollutant and leads to diverse morphological and structural changes in the plants. In this study, alleviating role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was investigated with or without foliar application of ALA (25 mg L−1) in hydroponic environment under different Pb levels (0, 100, and 400 µM). Outcomes stated that plant morphology and photosynthetic attributes were reduced under the application of Pb alone. However, ALA application significantly increased the plant growth and photosynthetic parameters under Pb toxicity. Moreover, ALA also lowered the Pb concentration in shoots and roots under Pb toxicity. The microscopic studies depicted that exogenously applied ALA ameliorated the Pb stress and significantly improved the cell ultrastructures. After application of ALA under Pb stress, mesophyll cell had well-developed nucleus and chloroplast having a number of starch granules. Moreover, micrographs illustrated that root tip cell contained well-developed nucleus, a number of mitochondria, and golgi bodies. These results proposed that under 15-day Pb-induced stress, ALA improved the plant growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll and root tip cells of the B. napus plants. PMID:24683549

  4. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  5. Decreasing transcription elongation rate in Escherichia coli exposed to amino acid starvation

    Vogel, U.; Sørensen, M.A.; Pedersen, Steen;

    1992-01-01

    known length of the transcribed sequence were used to calculate the lacZ mRNA chain growth-rate. The transcription elongation rate was c. 43 nucleotides s-1 during exponential growth and decreased abruptly to c. 20 nucleotides s-1 in a relA+ strain after the onset of isoleucine starvation, when massive...... the initiated lacZ mRNA' chains were continued into full-length mRNAs, but for the relA strain the polarity was so strong that no completed lacZ mRNA could be detected. The protein chain elongation rates decreased from 13 amino acids (aa) s-1 in the unperturbed growth phase to approximately 6 aa s-1...

  6. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  7. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Yan-Qin Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg. Open-field test (OFT and forced swimming test (FST were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.

  8. Long Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Neurotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    Wu, Yan-Qin; Dang, Rui-Li; Tang, Mi-Mi; Cai, Hua-Lin; Li, Huan-De; Liao, De-Hua; He, Xin; Cao, Ling-Juan; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in human malignancies. Its long-term use can cause neurobiological side-effects associated with depression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), the essential fatty acids found in fish oil, possess neuroprotecitve and antidepressant activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the potential protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs against DOX-induced behavioral changes and neurotoxicity. ω-3 PUFAs were given daily by gavage (1.5 g/kg) over three weeks starting seven days before DOX administration (2.5 mg/kg). Open-field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted to assess exploratory activity and despair behavior, respectively. Our data showed that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly mitigated the behavioral changes induced by DOX. ω-3 PUFAs pretreatment also alleviated the DOX-induced neural apoptosis. Meanwhile, ω-3 PUFAs treatment ameliorated DOX-induced oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the protein levels of NF-κB and iNOS were significantly increased in brain tissues of DOX-treated group, whereas ω-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly attenuated DOX-induced neuroinflammation. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs can effectively protect against DOX-induced depressive-like behaviors, and the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect are potentially associated with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:27120616

  9. Retinoic acid decreases the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mediated gastroenteritis in a mouse model.

    Sinha, Ritam; Howlader, Debaki Ranjan; Mukherjee, Priyadarshini; Rai, Sulabh; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta

    2016-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is a global burden; it's the major cause of morbidity and mortality both in adults and children of developing countries. Salmonella is one of the leading causes of bacteria-mediated gastroenteritis and due to its increasing multidrug antibiotic resistance; Salmonella-mediated gastroenteritis is difficult to control. Retinoic acid, the biologically active agent of vitamin A has an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental colitis. In this study we have shown All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment down regulates Salmonella-mediated colitis in a murine model. Macroscopic signs of inflammation such as decrease in body weight and cecum weight, shorter length of proximal colon and pathological score of colitis were observed less in ATRA treated mice than in a vehicle control group. ATRA treatment not only reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 production but also increased IL-10 response in the supernatant of intestinal tissue. Results also suggested that ATRA treatment enhances the number of FoxP3-expressing T regulatory cells in MLN and also decreases bacterial load in systemic organs. We concluded that ATRA treatment indeed reduces Salmonella Typhimurium-mediated gastroenteritis in mice, suggesting it could be an important part of an alternative therapeutic approach to combat the disease. PMID:26858186

  10. Poly-lactic-glycolic-acid surface nanotopographies selectively decrease breast adenocarcinoma cell functions

    The ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 50:50 PLG/PGA, wt%) nanotopographies to decrease lung epithelial carcinoma cell functions (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion) has been previously reported. Specifically, results demonstrated decreased lung epithelial carcinoma cell VEGF synthesis on 23 nm surface-featured PLGA compared to traditional nanosmooth PLGA. However, clearly, different cell lines could have different behaviors on similar biomaterials. Thus, to investigate the universality of nanopatterned PLGA substrates to inhibit numerous cancer cell functions, here, breast epithelial adenocarcinoma cell (MCF-7) adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and VEGF secretion were determined on different PLGA nanometer surface topographies. To isolate surface nanotopographical effects from all other surface properties, PLGA surfaces with various nanotopographies but similar chemistry and hydrophobicity were fabricated here. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified the varied nanotopographies on the PLGA surfaces prepared in this study. Importantly, results demonstrated for the first time significantly decreased breast adenocarcinoma cell functions (including decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis and decreased VEGF synthesis) on 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA surface topographies fabricated (specifically, nanosmooth, 300 and 400 nm surface-featured PLGA surfaces). In contrast, healthy breast epithelial cells proliferated more (24%) on the 23 nm featured PLGA surfaces compared to all other PLGA samples. In summary, these results provided further insights into understanding the role PLGA surface nanotopographies can have on cancer cell functions and, more importantly, open the possibility of using polymer nanotopographies for a wide range of anticancer regenerative medicine applications (without resorting to the use of chemotherapeutics). (paper)

  11. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  12. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  13. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  14. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  15. Pyrazinoic Acid Decreases the Proton Motive Force, Respiratory ATP Synthesis Activity, and Cellular ATP Levels▿†

    Lu, P.; Haagsma, A.C.; Pham, H.; Maaskant, J. J.; Mol, S; Lill, H.; Bald, D

    2011-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  16. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  17. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status

    Davis, Paul F.; Ozias, Marlies K.; Carlson, Susan E.; Reed, Gregory A.; Winter, Michelle K; McCarson, Kenneth E.; Levant, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% ...

  18. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast. PMID:27190149

  19. Dietary fish oil modulates macrophage fatty acids and decreases arthritis susceptibility in mice

    1985-01-01

    B10.RIII and B10.G mice were transferred from a diet of laboratory rodent chow to a standard diet in which all the fat (5% by weight) was supplied as either fish oil (17% eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 12% docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 0% arachidonic acid [AA], and 2% linoleic acid) or corn oil (0% EPA, 0% DHA, 0% AA, and 65% linoleic acid). The fatty acid composition of the macrophage phospholipids from mice on the chow diet was similar to that of mice on a corn oil diet. Mice fed the fish oil d...

  20. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pHi) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pHiin vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pHi of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na+/H+-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pHi in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pHi may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

  1. Isolation and characterization of yeast strains with ability to decrease volatile acidity of wines

    Moura, A. Vilela; Schuller, Dorit; Faia, A. Mendes; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The level of acetic acid, the main component of volatile acidity, is critical for wine quality. Its concentration in wines is approximately 0.5 g/L and, legally, must remain below 1.0g/L. Winemakers use a procedure called “remostagem” to lower acetic acid of wines with high volatile acidity (above 0.8g/L). The spoiled wine is mixed with freshly crushed grapes (1) in a proportion of no more than 20-30% (v/v). The volatile acidity of this mixture and of the newly made wine should not exceed...

  2. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    在温室条件下,采用植物盆栽试验,研究4种土壤调理剂不同施用量对酸性红壤铝毒害的缓解效果。结果表明,4种土壤调理剂均显著降低土壤中交换性铝含量及毒害性铝含量,显著提高玉米株高、生物量;各处理土壤中交换性铝含量与玉米株高及生物量之间呈显著相关性。牡蛎壳、白云石、钾长石、麦饭石4种土壤调理剂0.2%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了63.8%、70.5%、53.0%、12.3%;0.4%的施用量土壤交换性铝分别比对照下降了90.5%、92.0%、80.5%、23.4%。土壤中交换性铝、毒害性铝的含量随着4种土壤调理剂的施用量增加而降低,土壤中毒害性铝含量由低到高依次为白云石、牡蛎壳、钾长石、麦饭石。%A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  3. Effects of four soil conditioners on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil%4种土壤调理剂改良红壤铝毒害的效果研究

    李昂; 王旭; 范洪黎

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil conditioner on alleviating aluminum toxicity in acid red soil. The result revealed that all the four soil conditioner could significantly reduce the exchangeable aluminum content and the toxic aluminum content in soil, increase maize height and biomass. Soil exchangeable aluminum content were significantly correlated with plant height and biomass in all treatments. When 0. 2% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable alumi-num of oyster shell, dolomite, potassium feldspar, maifan stone decreased by 63. 8%, 70. 5%, 53. 0%, 12. 3% respectively;and when 0. 4% soil conditioner was added, the soil exchangeable aluminum decreased by 90. 5%, 92. 0%, 80. 5%, 23. 4%respectively. The exchangeable aluminum and toxic aluminum in soil decreased with the increase of the application of soil condi-tioner. The toxic aluminum content in soil was: dolomite

  4. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  5. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in lake concentrations of strong acid anions, as evidenced by increases in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon.

  6. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  7. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked ...

  8. Decreased serum essential and aromatic amino acids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Krystian; Adrych; Marian; Smoczynski; Magdalena; Stojek; Tomasz; Sledzinski; Ewa; Slominska; Elzbieta; Goyke; Ryszard; Tomasz; Smolenski; Julian; Swierczynski

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the influence of chronic pancreatitis(CP) on serum concentrations of amino acids.METHODS:Thirty-five male patients with alcoholic CP and 21 healthy male subjects were examined.Serum concentrations of amino acids were assayed by ionpair high-performance liquid chromatography with mass detection.RESULTS:Serum glutamate concentration was increased in CP patients as compared to controls.In contrast,serum concentrations of glutamine,histidine,tyrosine,proline,tryptophan and threonine were sign...

  9. Flavonoid metabolite 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid formed by human microflora decreases arterial blood pressure in rats.

    Najmanová, Iveta; Pourová, Jana; Vopršalová, Marie; Pilařová, Veronika; Semecký, Vladimír; Nováková, Lucie; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2016-05-01

    There are reports of positive effects of quercetin on cardiovascular pathologies, however, mainly due to its low biovailability, the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report that one metabolite formed by human microflora (3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid)relaxed isolated rat aorta and decreased arterial blood pressure in rats. PMID:26790841

  10. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. PMID:20590992

  11. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N.; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra; Al-Shahwani, Marwa; Al-Sabagh, Laila; Holst, Birgitte; Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oleoylethanolamide and several other N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), e.g. linoleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide, have anorectic properties in rats, and prolonged intake of a high-fat diet decreases the levels of the anorectic NAEs in jejunum. Jejunal anorectic NAEs are thought to add to the control of food intake via activation of PPARalpha and the vagus nerve. The fat-induced decrease may explain part of the hyperphagic effect of high-fat diets. In the present stud...

  12. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues. PMID:26314861

  13. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  14. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2011-01-01

    potential negative effect of high dose folic acid consumption, we found a need to look into the effectiveness of these two strategies in our complete MMC population. Methods: All Spina Bifida patients born in the western part of Denmark are differentiated into proper subgroups based on MR-Imaging, giving us...

  15. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.; Reily, M.D.; Lu, Z.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 2 (2013), s. 132-140. ISSN 0041-008X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bile Acids * Liver * Metabolomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2013

  16. Effects of Ursolic Acid Derivatives on Caco-2 Cells and Their Alleviating Role in Streptozocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Panpan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect and mechanism of a series of ursolic acid (UA derivatives on glucose uptake were investigated in a Caco-2 cells model. Their effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress were also demonstrated in streptozocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylamino]-2-deoxy-glucose (2-NBDG was used as a fluorescein in Caco-2 cells model to screen UA derivatives by glucose uptake and expression of glucose transporter protein (SGLT-1, GLUT-2. Moreover, STZ-induced diabetic rats were administered with these derivatives for 4 weeks of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin levels, biochemical parameters, lipid levels, and oxidative stress markers were finally evaluated. The results of this study indicated that compounds 10 and 11 significantly inhibited 2-NBDG uptake under both Na+-dependent and Na+-independent conditions by decreasing SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression in the Caco-2 cells model. Further in vivo studies revealed that compound 10 significantly reduced hyperglycemia by increasing levels of serum insulin, total protein, and albumin, while the fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake were restored much closer to those of normal rats. Compounds 10 and 11 showed hypolipidemic activity by decreasing the total amounts of cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Furthermore, compound 10 showed antioxidant potential which was confirmed by elevation of glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD and reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. It was concluded that compound 10 caused an apparent inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and hypoglycemia, hypolipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Thus, compound 10 could be developed as a potentially complementary therapeutic or prophylactic agent for diabetics mellitus and its complications.

  17. Do omega-3 fatty acids decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation?

    Peter Ofman, M.D., M.Sc; Adelqui Peralta, M.D.; Peter Hoffmeister, M.D; J. Michael Gaziano, M.D., M.P.H; Luc Djousse, M.D., M.P.H., Sc.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although atrial fibrillation is a very common medical problem in general population and has a high incidence in the setting of open heart surgery, currently there are very few therapies to prevent occurrence or recurrence of atrial fibrillation. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to change basic physiologic properties of the atrial tissue to make it less susceptible to atrial fibrillation. In this review, we first describe basic physiological mechanisms thought to be responsible for these changes and then discuss epidemiological studies evaluating the use n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary and secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation in the general population, in subjects undergoing open heart surgery, and in special subgroups of patients.

  18. gamma-Aminobutyric acid antagonists decrease junctional communication between L-horizontal cells of the retina.

    Piccolino, M; Neyton, J; Witkovsky, P; Gerschenfeld, H M

    1982-01-01

    The antagonists of gamma-aminobutyric acid, bicuculline and picrotoxin, were found to narrow the receptive field profile of the large field horizontal cell (L1HC) in the turtle retina when added to the perfusion medium in micromolar concentrations. The coupling resistance between neighboring L1HCs was increased by bicuculline or picrotoxin. Under control conditions, the dye Lucifer yellow injected into one L1HC diffused into a large number of neighboring L1HCs; bicuculline or picrotoxin great...

  19. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  20. Decreased vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: A controlled study

    Hilal Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B 12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002, but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566. A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 /folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  1. DECREASED APOPTOSIS DURING CAR-MEDIATED HEPATOPROTECTION AGAINST LITHOCHOLIC ACID-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Olson, Erik R.; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR+/+ (WT) and CAR−/−...

  2. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    Wen-Chang Chang; James Swi-Bea Wu; Chen-Wen Chen; Po-Ling Kuo; Hsu-Min Chien; Yuh-Tai Wang; Szu-Chuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highes...

  3. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  4. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  5. 外源ABA缓解黄瓜幼苗中低温诱导的氧化损伤%Exogenous abscisic acid alleviates low temperature-induced oxidative damage in seedlings of Cucumis sativus.L

    张颖; 蒋卫杰; 余宏军; 杨学勇

    2012-01-01

    electrolyte leakage was increased under chilling stress,whereas the TWC and chlorophyll content was decreased.The activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased,whereas the catalase (CAT) activity was decreased under chilling stress.Pretreatment with ABA alleviated the changes of physiological features in cucumber seedlings upon chilling stress.The CAT gene transcriptional level was down-regulated and the SOD gene transcriptional level was up-regulated under chilling stress.Pretreatment with ABA also mitigated the changes of gene expression.It demonstrated that ABA may play a role in alleviating the harm of chilling stress by balancing the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cucumber seedlings.The results will provide a reference for the application of ABA to enhance the resistance of cucumber to low-temperature stress.

  6. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-[11C]methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells

  7. Rapid decrease in amino acid metabolism in prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas after bromocriptine treatment: a PET study

    Bergstroem, M.M.; Muhr, C.; Lundberg, P.O.; Bergstroem, K.G.; Gee, A.D.; Fasth, K.J.; Langstroem B5

    1987-09-01

    Four patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas were examined with positron emission tomography using L-(/sup 11/C)methionine to monitor the effect of dopamine agonist treatment on the amino acid metabolism in the tumors. Within the first few hours after intramuscular injection of bromocriptine retard (50 mg) the amino acid metabolism decreased by 40%. Two of the patients were reexamined 7 and 9 days later and showed a 70% reduction in the metabolism of the adenomas. This metabolic effect was later accompanied by significant tumor shrinkage in all adenomas. It is suggested that bromocriptine has a general and rapid effect on the protein synthesis of the prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

  8. Asiatic Acid Alleviates Hemodynamic and Metabolic Alterations via Restoring eNOS/iNOS Expression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Poungrat Pakdeechote

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid isolated from Centella asiatica. The present study aimed to investigate whether asiatic acid could lessen the metabolic, cardiovascular complications in rats with metabolic syndrome (MS induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with HCHF diet with 15% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks to induce MS. MS rats were treated with asiatic acid (10 or 20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for a further three weeks. MS rats had an impairment of oral glucose tolerance, increases in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and hindlimb vascular resistance; these were related to the augmentation of vascular superoxide anion production, plasma malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels (p < 0.05. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx were markedly high with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, but dowregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression (p < 0.05. Asiatic acid significantly improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers, plasma TNF-α, NOx, and recovered abnormality of eNOS/iNOS expressions in MS rats (p < 0.05. In conclusion, asiatic acid improved metabolic, hemodynamic abnormalities in MS rats that could be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.

  9. Dietary Alpha Lipoic Acid Improves Body Composition, Meat Quality and Decreases Collagen Content in Muscle of Broiler Chickens

    El-Senousey, H. K.; Fouad, A. M.; Yao, J. H.; Zhang, Z.G.; Shen, Q. W.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 192 broiler chicks were used to evaluate the influence of dietary α-lipoic acid (ALA) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chickens with the purpose of developing a strategy to prevent the occurrence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat and to improve the meat quality of broilers. At 22 d of age, birds were allocated to 4 ALA treatments (0, 400, 800, and 1200 ppm). The results showed that dietary ALA significantly decreased average feed inta...

  10. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  11. Carbonate minerals in porous media decrease mobility of polyacrylic acid modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles used for groundwater remediation

    The limited transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in porous media is a major obstacle to its widespread application for in situ groundwater remediation. Previous studies on nZVI transport have mainly been carried out in quartz porous media. The effect of carbonate minerals, which often predominate in aquifers, has not been evaluated to date. This study assessed the influence of the carbonate minerals in porous media on the transport of polyacrylic acid modified nZVI (PAA-nZVI). Increasing the proportion of carbonate sand in the porous media resulted in less transport of PAA-nZVI. Predicted travel distances were reduced to a few centimeters in pure carbonate sand compared to approximately 1.6 m in quartz sand. Transport modeling showed that the attachment efficiency and deposition rate coefficient increased linearly with increasing proportion of carbonate sand. -- Highlights: •Mobility of nZVI NANOFER 25S was investigated in different saturated porous media. •nZVI transport in carbonate-containing porous media was elucidated and quantified. •Mobility of polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI significantly ceases in carbonate-containing media. •Deposition rate coefficient increases linearly with increasing carbonate content. -- Carbonate minerals in porous aquifers significantly decrease the mobility of commercially available polyacrylic acid modified nanoscale zero-valent iron

  12. Valproic acid exposure decreases Cbp/p300 protein expression and histone acetyltransferase activity in P19 cells.

    Lamparter, Christina L; Winn, Louise M

    2016-09-01

    The teratogenicity of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is well established and its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) is proposed as an initiating factor. Recently, VPA-mediated HDAC inhibition was demonstrated to involve transcriptional downregulation of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which was proposed to compensate for the increased acetylation resulting from HDAC inhibition. Cbp and p300 are HATs required for embryonic development and deficiencies in either are associated with congenital malformations and embryolethality. The objective of the present study was to characterize Cbp/p300 following VPA exposure in P19 cells. Consistent with previous studies, exposure to 5mM VPA over 24h induced a moderate decrease in Cbp/p300 mRNA, which preceded a strong decrease in total cellular protein mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Nuclear Cbp/p300 protein was also decreased following VPA exposure, although to a lesser extent. Total cellular and nuclear p300 HAT activity was reduced proportionately to p300 protein levels, however while total cellular HAT activity also decreased, nuclear HAT activity was unaffected. Using the Cbp/p300 HAT inhibitor C646, we demonstrated that HAT inhibition similarly affected many of the same endpoints as VPA, including increased reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 cleavage, the latter of which could be attenuated by pre-treatment with the antioxidant catalase. C646 exposure also decreased NF-κB/p65 protein, which was not due to reduced mRNA and was not attenuated with catalase pre-treatment. This study provides support for an adaptive HAT response following VPA exposure and suggests that reduced Cbp/p300 HAT activity could contribute to VPA-mediated alterations. PMID:27381264

  13. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid

    Liu X

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Xudong Liu,1,* Yuchao Zhang,1,* Jinquan Li,1 Dong Wang,1 Yang Wu,1 Yan Li,2 Zhisong Lu,3 Samuel CT Yu,4 Rui Li,1 Xu Yang1 1Laboratory of Environmental Biomedicine, Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China; 2Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China; 4Division of Environment, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test, brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH], inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor a, interleukin-1β, and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3 in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of

  14. Betulinic acid alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting SREBP1 activity via the AMPK-mTOR-SREBP signaling pathway.

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Soo Jung; Jo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Go Woon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common liver disease in industrialized countries. The discovery of food components that can ameliorate NAFLD is therefore of interest. Betulinic acid (BA) is a triterpenoid with many pharmacological activities, but the effect of BA on fatty liver is as yet unknown. To explore the possible anti-fatty liver effects and their underlying mechanisms, we used insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, primary rat hepatocytes and liver tissue from ICR mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Oil Red O staining revealed that BA significantly suppressed excessive triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells and in the livers of mice fed a HFD. Ca(+2)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CAMKK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were both activated by BA treatment. In contrast, the protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase (S6K) were all reduced when hepatocytes were treated with BA for up to 24h. We found that BA activates AMPK via phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP1 mRNA expression, nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP1 target gene expression in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. These effects were completely abolished in the presence of STO-609 (a CAMKK inhibitor) or compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), indicating that the BA-induced reduction in hepatic steatosis was mediated via the CAMKK-AMPK-SREBP1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that BA effectively ameliorates intracellular lipid accumulation in liver cells and thus is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of fatty liver disease. PMID:23435355

  15. Respiratory plasticity is insufficient to alleviate blood acid-base disturbances after acclimation to ocean acidification in the estuarine red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Ern, Rasmus; Nordi, Wiolene M; Johnson, Abbey S

    2016-01-01

    The changes in ocean chemistry stemming from anthropogenic CO2 release--termed ocean acidification (OA)--are predicted to have wide-ranging effects on fish and ultimately threaten global populations. The ability of fish to adapt to environmental change is currently unknown, but phenotypic plasticity has been highlighted as a crucial factor in determining species resilience. Here we show that red drum, a long-lived estuarine-dependent fish species native to the Gulf of Mexico, exhibit respiratory plasticity that increases CO2 excretion capacity when acclimated to OA conditions. Specifically, fish exposed to 14 days of 1000 µatm CO2 had a 32% reduction in branchial diffusion distance and increased expression of two putative CO2 channel proteins--rhag and rhcg1. No changes were observed in the erythrocyte CO2 transport pathways. Surprisingly, no significant changes in blood chemistry were observed between acclimated and acutely challenged animals; however, a non-significant 30 % drop in the magnitude of plasma C(CO2) elevation was observed. Reduced diffusion distance also comes with the cost of increased diffusive water loss, which would require greater osmoregulatory investment by the animal. OA exposure induced increased gill Na(+), K(+) ATPase activity and intestinal nkcc2 expression, supporting both the presumed osmotic stress and increased osmoregulatory investment. However, no differences in standard metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate or aerobic scope were detected between control and OA acclimated individuals. Similarly, no differences in critical swim speed were detected between groups, suggesting the energetic cost related to respiratory plasticity is negligible against background metabolism. The current study demonstrated that red drum exhibit respiratory plasticity with only mild physiological trade-offs; however, this plasticity is insufficient to fully offset the OA-induced acid-base disturbance and as such is unlikely to impact species resilience

  16. Action Research for Poverty Alleviation

    D. Rajasekhar

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the process adopted in an action research project for poverty alleviation undertaken in two project areas of NGOs. After describing the process adopted to initiate action research, the paper discusses the methods conducted to acquire knowledge on processes generating poverty, and strategies adopted to alleviate poverty both by the poor and local organisations. Methods adopted to translate the knowledge into action are also discussed. Conclusions are provided at the end.

  17. The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

    Ingeborg Hanbauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which α-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, whose activity is correlated to plasma triglyceride levels. In total liver lipid and phospholipid extracts, the sum of n-3 fatty acids and the individual longer carbon chain acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 were significantly decreased whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n6 was significantly increased. In addition, low n-3 fatty acid-fed mice had liver steatosis, heart, and kidney hypertrophy. Hence, reducing dietary α-linolenic acid, from 1.02 energy% to 0.16 energy% combined with raising linoleic acid intake resulted in obesity and had detrimental consequences on organ function.

  18. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX. PMID:26543027

  19. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0.45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous [1-14C]arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1α were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet

  20. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, urs...

  1. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

    Sicher, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures...

  2. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  3. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism.

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  4. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  5. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  6. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CASE CONTROL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Tullika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity caused by bleeding, it is important to reduce the amount of bleeding during and after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding during and after LSCS. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after Lower segment Caesarean Section (LSCS. METHODS: A randomized case controlled prospective study was conducted on 200 women undergoing lower segment cesarean section. Hundreds of them that were given tranexamic acid immediately before LSCS were compared to hundred others to whom tranexamic acid was not given. Blood loss was collected and measured during the two periods, from plancental delivery to end of LSCS and second from end of LSCS to two hours postpartum. RESULTS: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to end of LSCS, 202.25ml in the study group vs392.20 ml in the control group (p<0.001; from the end of LSCS, to 2 hours postpartum 3.80ml in the study group versus 112.25ml in the control group (p<0.001; In totality, it significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to two hours postpartum i.e. 27.05ml in the study group versus 510.45ml in the control group (p < 0.001. No complications or side effects were noted. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the amount of blood loss during and after LSCS. Tranexamic acid can be used prophylactically; moreover it is safer and effective in women undergoing LSCS.

  7. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

    Richard C. Sicher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  8. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures.

    Sicher, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species. PMID:26251925

  9. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  10. Maternal High Fat Diet Is Associated with Decreased Plasma n–3 Fatty Acids and Fetal Hepatic Apoptosis in Nonhuman Primates

    Grant, Wilmon F.; Gillingham, Melanie B.; Batra, Ayesha K; Fewkes, Natasha M.; Comstock, Sarah M.; Diana Takahashi; Theodore P Braun; Grove, Kevin L.; FRIEDMAN, Jacob E.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found signific...

  11. Islam, Globalization, and Poverty Alleviation

    Dwi Sulastyawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is globab as well condition and situation, neither economically, politically, and socially. All countries that embrace open economic system have participated in the system of globalization. Today the world is under the influence of super power world. For instance, using dollar as the official currency for international transactions, so that dollar dominates in international transactions. As a result, the value of the debt of developing countries has increased due to the rising price of dollar. The increment of the debt value in developing countries led the government reduces subsidies for the community. Thus economic hardship perceived more and more for poor people. This resulted that poverty is hard to be alleviated. This article analyzes the various Islamic perspective and thoughts on the impact of globalization on poverty alleviation.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2123

  12. 降低精对苯二甲酸溶剂系统醋酸消耗的研究%Research and Implementation of Decreasing the Acetic Acid Consumption in Purified Terephthalic Acid Solvent System

    徐圆; 朱群雄

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the acetic acid consumption in purified terephthalic acid(PTA) solvent system has become a hot issue with common concern.In accordance with the technical features.the electrical conductivity is in direct proportion to the acetic acid content.General regression neural network(GRNN)is used to establish the model of electrical conductivity on the basis of mechanism analysis,and then particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm with the improvement of mertia weight and population diversity is proposed to regulate the operatmg conditions.Thus.the method of decreasing the acid lossS is derived and applied to PTA solvent system in a chemical plant.Cases studies show that the precision of modeling and optimization are higher.The results also provide the optimal operating conditions,which decrease the cost and improve the profit.

  13. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor.

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-19

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  14. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K.; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  15. Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease retinal neovascularization by adipose–endoplasmic reticulum stress reduction to increase adiponectin1234

    Fu, Zhongjie; Lofqvist, Chatarina A; Shao, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Joyal, Jean-Sebastien; Hurst, Christian G.; Cui, Ricky Z; Evans, Lucy P.; Tian, Katherine; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chen, Jing; Ley, David; Hansen Pupp, Ingrid; Hellstrom, Ann; Smith, Lois EH

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease in premature infants. Serum adiponectin (APN) concentrations positively correlate with postnatal growth and gestational age, important risk factors for ROP development. Dietary ω-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) suppress ROP and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in a mouse model of human ROP, but the mechanism is not fully understood.

  16. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  17. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd Wolle...... crop performance under various climatic stresses.......Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  19. A novel highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor produces prolonged decreases in plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation in vivo and regulates urethral tension.

    Hiroshi Saga

    Full Text Available Autotaxin, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, is a secreted enzyme that has lysophospholipase D activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine to bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid activates at least six G-protein coupled recpetors, which promote cell proliferation, survival, migration and muscle contraction. These physiological effects become dysfunctional in the pathology of cancer, fibrosis, and pain. To date, several autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitors have been reported; however, none were able to completely and continuously inhibit autotaxin/ENPP2 in vivo. In this study, we report the discovery of a highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor, ONO-8430506, which decreased plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation. The IC50 values of ONO-8540506 for lysophospholipase D activity were 6.4-19 nM for recombinant autotaxin/ENPP2 proteins and 4.7-11.6 nM for plasma from various animal species. Plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation during 1-h incubation was almost completely inhibited by the addition of >300 nM of the compound to human plasma. In addition, when administered orally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, the compound demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in rats and persistently inhibited plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation even at 24 h after administration. Smooth muscle contraction is a known to be promoted by lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we showed that dosing rats with ONO-8430506 decreased intraurethral pressure accompanied by urethral relaxation. These findings demonstrate the potential of this autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor for the treatment of various diseases caused by lysophosphatidic acid, including urethral obstructive disease such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Baldassano Claudia F; Craigen Gerald; Eddy Bruce A; Dokucu Mehmet E; Sagduyu Kemal; Yıldız Ayşegül

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA) add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. S...

  1. Imaging decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid metabolism and signaling in iPLA2β (VIA)-deficient mice

    Basselin, Mireille; Rosa, Angelo O.; Ramadan, Epolia; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Greenstein, Deanna; Wohltmann, Mary; Turk, John; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) selectively hydrolyzes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in vitro from phospholipid. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene encoding this enzyme occur in patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration plus brain iron accumulation and dystonia-parkinsonism without iron accumulation, whereas mice lacking PLA2G6 show neurological dysfunction and neuropathology after 13 months. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism and signaling would be reduced in 4-month-old ...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  3. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  4. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid agonist regulates human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes through activation of HO-1-pAKT signaling and a decrease in PPARγ.

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Vanella, Luca; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Burgess, Angela; Gotlinger, Katherine; Manthati, Vijaya Lingam; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Zeldin, Darryl C; Falck, John R; Schwartzman, Michal L; Abraham, Nader G

    2010-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8 ± 5.8 pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83 ± 1.62 pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture decreased adipogenesis. EETs decreased MSC-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, 8,9- and 14,15-EET having the maximum reductive effect on adipogenesis. We examined the effect of 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8(Z)-enoic acid, an EET agonist, on MSC-derived adipocytes and demonstrated an increased number of healthy small adipocytes, attenuated fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels (P SnMP) and LY2940002, respectively, reversed EET-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting that activation of the HO-1-adiponectin axis underlies EET effect in MSCs. These findings indicate that EETs decrease MSC-derived adipocyte stem cell differentiation by upregulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AKT signaling and play essential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS and in stem cell development. These novel observations highlight the seminal role of arachidonic acid metabolism in MSCs and suggest that an EET agonist may have potential therapeutic use in the treatment of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20412023

  5. Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

    W Suryapratama; FM Suhartati; S Rahayu

    2012-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain (as an animal model). The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments ...

  6. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic. PMID:26979587

  7. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer’s disease

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A.; Harrison, Fiona E.

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this stud...

  8. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  9. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H2) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  10. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  11. Alleviation Effects of Rare Earth on Cd Stress to Rape

    马建军; 张淑侠; 朱京涛; 吴贺平

    2004-01-01

    Using rapes as test materials, the fastness expression and alleviation effect of rapes were studied under Cd stress condition, as the rapeseeds were dipped in the single element(La, Ce, Nd, Pr)and mixed rare earth(RE). The results indicate that, under Cd stress, the dry and fresh weight are increased by both the single element and mixed rare earth treatment, and the fastness of rape is improved.The single element of rare earth decreases the Cd content in rape roots and transmits Cd to the edible parts above the ground in which the alleviation effect of Ce is most significant.La treatment takes the second place, so that the poisonous effect of heavy metal Cd is eased.The mixed rare earth doesn't alleviate the assimilation of Cd in rape roots, but accelerates the transfer of Cd to the parts above the ground. The research puts forward that the alleviation of rare earth on Cd stress has connection with the decrease of Ca content.

  12. Accumulation of sigmaS due to enhanced synthesis and decreased degradation in acidic phospholipid-deficient Escherichia coli cells.

    Uchiyama, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Nagahama, Hideki; Itou, Aya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    The Escherichia coli pgsA3 mutation, which causes deficiency in acidic phospholipids, leads to a significant accumulation of sigma(S). This accumulation is partly accounted for by the higher transcription level of rpoS; however, it has also been suggested that the cells accumulate sigma(S) post-transcriptionally. We found that the level of the small regulatory RNA RprA, which is involved in the promotion of rpoS translation, is higher in pgsA3 cells than in pgsA(+) cells. Induction of altered rpoS mRNA that does not depend on RprA in pgsA(+) cells did not increase the level of sigma(S) to the high level observed in pgsA3 cells, suggesting post-translational sigma(S) accumulation in the latter. The mRNA levels of clpX and clpP, whose products form a ClpXP protease that degrades sigma(S), were much reduced in pgsA3 cells. Consistent with the reduced mRNA levels, the half-life of sigma(S) in pgsA3 cells was much longer than in pgsA(+) cells, indicating that downregulation of the degradation is a major cause for the high sigma(S) content. We show that the downregulation can be partially attributed to activated CpxAR in the mutant cells, which causes repression of rpoE on whose gene product the expression of clpPX depends. PMID:20455949

  13. Linolenic acid improves oocyte developmental competence and decreases apoptosis of in vitro-produced blastocysts in goat.

    Veshkini, Arash; Khadem, Ali Akbar; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Alamouti, Ali Asadi; Soleimani, Masoud; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2016-08-01

    The effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on developmental competence of oocytes in goats were evaluated in this study. Initially, the level of ALA in small and large antral follicles was determined to be in a range of 0.018-0.028 mg/ml (64.6-100.6 μM, respectively). In vitro maturation was performed in the presence of various concentrations (10, 50, 100, or 200 μM) of ALA. Cumulus expansion, meiotic maturation, levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH), embryonic cleavage, blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF), number of total and apoptotic cells in blastocyst, and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blastocyst cells were determined. Compared with the control, no improvement was observed in cumulus expansion in ALA-treated groups. At 50 μM concentration, ALA increased meiotic maturation rate but had no effect on GSH level. When oocytes treated with 50 μM ALA were subsequently used for PA or IVF, a higher rate of blastocyst formation was observed, and these embryos had a higher total cell number and a lower apoptotic cell number. Expression analyses of genes in blastocysts revealed lesser transcript abundances for Bax gene, and higher transcript abundances for Bcl-2 gene in 50 μM ALA group. Expression of p53 gene was also less observed in ALA-treated blastocysts. Our results show that ALA treatment at 50 μM during in vitro maturation (IVM) had a beneficial effect on maturation of goat oocytes and this, in turn, stimulated embryonic development and regulated apoptotic gene expression. PMID:26584822

  14. Decrease of Atherosclerosis Markers and Oxidative Stress After 1 Year Administration of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplements in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Dragomir Andreea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To assess the impact of 1 year administration of omega-3 fatty acids supplements on oxidative stress parameters and atherosclerosis progression. Material and Methods: A total of 284 patients with metabolic syndrome, aged 61±6.7 years, without clinical evidence of atherosclerosis were allocated to 2 groups, matched by sex and age: group A (140 patients - diet according to ESC/EASD recommendations; group B (144 patients - the same diet + capsules of fish oil (1g eicosapentanoic acid, 1g docosahexanoic acid, 0,1g a-tocopherol acetate. Body fat (BF was measured by bioimpedance analysis. For oxidative stress evaluation we used the FormOx systems monitor on a blood drop and for progression of atherosclerosis the intima-media thickness (IMT at common carotid artery. Patients were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months and 1 year. Results: IMT significantly decreased in group B vs group A at 1 year (p<0.0001 and was correlated with %BF (p<0.001, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR (p=0.002, leptin (p< 0.001, adiponectin (p<0.05, leptin/adiponectin ratio (p< 0.001 and oxidative stress (p<0.001. Conclusions: One year administrations of omega-3 PUFA enriched diet reduces cardiovascular risk of metabolic syndrome patients, resulting in a significant decrease of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis progression.

  15. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3888 were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in

  16. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  17. Rapamycin-mediated CD36 translational suppression contributes to alleviation of hepatic steatosis.

    Wang, Chuan; Yan, Yong; Hu, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2014-04-25

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-specific inhibitor, has the effect of anti-lipid deposition on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms with which rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis are not fully disclosed. CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contribute to NAFLD progression. Hepatic CD36 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis, while mTOR pathway is involved in CD36 translational control. This study was undertaken to investigate whether rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis via the inhibition of mTOR pathway-dependent CD36 translation. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate and C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce hepatic steatosis. Hepatic CD36 protein expression was significantly increased with lipid accumulation in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells or HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Rapamycin reduced hepatic steatosis and CD36 protein expression, but it had no influence on CD36 mRNA expression. Rapamycin had no effect on CD36 protein stability, but it significantly decreased CD36 translational efficiency. We further confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibits hepatic CD36 translational efficiency through the mTOR pathway, resulting in reduction of CD36 protein expression and alleviation of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24685479

  18. Harnessing motivation to alleviate neglect

    Charlotte eRussell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.

  19. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  20. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  1. Strategies to alleviate the incidence of ascites in broilers: a review

    U Aftab

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascites is a complex problem caused by many interacting factors such as genetics, environment and management. Many nutritional, medicinal and management strategies have been proposed to alleviate the problem. Higher levels of dietary vitamin C and E along with selenium yeast might be beneficial, presumably because of their role in improving cellular integrity. Oils rich in n-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce pulmonary hypertension and, consequently, ascites incidence. The potential use of flax oil has already been demonstrated, whereas the effects of other oils rich in n-3 fatty acids (fish, linseed and canola oils remain to be investigated. The assessment of the effects of dietary electrolyte balance on ascites incidence seems to be a promising field of research in broiler nutrition. In general, reducing the dietary level of salt (NaCl and adding bicarbonates to the diet and drinking water have been proposed as potential "cost-effective" methods to reduce ascites incidence. The use of nutrients/drug agents that increase the vascular capacity of the lungs or decrease the pulmonary vascular resistance may help to alleviate the problem, but economic and local feed regulations might restrict such use. Diuretics have also shown positive effects, presumably because there is a reduction of sodium and fluid retention in the body; litter humidity however must be closely monitored if diuretics are continuously administered. As the high metabolic rate (fast growth is a major factor contributing to the susceptibility of broilers to ascites, early-age feed or nutrient restriction (qualitative or quantitative or light restriction in order to slow down the growth rate seem practically viable methods, since final body weight is not compromised. Optimization of the house temperature and ventilation in cold weather seem helpful practices to decrease ascites incidence. Under practical conditions, it might be interesting to test the additive effects of

  2. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  3. Short-term supplementation with alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural does not prevent the hypoxia induced decrease of exercise performance despite attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Gatterer, H; Greilberger, J; Philippe, M; Faulhaber, M; Djukic, R; Burtscher, M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are thought to partly be responsible for the hypoxia induced performance decrease. The present study evaluated the effects of a broad based antioxidant supplementation or the combined intake of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) on the performance decrease at altitude. 18 healthy, well-trained males (age: 25±3 years; height: 179±6 cm; weight: 76.4±6.8 kg) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to a placebo group (PL), a α-KG and 5-HMF supplementation group (AO1) or a broad based antioxidant supplementation group (AO2). Participants performed 2 incremental exercise tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; the first test under normoxia and the second under hypoxia conditions (simulated altitude, FiO2=13% ~ 4 300 m). Supplementation started 48 h before the hypoxia test. Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal power output, power output at the ventilatory and lactate threshold and the tissue oxygenation index (NIRS) were measured under both conditions. Oxidative stress markers were measured before the supplementation and after the hypoxia test. Under hypoxia conditions all performance parameters decreased in the range of 19-39% with no differences between groups. A significant change from normoxia to hypoxia (pextraction, as indicated by the tissue oxygenation index, might indicate that mitochondrial functioning was actually influenced by the supplementation. PMID:22893323

  4. Decrease of urinary nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome treated with hyaluronic acid.

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available To investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS patients after hyaluronic acid (HA therapy.Thirty-three patients with IC/BPS were prospectively studied; a group of 45 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All IC/BPS patients received nine intravesical HA instillations during the 6-month treatment regimen. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary NGF and BDNF levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the last HA treatment. The clinical parameters including visual analog scale (VAS of pain, daily frequency nocturia episodes, functional bladder capacity (FBC and global response assessment (GRA were recorded. Urinary NGF and BDNF levels were compared between IC/BPS patients and controls at baseline and after HA treatment.Urinary NGF, NGF/Cr, BDNF, and BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in IC/BPS patients compared to controls. Both NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased after HA treatment. Urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased in the responders with a VAS pain reduction by 2 (both p < 0.05 and the GRA improved by 2 (both p < 0.05, but not in non-responders. Urinary BDNF and BDNF/Cr did not decrease in responders or non-responders after HA therapy.Urinary NGF, but not BDNF, levels decreased significantly after HA therapy; both of these factors remained higher than in controls even after HA treatment. HA had a beneficial effect on IC/BPS, but it was limited. The reduction of urinary NGF levels was significant in responders, with a reduction of pain and improved GRA.

  5. LITHOCHOLIC ACID DECREASES EXPRESSION OF UGT2B7 IN CACO-2 CELLS: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR A NEGATIVE FARNESOID X RECEPTOR RESPONSE ELEMENT

    Lu, Yuan; Heydel, Jean-Marie; LI, XIN; Bratton, Stacie; Lindblom, Tim; Radominska-Pandya, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 is the major isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of a variety of endogenous compounds including bile acids. To determine the role of bile acids in the regulation of UGT2B7 expression, Caco-2 cells were incubated with the natural human farnesoid X receptor (hFXR) ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, as well as the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid, derived from chenodeoxycholic acid. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with lithocholic acid in the absence of...

  6. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  7. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    Fu Zhenyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c. obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  8. Association of decreased spermatozoa omega-3 fatty acid levels and increased oxidative DNA damage with varicocele in infertile men: a case control study.

    Tang, Li-Xin; Yuan, Dong-Juan; Wang, Qi-Ling; Jiang, Fang; Guo, Jian; Tang, Yun-Ge; Zheng, Li-Xin; Kang, Jing X

    2016-04-01

    Varicocele is commonly associated with male infertility because it impairs normal sperm morphology and activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are important determinants of sperm cell structure and function, but their relationship with varicocele remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the PUFA composition in spermatozoa of infertile men with varicocele and to evaluate the potential relationship between PUFA and varicocele. This case control study recruited 92 infertile men with varicocele, 99 infertile men without varicocele and 95 fertile male control subjects. Semen morphology and activity parameters were assessed and seminal plasma 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content was determined by ELISA. Sperm concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Infertile men with varicocele had lower concentrations of omega-3 PUFA, higher omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratios and greater oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa compared with infertile men without varicocele and normal subjects. The degree of varicocele and DNA damage was associated with decreased omega-3 PUFA concentrations and semen quality in infertile men with varicocele. The findings suggest that omega-3 PUFA deficiency could be implicated in varicocele-associated infertility, and highlight the need for intervention trials to test the usefulness of omega-3 supplementation in reducing sperm abnormalities in infertile men with varicocele. PMID:25405715

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizae alleviate negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle and zinc accumulation in maize plants - A soil microcosm experiment.

    Wang, Fayuan; Liu, Xueqin; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Adams, Catharine A; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are considered an emerging contaminant when in high concentration, and their effects on crops and soil microorganisms pose new concerns and challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF) form mutualistic symbioses with most vascular plants, and putatively contribute to reducing nanotoxicity in plants. Here, we studied the interactions between ZnO NPs and maize plants inoculated with or without AMF in ZnO NPs-spiked soil. ZnO NPs had no significant adverse effects at 400 mg/kg, but inhibited both maize growth and AM colonization at concentrations at and above 800 mg/kg. Sufficient addition of ZnO NPs decreased plant mineral nutrient acquisition, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and root activity. Furthermore, ZnO NPs caused Zn concentrations in plants to increase in a dose-dependent pattern. As the ZnO NPs dose increased, we also found a positive correlation with soil diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn. However, AM inoculation significantly alleviated the negative effects induced by ZnO NPs: inoculated-plants experienced increased growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment content, and SOD activity in leaves. Mycorrhizal plants also exhibited decreased ROS accumulation, Zn concentrations and bioconcentration factor (BCF), and lower soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentrations at high ZnO NPs doses. Our results demonstrate that, at high contamination levels, ZnO NPs cause toxicity to AM symbiosis, but AMF help alleviate ZnO NPs-induced phytotoxicity by decreasing Zn bioavailability and accumulation, Zn partitioning to shoots, and ROS production, and by increasing mineral nutrients and antioxidant capacity. AMF may play beneficial roles in alleviating the negative effects and environmental risks posed by ZnO NPs in agroecosystems. PMID:26761602

  10. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    Kim, Y W; Kim, J Y; Lee, S K

    1999-10-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 15 weeks of age. The experiments were done four weeks after the surgery. MSG-Ob rats showed increased levels of FFA, insulin, and HGP and decreased Rd compared to normal rats. In the VF group, the FFA level and HGP were decreased to normal values, Rd was partially normalized, but the level of insulin did not change significantly compared to MSG-Ob. In the SF group, FFA and Rd were partially normalized, but HGP was not suppressed significantly compared to MSG-Ob. These results suggest that visceral fat affects the insulin sensitivity of liver and FFA concentration more than subcutaneous fat; however, no significant difference was shown on whole body insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin concentration. PMID:10576150

  11. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis.

    Dihal, Ashwin A; van der Woude, Hester; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Charif, Halima; Dekker, Lennard J; Ijsselstijn, Linda; de Boer, Vincent C J; Alink, Gerrit M; Burgers, Peter C; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Woutersen, Ruud A; Stierum, Rob H

    2008-01-01

    Quercetin has been shown to act as an anticarcinogen in experimental colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to characterize transcriptome and proteome changes occurring in the distal colon mucosa of rats supplemented with 10 g quercetin/kg diet for 11 wk. Transcriptome data analyzed with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that quercetin significantly downregulated the potentially oncogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk) pathway. In addition, quercetin enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes, including Pten, Tp53, and Msh2, and of cell cycle inhibitors, including Mutyh. Furthermore, dietary quercetin enhanced genes involved in phase I and II metabolism, including Fmo5, Ephx1, Ephx2, and Gpx2. Quercetin increased PPARalpha target genes, and concomitantly enhanced expression of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) degradation. Proteomics performed in the same samples revealed 33 affected proteins, of which four glycolysis enzymes and three heat shock proteins were decreased. A proteome-transcriptome comparison showed a low correlation, but both pointed out toward altered energy metabolism. In conclusion, transcriptomics combined with proteomics showed that dietary quercetin evoked changes contrary to those found in colorectal carcinogenesis. These tumor-protective mechanisms were associated with a shift in energy production pathways, pointing at decreased cytoplasmic glycolysis and toward increased mitochondrial FA degradation. PMID:18095365

  12. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  13. Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor

    Eric V. Edmonds; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Does child labor decrease as household income rises? This question has important implications for the design of policy on child labor. This paper focuses on a program of unconditional cash transfers in Ecuador. It argues that the effect of a small increase in household income on child labor should be concentrated among children most vulnerable to transitioning from schooling to work. The p...

  14. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  15. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  16. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Extracellular Ca2+ influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca2+ overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca2+ and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases

  17. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis

    Cui, Ruibing [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Lihui [Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Luo, Zheng; Guo, Xiaolan [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: ymylh@163.com [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx has been suggested to play a role in ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis. Previous studies indicated that store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) was involved in liver injury induced by ethanol in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by SOCE remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of SOCE inhibition on liver injury induced by ethanol in BRL cells and Sprague–Dawley rats. Our data demonstrated that ethanol (0–400 mM) dose-dependently increased hepatocyte injury and 100 mM ethanol significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of SOC for at least 72 h in BRL cells. Blockade of SOCE by pharmacological inhibitors and sh-RNA knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 attenuated intracellular Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. STIM1 and Orai1 expression was greater in ethanol-treated than control rats, and the SOCE inhibitor corosolic acid ameliorated the histopathological findings and alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity as well as decreased cytochrome C release and inhibited alcohol-induced cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade could alleviate alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases. - Highlights: • Blockade of SOCE alleviated overload of Ca{sup 2+} and hepatotoxicity after ethanol application. • Blockade of SOCE inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis after ethanol application. • SOCE might be a useful therapeutic target in alcoholic liver diseases.

  18. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  19. Amelioration of glomerulosclerosis with all-trans retinoic acid is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α-smooth muscle actin

    Xia LIU; Lei L(U); Bei-bei TAO; Ai-ling ZHOU; Yi-chun ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on renal morphology and function as well as on renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression and plasmin activity in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy.Methods:Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Renal function was measured 2 weeks later. The nephrectomized rats were assigned to groups matched for proteinuria and treated with vehicle or atRA (5 or 10 mg/kg by gastric gavage once daily) for the next 12 weeks. Rats with sham operation were treated with vehicle. At the end of the treatments,kidneys were collected for histological examination, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity measurements.Results:The 5/6 nephrectomy promoted hypertension, renal dysfunction, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were significantly reduced in the atRA-treated group. The expressions of PAI-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated nephrectomized rats. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced the expressions of PAI-1 and α-SMA. However, piasmin activity remained unchanged following atRA treatment.Conclusion:Treatment with atRA ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. This is associated with a decrease in PAI-1 and α-SMA, but not with a change in plasmin activity.

  20. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  1. Sunscreens with broad-spectrum absorption decrease the trans TO cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in the human stratum corneum after multiple UV light exposures

    The trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid (UCA) in skin is considered to play an important role in the mechanism of immunosuppression. We have investigated the effects of skin type and various sunscreens with low sun protection factor (SPF) on the UV-induced cis-UCA formation in human skin after exposure to artificial UV light. The rate of cis-UCA formation depends little on the skin type and is reduced by topical application of sunscreens. The rate of cis-UCA formation decreases with increasing SPF and only broad-spectrum, highly protective sunscreens offer protection against the UV-induced formation of cis-UCA, which accumulates in the stratum corneum after multiple UV exposures. A theoretical approach to estimate the distribution of cis-UCA after irradiation indicates that this compound may diffuse into the deeper layers of the epidermis with D ∼ 10-17 m2/s, and that its elimination from the stratum corneum is mainly due to desquamation. (author)

  2. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50 , LD50 , and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. PMID:26947423

  3. Knockdown of the ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) RDL gene decreases fipronil susceptibility of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Wei, Qi; Wu, Shun-Fan; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yu, Hua-Yang; Dong, Yao-Xue; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-04-01

    Insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) are important molecular targets of cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. Previously GABARs encoding rdl (resistant to dieldrin) genes responsible for dieldrin and fipronil resistance were identified in various economically important insect pests. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame cDNA sequence of rdl gene from fipronil-susceptible and fipronil-resistant strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Lsrdl). Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a previously identified resistance-conferring mutation. Different alternative splicing variants of Lsrdl were noted. Injection of dsLsrdl reduced the mRNA abundance of Lsrdl by 27-82%, and greatly decreased fipronil-induced mortality of individuals from both susceptible and resistant strains. These data indicate that Lsrdl encodes a functional RDL subunit that mediates susceptibility to fipronil. Additionally, temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that Lsrdl was expressed at higher levels in eggs, fifth-instar nymphs, and female adults than in third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs. Lsrdl was predominantly expressed in the heads of 2-day-old female adults. All these results provide useful background knowledge for better understanding of fipronil resistance related ionotropic GABA receptor rdl gene expressed variants and potential functional differences in insects. PMID:25808850

  4. Transperineal Injection of Hyaluronic Acid in Anterior Perirectal Fat to Decrease Rectal Toxicity From Radiation Delivered With Intensity Modulated Brachytherapy or EBRT for Prostate Cancer Patients

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity remains a serious complication affecting quality of life for prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. We began an investigational trial injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) in the perirectal fat to increase the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. This is the first report using HA injection in oncology. Methods and Materials: This is a trial of external beam radiation therapy with HDR brachytherapy boosts in prostate cancer. During the two high-dose-rate (HDR) fractions, thermoluminescent dosimeter dosimeters were placed in the urethra and in the rectum. Before the second HDR fraction, 3-7 mL (mean, 6 mL) of HA was injected under transrectal ultrasound guidance in the perirectal fat to systematically create a 1.5-cm space. Urethral and rectal HDR doses were calculated and measured. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to assess the stability of the new space. Results: Twenty-seven patients enrolled in the study. No toxicity was produced from the HA or the injection. In follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the HA injection did not migrate or change in mass/shape for close to 1 year. The mean distance between rectum and prostate was 2.0 cm along the entire length of the prostate. The median measured rectal dose, when normalized to the median urethral dose, demonstrated a decrease in dose from 47.1% to 39.2% (p < 0.001) with or without injection. For an HDR boost dose of 1150 cGy, the rectum mean Dmax reduction was from 708 cGy to 507 cGy, p < 0.001, and the rectum mean Dmean drop was from 608 to 442 cGy, p < 0.001 post-HA injection. Conclusion: The new 2-cm distance derived from the HA injection significantly decreased rectal dose in HDR brachytherapy. Because of the several-month duration of stability, the same distance was maintained during the course of external beam radiation therapy

  5. Ferulic acid decreases cell viability and colony formation while inhibiting migration of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.

    Fahrioğlu, Umut; Dodurga, Yavuz; Elmas, Levent; Seçme, Mücahit

    2016-01-15

    Novel and combinatorial treatment methods are becoming sought after entities in cancer treatment and these treatments are even more valuable for pancreatic cancer. The scientists are always on the lookout for new chemicals to help them in their fight against cancer. In this study, we examine the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound, on gene expression, viability, colony formation and migration/invasion in the cultured MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell. Cytotoxic effects of FA were determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test and Cell TiterGlo (CTG) assay. IC50 dose in MIA PaCa-2 cells was detected as 500μM/ml at the 72nd hour. Expression profiles of certain cell cycle and apoptosis genes such as CCND1 (cyclin D1),CDK4, CDK6, RB, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-10, Bcl-2, BCL-XL,BID, DR4,DR5,FADD,TRADD,PARP, APAF, Bax, Akt, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Additionally, effects of FA on colony formation and invasion were also investigated. It was observed that FA caused a significant decrease in the expression of CCND1, CDK 4/6, Bcl2 and caspase 8 and 10 in the MIA PaCa-2 cells while causing an increase in the expression of p53, Bax, PTEN caspase 3 and 9. FA was observed to decrease colony formation while inhibiting cell invasion and migration as observed by the BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber guide and colony formation assays. In conclusion, FA is thought to behave as an anti-cancer agent by affecting cell cycle, apoptotic, invasion and colony formation behavior of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Therefore, FA is placed as a strong candidate for further studies aimed at finding a better, more effective treatment approach for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26516023

  6. Alleviation of temperature-sensitive secretion defect of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, TliDEF, by a change of single amino acid in the ABC protein, TliD.

    Eom, Gyeong Tae; Oh, Joon Young; Park, Ji Hyun; Lim, Hye Jin; Lee, So Jeong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Ji-Eun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Song, Bong Keun; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2016-09-01

    An ABC transporter, TliDEF, from Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1, mediates the secretion of its cognate lipase, TliA, in a temperature-dependent secretion manner; the TliDEF-mediated secretion of TliA was impossible at the temperatures over 33°C. To isolate a mutant TliDEF capable of secreting TliA at 35°C, the mutagenesis of ABC protein (TliD) was performed. The mutated tliD library where a random point mutation was introduced by error-prone PCR was coexpressed with the wild-type tliE, tliF and tliA in Escherichia coli. Among approximately 10,000 colonies of the tliD library, we selected one colony that formed transparent halo on LB-tributyrin plates at 35°C. At the growth temperature of 35°C, the selected mutant TliD showed 1.75 U/ml of the extracellular lipase activity, while the wild-type TliDEF did not show any detectable lipase activity in the culture supernatant of E. coli. Moreover, the mutant TliD also showed higher level of TliA secretion than the wild-type TliDEF at other culture temperatures, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. The mutant TliD had a single amino acid change (Ser287Pro) in the predicted transmembrane region in the membrane domain of TliD, implying that the corresponding region of TliD was important for causing the temperature-dependent secretion of TliDEF. These results suggested that the property of ABC transporter could be changed by the change of amino acid in the ABC protein. PMID:27033673

  7. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver. PMID:25036135

  8. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    HOSOMI, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance Phagocytosis of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Amyloid-beta(42) by Human Microglia and Decrease Inflammatory Markers

    Hjorth, Erik; Zhu, Mingqin; Toro, Veronica Cortes; Vedin, Inger; Palmblad, Jan; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Faxen-Irving, Gerd; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Basun, Hans; Eriksdotter, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The use of supplements withomega-3 (omega 3) fatty acids (FAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is widespread due to proposed beneficial effects on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Many effects of omega 3 FAs are believed to be caused by down-regulation and resolution of inflammation. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with inflammation mediated by microglia and astrocytes, and omega 3 FAs have been proposed as potential treatments for AD. The focus...

  10. Inhibition of BET bromodomains alleviates inflammation in human RPE cells.

    Hytti, M; Tokarz, P; Määttä, E; Piippo, N; Korhonen, E; Suuronen, T; Honkakoski, P; Kaarniranta, K; Lahtela-Kakkonen, M; Kauppinen, A

    2016-06-15

    Bromodomain-containing proteins are vital for controlling the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes. Consequently, compounds capable of inhibiting specific bromodomain-facilitated protein-protein interactions would be predicted to alleviate inflammation, making them valuable agents in the treatment of diseases caused by dysregulated inflammation, such as age-related macular degeneration. Here, we assessed the ability of known inhibitors JQ-1, PFI-1, and IBET-151 to protect from the inflammation and cell death caused by etoposide exposure in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. The potential anti-inflammatory effects of the bromodomain inhibitors were assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) profiling. The involvement of NF-κB and SIRT1 in inflammatory signaling was monitored by ELISA and western blotting. Furthermore, SIRT1 was knocked down using a specific siRNA or inhibited by EX-527 to elucidate its role in the inflammatory reaction. The bromodomain inhibitors effectively decreased etoposide-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8. This anti-inflammatory effect was not related to SIRT1 activity, although all bromodomain inhibitors decreased the extent of acetylation of p53 at the SIRT1 deacetylation site. Overall, since bromodomain inhibitors display anti-inflammatory properties in human retinal pigment epithelial cells, these compounds may represent a new way of alleviating the inflammation underlying the onset of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27106081

  11. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  12. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    The northern elephant seal undergoes a 2-3 month post-weaning fast during which it depends primarily on the oxidation of fatty acids to meet its energetic demands. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) increases and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in late-fasted...

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Wheat Seed Germination and Alleviates Oxidative Damage against Copper Stress

    Hua Zhang; Lan-Ying Hu; Kang-Di Hu; Yun-Dong He; Song-Hua Wang; Jian-Ping Luo

    2008-01-01

    With the enhancement of copper (Cu) stress, the germination percentage of wheat seeds decreased gradually. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cu stress in a dose-dependent manner; whereas little visible symptom was observed in germinating seeds and radicle tips cultured in NaHs solutions. It was verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHs attribute to the potential role in promoting seed germination against Cu stress. Further studies showed that NaHS could promote amylase and esterase activities, reduce Cu-induced disturbance of plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips, and sustain lower levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2 in germinating seeds. Furthermore, NaHs pretreatment increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased that of lipoxygenase, but showed no significant effect on ascorbate peroxidase. Alternatively, NaHs prevented uptake of Cu and promoted the accumulation of free amino acids in seeds exposed to Cu. In addition, a rapid accumulation of endogenous H2S in seeds was observed at the early stags of germination, and higher level of H2S in NaHS-pretreated seeds. These data indicated that H2S was involved in the mechanism of germinating seeds' responses to Cu stress.

  14. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  15. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

    Cummings, Bethany P.; Ahmed Bettaieb; Graham, James L.; Jaehyoung Kim; Fangrui Ma; Noreene Shibata; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Cecilia Giulivi; Frederik Hansen; Jacob Jelsing; Niels Vrang; Mark Kowala; Chouinard, Michael L.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Havel, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increas...

  16. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  17. poverty and poverty alleviation in globalised cities

    Verena Ast

    2014-01-01

    In the light of increasing "division of the cities" and its underlying process of socio-spatial segregation researches focus more and more on the consequences of this process: the development of advantaged and disadvantaged districts within contemporary cities. Thereby especially poverty alleviation respectively poverty eradication in disadvantaged districts becomes an emerging and central field of intervention in social policies. This is due to the broad impact of poverty like higher risk of...

  18. Foveation-based Mechanisms Alleviate Adversarial Examples

    Luo, Yan; Boix, Xavier; Roig, Gemma; Poggio, Tomaso; Zhao, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We show that adversarial examples, i.e., the visually imperceptible perturbations that result in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) fail, can be alleviated with a mechanism based on foveations---applying the CNN in different image regions. To see this, first, we report results in ImageNet that lead to a revision of the hypothesis that adversarial perturbations are a consequence of CNNs acting as a linear classifier: CNNs act locally linearly to changes in the image regions with objects reco...

  19. Alleviative Effect and Its Evaluation of LaCl3 Treatment on Acid Rain Stresses for Capsicum Seed Germination%LaCl3对辣椒种子酸雨胁迫的缓解效应及其评价

    边才苗; 王锦文

    2011-01-01

    Alleviative effects of LaCl3 on acid rain (AR) stresses for capsicum seed were analyzed using two evaluation systems. The results showed that the damage of AR (pH 3.5, 3.0 and 2.0) were alleviatedby treating the seeds with LaCl3 solution ( 10 mg·L-1 ).The alleviative effects were 14.48%, 19.24%,15.14% and 13.48% as a relative rate of vigor index. However, the vigor index in seeds treated with LaCl3 and AR (pH 3.5 and 3.0 ) was significantly higher than with only AR as its increment. Meanwhile, the destructions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) reduced notably, and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced at pH ≤ 2.5; whereas these indexes did not change obviously at pH ≥ 3.0. This indicated that LaCl3 probably alleviated AR damage by improving the seed resistance at pH ≤2.5 and the seed tolerance at pH ≥3.0. The growth index was an indirect indicator of the resistance, so should not be used as main evaluation system. The activate oxygen metabolic indices had their threshold values, but should be evaluated based on possibility which the index felt within its threshold value range. This method just gave an approximate threshold values, but could show inner causes for improving growth of crop species.%采用两种评价系统分析了镧对酸雨胁迫下辣椒种子萌发的影响.结果表明,经10 mg·L-1的LaCl3浸种,可显著缓解酸雨(pH 3.5,3.0,2.5和2.0)对辣椒种子的伤害,以活力指数的增幅为标准,缓解能力依次为14.48%,19.24%,15.14%和13.48%;以指标值的增量为标准,只有pH 3.5和3.0时显著提高.同时,镧处理可提高酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化酶的活性,减少丙二醛的积累,在pH≤2.5时,与酸雨处理差异显著,而pH≥3.0时没有明显变化,说明镧处理分别提高种子的抗性和耐受性.基于生长指标是间接的抗逆性指标,不宜作为评价的主体.活性氧代谢指标都有一个阈值,可依据

  20. Can we decrease the skin reaction in breast cancer patients using hyaluronic acid during radiation therapy? Results of phase III randomised trial

    Purpose: Radio-induced early skin reactions still remain a clinical challenge. Preliminary results with Hyaluronic acid, one of the most recent topical products used in this indication are proving interesting. To evaluate the efficacy of Hyaluronic acid compared to placebo. Material and methods: Breast cancer patients with grade 1-2 radio-induced dermatitis during postoperative radiotherapy were eligible. They were randomised to receive either hyaluronic acid (A) or a simple emollient (B). The primary endpoint was the clinical evaluation of the erythema (success versus failure). Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of skin colorimetry, pain, and quality of life. Results: Two-hundred patients were enroled (A = 99, B = 101). Ninety-five patients per treatment arm could be evaluated. Failures occurred in 23 patients (24%) in the hyaluronic acid arm, and 32 (34%) in the emollient arm (p = 0.15). Seventy-three patients (36.5%) prematurely stopped the treatment without any ensuing difference between the two arms. Body mass index and the size of the epithelitis were both independently associated with the failure of the local treatment. The relative reduction of colorimetric levels was 20% in the hyaluronic acid group, and 13% in the emollient group (p = 0.46). Concerning the quality of life assessment, there was a trend towards a lower level of pain in patients receiving hyaluronic acid (p = 0.053). Conclusions: The present study showed no significant difference between hyaluronic acid and simple emollient in the treatment of acute radio-induced dermatitis. There was however a trend towards an improvement in both pain level and skin colorimetry.

  1. Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease

    Long Teng; Fang Hong; Chenguang Zhang; Jiancheng He; Haiying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Compound Formula Rehmannia has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkin-son’s disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia;however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we established a model of Parkinson’s disease dyskinesia in rats, and treated these animals with Compound Formula Rehmannia. Compound Formula Rehmannia inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 1 and 2 and excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter genes, and it inhibited the reduction in expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B1, an inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter gene, in the corpus striatum. In addition, Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviated dyskinesia symptoms in the Parkinson’s disease rats. These experimental findings indicate that Compound Formula Rehmannia alleviates levodo-pa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease by modulating neurotransmitter signaling in the corpus striatum.

  2. Phytoplankton of a high mountain lake (Ľadové Lake, High Tatra Mts): seasonal development and first indications of a response to decreased acid deposition

    Nedbalová, Linda; Stuchlik, E.; Strunecký, O.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, Sup.18 (2006), S91-S100. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phytoplankton * high mountain lake * episodic acid ification Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  3. Retinol and Riboflavin Supplementation Decreases the Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Pregnant Women Taking Iron and Folic Acid Supplements 1-3

    Aiguo, M.; Schouten, E.G.; Zhang, F.Z.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, F.; Jiang, D.C.; Sun, Y.Y.; Han, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and su

  4. Ruminal and Abomasal Starch Hydrolysate Infusions Selectively Decrease the Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter mRNA by Small Intestinal Epithelia of Forage-fed Beef Steers

    Although cationic amino acids (CAA) are consid-ered essential to maximize optimal growth of cattle, transporters responsible for CAA absorption by bovine small intestinal epithelia have not been described. This study was conducted to test 2 hypotheses: 1) the duo¬denal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia ...

  5. Exposure to Salt and Organic Acids Increases the Ability of Listeria monocytogenes To Invade Caco-2 Cells but Decreases Its Ability To Survive Gastric Stress†

    Garner, Matthew R.; James, Karen E.; Callahan, Michelle C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37°C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-2 cells, and survive exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (pH 2.5 or 4.5). Our results indicate that (i) L. monocytogenes log-phase generation times and maximum cell numbers are not dependent on the alternative sigma factor σB in the presence of NaCl and organic acids at concentrations typically found in foods; (ii) growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes through the addition of organic acids is pH dependent; (iii) the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells is affected by growth phase, temperature, and the presence of salt and organic acids, with the highest relative invasion capabilities observed for cells grown with SL or NaCl at 37°C and pH 7.4; (iv) growth of L. monocytogenes in the presence of NaCl, SD, or SL reduces its ability to survive exposure to gastric fluid; and (v) exposure of L. monocytogenes to gastric fluid reduces the enhanced invasiveness caused by growth in the presence of NaCl or SL. These findings suggest that virulence-associated characteristics that determine the L. monocytogenes infectious dose are likely to be affected by food-specific properties (e.g., pH or the presence of salt or organic acid). PMID:16885290

  6. Exposure to salt and organic acids increases the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells but decreases its ability to survive gastric stress.

    Garner, Matthew R; James, Karen E; Callahan, Michelle C; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2006-08-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37 degrees C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-2 cells, and survive exposure to synthetic gastric fluid (pH 2.5 or 4.5). Our results indicate that (i) L. monocytogenes log-phase generation times and maximum cell numbers are not dependent on the alternative sigma factor sigmaB in the presence of NaCl and organic acids at concentrations typically found in foods; (ii) growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes through the addition of organic acids is pH dependent; (iii) the ability of L. monocytogenes to invade Caco-2 cells is affected by growth phase, temperature, and the presence of salt and organic acids, with the highest relative invasion capabilities observed for cells grown with SL or NaCl at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4; (iv) growth of L. monocytogenes in the presence of NaCl, SD, or SL reduces its ability to survive exposure to gastric fluid; and (v) exposure of L. monocytogenes to gastric fluid reduces the enhanced invasiveness caused by growth in the presence of NaCl or SL. These findings suggest that virulence-associated characteristics that determine the L. monocytogenes infectious dose are likely to be affected by food-specific properties (e.g., pH or the presence of salt or organic acid). PMID:16885290

  7. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S K

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 1...

  8. Transgenic Increase in n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Protects Against Cognitive Deficits Induced by an Immune Challenge through Decrease of Neuroinflammation

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnès; Kang, Jing Xuan; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cogn...

  9. Lipoic acid decreases Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and up regulates Bim on ovarian carcinoma cells leading to cell death.

    Kafara, Perrine; Icard, Philippe; Guillamin, Marilyne; Schwartz, Laurent; Lincet, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer because there is risk of chemoresistance. As previously demonstrated in our laboratory, Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a co-factor for metabolic enzymes, suppresses the tumor growth. In this study, we have researched the mechanisms that are responsible for the activity of LA. Methods We have studied the mechanisms of LA in two ovarian cancer cell lines, a cisplatin sensitive one, IGROV1 and its resistant counterpart...

  10. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

    Cedernaes Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid (FA composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP or resistant (OR on a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1 product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18, de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6 and FA elongation (18:0/16:0. Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher

  11. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C.; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100...

  12. Exposure to Salt and Organic Acids Increases the Ability of Listeria monocytogenes To Invade Caco-2 Cells but Decreases Its Ability To Survive Gastric Stress†

    Garner, Matthew R.; James, Karen E.; Callahan, Michelle C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of environmental stress exposure on Listeria monocytogenes growth and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, we measured the effects of temperature (7 or 37°C), pH (5.5 or 7.4), the presence of salt and organic acids (375 mM NaCl, 8.45 mM sodium diacetate [SD], 275 mM sodium lactate [SL], or a combination of NaCl, SD, and SL), and deletion of sigB, which encodes a key stress response regulator, on the ability of L. monocytogenes to grow, invade Caco-...

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease mortality and Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 production in a rat model of chronic sepsis.

    Barton, R G; Wells, C L; Carlson, A; Singh, R; Sullivan, J J; Cerra, F B

    1991-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that substitution of omega-3 fat for dietary omega-6 fat would reduce mortality and decrease Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in a rat model of chronic sepsis. Rats were fed via gastrostomy for 12 days with isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 15% of calories as either safflower oil (omega-6) or a 10:1 mixture of menhaden oil (omega-3) and safflower oil. After five days of feeding, animals received an intra-abdominal abscess of defined bacterial content. Survivors were killed on post-laparotomy day 6 in conjunction with liver perfusion and protease liver digestion for Kupffer cell isolation. Kupffer cell PGE2 production was measured by radioimmunoassay after 18 hours of cell culture and again after stimulation with 0 LPS, 10 ng/ml LPS, and 10 micrograms/LPS. Mortality was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals compared with safflower oil-fed animals (16% vs. 35%). Kupffer cell PGE2 production was decreased in menhaden oil-fed animals at 18 hours (354 +/- 54 vs. 570 +/- 95 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.09) and after stimulation with 10 micrograms/ml LPS (140 +/- 41 vs. 288 +/- 45 pg/0.1 ml; p = 0.03) compared with safflower oil-fed animals. PMID:2056540

  14. Exogenous calcium alleviates low night temperature stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of tomato leaves.

    Guoxian Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF, and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II], and photochemical quenching (qP, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II, and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity.

  15. Alleviating Media Bias Through Intelligent Agent Blogging

    Diaz-Aviles, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Consumers of mass media must have a comprehensive, balanced and plural selection of news to get an unbiased perspective; but achieving this goal can be very challenging, laborious and time consuming. News stories development over time, its (in)consistency, and different level of coverage across the media outlets are challenges that a conscientious reader has to overcome in order to alleviate bias. In this paper we present an intelligent agent framework currently facilitating analysis of the main sources of on-line news in El Salvador. We show how prior tools of text analysis and Web 2.0 technologies can be combined with minimal manual intervention to help individuals on their rational decision process, while holding media outlets accountable for their work.

  16. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  17. Partial liquid ventilation decreases tissue and serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations in acute lung injury model of immature piglet induced by oleic acid

    ZHU Yao-bin; FAN Xiang-ming; LI Xiao-feng; LI Zhi-qiang; WANG Qiang; SUN Li-zhong; LIU Ying-long

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury in children often results in high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in an immature piglet model of acute lung injury induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced acute lung injury by OA.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups of six animals,(1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with 10 ml/kg FC-77 group.Results Compared with MV group,the PLV group had better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate,mean blood pressure,blood pH,partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2),PaO2/inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).PLV reduced TNF-α levels both in plasma and tissue compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusion PLV provides protective effects against TNF-a response in OA-induced acute lung injury in immature piglets.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  19. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

    Zhong Jian-Kai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat diet plus probucol. Hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages were isolated for [3H] labeled cholesterol efflux rates and expression of ABCA1 and SR-B1 at gene and protein levels; venous blood was collected for serum paraoxonase 1, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid analysis. Aorta were prepared for morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis after 12 weeks. Results Compared to the atherosclerosis group, the paraoxonase 1 activity, cholesterol efflux rates, expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and the level of ABCA1 and SR-BI in aortic lesions were remarkably improved in the probucol group, But the serum HDL cholesterol concentration, myeloperoxidase activity, the IMT and the percentage plaque area of aorta were significantly decreased. Conclusion Probucol alleviated atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. The mechanisms include accelerating the process of reverse cholesterol transport, improving the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions.

  20. Alleviation Effect of Lanthanum on Cadmium Stress in Seedling Hydroponic Culture of Kidney Bean and Corn

    Huang Xiaohua; Zhou Qing

    2006-01-01

    The seedling hydroponic culture experiment of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and corn (Zea mays) was conducted to investigate the alleviation effect of lanthanum on Cd stress.It is found that growth is seriously inhibited and metabolism is maladjusted in the two crops under 30 and 300 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ stress.Plant height, taproot length, leaf area, and fresh or dry weight of root, stem, and leaf are all obviously decreased.Further, chlorophyll content decreases, membrane permeability, malonydialdehyde (MDA) content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increases under Cd stress, as compared with the control.The damage to these two crops becomes more conspicuous with the prolongation of Cd stress.It is suggested that lanthanum might help kidney bean and corn seedlings alleviate Cd stress by improving the photosynthetic capacity, reducing membrane permeability and MDA content, and maintaining the activities of CAT and POD of these two crops.

  1. Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.

    Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

  2. Innovation of Tourism Poverty Alleviation Model: Stakeholder Perspective

    Guoqing HUANG

    2015-01-01

    The research has included the stakeholder theory in regional tourism poverty alleviation study and emphasized the significance of community residents’ involvement in tourism managing process as a core stakeholder and their equal chance of the shared interests. In addition, to construct a new model of tourism poverty alleviation and clarify its mechanism through the comprehensive analysis of other stakeholders’ interest appeals. 

  3. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was inc...

  4. An Online Alternative to Alleviate Communication Apprehension

    Seyit Ahmet Çapan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an affective factor commonly associated with one’s overall performance in a foreign language. As a component of foreign language anxiety, communication apprehension specifically correlates with successful oral production. A plethora of research (Bailey, Onwuegbuzie & Daley, 2003; Foss & Reitzel, 1988 has indicated that high levels of communication apprehension negatively affects one’s L2 communication abilities. Thus, this study intends to remedy negative effects of communication apprehension on EFL learners by virtual meetings held through computer-mediated communication. The participants (N: 18 in this study were selected through purposive sampling. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative techniques. To analyze the data collected, a non-parametric test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, was utilized. The results indicated that computer-mediated communication via voice over IP tools made a significant contribution to alleviate communication apprehension levels in the participants with varying degrees of apprehension levels. The study yielded the most drastic reduction in the high apprehension group, since the participants in this group made a significant progress and ended up with moderate levels of communication apprehension. Also, the participants’ self-reports revealed that computer-mediated communication yielded remarkably positive changes in their attitudes towards communicating in the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that computer-mediated communication helped to increase their intercultural awareness. Finally, participants provided a bunch of practical suggestions as possible solutions for reducing communication apprehension.Keywords: apprehension, communication, computer-mediated, attitudes

  5. Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor

    Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. The dependence of these households on traditional forms of energy leads to significant health impacts as well as other major disbenefits, yet there has been little progress in meeting this challenge. This viewpoint argues for an 'energy-poverty alleviation' fund to help provide modern energy services to these households. It also proposes an approach through which to create such a fund, namely by introducing an incremental levy on petroleum. Notably, this scheme does not need a global agreement since a levy could be introduced by major oil-exporting countries. The implementation of this mechanism would result in a climate-friendly outcome (even before taking into account the elimination of products of incomplete combustion resulting from the traditional household use of biomass-based fuels) while providing immense socio-economic benefits to the world's poor. Such an approach would allow significant progress on the sustainable development front while reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore is very much consistent with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  6. Pomegranate Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Neurotransmitter Alterations in Rats Brain Exposed to Aluminum Chloride and/or Gamma Radiation

    Aluminum and gamma radiation, both are potent neurotoxins and have been implicated in many human neuro degenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the role of pomegranate in alleviating oxidative damage and alteration of neurotransmitters in the brain of rats exposed to aluminum chloride (AlCl3), and/or gamma radiation (IR). The results revealed that rats whole body exposed to γ- rays, (1 Gy/week up to 4 Gy), and/or administered aluminum chloride (35 mg/kg body weight), via gavages for 4 weeks, resulted in brain tissue damage, featuring by significant increase of the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), associated with significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) content indicating occurrence of oxidative stress. A significant decrease of serotonin (5-HT) level associated with a significant increase of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), in addition to a significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) contents recorded at the 1st, 7th and 14th day post-irradiation, indicating alterations in the metabolism of brain monoamines. On the other hand, the results exhibited that, supplementation of rats with pomegranate, via gavages, at a dose of 3 ml /kg body weight/ day, for 4 weeks along with AlCl3 with or without radiation has significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that pomegranate, by its antioxidant constituents might antagonize brain oxidative damage and minimize the severity of aluminum (Al), and/or radiation-induced neurotransmitters disorders

  7. Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation

    Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [125I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the dentate

  8. [THE EFFECT OF SATINS: ACTIVATION OF LIPOLYSIS AND ABSORPTION BY INSULIN-DEPENDED CELLS LIPOPROTEINS OF VERY LOW DENSITY, INCREASING OF BIO-AVAILABILITY OF POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS AND DECREASING OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    Titov, V N; Malyshev, P P; Amelyushkina, V A; Aripovsky, A V; Smirnov, G P; Polevaya, T Yu; Kabo, S I; Kukhartchuk, V V

    2015-10-01

    The Russian cardiologic R&D production complex of Minzdrav of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia The statins are synthetic xenobiotics alien to animal cells. They are unlikely capable to manifest pleiotropic effect. It is feasible to evaluate effect of statins by stages: a) initially a specific inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol alcohol; b) further indirect activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density; c) nonspecific activation of cells' receptor absorption of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density and then d) linoleic and linolenic lipoproteins of low density with all polyenoic fatty acids. On balance, statins activate absorption ofpolyenoic fatty acids by cells. Just they manifest physiological, specific pleiotropic effect. The statins inhibit synthesis of pool of cholesterol alcohol-lipoproteins of very low density condensed between phosphatidylcholines in polar mono-layer phosphatidylcholines+cholesterol alcohol on surface oftriglycerides. The low permeability of mono-layer separates substrate-triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase in hydrophilic blood plasma. The higher is ratio cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines in mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density the slower is lipolysis, formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells under apoB-100-endocytosis. The statins normalize hyperlipemia by force of a) activation of absorption oflipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells and b) activation of absorption of lipoproteins of low density by all cells, increasing of bio-availability of polyenoic fatty acids, activation of apoB-100-endocytosis. The limitation in food of content of palmitic saturated fatty acid and increasing of content of ω-3 polyenoic fatty acids improve "bio-availability" of polyenoic fatty acids and their absorption by cells and also decreases cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines and

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline and N-methylpyridinium, and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. Coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content...... intervention study showed that daily consumption of coffee C21 (750 ml/day) for four weeks decreased spontaneous DNA strand breaks in habitual coffee drinkers after coffee withdrawal over the previous four weeks, but that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided......, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which coffee (including coffee C21) could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline...

  10. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  11. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Yuan GU; Xiao-xiao SUN; Ji-ming YE; Li HE; Shou-sheng YAN; Hao-hao ZHANG; Li-hong HU; Jun-ying YUAN; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG),a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae),against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established.Cell viability was measured using MTT assay.PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression.Silencing of the CaMKKβ,LKB1,and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi).An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels.Results:ATG (2.5,5,and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L).ATG (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p7OS6K signaling and eEF2 activity,which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi.ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration.Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress.Furthermore,ATG (2.5 and 5μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells.Conclusion:ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator,which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK,thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  12. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. PMID:26852952

  13. Effectiveness of Zakah Targeting in Alleviating Poverty in Indonesia

    Rahmatina A Kasri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zakah is a unique Islamic institution targeted to eight groups of recipients with the aim to redistribute income, reduce poverty and achieve social welfare. However, the impacts and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty is rarely measured. This is the main objective of the study. To achieve it, a survey was conducted to collect primary data from zakah recipients in Greater Jakarta Indonesia. The data were subsequently analysed by using descriptive and poverty index analyses. The main results suggest that the incidence, depth and severity of poverty amongst the recipients have decreased due to the contributions from zakah organizations. There are also indications that zakah has been distributed to the most disadvantaged people such as the uneducated and unemployed. The findings provide empirical evidence regarding positive contribution and effectiveness of zakah targeting in reducing poverty in Indonesia. Some policy implications of the findings are also highlighted to enrich discourses on the role of zakah in alleviating poverty in Muslim societies.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i2.3005

  14. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  15. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    Louis G Boddy

    Full Text Available Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR, which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence.

  16. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  17. How to alleviate perineal pain following an episiotomy.

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-03-30

    Rationale and key points An episiotomy increases maternal morbidity in the postnatal period. Alleviating perineal pain is an important aspect of maternal health care. ▶ A combination of pain relief methods, systemic and localised, may be required to alleviate perineal pain associated with an episiotomy. ▶ It is important that midwives and doctors advise women on how to alleviate perineal pain, prevent infection and promote healing following an episiotomy. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The advice you would give to a woman who has recently given birth to alleviate perineal pain. 2. The short and long-term problems associated with perineal pain. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27027195

  18. Artemisia capillaris formula inhibits hepatic steatosis via an miR‑122‑induced decrease in fatty acid synthase expression in vivo and in vitro.

    Liu, Liya; Zhao, Jinyan; Li, Ying; Wan, Yun; Lin, Jiumao; Shen, Aling; Xu, Wei; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuchen; Xu, Jianfeng; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2016-06-01

    Non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widespread health concern, and there is currently insufficient understanding regarding its pathogenesis and treatment. The present study aimed to explore the effects of Artemisia capillaris formula (ACF) on high‑fat diet‑induced hepatic steatosis and fatty acid‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation, by micro (mi)RNA regulation. A total of 72 Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=12/group). One group was designated as the control group and fed a normal diet, and the remaining five groups were allowed ad libitum access to a high‑fat diet for eight weeks, in order to establish an NAFLD rat model. The rats were subsequently administered polyene phosphatidylcholine (PP; 0.076 g/kg body weight/day), low dose of ACF (0.462 g/kg body weight/day), middle dose of ACF (0.924 g/kg body weight/day) or high dose of ACF (1.848 g/kg body weight/day) intragastrically for four weeks. HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with oleic acid and palm acid, followed by treatment with various concentrations of ACF. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‑C), and steatotic HepG2 human liver carcinoma cell TC and TG levels were measured. ACF and PP treatments attenuated high‑fat diet‑induced hepatic steatosis and fatty acid‑induced intracellular lipid accumulation. A modified high‑fat diet significantly increased ALT, AST, TG, TC, LDL‑C levels and decreased HDL‑C levels. Treatment with ACF and PP abrogated the increase in liver enzymes and TG, TC and LDL‑C levels, but did not influence HDL‑C levels in a high‑fat diet induced rat model of steotosis. Steatotic HepG2 cells exhibited significantly increased levels of both TG and TC. Treatment with ACF significantly decreased TC and TG levels in vivo, and ACF and PP

  19. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    Fuwang Wang; Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals....

  20. Scutellarin Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis, Possibly Through Protecting Neural Stem Cells.

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Lu, Lin; Bao, Tian-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Miao; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Scutellarin, a flavonoid extracted from an herbal medication (Erigeron breviscapus Hand-Mazz), has been shown to protect neurons against damage and to promote neurogenesis, and thus has therapeutic potential in the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neural stem cells (NSCs) could differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes, we speculate that scutellarin could also be used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study, we examined potential effects of scutellarin using a mouse model of MS. Briefly, adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone (8 mg/day through diet, for 6 consecutive weeks) randomly received scutellarin (50 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 10 consecutive days. In the scutellarin-treated group, rotarod testing at the end of the treatment showed significant improvement of motor function (increased time to fall); myelin basic protein (MBP) staining of the corpus callosum revealed decreased demyelination; TUNEL staining followed by Nestin or Sox2 staining revealed increased number of NSCs and decreased rate of NSC apoptosis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles (LV). In a series of experiments using cultured NSCs subjected to cuprizone injury, we confirmed the protective effects of scutellarin. At 30 μM, scutellarin increased the commitment of NSCs to the oligodendrocyte and neuronal lineages, as evidenced by NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (NG2) and doublecortin (DCX) staining. Differentiation into astrocytes (as revealed by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining) was decreased. Maturation of the NSCs committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage, as evidenced by oligodendrocyte marker O4 antibody (O4) staining and MBP staining, was also promoted by scutellarin. Further analysis revealed that scutellarin might suppress the phosphorylation of p38 in cuprizone-induced NSCs. In summary, scutellarin could alleviate motor deficits in a mouse model for MS, possibly by inhibiting NSC apoptosis and

  1. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination. PMID:26785556

  2. Research Progress of Tourism-oriented Poverty Alleviation in China

    Guoqing; HUANG; Pengfei; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Through systematic summary of domestic research documents about China’s tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in recent 10 years,it is found that researches mainly focus on 5 aspects:effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation,model and development strategy,benefit of poverty stricken people,practice of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation in specific region,and other related problems.At present,academic circle mainly has weak points of research content,method,object and region in tourism-oriented poverty alleviation.Finally,it points out key research interests:(1)Strengthening combination of qualitative and quantitative researches;(2)Expanding research fields and scope and promoting in-depth researches;(3)Analyzing benefiting mechanism of poverty-stricken people participating in tourism development in depth with poverty-stricken people as research objects;(4)Increasing scale development of perception research on effect of tourism-oriented poverty alleviation and research on measurement testing,to make subsequent research have reliability and comparability.

  3. Alleviating anemia and thrombocytopenia in myelofibrosis patients.

    Cervantes, Francisco; Correa, Juan-Gonzalo; Hernandez-Boluda, Juan Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequent clinical manifestations of myelofibrosis as well as important prognostic factors of the disease. Concerning the treatment of anemia, the first step should be the correction of reversible contributing factors, such as possible iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Then, treatment options include erythropoiesis stimulating agents, androgens, immunomodulating drugs, corticosteroids, and splenectomy. Anemia responses may also be observed in some patients treated with JAK inhibitors. However, most patients eventually fail to such therapies and become transfusion dependent. Some of the aforementioned therapies can also improve thrombocytopenia, but the responses are usually observed in patients with moderate platelet count decrease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the only curative treatment of myelofibrosis, can be an alternative for selected patients with cytopenias who are refractory to conventional therapies. However, for the majority of patients, the management of anemia and severe thrombocytopenia remains an unmet need. PMID:26891375

  4. Reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on bone marrow stromal cells

    Henghui Wang; Weifeng Luo; Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoling Qin; Shiyao Bao

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of reduced glutathione on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which shows a toxic effect on dopaminergic neurons.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with 6-OHDA decreased, while that of BMSCs treated with reduced glutathione increased.The proliferation of BMSCs treated with both 6-OHDA and reduced glutathione was significantly higher compared with that treated with 6-OHDA alone.These findings indicate that reduced glutathione alleviates the toxic effect of 6-OHDA on BMSCs.

  5. Foliar application with nano-silicon alleviates Cd toxicity in rice seedlings.

    Wang, Shihua; Wang, Fayuan; Gao, Shuangcheng

    2015-02-01

    Nanofertilizers may be more effective than regular fertilizers in improving plant nutrition, enhancing nutrition use efficiency, and protecting plants from environmental stress. A hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the role of foliar application with 2.5 mM nano-silicon in alleviating Cd stress in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv Youyou 128) grown in solution added with or without 20 μM CdCl2. The results showed that Cd treatment decreased the growth and the contents of Mg, Fe, Zn, chlorophyll a, and glutathione (GSH), accompanied by a significant increase in Cd accumulation. However, foliar application with nano-Si improved the growth, Mg, Fe, and Zn nutrition, and the contents of chlorophyll a of the rice seedlings under Cd stress and decreased Cd accumulation and translocation of Cd from root to shoot. Cd treatment produced oxidative stress to rice seedlings indicated by a higher lipid peroxidation level (as malondialdehyde (MDA)) and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), and a lower GSH content. However, those nano-Si-treated plants had lower MDA but higher GSH content and different antioxidant enzyme activities, indicating a higher Cd tolerance in them. The results suggested that nano-Si application alleviated Cd toxicity in rice by decreasing Cd accumulation, Cd partitioning in shoot and MDA level and by increasing content of some mineral elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn) and antioxidant capacity. PMID:25217281

  6. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  7. Decreasing relative risk premium

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are...... both risk vulnerable and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  8. Periodontal Probe Improves Exams, Alleviates Pain

    2008-01-01

    Dentists, comedian Bill Cosby memorably mused, tell you not to pick your teeth with any sharp metal object. Then you sit in their chair, and the first thing they grab is an iron hook!" Conventional periodontal probing is indeed invasive, uncomfortable for the patient, and the results can vary greatly between dentists and even for repeated measurements by the same dentist. It is a necessary procedure, though, as periodontal disease is the most common dental disease, involving the loss of teeth by the gradual destruction of ligaments that hold teeth in their sockets in the jawbone. The disease usually results from an increased concentration of bacteria in the pocket, or sulcus, between the gums and teeth. These bacteria produce acids and other byproducts, which enlarge the sulcus by eroding the gums and the periodontal ligaments. The sulcus normally has a depth of 1 to 2 millimeters, but in patients with early stages of periodontal disease, it has a depth of 3 to 5 millimeters. By measuring the depth of the sulcus, periodontists can have a good assessment of the disease s progress. Presently, there are no reliable clinical indicators of periodontal disease activity, and the best available diagnostic aid, periodontal probing, can only measure what has already been lost. A method for detecting small increments of periodontal ligament breakdown would permit earlier diagnosis and intervention with less costly and time-consuming therapy, while overcoming the problems associated with conventional probing. The painful, conventional method for probing may be destined for the archives of dental history, thanks to the development of ultrasound probing technologies. The roots of ultrasound probes are in an ultrasound-based time-of-flight technique routinely used to measure material thickness and length in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Laboratory at Langley Research Center. The primary applications of that technology have been for corrosion detection and bolt tension

  9. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine....... Decreasing relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on...

  10. Urban agriculture and urban poverty alleviation: South African debates

    Christian M. Rogerson

    1998-01-01

    Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.

  11. Alleviating Stress in Parents of High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Possible sources of stress for parents of preterm high-risk infants are reviewed from a research perspective. Stages of parental attachment to their premature baby are spelled out. Strategies for special education teachers to use in alleviating parental stress are described. (JDD)

  12. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  13. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  14. Can Money Laundering Decrease?

    Brigitte Unger

    2013-01-01

    After two decades of research on money laundering, it seems time to look at what we know and what progress has been made in research. One simple question is whether we know if money laundering has increased, stayed constant, or decreased over these years. This article shows that over the last two decades, money laundering could hardly have decreased. This is largely because the concept of money laundering has broadened. However, there are also some hints that traditional areas of laundering s...

  15. Metformin increases hepatic leptin receptor and decreases steatosis in mice.

    Tang, Xuemei; Li, Jingwen; Xiang, Wei; Cui, Ye; Xie, Bin; Wang, Xiaodong; Xu, Zihui; Gan, Lixia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the ascertained efficacy as antidiabetic drug, metformin is increasingly being used as weight-loss agent in obesity, and as insulin sensitizer in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggest metformin as leptin sensitizer to mediate the weight-loss effect in the brain. In this study, we investigated effects of metformin on expression of leptin receptors in liver and kidney in mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed with chow diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) for 5months. Afterward, mice were treated with metformin (50mg/kg or 200mg/kg) for 15days. Metabolic parameters and hepatic gene expression were analyzed at the end of the treatment. We also tested the effects of metformin on plasma-soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and assessed its effect on hepatosteatosis in mice. Results showed that metformin upregulates the expression of leptin receptors (OB-Ra, -Rb, -Rc, and -Rd) in liver but not kidney. The stimulation effect is dose-dependent in both chow and HF mice. Upregulation of OB-Rb, long signaling isoform, needs a relatively higher dose of metformin. This effect was paralleled by increased sOBR levels in mice and T2DM patients, and decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenic gene expression, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1). Taken together, these data identify hepatic leptin receptor as target gene being upregulated by metformin which may enhance leptin sensitivity in liver to alleviate steatosis. PMID:27288055

  16. Load alleviation of wind turbines by yaw misalignment

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the dominating causes of load variations on the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine. To alleviate the varying loads, wind turbine control systems have been augmented with sensors and actuators for individual pitch control. However, the loads caused by a vertical...... wind shear can also be affected through yaw misalignment. Recent studies of yaw control have been focused on improving the yaw alignment to increase the power capture at below rated wind speeds. In this study, the potential of alleviating blade load variations induced by the wind shear through yaw...... applied without power loss for wind speeds above rated wind speed. In deterministic inflow, it is shown that the range of the steady-state blade load variations can be reduced by up to 70%. For turbulent inflows, it is shown that the potential blade fatigue load reductions depend on the turbulence level...

  17. The Role of Forests in Poverty Alleviation: Dealing with Multiple Millennium Development Goals

    Wiersum, K.F.; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A.F.

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief summarises the present state of scientific understanding of the potential contribution of tropical forests to poverty alleviation and highlights the implications of this knowledge for forest-based poverty alleviation policies

  18. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  19. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  20. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    Elisa Capello; Giorgio Guglieri; Fulvia Quagliotti

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. ...

  1. ANTIANGIOGENESIS STRATEGIES REVISITED: FROM STARVING TUMORS TO ALLEVIATING HYPOXIA

    Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ten antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF or its receptors are approved for cancer treatment. However, these agents, intended to block tumors’ blood supply, may cause hypoxia, which may fuel tumor progression and treatment resistance. Emerging clinical data suggest that patients whose tumor perfusion or oxygenation increases in response to these agents may actually survive longer. Hence, strategies aimed at alleviating tumor hypoxia while improving perfusion may enhance the outcome of radiother...

  2. Hypoxic Preconditioning Alleviates Ethanol Neurotoxicity: the Involvement of Autophagy

    Wang, Haiping; Bower, Kimberly A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and neurodegeneration is the most devastating consequence of developmental exposure to ethanol. A sublethal preconditioning has been proposed as a neuroprotective strategy against several central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently demonstrated that autophagy is a protective response to alleviate ethanol toxicity. A modest hypoxic preconditioning (1% oxygen) did not cause neurotoxicity but induced autophagy (Tzeng et al., 2010). We the...

  3. A reconceptualization of social value creation as social constraint alleviation

    Sinkovics, Noemi; Rudolf R Sinkovics; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo; Sinkovics, Noemi; Sinkovics, Rudolf R; Hoque, Samia; Czaban, Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has two interconnected objectives. The first is to provide a reconceptualisation of social value creation as social constraint alleviation. The second is to respond to the call put forward by Giuliani and Macchi (2014) to produce synergies between bodies of literature exploring the development impact of businesses. The paper focuses on ideas from the global value chain/global production networks (GVC/GPN), business and human rights, corporate social responsibility (CSR), ...

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation Alleviates Parkinsonian Bradykinesia by Regularizing Pallidal Activity

    Dorval, Alan D.; Kuncel, Alexis M.; Birdno, Merrill J.; Turner, Dennis A.; Grill, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia can alleviate the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease although the therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that DBS relieves symptoms by minimizing pathologically disordered neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. In human participants with parkinsonism and clinically effective deep brain leads, regular (i.e., periodic) high-frequency stimulation was replaced with irregular (i.e., aperiodic) stimulation at the same mean frequency ...

  5. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  6. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  7. EFFECTS OF SILICON ON ALLEVIATING ARSENIC TOXICITY IN MAIZE PLANTS

    Airon José da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a metalloid highly toxic to plants and animals, causing reduced plant growth and various health problems for humans and animals. Silicon, however, has excelled in alleviating stress caused by toxic elements in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Si in alleviating As stress in maize plants grown in a nutrient solution and evaluate the potential of the spectral emission parameters and the red fluorescence (Fr and far-red fluorescence (FFr ratio obtained in analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in determination of this interaction. An experiment was carried out in a nutrient solution containing a toxic rate of As (68 μmol L-1 and six increasing rates of Si (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mmol L-1. Dry matter production and concentrations of As, Si, and photosynthetic pigments were then evaluated. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also measured throughout plant growth. Si has positive effects in alleviating As stress in maize plants, evidenced by the increase in photosynthetic pigments. Silicon application resulted in higher As levels in plant tissue; therefore, using Si for soil phytoremediation may be a promising choice. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis proved to be a sensitive tool, and it can be successfully used in the study of the ameliorating effects of Si in plant protection, with the Fr/FFr ratio as the variable recommended for identification of temporal changes in plants.

  8. The Alleviating Effect of Elevated CO2 on Heat Stress Susceptibility of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    Shanmugam, Sindhuja; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva; Sharma, Dew Kumari; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day...

  9. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate liver fibrosis in rats

    Chai, Ning-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Si-Wen; Fan, Ke-Xing; Linghu, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in the treatment of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Cultured human UC-MSCs were isolated and transfused into rats with liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). The effects of UC-MSCs transfusion on liver fibrosis were then evaluated by histopathology; serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were also measured. Furthermore, Kupffer cells (KCs) in fibrotic livers were isolated and cultured to analyze their phenotype. Moreover, UC-MSCs were co-cultured with KCs in vitro to assess the effects of UC-MSCs on KCs’ phenotype, and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants. Finally, UC-MSCs and KCs were cultured in the presence of IL-4 antibodies to block the effects of this cytokine, followed by phenotypical analysis of KCs. RESULTS: UC-MSCs transfused into rats were recruited by the injured liver and alleviated liver fibrosis, increasing serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels. Interestingly, UC-MSCs promoted mobilization of KCs not only in fibrotic livers, but also in vitro. Co-culture of UC-MSCs with KCs resulted in increased production of IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of IL-4 antibodies into the co-culture system resulted in decreased KC mobilization. CONCLUSION: UC-MSCs could increase IL-4 and promote mobilization of KCs both in vitro and in vivo, subsequently alleviating the liver fibrosis induced by DMN.

  10. Thymoquinone Alleviates the Experimental Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Modulation of Inflammation.

    Chen, Long; Li, Bing; Chen, Biqin; Shao, Yiye; Luo, Qiong; Shi, Xiaohong; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This study investigated the effects of TQ on proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells exposed to high glucose conditions and electrophysiological and morphological changes of the sciatic nerve in a DPN rat model as well as relevant inflammatory mechanism. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of Schwann cells were measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry. DPN model was established in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nerve conduction velocity was measured before and after treatment. Morphologic changes were observed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and Caspase-3 expression was investigated by western blotting and Bio-Plex Pro(TM) Assays. Finally, TQ alleviated the inhibition of Schwann cell proliferation and protected against Schwann cell apoptosis. It improved nerve conduction velocity, and alleviated the DPN-induced morphological changes and demyelination of the sciatic nerve. COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and Caspase-3 expression in sciatic nerve or isolated cultured Schwann cells, were also decreased by TQ. These results indicate TQ has a protective effect on peripheral nerves in a DPN rat model. The mechanism may be mediated partly by the modulation of the inflammatory reaction. PMID:27545310

  11. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice

    LI Shu Gang; GUO Shu Xia; DING Yu Song; NIU Qiang; XU Shang Zhi; PANG Li Juan; MA Ru Lin; JING Ming Xia; FENG Gang Ling; LIU Jia Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in alleviating arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. Methods Sixty male Kunming mice received the following treatments by gavage: normal saline solution (control); arsenic trioxide (ATO; 4 mg/kg); GSPE (400 mg/kg); ATO+GSPE (100 mg/kg);ATO+GSPE (200 mg/kg) and ATO+GSPE (400 mg/kg). Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and the testis was examined for pathological changes. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) expression in the testis was detected by real-time PCR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and reproductive indexes were analyzed. Results ATO-treated mice showed a significantly decreased sperm count and testis somatic index and activity levels of SOD, GSH, and T-AOC than control group. Compared to the ATO-treated group, ATO+GSPE group showed recovery of the measured parameters. Mice treated with ATO+high-dose GSPE showed the highest level of mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO, NQO1, and GST. Conclusion GSPE alleviates oxidative stress damage in mouse testis by activating Nrf2 signaling, thus counteracting arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

  12. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Qianqian Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  13. Dimension decreasing of featurespace

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.; Zolotová, I.

    Košice: TU Košice, 2008 - (Vokorokos,, L.), s. 49-53 ISBN 978-80-553-0066-5. [International Conference on Applied Electrical Engineering and Informatics 2008. Athens (GR), 08.09.2008-11.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decision * feature space * dimension reduction * Karhunen - Loeve transformation * principal component method Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/klimesova-dimension decreasing of featurespace.pdf

  14. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  15. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  16. Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages.

    Tamari, Farshad; Tychowski, Joanna; Lorentzen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The positive role of fatty acids in the prevention and alleviation of non-human and human diseases have been and continue to be extensively documented. These roles include influences on infectious and non-infectious diseases including prevention of inflammation as well as mucosal immunity to infectious diseases. Cholera is an acute intestinal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It occurs in developing nations and if left untreated, can result in death. While vaccines for cholera exist, they are not always effective and other preventative methods are needed. We set out to determine tolerable concentrations of three fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and cholera toxin using mouse BALB/C macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. We solubilized the above fatty acids and used cell proliferation assays to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of the fatty acids that are not detrimental to human intestinal epithelial cell viability. We solubilized cholera toxin and used it in an assay to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of cholera toxin that do not statistically decrease cell viability in BALB/C macrophages. We found the optimum fatty acid concentrations to be between 1-5 ng/μl, and that for cholera toxin to be < 30 ng per treatment. This data may aid future studies that aim to find a protective mucosal role for fatty acids in prevention or alleviation of cholera infections. PMID:23748896

  17. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity alleviates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Keung, Wendy; Ussher, John R.; Jaswal, Jagdip S.; Raubenheimer, Monique; Lam, Victoria H.M.; Wagg, Cory S.; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    Impaired skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation has been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, increasing muscle fatty acid oxidation may cause a reciprocal decrease in glucose oxidation, which might impair insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. We therefore investigated what effect inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake has on whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese insulin-resistant mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-f...

  18. A progress report on the Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Cox, E.R.; Havens, J.S.

    1965-01-01

    At Malaga Bend on the Pecos River in Eddy County, New Mexico, a brine aquifer about 1950 feet below the stream channel has a pressure head about 10 feet above the river bed. This aquifer normally discharges about 430 tons of dissolved minerals daily into the river of which about 370 tons was sodium chloride. The Malaga Bend Experimental Salinity Alleviation Project, authorized by the U.S. Congress in 1958, Public Law 85-333,is an attempt to determine if the salinity content of the Pecos River below Malaga Bend can be decreased by reducing the inflow of saline water into the river at Malaga Bend by pumping from the brine aquifer. Construction for the project was supervised by the Bureau of Reclamation, and the collection of data and its interpretation were the responsibility cooperatively of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Pecos River Commission.

  19. The pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril

    Chao-Jie Zhou; Bin Hu; Jian-Min Liu; Han-Min Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pathogenesis mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and alleviation of simvastatin combined benazepril.Methods: SD rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic group, SP00125 group and simvastatin combined benazepril group. The cardiac function and serum MDA, SOD, HLD and LDL were detected. The expression of JNK signaling pathway key proteins were analyzed by Western Blotting.Results:The content of HDL and SOD was decreased while MDA and LDL were increased in diabetic group. The expression of JNK and pJNK was also found increased in diabetic group. Simvastatin combined benazepril medication can normalize those abnormalities greatly.Conclusion:Over-activated JNK signaling pathway was involved in diabetic cardiomyopathy and simvastatin combined benazepril exert function by inhibiting JNK pathway.

  20. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN. PMID:27234491

  1. Electrical stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis alleviates severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Luyten, L; Hendrickx, S; Raymaekers, S; Gabriëls, L; Nuttin, B

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, we proposed deep brain stimulation as a last-resort treatment option for patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 24 OCD patients were included in a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). We find that electrical stimulation in the ALIC/BST area is safe and significantly decreases obsessions, compulsions, and associated anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves global functioning in a blinded crossover trial (n=17), after 4 years (n=18), and at last follow-up (up to 171 months, n=24). Moreover, our data indicate that BST may be a better stimulation target compared with ALIC to alleviate OCD symptoms. We conclude that electrical stimulation in BST is a promising therapeutic option for otherwise treatment-resistant OCD patients. PMID:26303665

  2. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    Elisa Capello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. Moreover, if the controller parameters are tuned for a specific gust model, even if the gust frequency changes, no parameter retuning is required.

  3. Restriction alleviation by bacteriophages lambda and lambda reverse.

    Toothman, P

    1981-01-01

    Deletion analysis indicated that the phage lambda restriction alleviation gene(s) ral resides between the cIII and N genes. The Ral+ phenotype was expressed only when lambda ral+ carried a modification such that it was resistant to restriction by the host specificity system. Under these conditions, Ral function protected superinfecting unmodified phages from restriction by EcoK or EcoB but not from restriction by EcoP1. Ral-protected phage DNA was not concomitantly K and B modified, but rathe...

  4. Can housing wealth alleviate poverty among Britain's older population?

    Ruth Hancock

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for housing wealth to alleviate poverty among Britain’s older population by modelling the potential effect of equity-release schemes on the net incomes of older homeowners using data from the 1993-94 and 1994-95 Family Expenditure Surveys. We find that, for the older population in general, the potential impact of equity release on poverty is limited by the positive association between homeownership and income in later life. The scope for equity release to enh...

  5. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  6. Alleviating effects of morin against experimentally-induced diabetic osteopenia

    Abuohashish Hatem M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant flavonoids are emerging as potent therapeutic drugs effective against a wide range of aging diseases particularly bone metabolic disorders. Morin (3,5,7,20,40-pentahydroxyflavone, a member of flavonols, is an important bioactive compound by interacting with nucleic acids, enzymes and protein. The present study was designed to investigate the putative beneficial effect of morin on diabetic osteopenia in rats. Methods Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic model was used by considering 300 mg/dl fasting glucose level as diabetic. Morin (15 and 30 mg/kg was treated for five consecutive weeks to diabetic rats. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, deoxypyridinoline cross links (DPD, osteocalcin (OC, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated. Femoral bones were taken for micro CT scan to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD and other morphometric parameters. Results Significant bone loss was documented as the level of bone turnover parameters including DPD, OC, BALP and CTX were increased in serum of diabetic rats. Morin treatment significantly attenuated these elevated levels. Bone micro-CT scan of diabetic rats showed a significant impairment in trabecular bone microarchitecture, density and other morphometric parameters. These impairments were significantly ameliorated by morin administration. Serum levels of glucose, TBARS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated, while the level of insulin and GSH was decreased in diabetic rats. These serum changes in diabetic rats were bring back to normal values after 5 weeks morin treatment. Conclusion These findings revealed the protective effect of morin against diabetic induced osteopenia. We believed that this effect is through its both the anti

  7. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  8. Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

    Ming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

  9. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27423629

  10. Alleviation of Al Toxicity in Barley by Addition of Calcium

    GUO Tian-rong; CHEN Ying; ZHANG Yan-hua; JIN Ye-fei

    2006-01-01

    The potential mechanism by which Ca alleviates Al toxicity was investigated in barley seedlings. It was found that 100 μM Al-alone treatment inhibited barley plant growth and thereby reduced shoot height and root length, and dry weights of root, shoot and leaf; promoted Al accumulation but inhibited Ca absorption in plant tissues; and induced an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) and in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) in leaves. Except for the increase in Ca concentration in plant tissues, treatment with 0.5 mM Ca in the absence of Al had less effect on the above-mentioned parameters, compared with the control. Addition of Ca efficiently reduced Al toxicity, which is reflected by the promotion of plant growth, reduction in Al concentration and MDA content,increase in Ca concentration and in SOD, POD, and CAT activities compared with the Al-alone-treatment; with increase in Ca level (3.0 mM), the ameliorative effect became more dominant. This indicated that the alleviation of aluminum toxicity in barley seedlings with Ca supplementation could be associated with less absorption of Al and the enhancement of the protective ability of the cell because of increased activity of the antioxidative enzyme.

  11. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  12. A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic.

    Mathew, Geetha; Thambi, Magith; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2014-02-01

    The conflict between our 'primitive' genes and 'modern' lifestyle probably lies at the root of several disorders that afflict modern man. Atherosclerosis, which is relatively unknown among contemporary hunter-gatherer populations, has reached pandemic proportions in recent times. Being an evolutionary problem with several inter-related pathologies, current therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis has inherent limitations. Reviewing evolution-linked risk factors suggests that there are four aspects to the etiology of atherosclerosis namely, decreased intestinal parasitism, oversensitivity of evolutionarily redundant mast cells, chronic underactivation of AMPK (cellular energy sensor) and a deficiency of vitamin D. A combination of these four causes appear to have precipitated the atherosclerosis pandemic in modern times. Man and worms co-existed symbiotically in the past. Massive de-worming campaigns could have disrupted this symbiosis, increasing nutritional availability to man (pro-obesity) at the cost of decreased immunotolerance (pro-atherogenicity). A reduction in helminth-induced chronic TH2 activation could also have enhanced TH1 polarization, eventually disrupting the reciprocal regulation of TH1/TH2 balance and resulting in atherosclerosis. The riddance of helminth infestations may have rendered mast cells immunologically redundant, making them oversensitive to inflammatory stimuli, thereby playing a pro-atherogenic role. AMPK activation exerts pleiotropic anti-atherogenic effects, such as suppression of fatty acid, cholesterol, protein synthesis, reduction of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, etc. As energy deficit is the chief stimulus for AMPK activation, the over-nourished modern man appears to be suffering from chronic underactivation of AMPK, legitimising the unrivalled supremacy of metformin, the oldest prescribed antidiabetic drug. The fact that humans evolved in the sunny tropics suggests that humans are selected for high vitamin D

  13. Sublethal concentrations of salicylic acid decrease the formation of reactive oxygen species but maintain an increased nitric oxide production in the root apex of the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe tomato mutants

    Tari, Irma; Poór, Péter; Gémes, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of salicylic acid (SA)-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were different in the apex of adventitious roots in wild-type and in the ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (Nr) mutants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Ailsa Craig). ROS were upregulated, while NO remained at the control level in apical root tissues of wildtype plants exposed to sublethal concentrations of SA. In contrast, Nr plants expressing a defective ethylene receptor displaye...

  14. Long-Term Persistence of Infection in Chimpanzees Inoculated with an Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Clone Is Associated with a Decrease in the Viral Amino Acid Substitution Rate and Low Levels of Heterogeneity

    Fernandez, Javier; Taylor, Deborah; Morhardt, Duncan R.; Mihalik, Kathleen; Puig, Montserrat; Rice, Charles M.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Major, Marian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two chimpanzees, 1535 and 1536, became persistently infected following inoculation with RNA transcripts from cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Analysis of the HCV genomes from both animals showed an accumulation of amino acid substitutions over time. The appearance of substitutions in the envelope genes was associated with increased antienvelope antibody titers. However, extensive mutations were not incorporated into hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). A comparison of the nonsynonymous subst...

  15. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice. PMID:27115160

  16. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  17. The alleviative effect of xanthan gum on pain%黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用

    邵华荣; 韩冠英; 凌沛学; 赵丽娟; 张天民

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the alleviative effect of xanthan gum(XG)on pain. Methods Pain models were induced through the mice intraperitoneal injected with acetic acid and the left knees of the rats intra-articularly injected with monosodium iodoacetate ( MIA ), respectively. The alleviative effect of XG on pain was evaluated through pain related behaviors tests. Results XG significantly prolonged the initial appearance of writhing response,and meanwhile it reduced the times of writhing response within 15 min after exposure of the mice to acetic acid. Intra-articular injection of XG significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold and weight bearing of the MIA-treated limbs. Conclusion XG had obvious alleviative effect on pain.%目的 研究黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.方法 分别采用小鼠腹腔注射醋酸及大鼠左后肢关节腔注射碘乙酸钠诱导疼痛模型,前者以小鼠扭体反应潜伏期和扭体次数为指标,后者以大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值和承重分布为指标,评价黄原胶对疼痛的缓解作用.结果 与生理盐水组相比,黄原胶可明显延长小鼠扭体反应的潜伏期并减少扭体次数,显著抑制碘乙酸钠诱导的大鼠左后肢机械缩足阈值及承重分布的降低.结论 黄原胶可显著缓解疼痛.

  18. Using nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during the transition period for herd-level monitoring of increased risk of disease and decreased reproductive and milking performance.

    Ospina, Paula A; McArt, Jessica A; Overton, Thomas R; Stokol, Tracy; Nydam, Daryl V

    2013-07-01

    Dairy cows visit a state of negative energy balance (NEB) as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. At the individual level, there are several metabolic adaptations to manage NEB, including mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat reserves and glucose sparing for lactogenesis. Based on current pen-level feeding and management practices, strategies to minimize excessive NEB in both the individual and herd should focus on herd-level testing and management. This article reviews strategies for testing and monitoring of excessive NEB at the herd level through individual testing of 2 energy markers: NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:23809897

  19. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1.

    Liang, Xingsi; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Quan; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Biao; Li, Bo; Wei, Yangchao; Zhai, Run; Liang, Zhiqing; He, Songqing; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI). The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We have also shown via in vitro and in vivo experiments that alpinetin upregulates aquaporin-1 and, thereby, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α expression as well as reduces the degree of lung injury. Overall, our study shows that alpinetin alleviates SAP-induced ALI. The likely molecular mechanism includes upregulated aquaporin expression, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and, thus, alleviates SAP-induced ALI. PMID:26966354

  20. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  1. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  2. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  3. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  4. Music-reading training alleviates crowding with musical notation.

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2016-06-01

    Crowding refers to the disrupted recognition of an object by nearby distractors. Prior work has shown that real-world music-reading experts experience reduced crowding specifically for musical stimuli. However, it is unclear whether music-reading training reduced the magnitude of crowding or whether individuals showing less crowding are more likely to learn and excel in music reading later. To examine the first possibility, we tested whether crowding can be alleviated by music-reading training in the laboratory. Intermediate-level music readers completed 8 hr of music-reading training within 2 weeks. Their threshold duration for reading musical notes dropped by 44.1% after training to a level comparable with that of extant expert music readers. Importantly, crowding was reduced with musical stimuli but not with the nonmusical stimuli Landolt Cs. In sum, the reduced crowding for musical stimuli in expert music readers can be explained by music-reading training. PMID:27322085

  5. Absence of functional alternative complement pathway alleviates lupus cerebritis.

    Alexander, Jessy J; Jacob, Alexander; Vezina, Paul; Sekine, Hideharu; Gilkeson, Gary S; Quigg, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The complement inhibitor, Crry, which blocks both the classical and alternative pathways, alleviates CNS disease in the lupus model, MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) mice. To understand the role of the alternative pathway, we studied mice deficient in a key alternative pathway protein, complement factor B (fB). Immune deposits (IgG and C3) were reduced in the brains of MRL/lpr fB-deficient (fB-/-MRL/lpr) compared to fB-sufficient (MRL/lpr) mice, indicating reduced complement activation. Reduced neutrophil infiltration (22% of MRL/lpr mice) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity was reduced to 33% of MRL/lpr mice) in these mice indicates that the absence of the alternative pathway was neuroprotective. Furthermore, expression of phospho (p)-Akt (0.16+/-0.02 vs. 0.35+/-0.13, pcerebritis. PMID:17523212

  6. Ginkgolide B functions as a determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Wu, Fugen; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Guojun; Yao, Hongyi; Xu, Chengyun; Xiao, Weiqiang; Wu, Junsong; Wu, Ximei

    2016-07-01

    Ginkgolides are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the exact constituents of Ginkgolides contributing to their pharmacological effects remain unknown. Herein, we have determined the anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolides mixture (GM) at equivalent dosages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. RAW 264.7 cell culture model and mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of GB and GM, respectively. In RAW 264.7 cells, GB and GM at equivalent dosages exhibit an identical capacity to attenuate LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression and subsequent NO production. Likewise, GB and GM possess almost the same potency in attenuating LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and subsequent increases in tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. In LPS-induced pulmonary injury, GB and GM at the equivalent dosages have equal efficiency in attenuating the accumulation of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and in improving the histological damage of lungs. Moreover, GB and GM at equivalent dosages decrease the exudation of plasma protein to the same degree, whereas GM is superior to GB in alleviating myeloperoxidase activities. Finally, though GB and GM at equivalent dosages appear to reduce LPS-induced IL-1β mRNA and protein levels and IL-10 protein levels to the same degree, GM is more potent than GB to attenuate the IL-10 mRNA levels. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GB functions as the determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:27261579

  7. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  8. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  9. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H2S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H2S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H2S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H2S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H2S and H2S-mediated inflammation

  10. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    Highlights: ► AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. ► We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. ► RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. ► It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RARα. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1–100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  11. In vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and enhances development of tissue-engineered tubular cartilage

    Luo Xusong; Zhou Guangdong; Liu Wei; Zhang Wenjie; Cui Lei; Cao Yilin [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Cen Lian, E-mail: guangdongzhou@126.co, E-mail: yilincao@yahoo.co [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Tissue-engineered tubular cartilage is a promising graft for tracheal reconstruction. But polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid (PLA/PGA) fibers, the frequently used scaffolds for cartilage engineering, often elicit an obvious inflammation response following implantation into immunocompetent animals. We propose that the inflammation could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation. In this study, after in vitro culture for either 2 days (direct implantation group (DI)) or for 2 weeks (precultivation implantation group (PI)), autologous tubular chondrocyte-PLA/PGA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into rabbits. In the PI group, after 2 weeks of precultivation, most of the fibers were found to be completely embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the chondrocytes. Importantly, no obvious inflammatory reaction was observed after in vivo implantation and homogeneous cartilage-like tissue was formed with biomechanical properties close to native tracheal cartilage at 4 weeks post-implantation. In the DI group, however, an obvious inflammatory reaction was observed within and around the cell-scaffold constructs at 1 week implantation and only sporadic cartilage islands separated by fibrous tissue were observed at 4 weeks. These results demonstrated that the post-implantation inflammatory reaction could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation, which contributes to the formation of satisfactory tubular cartilage for tracheal reconstruction.

  12. In vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and enhances development of tissue-engineered tubular cartilage

    Tissue-engineered tubular cartilage is a promising graft for tracheal reconstruction. But polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid (PLA/PGA) fibers, the frequently used scaffolds for cartilage engineering, often elicit an obvious inflammation response following implantation into immunocompetent animals. We propose that the inflammation could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation. In this study, after in vitro culture for either 2 days (direct implantation group (DI)) or for 2 weeks (precultivation implantation group (PI)), autologous tubular chondrocyte-PLA/PGA constructs were subcutaneously implanted into rabbits. In the PI group, after 2 weeks of precultivation, most of the fibers were found to be completely embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the chondrocytes. Importantly, no obvious inflammatory reaction was observed after in vivo implantation and homogeneous cartilage-like tissue was formed with biomechanical properties close to native tracheal cartilage at 4 weeks post-implantation. In the DI group, however, an obvious inflammatory reaction was observed within and around the cell-scaffold constructs at 1 week implantation and only sporadic cartilage islands separated by fibrous tissue were observed at 4 weeks. These results demonstrated that the post-implantation inflammatory reaction could be alleviated by in vitro precultivation, which contributes to the formation of satisfactory tubular cartilage for tracheal reconstruction.

  13. Exogenous auxin alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana by stimulating synthesis of hemicellulose 1 and increasing the cadmium fixation capacity of root cell walls

    Zhu, Xiao Fang [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Zhi Wei [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Dong, Fang; Lei, Gui Jie [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shi, Yuan Zhi [The Key Laboratory of Tea Chemical Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture, Yunqi Road 1, Hangzhou 310008 (China); Li, Gui Xin, E-mail: guixinli@zju.edu.cn [College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zheng, Shao Jian [Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd reduces endogenous auxin levels in Arabidopsis. • Exogenous applied auxin NAA increases Cd accumulation in the roots but decreases in the shoots. • NAA increases cell wall hemicellulose 1 content. • Hemicellulose 1 retains Cd and makes it difficult to be translocated to shoots. • NAA rescues Cd-induced chlorosis. -- Abstract: Auxin is involved in not only plant physiological and developmental processes but also plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) stress decreased the endogenous auxin level, whereas exogenous auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA, a permeable auxin analog) reduced shoot Cd{sup 2+} concentration and rescued Cd{sup 2+}-induced chlorosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Under Cd{sup 2+} stress conditions, NAA increased Cd{sup 2+} retention in the roots and most Cd{sup 2+} in the roots was fixed in hemicellulose 1 of the cell wall. NAA treatment did not affect pectin content and its binding capacity for Cd{sup 2+}, whereas it significantly increased the content of hemicellulose 1 and the amount of Cd{sup 2+} retained in it. There were highly significant correlations between Cd{sup 2+} concentrations in the root, cell wall and hemicellulose 1 when the plants were subjected to Cd{sup 2+} or NAA + Cd{sup 2+} treatment for 1 to 7 d, suggesting that the increase in hemicellulose 1 contributes greatly to the fixation of Cd{sup 2+} in the cell wall. Taken together, these results demonstrate that auxin-induced alleviation of Cd{sup 2+} toxicity in Arabidopsis is mediated through increasing hemicellulose 1 content and Cd{sup 2+} fixation in the root, thus reducing the translocation of Cd{sup 2+} from roots to shoots.

  14. Folic acid

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21, a coffee standardised by its content of caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline and N-methylpyridinium, and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from Tchibo GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of DNA damage by decreasing spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health ...

  16. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits the recruitment of ARNT to DNA, resulting in the decrease of CYP1A1 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells

    Ohno, Marumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, N18 W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHR and ARNT transcriptionally regulate genes related to metabolisms such as CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of retinoic acid (RA) on the function of AHR/ARNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA inhibited the recruitment of ARNT, not AHR, to the regulatory region of CYP1A1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It resulted in a reduction of constitutive expression of CYP1A1 to less than half. -- Abstract: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) are well-conserved transcription factors among species. However, there are a very limited number of reports on the physiological function of AHR, particularly on the regulation of AHR by endogenous compounds. We hence investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene transcription as a model of AHR-regulated transcription mechanisms in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced transactivation and expression of CYP1A1 mRNA to less than half of its control value, and this inhibitory effect was mediated by RAR{alpha}. The result of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that treatment with atRA at 1-100 nM drastically inhibited the recruitment of ARNT to DNA regions containing xenobiotic responsive elements. In conclusion, atRA at physiological concentrations could reduce AHR-mediated gene transcription via the inhibition of recruitment of ARNT to relevant DNA regions.

  17. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  18. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China

    Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Jue; Lai, Sha; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China. Methods The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR), poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS. Results For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased) for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased) for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively. Conclusion The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. PMID:27380417

  19. Alleviation of membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with electrochemical oxidation mediated by in-situ free chlorine generation.

    Chung, Chong Min; Tobino, Tomohiro; Cho, Kangwoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The control of membrane fouling is still the biggest challenge that membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment faces with. In this report, we evince that an in-situ electrochemical free chlorine generation is effective for membrane fouling mitigation. An electrochemical oxidation (EO) apparatus with perforated Ti/IrO2 anodes and Ti/Pt cathodes was integrated into a conventional MBR with microfiltration module (EO-MBR). The membrane fouling characteristics of EO-MBR fed with synthetic wastewater were monitored for about 2 months in comparison to control MBRs. In the EO-MBR at a direct current density of 0.4 mA/cm(2), the frequency of membrane fouling when the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) reached 30 kPa was effectively reduced by 40% under a physical membrane cleaning regime. The evolution patterns of TMP together with hydraulic resistance analysis based on resistance-in-series model indicated that the electrochemically generated active chlorine alleviated the physically irremovable membrane fouling. Further analysis on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge cake layer (SCL) revealed significant reductions of protein contents in soluble EPS and fluorescence emission intensities from humic acids and other fluorophores in bound EPS, which in-turn would decrease the hydrophobic accumulation of organic foulants on membrane pores. The chlorine dosage from the EO apparatus was estimated to be 4.7 mg Cl2/g MLVSS/day and the overall physicochemical properties (bio-solids concentration, floc diameter, zeta-potential) as well as the microbial activity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (>97%) were not affected significantly. A T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis suggested noticeable shifts in microbial community both in mixed liquor and sludge cake layer. Consequently, our electrochemical chlorination would be an efficient fouling control strategy in membrane

  20. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  1. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  2. AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates the hepatocyte model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via inactivating p38MAPK pathway.

    Zhang, Hong-Ai; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Yan-Feng

    2016-05-27

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a wide spectrum of liver damage with a worldwide prevalence of almost 20%. AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) is an energy sensor that plays a key role in regulating lipid metabolism of the liver. This study explores the role of AMPKα1 overexpression in a steatotic hepatocyte model. The results displayed that the AMPKα1 overexpression suppressed lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm, decreased triglyceride levels, maintained the survival of steatotic hepatocyte model with decreased cell apoptosis and increased survival rate. Besides, AMPKα1 overexpression promoted the expression of lipid catabolism-related genes, reduced the level of anabolism-related genes, alleviated the inflammatory response by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, AMPKα1 overexpression could inhibit the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Finally, Anisomycin, a frequently-used activator of p38MAPK, reversed the inhibitory effect of pc-AMPKα1 on the expression of p-p38MAPK, suggesting that AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates inflammatory response through the inactivation of p38MAPK. These results indicated that AMPKα1 may serve as a novel target for treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27109475

  3. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway.

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  4. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Tang Bo; Wu Zhigang; Yang Chao

    2016-01-01

    Gust load alleviation (GLA) tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and veri-fied. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compen-sating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude sat-urations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  5. Aeroelastic scaling laws for gust load alleviation control system

    Tang Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gust load alleviation (GLA tests are widely conducted to study the effectiveness of the control laws and methods. The physical parameters of models in these tests are aeroelastic scaled, while the scaling of GLA control system is always unreached. This paper concentrates on studying the scaling laws of GLA control system. Through theoretical demonstration, the scaling criterion of a classical PID control system has been come up and a scaling methodology is provided and verified. By adopting the scaling laws in this paper, gust response of the scaled model could be directly related to the full-scale aircraft theoretically under both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Also, the influences of different scaling choices of an important non-dimensional parameter, the Froude number, have been studied in this paper. Furthermore for practical application, a compensating method is given when the theoretical scaled actuators or sensors cannot be obtained. Also, the scaling laws of some non-linear elements in control system such as the rate and amplitude saturations in actuator have been studied and examined by a numerical simulation.

  6. 扶贫研究概述%On Poverty Alleviation

    肖立新

    2011-01-01

    贫困是一个伴随着人类生存和发展的历史性问题;同时,贫困也是一个存在于发达国家和发展中国家的世界性问题。2011年起,我国对农村低收入人口全面实施扶贫政策,实行新的扶贫标准,新标准提高到人均1500元,扶贫对象覆盖9000万人左右,标志着我国扶贫开发进入一个新阶段。但这也意味着我国扶贫工作的长期性、艰巨性。为此,作者对贫困、扶贫的国内外研究现状进行梳理,以期为相关的研究和扶贫实践提供理论借鉴和实践借鉴。%Poverty is a historical problem that accompanied by survival and development of humankind.Meanwhile,poverty is also a world-wide problem that exists in developed and developing countries.Since 2011,China has carried out policies of poverty alleviation on

  7. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface.

    Kopittke, Peter M; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-06-01

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short-term experiments were conducted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solutions to examine the alleviation of Cu and Pb toxicities by Al, Ca, H, Mg, and Na. For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of ψ(0)(o) (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM) and thereby decreased {Cu(2+)}(0)(o) (activity of Cu(2+) at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb(2+) in the bulk solution than to {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). However, we propose that the addition of cations resulted in a decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o) but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of E(m,surf), the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). In addition, Ca was found to alleviate Pb toxicity through a specific effect. Although our data do not preclude site-specific competition (as incorporated in the BLM), we suggest that electrostatic effects have an important role. PMID:21563792

  8. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates alleviation of cadmium toxicity induced by calcium in rice seedlings

    Long Zhang; Zhen Chen; Cheng Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on rice seedling growth under cadmium chloride (CdCl2) stress,as well as the possible role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in this process,was studied.The growth of rice seedlings was seriously inhibited by CdCl2,and the inhibition was significantly mitigated by CaCl2.However,hemoglobin (Hb) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) weakened the promotion effect of CaCl2.The resuhs of NO fluorescence localization suggest that growth accelerated by CaCl2 might be associated with elevated NO levels.The content of Cd,protein thiols (PBT),and nonprotein thiols (NPT) in cell walls,cell organelles,and soluble fractions,respectively,of rice seedlings decreased considerably in the presence of CaCl2,whereas the content of pectin,hemicellulose 1 (HC1),and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) increased significantly.Elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment could promote the transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions and increase the content of NPT and PBT in leaves.In addition,transportation of Cd2+ to cell organelles and soluble fractions was retarded in roots,the content of NPT increased,and the content of PBT decreased.With elimination of endogenous NO in Cd+Ca treatment,the content of pectin,HC 1,and HC2 decreased significantly.Thus,Ca may alleviate Cd toxicity via endogenous NO with variation in the levels of NPT,PBT,and matrix polysaccharides.

  9. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress. PMID:25308099

  10. Inhibition of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response by acetylcholine alleviated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells.

    Xu, Man; Bi, Xueyuan; He, Xi; Yu, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Ming; Zang, Weijin

    2016-05-18

    The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) is involved in numerous diseases that have the common feature of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, its pathophysiological relevance in the context of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in endothelial cells remains elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) protects against cardiomyocyte injury by suppressing generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). This study aimed to explore the role of UPR(mt) in endothelial cells during H/R and to clarify the beneficial effects of ACh. Our results demonstrated that H/R triggered UPR(mt) in endothelial cells, as evidenced by the elevation of heat shock protein 60 and LON protease 1 protein levels, and resulted in release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins, including cytochrome C, Omi/high temperature requirement protein A 2 and second mitochondrial activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low PI, from the mitochondria to cytosol. ACh administration markedly decreased UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance. Consequently, ACh alleviated the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and restored mitochondrial ultrastructure and function, thereby reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Intriguingly, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, a type-3 muscarinic ACh receptor (M3AChR) inhibitor, abolished the ACh-elicited attenuation of UPR(mt) and TUNEL positive cells, indicating that the salutary effects of ACh were likely mediated by M3AChR in endothelial cells. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that UPR(mt) might be essential for triggering the mitochondrion-associated apoptotic pathway during H/R. ACh markedly suppressed UPR(mt) by inhibiting mtROS and alleviating the mitonuclear protein imbalance, presumably through M3AChR. PMID:27111378

  11. The effect of new cooperative medical scheme on health outcomes and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure in China: a systematic review.

    Xiaoyun Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Chinese government launched a new rural health financing policy to provide health insurance (New Cooperative Medical Scheme, NCMS for its rural population. NCMS, jointly financed by governments and individual households, aims to protect households from impoverishment due to catastrophic health expenditure. In 2011, NCMS covered more than 96% of the rural population. We have systematically searched and reviewed available evidence to estimate the effects of NCMS on health outcomes and on alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, CMCI, CNKI, and VIP were searched. We also obtained literature from colleague communications. Quasi-experimental studies regarding the effect of NCMS on health outcomes and catastrophic health expenditure were included. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, extracted the data, and assessed the study quality. RESULTS: Fifteen studies out of the 6123 studies in the literature fulfilled criteria and were included in this review. Twelve studies identified the relationship between NCMS and health outcomes, among which six studies measured sickness or injury in the past four weeks, four measured sickness or injury in the past two weeks, and five measured self-reported health status. Four studies focused on the relationship between NCMS and alleviating catastrophic health expenditure. However, the results from these studies were in conflict: individual studies indicated that NCMS had positive, negative, or no effect on health outcomes and/or the incidence of catastrophic health payments, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We still have no clear evidence that NCMS improves the health outcomes and decreases the alleviating catastrophic health expenditure of the China's rural population. In addition, the heterogeneity among individual studies reminds us that provider payment method reforms, benefit package

  12. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Fiebich, Bernd L.; Amaya G. Vinuesa; Gonzalo Sanchez-Duffhues; Juan A. Collado; Thorsten Rose; Jörn Menthe; Eduardo Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce...

  13. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  14. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  15. Building synergies between climate change mitigation and energy poverty alleviation

    Even though energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation are inextricably linked policy goals, they have remained as relatively disconnected fields of research inquiry and policy development. Acknowledging this gap, this paper explores the mainstream academic and policy literatures to provide a taxonomy of interactions and identify synergies and trade-offs between them. The most important trade-off identified is the potential increase in energy poverty levels as a result of strong climate change action if the internalisation of the external costs of carbon emissions is not offset by efficiency gains. The most significant synergy was found in deep energy efficiency in buildings. The paper argues that neither of the two problems – deep reductions in GHG emissions by mid-century, and energy poverty eradication – is likely to be solved fully on their own merit, while joining the two policy goals may provide a very solid case for deep efficiency improvements. Thus, the paper calls for a strong integration of these two policy goals (plus other key related benefits like energy security or employment), in order to provide sufficient policy motivation to mobilise a wide-scale implementation of deep energy efficiency standards. - Highlights: ► A taxonomy of interactions between climate change and energy poverty is offered. ► Energy poverty levels may increase as a result of strong climate change action. ► However, strong synergies are offered by deep improvements of energy efficiency. ► Access to modern energy carriers is a key requirement in developing countries. ► Sufficiently solving both problems requires the integration of policy goals.

  16. INTRATHYMIC INOCULATION OF LIVER SPECIFIC ANTIGEN ALLEVIATES LIVER TRANSPLANT REJECTION

    贾长库; 郑树森; 朱有法

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of liver specific antigen (LSA) on liver allotransplantation rejection. Methods Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in this study. Group Ⅰ: syngeneic control (Wistar-to-Wistar); Group Ⅱ: acute rejection (SD-to-Wistar). Group Ⅲ: thymic inoculation of SD rat LSA day 7 before transplantation. The observation of general condition and survival time, rejection grades and the NF-κB activity of splenocytes were used to analyze severity of acute rejection and immune state of animals in different groups. Results The general condition of group Ⅰ was fair post transplantation with no sign of rejection. All recipients of group Ⅱ died within days 9 to 13 post transplantation with median survival time of 10.7 ±1.37 days. As for group Ⅲ, 5 out of 6 recipients survived for a long period with remarkably better general condition than that of group Ⅱ. Its rejection grades were significantly lower than group Ⅱ (P< 0.05).NF-κB activity was only detected in group Ⅰ between days 5 and 7 after transplantation, whereas high activity of NF-κB was detected at all points in group Ⅱ and low NF-κB activity was detected in group Ⅲ which was significantly lower than that of group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). Conclusions LSA is an important transplantation antigen directly involved in the immunorejection of liver transplantation. Intrathymic inoculation of LSA can alleviate the rejection of liver allotransplantation,grafts survive for a period of time thereby, allowing a novel way to liver transplantation immunotolerance.

  17. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination.

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant's photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  18. Prepubertal exposure to genistein alleviates di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular oxidative stress in adult rats.

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Li, He-Cheng; Chong, Tie; Gao, Ming; Yin, Jian; Fu, De-Lai; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22) to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (G), DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450) and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450). On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient), testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:25530965

  19. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model

  20. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  1. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian [Department of Pathobiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahzamani, Mehran [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh, E-mail: dr-ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Amin [Department of Surgery, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khansari, Mohammadreza [Department of Physiology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.

  2. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Séguéla, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8(+) primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2(+)-Arch(+) mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch(+) mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8(+) afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  3. Recombinant human endostatin improves tumor vasculature and alleviates hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma

    Objective: To investigate whether recombinant human endostatin can create a time window of vascular normalization prior to vascular pruning to alleviate hypoxia in Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Methods: Kinetic changes in morphology of tumor vasculature in response to recombinant human endostatin were detected under a confocal microscope with immunofluorescent staining in Lewis lung carcinomas in mice. The hypoxic cell fraction of different time was assessed with immunohistochemical staining . Effects on tumor growth were monitored as indicated in the growth curve of tumors . Results: Compared with the control group vascularity of the tumors was reduced over time by recombinant human endostatin treatment and significantly regressed for 9 days. During the treatment, pericyte coverage increased at day 3, increased markedly at day 5, and fell again at day 7. The vascular basement membrane was thin and closely associated with endothelial cells after recombinant human endostatin treatment, but appeared thickened, loosely associated with endothelial cells in control tumors. The decrease in hypoxic cell fraction at day 5 after treatment was also found. Tumor growth was not accelerated 5 days after recombinant human endostatin treatment. Conclusions: Recombinant human endostatin can normalize tumor vasculature within day 3 to 7, leading to improved tumor oxygenation. The results provide important experimental basis for combining recombinant human endostatin with radiation therapy in human tumors. (authors)

  4. Inhibition of inflammation by astaxanthin alleviates cognition deficits in diabetic mice.

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fang; Hu, Xiaotong; Chen, Jing; Wen, Xiangru; Sun, Ying; Liu, Yonghai; Tang, Renxian; Zheng, Kuiyang; Song, Yuanjian

    2015-11-01

    Neurons in the hippocampal and cortical functional regions are more susceptible to damage induced by hyperglycemia, which can result in severe spatial learning and memory impairment. Neuroprotection ameliorates cognitive impairment induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Astaxanthin has been widely studied in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications due to its hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. However, whether astaxanthin can alleviate cognition deficits induced by DE and its precise mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, DE was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 150 mg/kg) in ICR mice. We observed the effect of astaxanthin on cognition and investigated its potential mechanisms in DE mice. Results showed that astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the latency and enhanced the distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. Furthermore, neuronal survival was significantly increased in the hippocampal CA3 region and the frontal cortex following treatment with astaxanthin. Meanwhile, immunoblotting was used to observe the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The results indicated that astaxanthin could inhibit NF-κB nuclear translocation and downregulate TNF-α expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall, the present study implied that astaxanthin could improve cognition by protecting neurons against inflammation injury potentially through inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and down-regulating TNF-α. PMID:26272354

  5. Running Exercise Alleviates Pain and Promotes Cell Proliferation in a Rat Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    Shuo Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain accompanied by intervertebral disk degeneration is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Physical exercise, which is clinically recommended by international guidelines, has proven to be effective for degenerative disc disease (DDD patients. However, the mechanism underlying the analgesic effects of physical exercise on DDD remains largely unclear. The results of the present study showed that mechanical withdrawal thresholds of bilateral hindpaw were significantly decreased beginning on day three after intradiscal complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA injection and daily running exercise remarkably reduced allodynia in the CFA exercise group beginning at day 28 compared to the spontaneous recovery group (controls. The hindpaw withdrawal thresholds of the exercise group returned nearly to baseline at the end of experiment, but severe pain persisted in the control group. Histological examinations performed on day 70 revealed that running exercise restored the degenerative discs and increased the cell densities of the annulus fibrosus (AF and nucleus pulposus (NP. Furthermore, immunofluorescence labeling revealed significantly higher numbers of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells in the exercise group on days 28, 42, 56 and 70, which indicated more rapid proliferation compared to the control at the corresponding time points. Taken together, these results suggest that running exercise might alleviate the mechanical allodynia induced by intradiscal CFA injection via disc repair and cell proliferation, which provides new evidence for future clinical use.

  6. Plant species coexistence alleviates the impacts of lead on Zea mays L.

    Ruyi Yang; Ling Liu; Shuting Zan; Jianjun Tang; Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Whether plant coexistence can reduce the impacts of lead(Pb)on crops in agroecosystems has not been well understood.We conducted a factorial experiment to investigate the effects of weeds coexisting with maize(Zea mays L.)on Pb accumulation in maize and soil microbes at two Pb levels(ambient and 300 mg/kg).Elevated Pb tended to increase the Pb concentration in maize and decreased soil microbial activity(indicated by the average well color development,AWCD),functional group diversity,as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM)colonization and vesicle number of maize.Compared to the monoculture,weeds coexisting with maize reduced the Pb concentrations in the root,leaf,sheath and stem of maize at both seedling and mature stages.In maize-weed mixtures,soil microbial activity and functional group diversity tended to increase for both Pb treatments relative to the monoculture.Furthermore,principal component analysis revealed that the soil microbial community structure changed with the introduction of weeds.The highest Pb accumulation in weeds occurred for the elevated Pb treatment in a three species mixture.The results suggest that multiple plant species coexistence could reduce lead accumulation in crop plants and alleviate the negative impacts on soil microbes in polluted land,thereby highlighting the significance of plant diversity in agroecosystems.

  7. The Approaches of Islamic and Conventional Microfinancing for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood

    Abul Bashar Bhuiyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the main illness for sustainable livelihood because it destroyed human basic rights for surviving with minimum opportunities especially political, social stability and economic processes, literature and environment. The aims of this study are to discuss about existing approaches of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood. The study found throughout the discussion of the theoretical sources i.e., participatory approaches have determined as a good way of poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihood especially zakat based Islamic mode of financing and Qard-al-Hasan on the basis of spiritual values as an alternative model for poverty alleviation and ensuring sustainable livelihood."

  8. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Alleviates the Transient Worsening Caused by Steroids Pulse Therapy in Treating Myasthenia Gravis

    Guo-Yan Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the treatment effect and side effect of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI on alleviating transient worsening of myasthenia gravis (MG symptoms caused by high-dose steroids pulse therapy. Methods. Sixty-six consecutive patients with MG were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group treated with SFI and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT and the control group treated with MPT alone. The severity of MG before, during, and after MPT and the duration of transient worsening (TW were evaluated and compared with the clinical absolute scoring (AS and relative scoring (RS system. Results. Twenty-nine patients experienced TW in each group. At TW, the AS was significantly increased (P<0.000 in both groups compared with baseline data, with the AS increase in the treatment group (16.8 ± 2 significantly smaller (P<0.05 than in the control group (24.9 ± 2.5. At the end of the treatment course, the AS for the treatment group was significantly decreased (7.5 ± 0.9 compared with at TW, although no significant difference compared with the control (9.7 ± 1.1. The TW lasted 1–6 days (mean 3.7 for the treatment group, significantly shorter (P<0.05 than 2–12 days (mean 7.8 for the control. The RS for the treatment group at the end of treatment was 43.8%–100% (mean 76.8% ± 2.6%, significantly better than the control group: 33.3%–100% (mean 67.2 ± 3.6%. Slight side effects (18.75% included maldigestion and rash in the treatment group. Conclusion. SFI has a better treatment effect and few side effects and can alleviate the severity and shorten the duration of the transient worsening of MG during steroids pulse therapy.

  9. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  10. Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.

    Wu, Kefei; Ma, Jiexian; Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Han, Tao; Wang, Shiyuan; Xie, Youhua; Xie, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in allergic airway diseases, and upregulation of Treg cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-associated cytokines. We also designed a long-acting polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 and demonstrated that the optimal dosage form is IL-2(PEG) plus budesonide, which can upregulate Treg cells and ameliorate asthma at a lower dose. The therapeutic effect was faster than treatment with dexamethasone and was effective at a low dose suitable for humans that could last for at least 6 weeks. This study unveils a new therapeutic regimen and suggests that such endogenous Treg therapy could be a useful tool to persistently alleviate asthma. PMID:27527926

  11. Melatonin combined with exercise cannot alleviate cerebral injury in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Seunghoon Lee; Kyu-Tae Chang; Yonggeun Hong; Jinhee Shin; Minkyung Lee; Yunkyung Hong; Sang-Kil Lee; Youngjeon Lee; Tserentogtokh Lkhagvasuren; Dong-Wook Kim; Young-Ae Yang

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

  12. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  13. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  14. Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    The severity of ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Core circadian clock is known to mediate antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid metabolism. However, the link between circadian clock and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that extents of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice exhibit circadian variations consistent with hepatic expression of Period (Per) genes. Mice lacking clock gene Per1 displayed less susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury, as evidenced by lower serum transaminase activity and less severe histopathological changes. Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was alleviated in Per1−/− mice. However, Per1 deletion had no effect on antioxidants depletion caused by ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced triglycerides (TG) accumulation in the serum and liver was significantly decreased in Per1−/− mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and its target genes related to TG synthesis are remarkably down-regulated in Per1−/− mice. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at 150 mM for 3 days. Per1 overexpression augmented lipid accumulation after treatment with ethanol in HepG2 cells, but had no effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Expression of genes related to lipogenesis, including PPARγ and its target genes, was up-regulated in cells overexpressing Per1. In conclusion, these results indicated that circadian rhythms of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are controlled by clock gene Per1, and deletion of Per1 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic lipid accumulation

  15. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Qingpu Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1, DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1 and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1. All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and liver TG, as well as activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate transaminase (AST; DNJ also alleviated macrovesicular steatosis and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Furthermore, DNJ treatment significantly increased hepatic glycogen content, the activities of hexokinase (HK, pyruvate kinase (PK in liver tissue, and decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Moreover, DNJ increased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K on p85, protein kinase B (PKB on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β on Ser9, and inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS on Ser645 in liver tissue of db/db mice. These results demonstrate that DNJ can increase hepatic insulin sensitivity via strengthening of the insulin-stimulated PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway and by modulating glucose metabolic enzymes in db/db mice. Moreover, DNJ also can improve lipid homeostasis and attenuate hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

  16. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L.

    Soudani, Nejla; Rafrafi, Moez; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Hakim, Ahmed; Troudi, Afef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Ben Salah, Hichem; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-06-01

    Chromium(VI), a very strong oxidant, causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress in tissue systems. Our study investigated the potential ability of ethanolic Citrus aurantium L., family Rutaceae extract, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by Cr(VI). A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in C. aurantium L. Six flavonoids were identified, as (1) poncirin, (2) naringin, (3) naringenin, (4) quercetin, (5) isosinensetin, and (6) tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein. Adult Wistar rats, used in this study, were divided into six groups of six animals each: group I served as controls which received standard diet, group II received via drinking water K2Cr2O7 alone (700 ppm), groups III and IV were pretreated for 10 days with ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks, and groups V and VI received during 10 days only C. aurantium L. ethanol extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. was administered orally. Rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed in lung an increase in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in sulflydryl content, glutathione, nonprotein thiol, and vitamins C and E levels. Decreases in enzyme activities such as in Na(+)K(+) ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were noted. Pretreatment with C. aurantium L. of chromium-treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters. Lung histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of C. aurantium L. PMID:22972417

  17. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements to aviation safety will be made by the development and validation of means to alleviate, alert, and inhibit loss of control associated with unfavorable...

  18. Predictive Gust Load Alleviation Control Using Leading Edge Stagnation Point Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc proposes an R&D effort to develop a Gust Load Alleviation (GLA) control system using a novel Leading Edge Stagnation Point (LESP) sensor...

  19. Alleviation of Severe Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Symptoms by Cigarette Smoking

    Oksenberg, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is in general considered an aggravating factor for restless legs syndrome (RLS). The author presents a case in which cigarette smoking has produced for many years a consistent and effective alleviation of RLS symptoms.

  20. Use Of Dynamic Distortion To Predict And Alleviate Loss Of Control Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this project is to develop and validate means to alert, constrain and thereby alleviate loss of control (LOC) associated with unfavorable...

  1. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; WESTERA, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011, 20-21 October). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. Presentation at 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Athens, Greece.

  2. Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Tourism Development in Nepal: Marketing Strategy Point of View

    Kafle, Jagannath

    2011-01-01

    This research has been conducted through desk study as well as by field visit and collected the opinion of Finnish tour operators who have been operating tour in Nepal. It has aimed to study the role and importance of sustainable tourism marketing in alleviating poverty in Nepal. The research has been taken three major objectives. They are: to evaluate Nepal’s current tourism marketing strategy and to what extend it takes poverty alleviation through tourism into account; to evaluate whether t...

  3. Hormonal and Hydroxycinnamic Acids Profiles in Banana Leaves in Response to Various Periods of Water Stress

    Jalel Mahouachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of change in the endogenous levels of several plant hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in addition to growth and photosynthetic performance was investigated in banana plants (Musa acuminata cv. “Grand Nain” subjected to various cycles of drought. Water stress was imposed by withholding irrigation for six periods with subsequent rehydration. Data showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA levels, a transient increase in salicylic acid (SA concentration, and no changes in jasmonic acid (JA after each period of drought. Moreover, the levels of ferulic (FA and cinnamic acids (CA were increased, and plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters were decreased by drought conditions. Overall, data suggest an involvement of hormones and hydroxycinnamic acids in plant avoidance of tissue dehydration. The increase in IAA concentration might alleviate the senescence of survival leaves and maintained cell elongation, and the accumulation of FA and CA could play a key role as a mechanism of photoprotection through leaf folding, contributing to the effect of ABA on inducing stomatal closure. Data also suggest that the role of SA similarly to JA might be limited to a transient and rapid increase at the onset of the first period of stress.

  4. Losartan alleviates hyperuricemia-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model

    Zheng, Hongchao; Li, Ning; Ding, Yueyou; Miao, Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of losartan on hyperuricemia-induced aortic atherosclerosis, in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: Male rabbits (n = 48) were divided into control, hyperuricemia (HU), hypercholesterolemia + hyperuricemia (HC + HU) and high-purine with 30-mg/kg/d losartan (HU + losartan) groups. Serum uric acid (UA) and plasma renin and angiotensin II activities were determined. Aortic tissue specimens were analyzed for histologic...

  5. Effect of Maca Extracts on Alleviating Physical Fatigue in Mice%玛咖提取物对缓解小鼠体力疲劳的作用研究

    查圣华; 许楠; 赵庆生; 刘璐翾; 赵兵; 王强; 张宏

    2015-01-01

    To explore the bioactive effect of maca extracts on alleviating physical fatigue in exercise mice ,160 healthy male mice were randomly divided into 4 batches to examine load swimming time, blood urea nitrogen, hepatic glycogen, and blood lactic acid, respectively. Each batch of mice was randomly divided into 4 groups:the control group, and maca extracts groups at different dosages of low, middle and high levels, that were 0,0.13,0.27,0.80 g/(kg·bw·d). 10 mice in each group were correspondingly gavaged for 30 days, and then the indicators were determined. Maca extracts at high dosage group 0.80 g/(kg·bw·d) could significantly prolong weight-loaded swimming duration, decrease blood urea nitrogen, and blood lactic acid of mice. Hepatic glycogen was not changed significantly. Maca extracts could alleviate physical fatigue in mice.%探讨玛咖提取物对运动小鼠的缓解疲劳生物功效性.将160只健康雄性小鼠随机分为4批,分别进行负重游泳、血浆尿素测定、肝糖原及血乳酸的测定实验,每批动物再随机分为正常对照组、低剂量组、中剂量组和高剂量组,分别为0、0.13、0.27、0.80 g/(kg·bw·d),每组10只,连续灌胃30 d后,测定各项指标.玛咖提取物高剂量组0.80 g/(kg· bw·d)能显著延长小鼠负重游泳时间、降低游泳后血浆尿素和血乳酸含量,不能显著提高小鼠肝糖原储备.玛咖提取物具有明显的缓解疲劳作用.

  6. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  7. Natural organic matter-induced alleviation of the phytotoxicity to rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hai; Fang, Huaxiang; Xu, Chen; Huang, Haomin; Wang, Yi; Sun, Lijuan; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yingxu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-09-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) can interact with engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment and modify their behavior and toxicity to organisms. In the present study, the phytotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs to rice seedlings in the presence of humic acid as a model NOM was investigated. The results showed that CuO NPs induced the inhibition of root elongation, aberrations in root morphology and ultrastructure, and losses of cell viability and membrane integrity. The adverse effects partly resulted from the generation of reactive oxygen species caused by CuO NPs, which led to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and programmed cell death in rice seedlings. However, all the phytotoxicity was alleviated with the addition of humic acid because humic acid coatings on nanoparticle surfaces enhanced electrostatic and steric repulsion between the CuO NPs and the plant cell wall/membrane, reducing contact between NPs and plant and CuO NP-induced oxidative damage to plant cells. The present study's results shed light on the mechanism underlying NP phytotoxicity and highlight the influence of NOM on the bioavailability and toxicity of NPs. PMID:25868010

  8. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Pisum sativum L. Seedlings by Calcium Chloride

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the role of calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance and reducing cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Some treatment with 1 and 5 mM CaCl2 mitigated cadmium stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid (ASA, tocopherol and carotenoids. On the other hand, total carbohydrate and total soluble proteins decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, total phenol, total free amino acids, proline and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate. Electrophoretic studies of protein revealed that cadmium treatments alone or in combination with calcium chloride were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in pea seedlings. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities.

  9. Epoetin beta pegol alleviates oxidative stress and exacerbation of renal damage from iron deposition, thereby delaying CKD progression in progressive glomerulonephritis rats.

    Hirata, Michinori; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Endo, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The increased deposition of iron in the kidneys that occurs with glomerulopathy hinders the functional and structural recovery of the tubules and promotes progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we evaluated whether epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator: CERA), which has a long half-life in blood and strongly suppresses hepcidin-25, exerts renoprotection in a rat model of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis (cGN). cGN rats showed elevated urinary total protein excretion (uTP) and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) from day 14 after the induction of kidney disease (day 0) and finally declined into end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), showing reduced creatinine clearance with glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. A single dose of CERA given on day 1, but not on day 16, alleviated increasing uTP and UN, thereby delaying ESKD. In the initial disease phase, CERA significantly suppressed urinary 8-OHdG and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a tubular damage marker. CERA also inhibited elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels and alleviated subsequent iron accumulation in kidneys in association with elevated urinary iron excretion and resulted in alleviation of growth of Ki67-positive tubular and glomerular cells. In addition, at day 28 when the exacerbation of uTP occurs, a significant correlation was observed between iron deposition in the kidney and urinary L-FABP. In our study, CERA mitigated increasing kidney damage, thereby delaying CKD progression in this glomerulonephritis rat model. Alleviation by CERA of the exacerbation of kidney damage could be attributable to mitigation of tubular damage that might occur with lowered iron deposition in tubules. PMID:26634903

  10. Inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity alleviates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice.

    Keung, Wendy; Ussher, John R; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Raubenheimer, Monique; Lam, Victoria H M; Wagg, Cory S; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    Impaired skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation has been suggested to contribute to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, increasing muscle fatty acid oxidation may cause a reciprocal decrease in glucose oxidation, which might impair insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. We therefore investigated what effect inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake has on whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese insulin-resistant mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% calories from fat) for 12 weeks to develop insulin resistance. Subsequent treatment of mice for 4 weeks with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor, oxfenicine (150 mg/kg i.p. daily), resulted in improved whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Exercise capacity was increased in oxfenicine-treated mice, which was accompanied by an increased respiratory exchange ratio. In the gastrocnemius muscle, oxfenicine increased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, membrane GLUT4 content, and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Intramyocellular levels of lipid intermediates, including ceramide, long-chain acyl CoA, and diacylglycerol, were also decreased. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. This is associated with increased carbohydrate utilization and improved insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle, suggestive of an operating Randle Cycle in muscle. PMID:23139350

  11. Preconditioning with associated blocking of Ca2+ inflow alleviates hypoxia-induced damage to pancreatic β-cells.

    Zuheng Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beta cells of pancreatic islets are susceptible to functional deficits and damage by hypoxia. Here we aimed to characterize such effects and to test for and pharmacological means to alleviate a negative impact of hypoxia. METHODS AND DESIGN: Rat and human pancreatic islets were subjected to 5.5 h of hypoxia after which functional and viability parameters were measured subsequent to the hypoxic period and/or following a 22 h re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide or other agents was usually done during a 22 h period prior to hypoxia. RESULTS: Insulin contents decreased by 23% after 5.5 h of hypoxia and by 61% after a re-oxygenation period. Preconditioning with diazoxide time-dependently alleviated these hypoxia effects in rat and human islets. Hypoxia reduced proinsulin biosynthesis ((3H-leucine incorporation into proinsulin by 35%. Preconditioning counteracted this decrease by 91%. Preconditioning reduced hypoxia-induced necrosis by 40%, attenuated lowering of proteins of mitochondrial complexes I-IV and enhanced stimulation of HIF-1-alpha and phosphorylated AMPK proteins. Preconditioning by diazoxide was abolished by co-exposure to tolbutamide or elevated potassium (i.e. conditions which increase Ca(2+ inflow. Preconditioning with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, partly reproduced effects of diazoxide. Both diazoxide and nifedipine moderately reduced basal glucose oxidation whereas glucose-induced oxygen consumption (tested with diazoxide was unaffected. Preconditioning with diaxoxide enhanced insulin contents in transplants of rat islets to non-diabetic rats and lowered hyperglycemia vs. non-preconditioned islets in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Preconditioning of human islet transplants lowered hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Prior blocking of Ca(2+ inflow associates with lesser hypoxia-induced damage, 2 preconditioning affects basal mitochondrial metabolism and accelerates

  12. The Role of Apelin on the Alleviative Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker in Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction-Induced Renal Fibrosis

    Masashi Nishida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apelin is a selective endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, which genetically has closest identity to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT-1. The effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis still remain unclear. Methods: We examined the effects of the apelin/APJ system on renal fibrosis during AT-1 blockade in a mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model. Results: We obtained the following results: (1 At UUO day 7, mRNA expressions of apelin/APJ and phosphorylations of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in the UUO kidney were increased compared to those in the nonobstructed kidney. (2 AT-1 blockade by the treatment with losartan resulted in a further increase of apelin mRNA as well as phosphorylations of Akt/eNOS proteins, and this was accompanied by alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased myofibroblast accumulation, and a decreased number of interstitial macrophages. (3 Blockade of the APJ receptor by the treatment with F13A during losartan administration completely abrogated the effects of losartan in the activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway and the amelioration of renal fibrosis. (4 Inhibition of NOS by the treatment with L-NAME also resulted in a further increase in renal fibrosis compared to the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that increased nitric oxide production through the apelin/APJ/Akt/eNOS pathway may, at least in part, contribute to the alleviative effect of losartan in UUO-induced renal fibrosis.

  13. Role of silicon in alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity in hydroponically-grown rice (Oryza sativa L. plants

    A Abdol Zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si nutrition may alleviate biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metal deficiency and toxicity in plants. Iron deficiency and toxicity are important limiting factors in growth of rice. In the present study, role of Si nutrition on alleviation of iron deficiency and toxicity was investigated in rice plants. Plants were cultivated in greenhouse in hydroponics, using Yoshida solution, under different iron treatments (0, 2, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 250 mg/L as Fe- EDTA and Si nutrition (0 and 1.5 mM as sodium silicate. Results revealed that both iron deficiency and toxicity imposed significant reduction in fresh and dry weight and length of plants. The activity of catalase was decreased in shoots due to iron deficiency. Activity of catalase in roots and cell wall peroxidase in shoots increased under iron toxicity compared with control plants. Si nutrition increased Si content in plants and improved plant growth in both iron deficiency (not in the absence of iron and toxicity. Application of Si increased the activity of catalase in shoots and polyphenol oxidase in both roots and shoots under iron deficiency. Also, the activity of catalase in roots and polyphenol oxidase in shoots raised following iron toxicity. This in turn may reduce the oxidative stress in plants. In addition, increase of lignin in extreme iron toxicity due to Si nutrition may enhance sites of iron absorption in plant cell walls and decrease iron toxicity. The results indicated that Si nutrition could ameliorate harmful effects of iron deficiency and toxicity in rice plants possibly through improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity and reduction of oxidative stress.

  14. The Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Formaldehyde-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

    Gerin, Fethullah; Erman, Hayriye; Erboga, Mustafa; Sener, Umit; Yilmaz, Ahsen; Seyhan, Hatice; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring some routine biochemical parameters, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress-related parameters in addition to YKL-40 in male Wistar albino rats. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Also, serum YKL-40, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin concentrations, and AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities were measured. Histological specimens were examined in light microscopy. Formaldehyde significantly increased tissue MDA, and serum cytokine levels and also decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA treatment decreased MDA and cytokine levels and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes. FA also alleviated degeneration due to formaldehyde toxicity. We suggested that FA can be used as a promising hepatoprotective agent against formaldehyde toxicity because of the obvious beneficial effects on oxidative stress parameters. PMID:27235018

  15. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

    Zhong Jian-Kai; Guo Zhi-Gang; Li Chen; Wang Zhen-Kun; Lai Wen-Yan; Tu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat...

  16. Alleviating the Simulator Sickness with Galvanic Cutaneous Stimulation

    GALVEZ-GARCIA, Germán; HAY, Marion; GABAUDE, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In a driving simulation, we investigated the efficacy of galvanic cutaneous stimulation (GCS) provided during curves or intermittently during the whole circuit to mitigate simulator syndrome (SS). Background: The literature on how GCS decreases SS, although scarce, has demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. Stimulation with this and similar techniques has usually been provided in curves or continuously during the whole circuit but never intermittently. This stimulation m...

  17. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  18. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of

  19. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots. PMID:26720810

  20. Optogenetic Silencing of Nav1.8-Positive Afferents Alleviates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain123

    Daou, Ihab; Beaudry, Hélène; Ase, Ariel R.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report a novel transgenic mouse model in which the terminals of peripheral nociceptors can be silenced optogenetically with high spatiotemporal precision, leading to the alleviation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Inhibitory archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) proton pumps were delivered to Nav1.8+ primary afferents using the Nav1.8-Cre driver line. Arch expression covered both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic nociceptors and yellow light stimulation reliably blocked electrically induced action potentials in DRG neurons. Acute transdermal illumination of the hindpaws of Nav1.8-Arch+ mice significantly reduced mechanical allodynia under inflammatory conditions, while basal mechanical sensitivity was not affected by the optical stimulation. Arch-driven hyperpolarization of nociceptive terminals was sufficient to prevent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in double-transgenic Nav1.8-ChR2+-Arch+mice. Furthermore, prolonged optical silencing of peripheral afferents in anesthetized Nav1.8-Arch+ mice led to poststimulation analgesia with a significant decrease in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity under inflammatory and neuropathic conditions. These findings highlight the role of peripheral neuronal inputs in the onset and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity, demonstrate the plasticity of pain pathways even after sensitization has occurred, and support the involvement of Nav1.8+ afferents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Together, we present a selective analgesic approach in which genetically identified subsets of peripheral sensory fibers can be remotely and optically inhibited with high temporal resolution, overcoming the compensatory limitations of genetic ablations. PMID:27022626

  1. Berberine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice.

    Zhang, Zhijie; Li, Xiuhua; Li, Fayin; An, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant cause of morbidity after surgery, especially for the elderly. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of POCD. Thus, we hypothesized that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effects, could improve surgery-induced cognitive impairment. Twenty-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery. For the interventional studies, mice received berberine (10mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally. For the in vitro study, we examined the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators by cultured BV2 cells. Behavioral tests, expressions of IBA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were performed at the indicated time points. In the present study, we showed that surgery impaired the contextual fear memory, as evidenced by the significantly decreased freezing time to the context. This behavioral change coincided with marked increases in IBA1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus only at 24h but not 7 d after surgery. In BV2 cells, LPS induced significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β expressions. Notably, berberine treatment rescued surgery-induced cognitive impairment and inhibited the release of IBA1, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. In line with the in vivo study, berberine treatment suppressed LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-1β in BV2 cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that berberine could alleviate POCD by suppressing neuroinflammation in aged mice. PMID:27376853

  2. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.)

  3. Sodium nitrate alleviates functional muscle ischaemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    Nelson, Michael D; Rosenberry, Ryan; Barresi, Rita; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Mason, O'Neil; Schwartz, Avery; Stabler, Thomas; Shidban, Sarah; Mobaligh, Neigena; Hogan, Shomari; Elashoff, Robert; Allen, Jason D; Victor, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. BMD is caused by in-frame mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), which requires specific spectrin-like repeats (SR16/17) in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin for sarcolemmal targeting. When healthy skeletal muscle is exercised, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thus optimizing perfusion. In the mdx mouse model of dystrophinopathy, this protective mechanism (functional sympatholysis) is defective, resulting in functional muscle ischaemia. Treatment with a NO-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alleviates this ischaemia and improves the murine dystrophic phenotype. In the present study, we report that, in 13 men with BMD, sympatholysis is defective mainly in patients whose mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ, with the vasoconstrictor response measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) to reflex sympathetic activation. Then, in a single-arm, open-label trial in 11 BMD patients and a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in six patients, we show that acute treatment with oral sodium nitrate, an inorganic NO donor without a NSIAD moiety, restores sympatholysis and improves post-exercise hyperaemia (Doppler ultrasound). By contrast, sodium nitrate improves neither sympatholysis, nor hyperaemia in healthy controls. Thus, a simple NO donor recapitulates the vasoregulatory actions of sarcolemmal nNOS in BMD patients, and constitutes a putative novel therapy for this disease. PMID:26437761

  4. Lidocaine alleviates propofol related pain much better than metoprolol and nitroglycerin

    Asutay Goktug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Injection pain after propofol administration is common and maydisturb patients' comfort. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of intravenous(iv nitroglycerin, lidocaine and metoprolol applied through the veins on the dorsum of hand orantecubital vein on eliminating propofol injection pain.METHOD: There were 147 patients and they were grouped according to the analgesic adminis-tered. Metoprolol (n = 31, Group M, lidocaine (n = 32, Group L and nitroglycerin (n = 29, GroupN were applied through iv catheter at dorsum hand vein or antecubital vein. Pain was evalu-ated by 4 point scale (0 - no pain, 1 --- light pain, 2 --- mild pain, 3 --- severe pain in 5, 10, 15and 20th seconds. ASA, BMI, patient demographics, education level and the effect of pathwaysfor injection and location of operations were analyzed for their effect on total pain score.RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in terms of total pain score (p = 0.981.There were no differences in terms of total pain score depending on ASA, education level,location of operation. However, lidocaine was more effective when compared with metoprolol(p = 0.015 and nitroglycerin (p = 0.001 among groups. Although neither lidocaine nor metopro-lol had any difference on pain management when applied from antecubital or dorsal hand vein(p > 0.05, nitroglycerin injection from antecubital vein had demonstrated statistically lowerpain scores (p = 0.001.CONCLUSION: We found lidocaine to be the most effective analgesic in decreasing propofolrelated pain. We therefore suggest iv lidocaine for alleviating propofol related pain at operations.

  5. Complex zero strip decreasing operators

    Cardon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.

  6. Brain glycogen decreases during prolonged exercise

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Okamoto, Masahiro; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Brain glycogen could be a critical energy source for brain activity when the glucose supply from the blood is inadequate (hypoglycaemia). Although untested, it is hypothesized that during prolonged exhaustive exercise that induces hypoglycaemia and muscular glycogen depletion, the resultant hypoglycaemia may cause a decrease in brain glycogen. Here, we tested this hypothesis and also investigated the possible involvement of brain monoamines with the reduced levels of brain glycogen. For this purpose, we exercised male Wistar rats on a treadmill for different durations (30–120 min) at moderate intensity (20 m min−1) and measured their brain glycogen levels using high-power microwave irradiation (10 kW). At the end of 30 and 60 min of running, the brain glycogen levels remained unchanged from resting levels, but liver and muscle glycogen decreased. After 120 min of running, the glycogen levels decreased significantly by ∼37–60% in five discrete brain loci (the cerebellum 60%, cortex 48%, hippocampus 43%, brainstem 37% and hypothalamus 34%) compared to those of the sedentary control. The brain glycogen levels in all five regions after running were positively correlated with the respective blood and brain glucose levels. Further, in the cortex, the levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), potential involved in degradation of the brain glycogen, increased during prolonged exercise and negatively correlated with the glycogen levels. These results support the hypothesis that brain glycogen could decrease with prolonged exhaustive exercise. Increased monoamines together with hypoglycaemia should be associated with the development of decreased brain glycogen, suggesting a new clue towards the understanding of central fatigue during prolonged exercise. PMID:21521757

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 788), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to partially hydrolysed guar gum and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, changes in bowel function, and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The...... scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is partially...

  8. Riboflavin alleviates cardiac failure in Type I diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Xue Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common and serious comorbidity of diabetes. Oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. The ability of antioxidants to inhibit injury has raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatment for diabetic heart diseases. Riboflavin constitutes an essential nutrient for humans and animals and it is an important food additive. Riboflavin, a precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, enhances the oxidative folding and subsequent secretion of proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of riboflavin in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ (70 mg /kg. Riboflavin (20 mg/kg was orally administered to animals immediately after induction of diabetes and was continued for eight weeks. Rats were examined for diabetic cardiomyopathy by left ventricular (LV remadynamic function. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein level. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CTGF level was measured by Western blot in all rats at the end of the study. In the untreated diabetic rats, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP rate of pressure rose (+dp/dt, and rate of pressure decay (−dp/dt were depressed while left ventricular enddiastolic pressure (LVEDP was increased, which indicated the reduced left ventricular contractility and slowing of left ventricular relaxation. The level of SOD decreased, CTGF and HO-1 protein expression and MDA content rose. Riboflavin treatment significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in diabetic rats, there were persistent increases in significant activation of SOD and the level of HO-1 protein, and a decrease in the level of CTGF. These results suggest

  9. Does forest conversion promote growth and alleviate poverty ?

    Mohd Parit Mamat; Ismariah Ahmad; Lim Hin Fui; Noor Aini Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Since the formation of Malaysia in 1963, there was an obvious reduction in the forested area of Peninsular Malaysia. Statistical data from the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia showed that the forested area in 1970 decreased sharply from 8,012,600 ha to 6,361,400 ha in 1980 and finally declined to 5,788,523 ha in 2012. The major cause of forest area decline in Peninsular Malaysia was forest conversion to commercial agricultural crops, particularly oil palm and rubber, as well as other c...

  10. Economic contribution of participatory agroforestry program to poverty alleviation: a case from Sal forests, Bangladesh

    K.K.Islam; Marjanke Hoogstra; M.O.Ullah; Noriko Sato

    2012-01-01

    In the Forest Department of Bangladesh,a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population.We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible for poverty alleviation.We used three poverty measurement methods:the Head Count Index,the Poverty Gap Index and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to determine the extent poverty reduction.We used a linear regression model to determine the possible differences among factors in poverty reduction.Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires and face to face interviews within the study area.PAP proved effective at poverty alleviation,considerably improving the local situation.The linear regression model showed that PAP output explained the income differences in poverty reduction. Participants identified bureaucracy and illegal money demands by forest department officials,an uncontrolled market system,and underdeveloped road infrastructure as the main obstacles to reduction of poverty.Overall,PAP is quite successful in alleviating poverty.So this program might be of interest at other degraded forest areas as a tool to alleviate poverty.

  11. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p < .001), the incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p < .001) and the...... incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p < .001). The incidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained stable. The most common microorganisms were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10...

  12. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  13. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  14. Alleviation of process-induced cracking of the antireflection TiN coating (ARC-TiN) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films

    Peng, Y C; Yang, Y R; Hsieh, W Y; Hsieh, Y F

    1999-01-01

    The alleviation of cracking of the TiN-ARC layer on Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films after the development process has been achieved. For the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu system, the stress-induced defects decreased with increasing TiN-ARC layer thickness. In contrast, for the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu-Si system, Si nodules formed during cooling, thereby inducing poor coverage with high aspect-ratio holes. As a result, the photoresist developer penetrated through the films. Chemical vapor deposition of TiN-ARC or predeposition of a Ti Interposing layer was used to eliminate the formation of Si nodules.

  15. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    -anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan......The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......, led to less changed starch content and starch granule size distribution in grains of wheat under post-anthesis heat stress....

  16. Alleviation of process-induced cracking of the antireflection TiN coating (ARC-TiN) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films

    The alleviation of cracking of the TiN-ARC layer on Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films after the development process has been achieved. For the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu system, the stress-induced defects decreased with increasing TiN-ARC layer thickness. In contrast, for the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu-Si system, Si nodules formed during cooling, thereby inducing poor coverage with high aspect-ratio holes. As a result, the photoresist developer penetrated through the films. Chemical vapor deposition of TiN-ARC or predeposition of a Ti Interposing layer was used to eliminate the formation of Si nodules

  17. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pstressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The addition of YC increased TAP concentration only during HS period (p<0.01). It is concluded that both VE and YC are useful in alleviating HS of dairy goats by

  18. Regular exercise alleviates renovascular hypertension-induced cardiac/endothelial dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

    Kumral, Z N O; Sener, G; Ozgur, S; Koc, M; Suleymanoglu, S; Hurdag, C; Yegen, B C

    2016-02-01

    The importance of physical activity in the management of renovascular diseases is well-known, but lacks evidence of underlying mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the protective/therapeutic effects of regular exercise on experimental renovascular hypertension (RVH)-induced oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction. Wistar albino rats underwent a RVH surgery (2K1C, Goldblatt). Three weeks later half of the rats started swimming exercise for 9 weeks (n = 15), while the sedentary RVH group (n = 15) had no exercise during that period. Sham-operated control rats (n = 10), had the similar surgical procedures but the left renal artery was left unclipped. Body weights were monitored, and blood pressures were measured weekly using tail-cuff. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed on the 3(rd) week and on the 12(th) week of the experiment before the rats were decapitated. Heart and thoracic aorta were removed and serum was collected, while aortic samples were put in a 10% formaldehyde solution for immunochemistry. Cardiac tissue samples obtained from each animal were used for the determination of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase (CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels. In the sedentary RVH group, aortic contractile response (contraction/relaxation in isolated organ bath), left ventricular diastolic and systolic dimensions, and immunohistochemical staining of aortic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased, while ejection fraction and aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) staining were decreased. RVH in the sedentary rats resulted in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) along with reductions in antioxidant glutathione and catalase levels in the cardiac tissue. Exercise after RVH increased the immunhistochemical staining of aortic eNOS, decreased iNOS staining and reversed the

  19. Treatment of Late-Life Depression Alleviates Caregiver Burden

    Martire, Lynn M.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Karp, Jordan F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Whyte, Ellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the burden experienced by family caregivers of older adults with depression and to examine the positive effects on caregivers of treating late-life depression. Design Two-phase treatment study for major depressive disorder (MDD) that included 6 weeks of open treatment with antidepressant medication for all older patients followed by 16 weeks of randomized treatment for patients who were partial responders, comparing a combination of medication and interpersonal psychotherapy with medication alone. Setting Primary care and university late-life mental health research clinic. Participants Adults aged 60 and older participating in a randomized trial for treatment of MDD who enrolled in a family caregiver study and their caregiver (N = 244 dyads). Measurements Improvement in patient symptoms during open treatment (lower scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD)) and remission of depression during randomized treatment (3 consecutive weekly HRSD scores of ≤7) were examined as predictors of lower general caregiver burden and burden specific to patient depression. Results Caregivers reported a moderate to high level of general caregiver burden on average. Change in patient depression during open treatment was associated with significantly decreased depression-specific burden (β = −0.22, P =.001) and a trend toward lower general burden (β = − 0.08, P =.08). Caregivers of patients who remitted showed significantly decreased depression-specific burden (F (1,76) = 4.27, P =.04). Conclusion Treatment of late-life depression has benefits that extend to the family members on whom patients depend. Caregiver education and support may strengthen these effects. PMID:19943833

  20. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication. PMID:26635642

  1. Cell-penetrable mouse forkhead box protein 3 alleviates experimental arthritis in mice by up-regulating regulatory T cells.

    Liu, Xia; Ji, Baoju; Sun, Mengyi; Wu, Weijiang; Huang, Lili; Sun, Aihua; Zong, Yangyong; Xia, Sheng; Shi, Liyun; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong; Shao, Qixiang

    2015-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have potential applications in clinical disease therapy, such as autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. However, their numbers are limited. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) is a key transcription factor that controls T(reg) development and function. Here, we generated a cell-permeable fusion protein, protein transduction domain (PTD)-conjugated mouse FoxP3 protein (PTD-mFoxP3), and evaluated whether PTD-mFoxp3 can alleviate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. As expected, PTD-mFoxP3 was transduced into cells effectively, and inhibited T cell activation and attenuated the cell proliferation. It decreased interleukin (IL) 2 and interferon (IFN)-γ expression, and increased IL-10 expression in activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. PTD-mFoxP3-transduced CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells attenuated proliferation of activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. In addition, PTD-mFoxP3 blocked the Th17 differentiation programme in vitro and down-regulated IL-17 production from T cells by modulating induction and levels of retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt). Intra-articular delivery of PTD-mFoxP3 delayed disease incidence remarkably and alleviated autoimmune symptoms of CIA mice. Moreover, protective effects of PTD-mFoxP3 were associated with regulating the balance of T helper type 17 (Th17) and T(regs). These results suggest that PTD-mFoxP3 may be a candidate for RA therapy. PMID:25809415

  2. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  3. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....

  4. Halting angiogenesis by non-viral somatic gene therapy alleviates psoriasis and murine psoriasiform skin lesions

    Zibert, John Robert; Wallbrecht, Katrin; Schön, Margarete;

    2011-01-01

    epidermal expression of human TGF-ß1, we have demonstrated that antiangiogenic non-viral somatic gene therapy reduces the cutaneous microvasculature and alleviates chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Transient muscular expression of the recombinant disintegrin domain (RDD) of metargidin (also known as ADAM...... in all models. Thus, non-viral antiangiogenic gene therapy can alleviate psoriasis and may do so in other angiogenesis-related inflammatory skin disorders.......-15) by in vivo electroporation reduced cutaneous angiogenesis and vascularization in all 3 models. As demonstrated using red fluorescent protein-coupled RDD, the treatment resulted in muscular expression of the gene product and its deposition within the cutaneous hyperangiogenic connective tissue...

  5. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  6. Active-material additives for high-rate lead/acid batteries: have there been any positive advances?

    McGregor, K.

    Low positive mass utilization poses a major problem for lead/acid batteries, particularly at high discharge rates, and is one of the major factors that limits the specific energy of the battery. The reasons for the incomplete discharge at high rates are generally ascribed to a combination of various polarization phenomena including: (i) poor acid transport from the bulk of the solution in the interior of the plate, and (ii) a continuous decrease in the conductivity of the plates due to formation of non-conductive PbSO 4. One approach to alleviating these problems is to improve the positive-plate porosity and/or conductivity by the incorporation of additives into the positive active-material. The purpose of this paper is to reew recent work with such additives, and to appraise their effectiveness towards raising battery performance.

  7. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness decreases through childhood.

    Riiser, Amund; Hovland, Vegard; Mowinckel, Petter; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Lødrup

    2012-02-01

    Limited knowledge exists about development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) through adolescence. We aimed to assess changes in and risk factors for BHR in adolescence. From a Norwegian birth cohort 517 subjects underwent clinical examinations, structured interviews and methacholine challenges at age 10 and 16. BHR was divided into four categories: no BHR (cumulative methacholine dose required to reduce FEV(1) by 20% (PD(20)) >16 μmol), borderline BHR (PD(20) ≤16 and >8 μmol), mild to moderate BHR (PD(20) ≤8 and >1 μmol), and severe BHR (PD(20) ≤ 1 μmol). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors and possible confounders. The number of children with PD(20) ≤ 8 decreased from 172 (33%) to 79 (15%) from age 10-16 (p 25% change) of gender, active rhinitis, active asthma, height, FEV(1)/FVC, or allergic sensitization. BHR decreased overall in severity through adolescence, was stable for the majority of children and only a minority (8%) had increased BHR from age 10 to 16. Mild to moderate and severe BHR at age 10 were major risk factors for PD(20) ≤ 8 at 16 years and not modified by asthma or body size. PMID:22015380

  8. Price of forest chips decreasing

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m3 (625 bulk- m3) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  9. Alleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungialleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (vicia faba l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    The present study was conducted to assess the effect of different concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) in presence and absence of AMF on growth, physio-biochemical and enzymatic activity in faba bean (Vicia faba). Different concentrations of NaCl showed reduction in growth and yield parameters, which indicates the deleterious effects of salinity on the plant. The total spore count and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is also decreasing at higher concentrations of NaCl. Application of AMF mitigates the effect of NaCl stress and improved the growth and yield in the present study. NaCl also decreased the nodulation as well as nodule activity and pigments content, however the supplementation of by AMF to plants treated with sodium chloride showed enhancement in nodule activity and pigment content. Polyamines (Putresciene, Spermidine, Spermine), acid and alkaline phosphates increased with increasing concentration of sodium chloride and application of by AMF showed further increase in the above phytoconstituents, proving the protective role of these phytoconstituents against salt stress. Salinity stress is responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species, which lead to the membrane damage through lipid peroxidation in the present study. Maximum lipid peroxidation was observed at higher concentration of sodium chloride and AMF treatment minimized the effect of salinity on lipid peroxidation. To combat with the reactive oxygen species, plants upregulate the enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. As the concentration of sodium chloride increases the enzyme activity also increases and further increase was observed with supplementation of AMF to salt treated plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi also restores the potassium and calcium contents and maintain their ratio that was hampered with increasing concentration of sodium chloride in the present study. In conclusion, application of AMF

  10. Topical effects of N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline on ceramide synthesis and alleviation of pruritus

    Hashizume E

    2013-02-01

    forearm. Pruritus intensity declined in the AHYP-treated forearms between 0 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05, but there was no change in the control-treated forearms.Conclusion: AHYP increased ceramide synthesis by upregulating SPTLC1 in a three-dimensional cultured skin model, and it prevented TEWL increase and alleviated pruritus in human subjects with slight atopic dermatitis.Keywords: skin barrier, ceramide, pruritus, N-acetyl-l-hydroxyproline, amino acids

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

    Hsu Cheng-chin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (CA and ellagic acid (EA are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. Methods Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group: diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One group of non-diabetic mice with normal diet was used for comparison. After 12 weeks supplement, mice were sacrificed, and the variation of biomarkers for hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice were measured. Results The intake of CA or EA significantly increased cardiac content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, elevated plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice (p p p p p p p Conclusion These results support that CA and EA could provide triglyceride-lowering, anti-coagulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory protection in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Thus, the supplement of these agents might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  12. Hesperidin Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

    Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of several tumors but its cardiac toxicity prevents its use at a maximum dose, representing an important problem. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and imbalance in nitric oxide (NO) production have been implicated in the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Hesperidin is a citrus bioflavonoid that possesses a potent antioxidant and NO modulating activities. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of hesperidin against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Methods: Four groups of animals were used in this study. First group served as a control and injected with the vehicle. Second group was given 200 mg/kg of hesperidin orally for seven consecutive days. The third group was injected with a single dose (20 mg/kg) of doxorubicin intraperitoneally and was sacrificed after 48 h. The fourth group was treated with hesperidin for seven days but on day five, 1-hour after hesperidin treatment, rats were injected with the single dose of doxorubicin. On day seven, the rats were scarified by decapitation. Blood was collected and processed for determination of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and NO. The hearts were removed and processed for both histopathological examination and determination of oxidative stress parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (TBARS) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Results: Our results showed that doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity as indicated from increase in serum LDH, CK activities and NO level. Histopathological examination of DOX-treated rats revealed degenerative changes in heart tissues. The significant decrease in GSH levels, SOD activity and increase in TBARS levels, indi- cated that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity was mediated through ROS generation. On the other hand, pretreatment of rats with hesperidin protected cardiac tissues against the

  13. The mechanism underlying alpinetin-mediated alleviation of pancreatitis-associated lung injury through upregulating aquaporin-1

    Liang XS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Xingsi Liang,1,2,* Bin Zhang,3,* Quan Chen,4,* Jing Zhang,1,5 Biao Lei,1,5 Bo Li,5 Yangchao Wei,1,5 Run Zhai,1,5 Zhiqing Liang,2 Songqing He,1,5 Bo Tang1,5 1Laboratory of Liver Injury and Repair Molecular Medicine, Guilin Medical University, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Guilin Medical University, Affiliated Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi, 3Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, 4Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, 5Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guilin Medical University, Affiliated Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Characterized by its acute onset, critical condition, poor prognosis, and high mortality rate, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP can cause multiple organ failure at its early stage, particularly acute lung injury (ALI. The pathogenesis of ALI is diffuse alveolar damage, including an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, a decrease in compliance, and invasion of many inflammatory cells. Corticosteroids are the main treatment method for ALI; however, the associated high toxicity and side effects induce pain in patients. Recent studies show that the effective components in many traditional Chinese medicines can effectively inhibit inflammation with few side effects, which can decrease the complications caused by steroid consumption. Based on these observations, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of alpinetin, which is a flavonoid extracted from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, on treating lung injury induced by SAP and to explore the mechanism underlying the alpinetin-mediated decrease in the extent of ALI. In this study, we have shown through in vitro experiments that a therapeutic dose of alpinetin can promote human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. We

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Neetu Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  15. Asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces HepG2 cells death.

    Lu, Yapeng; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Dang; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-01

    Asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from Centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. To date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. Here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on HepG2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. Asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, ATP depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. In mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, asiatic acid treatment significantly stimulated the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated the MMP, increased Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased ATP content and promoted cytochrome c release, indicating the uncoupling effect of asiatic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration was also significantly inhibited by asiatic acid. In addition, asiatic acid inhibited Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling but did not induce mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic potassium acetate medium which suggested that asiatic acid may not act as a protonophoric uncoupler. Inhibition of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) attenuated the effect of asiatic acid on MMP dissipation, Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial respiration and HepG2 cell death. When combined inhibition of UCPs and ANT, asiatic acid-mediated uncoupling effect was noticeably alleviated. These results suggested that both UCPs and ANT partially contribute to the uncoupling properties of asiatic acid. In conclusion, asiatic acid is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on HepG2 cells. PMID:27288117

  16. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    2010-01-01

    ... unemployment or underemployment. 310.2 Section 310.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... Special Need. (b) For purposes of this part, excessive unemployment exists if the twenty-four (24)...

  17. Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: A review

    Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth's crust and in soils, it has not yet been listed among the essential elements for higher plants. However, the beneficial role of Si in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively mitigate various abiotic stresses such as manganese, aluminum and heavy metal toxicities, and salinity, drought, chilling and freezing stresses. However, mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses remain poorly understood. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants include: (1) stimulation of antioxidant systems in plants, (2) complexation or co-precipitation of toxic metal ions with Si, (3) immobilization of toxic metal ions in growth media, (4) uptake processes, and (5) compartmentation of metal ions within plants. Future research needs for Si-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses are also discussed. - This review article overviews roles Si plays in alleviating abiotic stress in higher plants and discusses future research directions

  18. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. Accordi...

  19. Foreign direct investment and poverty alleviation : the case of Bulyanhulu and Geita gold mines, Tanzania

    Nyankweli, Emmanuel M.

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis seeks to quantify the economic, social and environmental effects of the gold mining sector as a component of foreign direct investments in Tanzania and its contribution to poverty alleviation. In addition to highlighting the socio-economic gains and losses, by exploring the corporate

  20. How to alleviate the electricity scarcity in Guangxi : an analysis of electricity pricing

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the increase of the population, Guangxi, a province with abundant hydropower resource, is facing a severe electricity shortage problem. This situation forces Guangxi¡¯s decision makers, the local government, to seek methods to alleviate the problem of electricity scarcity, and among the measures the way of re-pricing electricity seems a proper one.

  1. Poverty alleviation as business strategy? : evaluating commitments of frontrunner Multinational Corporations

    A. Kolk; R. van Tulder

    2006-01-01

    In the debate on how to combat poverty, the positive role of MNCs is frequently mentioned nowadays, although doubts and criticism remain. Facing this societal debate, MNCs feel pressure to formulate a position. This paper analyzes MNCs' policies on their poverty-alleviating potential. 'Frontrunner'

  2. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  3. Load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in the INDUFLAP project

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Thomsen, Kenneth; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Base (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF...

  4. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  5. Studies on possibility for alleviation of lifestyle diseases by low-dose irradiation or radon inhalation

    Our previous studies showed the possibility that activation of the anti-oxidative function alleviates various oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. Results showed that, low-dose X-ray irradiation activated superoxide dismutase and inhibits oedema following ischaemia-reperfusion. To alleviate ischaemia-reperfusion injury with transplantation, the changes of the anti-oxidative function in liver graft using low-dose X-ray irradiation immediately after exenteration were examined. Results showed that liver grafts activate the anti-oxidative function as a result of irradiation. In addition, radon inhalation enhances the anti-oxidative function in some organs, and alleviates alcohol-induced oxidative damage of mouse liver. Moreover, in order to determine the most effective condition of radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Results showed that radon inhalation alleviates CCl4-induced hepatopathy, especially prior inhalation. It is highly possible that adequate activation of anti-oxidative functions induced by low-dose irradiation can contribute to preventing or reducing oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. (authors)

  6. Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Klemke, Roland; WESTERA, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P., Klemke, R., & Westera, W. (2011). Alleviating the Entrance to Serious Games by Exploring the Use of Commonly Available Tools. In D. Gouscos, & M. Meimaris (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Games Based Learning (pp. 613-619), Athens, Greece. 20-21 October 2011.

  7. Alleviative effect of quercetin on germ cells intoxicated by 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol from diesel exhaust particles

    Tong-liang BU; Yu-dong JIA; Yu-ling MI; Jin-xing LIN; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    As a component of diesel exhaust particles,3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol,PNMC) is also a metabolite of the insecticide fenitrothion and imposes hazardous effects on human health.In the present study,the alleviative effect of a common antioxidant fiavonoid quercetin on mouse germ cells intoxicated by PNMC was investigated.Results showed that a single intraperitoneal injection of PNMC at 100 mg/kg induced severe testicular damage after one week.PNMC-treated mice showed a significant loss of germ cells (approximate 40% loss of round germ cells).PNMC caused an increase of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation,as well as a decrease in glutathione level,superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities.Furthermore,treatment of PNMC increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in germ cells.In addition,testicular caspase-3 activity was significantly up-regulated and germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the PNMC-treated mice.In contrast,combined administration of quercetin at 75 mg/kg significantly attenuated PNMC-induced testicular toxicity.These results indicate that the antioxidant quercetin displays a remarkable protective effect on PNMC-induced oxidative damage in mouse testes and may represent an efficient supplement to attenuate reproductive toxicity by environmental toxicants to ensure healthy sperm production.

  8. LIB spectroscopic and biochemical analysis to characterize lead toxicity alleviative nature of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Rai, Awadesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of wheat seedling treated with silicon (Si; 10 μM) and lead (Pb; 100 μM) for 7 days have been investigated by analyzing growth, Pb uptake, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress, antioxidants and nutrients regulation. Results indicated that, Pb significantly (PSi addition alleviated Pb-induced decrease in growth and alterations in photosynthesis, and also significantly (PSi addition improved the status of antioxidants. The non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed enhanced level under Pb stress. Pb stress considerably disturbed status of the nutrients as decrease in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Ni contents while an increase in K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Na contents were noticed. Si addition maintained status of all the nutrients remarkably. The quickest method of element analysis: LIBS spectra revealed significantly lower uptake of Pb in seedlings grown under Si and Pb combination and same was correlated with the data of AAS. Overall results pointed out that excess Pb uptake disturbed status of nutrients, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, hence severe oxidative damage to lipids occurred. Further, Si supplementation successfully regulated these parameters by inhibiting Pb uptake hence maintained growth of wheat seedlings. Similar pattern of data recorded by the LIBS, AAS and ICAP-AES confirmed that LIBS may be one of the promising and authentic tools to monitor the mineral and metal distribution in the plants without hampering or disturbing the environment due to its eco-friendly and non-invasive nature. PMID:26700425

  9. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils?

    Jiang, Qiu-Yun; Zhuo, Feng; Long, Shi-Hui; Zhao, Hai-Di; Yang, Dan-Jing; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Li, Shao-Shan; Jing, Yuan-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-Glomus versiforme (Gv) and Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) on the growth, Cd uptake, antioxidant indices [glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA)] and phytochelatins (PCs) production of Lonicera japonica in Cd-amended soils. Gv and Ri significantly increased P acquisition, biomass of shoots and roots at all Cd treatments. Gv significantly decreased Cd concentrations in shoots and roots, and Ri also obviously reduced Cd concentrations in shoots but increased Cd concentrations in roots. Meanwhile, activities of CAT, APX and GR, and contents of ASA and PCs were remarkably higher in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants than those of uninoculated plants, but lower MDA and GSH contents in Gv/Ri-inoculated plants were found. In conclusion, Gv and Ri symbiosis alleviated Cd toxicity of L. japonica through the decline of shoot Cd concentrations and the improvement of P nutrition, PCs content and activities of GR, CAT, APX in inoculated plants, and then improved plant growth. The decrease of shoot Cd concentrations in L. japonica inoculated with Gv/Ri would provide a clue for safe production of this plant from Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Cafeteria diet-induced insulin resistance is not associated with decreased insulin signaling or AMPK activity and is alleviated by physical training in rats

    Brandt, Nina; De Bock, Katrien; Richter, Erik;

    2010-01-01

    counteracted by training. In the perfused hindlimb, insulin-stimulated glucose transport in red gastrocnemius muscle was completely abolished in CAF and rescued by exercise training. Apart from a tendency toward an approximately 20% reduction in both basal and insulin-stimulated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P......) among the groups. In conclusion, surplus energy intake of a palatable but low-fat cafeteria diet resulted in obesity and insulin resistance that was rescued by exercise training. Interestingly, insulin resistance was not accompanied by major defects in the insulin-signaling cascade or in altered AMPK......Excess energy intake via a palatable low-fat diet (cafeteria diet) is known to induce obesity and glucose intolerance in rats. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this adaptation are not known, and it is also not known whether exercise training can reverse it. Male Wistar rats were assigned to...

  11. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production.

    Renaudeau, D; Collin, A; Yahav, S; de Basilio, V; Gourdine, J L; Collier, R J

    2012-05-01

    Despite many challenges faced by animal producers, including environmental problems, diseases, economic pressure, and feed availability, it is still predicted that animal production in developing countries will continue to sustain the future growth of the world's meat production. In these areas, livestock performance is generally lower than those obtained in Western Europe and North America. Although many factors can be involved, climatic factors are among the first and crucial limiting factors of the development of animal production in warm regions. In addition, global warming will further accentuate heat stress-related problems. The objective of this paper was to review the effective strategies to alleviate heat stress in the context of tropical livestock production systems. These strategies can be classified into three groups: those increasing feed intake or decreasing metabolic heat production, those enhancing heat-loss capacities, and those involving genetic selection for heat tolerance. Under heat stress, improved production should be possible through modifications of diet composition that either promotes a higher intake or compensates the low feed consumption. In addition, altering feeding management such as a change in feeding time and/or frequency, are efficient tools to avoid excessive heat load and improve survival rate, especially in poultry. Methods to enhance heat exchange between the environment and the animal and those changing the environment to prevent or limit heat stress can be used to improve performance under hot climatic conditions. Although differences in thermal tolerance exist between livestock species (ruminants > monogastrics), there are also large differences between breeds of a species and within each breed. Consequently, the opportunity may exist to improve thermal tolerance of the animals using genetic tools. However, further research is required to quantify the genetic antagonism between adaptation and production traits to evaluate

  12. Targeting Bone Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Osteopenic Mice and Modulates Cartilage Catabolism

    Funck-Brentano, Thomas; Lin, Hilène; Hay, Eric; Ah Kioon, Marie-Dominique; Schiltz, Corinne; Hannouche, Didier; Nizard, Rémy; Lioté, Frédéric; Orcel, Philippe; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Cohen-Solal, Martine Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objective Subchondral bone modifications occur early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). The level of bone resorption might impact cartilage remodeling. We therefore assessed the in vivo and in vitro effects of targeting bone resorption in OA and cartilage metabolism. Methods OA was induced by meniscectomy (MNX) in ovariectomized osteopenic mice (OP) treated with estradiol (E2), pamidronate (PAM), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 6 weeks. We assessed the subchondral bone and cartilage structure and the expression of cartilage matrix proteases. To assess the involvement of bone soluble factors in cartilage metabolism, supernatant of human bone explants pre-treated with E2 or PAM were transferred to cartilage explants to assess proteoglycan release and aggrecan cleavage. OPG/RANKL mRNA expression was assessed in bone explants by real-time quantitative PCR. The role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the bone-cartilage crosstalk was tested using an OPG neutralizing antibody. Results Bone mineral density of OP mice and osteoclast number were restored by E2 and PAM (p<0.05). In OP mice, E2 and PAM decreased ADAMTS-4 and -5 expression, while only PAM markedly reduced OA compared to PBS (2.0±0.63 vs 5.2±0.95; p<0.05). OPG/RANKL mRNA was increased in human bone explants treated with both drugs (2.2–3.7-fold). Moreover, supernatants from bone explants cultured with E2 or PAM reduced aggrecan cleavage and cartilage proteoglycan release (73±8.0% and 80±22% of control, respectively, p<0.05). This effect was reversed with osteoprotegerin blockade. Conclusion The inhibition of bone resorption by pamidronate in osteopenic mice alleviates the histological OA score with a reduction in the expression of aggrecanases. Bone soluble factors, such as osteoprotegerin, impact the cartilage response to catabolic factors. This study further highlights the importance of subchondral bone in the regulation of joint cartilage damage in OA. PMID:22432033

  13. [Iron chelation therapy and its influence on the alleviation of EPO resistance in MDS patients].

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Chao; Gu, Shu-Cheng; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2014-08-01

    in some patients was decreased. It is concluded that iron chelation therapy can improve the efficacy of EPO to alleviate EPO resistance in patients wtih anemic MDS, decrease the pathological level of EPO, enhance Hb levels and reduce the dependency on blood transfusion. PMID:25130822

  14. Alleviating salt stress in tomato seedlings using Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands.

    Fan, Pengfei; Chen, Daitao; He, Yanan; Zhou, Qingxia; Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2016-11-01

    Salt-induced soil degradation is common in farmlands and limits the growth and development of numerous crop plants in the world. In this study, we isolated salt-tolerant bacteria from the rhizosphere of Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda salsa and Zoysia sinica, which are common wild plants grown on a saline-alkaline land, to test these bacteria's efficiency in alleviating salt stress in tomato plants. We screened out seven strains (TF1-7) that are efficient in reducing salt stress in tomato seedlings. The sequence data of 16S rRNA genes showed that these strains belong to Arthrobacter and Bacillus megaterium. All strains could hydrolyze casein and solubilize phosphate, and showed at least one plant growth promotion (PGP)-related gene, indicating their potential in promoting plant growth. The Arthrobacter strains TF1 and TF7 and the Bacillus megaterium strain TF2 and TF3 could produce indole acetic acid under salt stress, further demonstrating their PGP potential. Tomato seed germination, seedling length, vigor index, and plant fresh and dry weight were enhanced by inoculation of Arthrobacter and B. megaterium strains under salt stress. Our results demonstrated that salt-tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of wild plants grown on saline-alkaline lands could be used for alleviating salt stress in crop plants. PMID:27196364

  15. Alleviating Poverty

    Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    Why do we find entrepreneurship within larger groups? This question has challenged the social sciences since Olson (1965) showed that it does not pay an individual to provide collective goods voluntarily, if the individual economic gain from doing this is negative. However, the fact that larger g...

  16. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  17. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper

  18. Study on vibration alleviating properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete through orthogonal tests

    Bai Wenfeng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)], E-mail: wfbai@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China)], E-mail: jhzhang@sdu.edu.cn; Yan Peng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250061 (China); Wang Xinli [Design Department, Shanghai Haima Automobile R and D Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201201 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Polymer concrete (PC), because of its good vibration alleviating properties, is a proper material for elementary machine parts in high-precision machine tools. Glass fiber was applied in PC to improve its mechanical properties, and the material obtained is called glass fiber reinforced polymer concrete (GFRPC). The best parameter to estimate the vibration alleviating property is damping ratio. Orthogonal tests were carried out to prepare GFRPC specimens with different component proportions. Damping ratio of the GFRPC specimens was measured. The effect of the factors considered in the experiments on damping ratio of GFRPC was studied. Results of the tests show that granite proportion plays the most important role in determining damping ratio of GFRPC, then flexibilizer dosage and glass fiber length, while epoxy resin dosage and glass fiber dosage play a comparatively less important part. Detailed descriptions were made about how the considered factors affect damping ratio of GFRPC in this paper.

  19. Extractive sector politics in Latin America and their impact on poverty alleviation

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    There is widespread recognition that extractive industries such as mining, oil and gas have the potential to alleviate poverty in rural and remote areas and contribute positively to national development efforts in the global South. The industry record in this regard is, however, uneven and very...... investment regimes. Within this context, only a handful of countries and regions in the global South appear to be managing their non-renewables in ways that would avoid the so called ‘resource curse’ and use it toward national development and poverty alleviation. In Latin America, Mexico, Chile and Peru are...... cases in point. What sets these countries and regions apart from the rest? Similarly, what sets some regions and countries apart when they question the introduction of industrial scale mining in their economic landscape? This paper will firstly review the rise of resource dependence in the global South...

  20. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    Bergami, Leonardo

    The work investigates the development of an active smart rotor concept from an aero-servo-elastic perspective. An active smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators, is able to alleviate the fluctuating part of the aerodynamic loads it has...... to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D...... energy capture below rated conditions by using the flaps. Two model based control algorithms are developed to actively alleviate the fatigue loads on the smart rotor with ATEF. The first algorithm features a linear quadratic regulator with periodic disturbance rejection, and controls the deflection of...

  1. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unpro...

  2. Poverty Alleviation through Optimizing the Marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Agbelade, A. D.; Onyekwelu, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines poverty alleviation through optimizing the marketing of Garcinia kola and Irvingia gabonensis in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collected using structured questionnaire. Two categories of pretested structured questionnaires were used to obtain information from the respondents (farmers and the marketers of the species). Data analysis was done using descriptive analysis, and Student t-test was used to compare the income generated by the producers and the market...

  3. The role of tourism in poverty alleviation at Sedibeng District Municipality / Fusi Amelia Msibi.

    Msibi, Fusi Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Local Authorities have a duty to promote the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of their communities. The study deals with the promotion of community involvement and other stakeholders by municipality in ensuring the tourism sustainability. The objectives of this research are to explain the theoretical analysis of the concepts: tourism and poverty alleviation; mechanisms and procedures to be used to encourage community participation in making tourism economically viable around Sedib...

  4. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    Sudarlan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...

  5. Impact of micro-credit programmes on poverty alleviation in Bangladesh

    Khatun, Mst Asma; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Majumder, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    This present study examines the impact of micro-credit programmes of six government organisations (GO), non-government organisations (NGO) and micro-finance institutes (MFI) on poverty alleviation in Bangladesh using a purposive sample of 406 credit receivers. Alongside respondent’s perceived change in poverty situation this study devised an alternative measure of poverty change based on the change in household wealth and education of a household. Two-level binary logistic regression and mult...

  6. Role of Islamic Microfinance in Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: An Empirical Approach

    Muhammad Naveed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    After 2008 world economic crises, banks and other financial institutes move towards Islamic financing not only in Muslims countries but also in non-Muslim countries of the world. In view of this, some micro financial institutions also introduce Islamic micro financing products in Pakistan. The present study was conducted to analyze the role of Islamic microfinance to alleviate poverty in Pakistan its impacts, people satisfaction level and assess the future of it in Pakistan. An Empirical appr...

  7. HEALTHY AGRICULTURE (Agricultura saludable®) Agricultural conversion to alleviate hunger and poverty

    Sánchez, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Healthy agriculture: Agricultural conversion to alleviate hunger and poverty, is a concept, a Program and a brand, that Corporación Biotec and a group of institutions, companies and associations of producers are developing in Colombia, promoting a new culture of social, environmental and market competitiveness, in the production of food, mainly tropical fruits productive chains. Some world wide challenges, ask for biomass as raw material for different sectors: food security, energy supply and...

  8. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Haretsebe Manwa; Farai Manwa

    2014-01-01

    Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest rese...

  9. Alleviation of rural poverty in Malaysia: the role of Zakat, a case study

    Mahamod, Lukman Hakim

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors contributing to the lack of emphasis by the Kedah Department of Zakat (KDoZ), Malaysia on the alleviation of poverty among the rural poor through zakat capital assistance programmes and employment opportunities. In this study, seven research questions were outlined. A mixed-methods study was developed to answer research questions 1, 2, 3 and 4. Research questions 5, 6 and 7 were answered using qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected f...

  10. Development of township enterprise and alleviation of the employment problem in rural China

    Zhou, Zhang Y.; John L Dillon; Wan, Guang H.

    1992-01-01

    In contrast to the situation in western countries at the time of their industrialization, it has been and still is impossible for rural labour in China to move to the urban sector for employment. For this and other reasons, including shortage of arable land and population growth, lack of employment opportunities continues to be a serious problem in rural China. This article discusses the development of township enterprise in rural areas and its role in the alleviation of China's rural employm...

  11. Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security

    Bolan, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of these Technical Guidelines are to provide a focus on small-scale fisheries and their current and potential role in contributing to poverty alleviation and food security by expanding on the guidance on small-scale fisheries offered by the Code. The Guidelines are complementary to existing Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. Most small-scale fishers are in developing countries and many live in communities characterized by poverty and food insecurity. Small-scale f...

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ONDANSETRON WITH LIGNOCAINE TO ALLEVIATE PAIN DURING INJECTION OF PROPOFOL

    Prashant J .; Sonal A; Abhimanyu S; Ganesh K

    2014-01-01

    Propofol is commonly used newer induction agent of choice with smooth and rapid recovery from anaesthesia. It has one adverse effect which is restricting its use i.e. pain during injection. We in present study are comparing Ondansetron with Lignocaine to alleviate pain during injection of Propofol, as ondansetron is routinely used to prevent post-operative nausea and vomiting, so it can have both effects viz prevention of pain on injection of Propofol and prevention of pos...

  13. Solar Energy Utilization As A Tool For Poverty Alleviation In Nigeria

    The depletable nature of conventional sources of energy (fossil fuel) and their affects on the environment are highlighted in this paper. The prospects and limitations of solar energy as an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels are also presented. The applications of solar energy and their effect in poverty alleviation are discussed. We conclude that investments in solar energy development be stepped up to save our depletable energy resources as well as preserve our environment

  14. AVRDC- The World Vegetables Center: Role of horticulture in poverty alleviation

    Mubarik, A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the work of AVRDC- The World Vegetable Center, whose mission is to alleviate poverty and malnutrition in the developing world through increased production, marketing and consumption of safe vegetables. The presentation outlines the issue of poverty and nutrient deficiency in the world, and the economic and health benefits to producing vegetables in developing countries. It outlines the research currently being conducted at global stations, as well as achievements ...

  15. Ginsenoside Rh2 alleviates tumor-associated depression in a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Yueming; Dai, Chunxiao; Shang, Yushan; Xie, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported remarkable high incidence of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide and has been found to be one of the malignancies with the highest incidence of patient depression. Thus, strategies that may alleviate CRC-associated depression may significantly improve the patients’ life quality and outcome of the therapy. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has been reported to have thera...

  16. HEAT STRESS IN POULTRY. II. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR PREVENTION AND ALLEVIATION (review)

    V.I. FISININ; A.Sh. KAVTARASHVILI

    2015-01-01

    An adverse effect of heat stress in poultry depends on both the external factors such as diet, water supply, rearing technology, birds’ population density, air humidity and flow rate, etc., and the internal factors, particularly, poultry species and breed specificity, physiological conditions, etc. Herein, the approaches to prevention and alleviation of heat stress in poultry are summarized and discussed. Different strategies were proposed for lowering of body heat production and for better h...

  17. Poverty Alleviation and Social Safety Net Schemes for Economies in Transition

    Gillian Paull

    1991-01-01

    Inspired by the current Polish economic restructuring program, this paper attempts to develop a general income support scheme that could serve as a model to alleviate poverty in developed economies in the transitional phase. The proposed scheme has the advantage that no part of the poor population is omitted from eligibility for support sufficient to remove them from poverty. The concept of the simplified model is protection against poverty through income maintenance that is conditional upon ...

  18. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    Beaudin, Stéphane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. R...

  19. Mobilizing Informal Workers for Urban Resilience: Linking Poverty Alleviation and Disaster Preparedness

    Cleveland, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives and associations of informal sector workers could become key players in global efforts to alleviate extreme poverty and enhance disaster resilience in urban slums and informal settlements. By engaging these worker-led organizations in community-based efforts to reduce disaster risk, the urban poor who live in informal settlements and work informal jobs can exert their collective power to overcome their social and economic marginalization. Such a strategy can build safer communiti...

  20. Optimal Participation Income and Negative Income Tax in Poverty Alleviation Programs.

    D. Lanzi; F. Delbono

    2002-01-01

    We compare two different redistributive policies specifically designed to alleviate poverty. The first one is inspired to the idea of participation income, the second focused on the introduction of a negative income tax. Briefly characterizing an economy with workers and non-workers and using income as evaluation space for poverty, we determine optimality conditions of both measures under a flat rate labor income tax. Finally, we emphasize a necessary condition for these measures to mitigate ...

  1. Energy poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation: Is there a trade off?

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Tavoni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Energy poverty alleviation has become an important political issue in the most recent years. Several initiatives and policies have been proposed to deal with poor access to modern sources of energy in many developing countries. Given the large number of people lacking basic energy services, an important question is whether providing universal access to modern energy could significantly increase CO2 emissions. This paper provides one of the few formal assessments of this problem by means of a ...

  2. Poverty alleviation programs, FDI-led growth and child labour under agricultural dualism

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2011-01-01

    The paper is aimed at providing a theoretical explanation why policies that affect only the supply side of the child labour problem may not be able to mitigate the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with agricultural dualism and child labour. Although a poverty alleviation program like subsidization of backward agriculture exerts a downward pressure on the child labour incidence through the supply side by raising adult wage i...

  3. Alleviation of lead-induced physiological, metabolic, and ultramorphological changes in leaves of upland cotton through glutathione.

    Khan, Mumtaz; Daud, M K; Basharat, Ali; Khan, Muhammad Jamil; Azizullah, Azizullah; Muhammad, Niaz; Muhammad, Noor; Ur Rehman, Zia; Zhu, Shui Jin

    2016-05-01

    Plants face changes in leaves under lead (Pb) toxicity. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has several functions in plant metabolism, but its role in alleviating Pb toxicity in cotton leaves is still unknown. In the present study, cotton seedlings (28 days old) were exposed to 500 μM Pb and 50 μM GSH, both alone and in combination, for a period of 10 days, in the Hoagland solution under controlled growth conditions. Results revealed Pb-induced changes in cotton's leaf morphology, photosynthesis, and oxidative metabolism. However, exogenous application of GSH restored leaf growth. GSH triggered build up of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents and boosted fluorescence ratios (F v/F m and F v/F 0). Moreover, GSH reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Pb contents in cotton leaves. Results further revealed that total soluble protein contents were decreased under Pb toxicity; however, exogenously applied GSH improved these contents in cotton leaves. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) were also increased by GSH application under Pb toxicity. Microscopic analysis showed that excess Pb shattered thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts. However, GSH stabilized ultrastructure of Pb-stressed cotton leaves. These findings suggested that exogenously applied GSH lessened the adverse effects of Pb and improved cotton's tolerance to oxidative stress. PMID:26782322

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children’s Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kumpu, Minna; Kekkonen, Riina A.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children’s developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children’s microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children’s antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2–7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676 PMID:27111772

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Alleviate Radiation-Induced Muscular Fibrosis by Suppressing the Expression of TGF-β1

    Wei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplantation on irradiation-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis. Sixty-four rabbits were randomly divided into ASCs group and PBS group followed by irradiation at unilateral hip with a single dose of 80 Gy. Nonirradiated side with normal skeletal muscle served as normal control. Skeletal muscle tissues were collected from eight rabbits in each group at 1 w, 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Migration of ASCs was observed in the peripheral tissues along the needle passage in the injured muscle. The proportion of the area of collagen fibers to the total area in sections of ASCs group was lower than those of PBS groups at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Significant decrease was noted in the integrated optimal density of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the ASCs group compared with those of PBS group at 4 w, 8 w, and 26 w after irradiation. Moreover, the expression of TGF-β1 was lower in the ASCs group compared to those of the PBS group at each time point determined by Western blot analysis. ASCs transplantation could alleviate irradiation fibrosis by suppressing the level of TGF-β1 in the irradiated skeletal muscle.

  6. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children's Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use.

    Katri Korpela

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is considered among the most severe causes of disturbance to children's developing intestinal microbiota, and frequently causes adverse gastrointestinal effects ranging from mild and transient diarrhoea to life-threatening infections. Probiotics are commonly advocated to help in preventing antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is currently unknown whether probiotics alleviate the antibiotic-associated changes in children's microbiota. Furthermore, it is not known how long-term probiotic consumption influences the developing microbiota of children. We analysed the influence of long-term Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake on preschool children's antibiotic use, and antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal complaints in a double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial with 231 children aged 2-7. In addition, we analysed the effect of L. rhanmosus GG on the intestinal microbiota in a subset of 88 children. The results show that long-term L. rhamnosus GG supplementation has an influence on the composition of the intestinal microbiota in children, causing an increase in the abundance of Prevotella, Lactococcus, and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in Escherichia. The treatment appeared to prevent some of the changes in the microbiota associated with penicillin use, but not those associated with macrolide use. The treatment, however, did reduce the frequency of gastrointestinal complaints after a macrolide course. Finally, the treatment appeared to prevent certain bacterial infections for up to 3 years after the trial, as indicated by reduced antibiotic use.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014676.

  7. Curcumin alleviates matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 activities during eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in cultured cells and mice.

    Parag Kundu

    Full Text Available Current therapy-regimens against Helicobacter pylori (Hp infections have considerable failure rates and adverse side effects that urge the quest for an effective alternative therapy. We have shown that curcumin is capable of eradicating Hp-infection in mice. Here we examine the mechanism by which curcumin protects Hp infection in cultured cells and mice. Since, MMP-3 and -9 are inflammatory molecules associated to the pathogenesis of Hp-infection, we investigated the role of curcumin on inflammatory MMPs as well as proinflammatory molecules. Curcumin dose dependently suppressed MMP-3 and -9 expression in Hp infected human gastric epithelial (AGS cells. Consistently, Hp-eradication by curcumin-therapy involved significant downregulation of MMP-3 and -9 activities and expression in both cytotoxic associated gene (cag(+ve and cag(-ve Hp-infected mouse gastric tissues. Moreover, we demonstrate that the conventional triple therapy (TT alleviated MMP-3 and -9 activities less efficiently than curcumin and curcumin's action on MMPs was linked to decreased pro-inflammatory molecules and activator protein-1 activation in Hp-infected gastric tissues. Although both curcumin and TT were associated with MMP-3 and -9 downregulation during Hp-eradication, but unlike TT, curcumin enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and inhibitor of kappa B-α. These data indicate that curcumin-mediated healing of Hp-infection involves regulation of MMP-3 and -9 activities.

  8. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage. PMID:27478241

  9. Combined Effect of Opioids and Corticosteroids for Alleviating Dyspnea in Terminal Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Review.

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Dyspnea is a prognostic factor that affects the quality of life of terminal cancer patients, and many reports have described opioid treatment for dyspnea alleviation. Here, we retrospectively evaluated differences in the effects of various opioids administered concomitantly with corticosteroids on dyspnea in 20 terminal-stage cancer patients (13 men, 7 women; mean age [range]: 71 [49-94] years) who received opioids concomitantly with corticosteroids. Effectiveness was assessed throughout administration using the Support Team Assessment Schedule, Japanese version (STAS-J), particularly the subscale indicating how strongly a patient is affected by symptoms. The effectiveness of combined opioid and corticosteroid therapy against dyspnea and the opioid dose comprised the primary and secondary foci, respectively. Among concomitantly treated patients, STAS-J scores at initiation (mean ± SD: 3.1 ± 0.24) and lowest recorded STAS-J scores (1.4 ± 0.22) differed significantly (P = .0034) among those receiving morphine, but not among those receiving oxycodone (P = .068) or fentanyl (P = .18). Concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment was associated with a ≥2-point STAS-J score improvement in 14/20 patients (effectiveness: 70%). The opioid dose did not significantly affect dyspnea alleviation. We conclude that concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment can effectively alleviate dyspnea in terminal cancer patients. PMID:27093633

  10. Let there be light: A multi-actor approach to alleviating energy poverty in Asia

    Energy poverty is the primary energy security issue impacting almost 800 million people, particularly women and children, in the developing countries of Asia. Current trends indicate that should there be no change to existing policies, and the governance systems and institutions underpinning them, the absolute number of energy poor will barely shift. Most significantly, addressing energy poverty is critical to absolute poverty reduction, enhanced gender equality and political stability in the Asian region. We offer a solution to progress the energy poverty alleviation effort focused on encouraging sustainable, development-centred investment. This will involve multi-actor partnerships between developed and developing country governments, investors, and multilateral institutions. We propose that there may be spill over effects for investing firms, in the form of strengthened corporate reputation. Consequently, energy poverty alleviation efforts can create new opportunities for commerce, multilateral institutions, NGOs, and developing and developed countries. It is envisaged that the multi-actor approach put forward by this paper will facilitate the partnerships, programs and provisions needed to alleviate energy poverty in Asia. However, critical to the success of this collaborative approach is a genuine shift in sentiment from the key stakeholders involved in the effort

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services with Dual Goals of Environment and Poverty Alleviation

    Gauvin, Crystal; Uchida, Emi; Rozelle, Scott; Xu, Jintao; Zhan, Jinyan

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this article is to understand strategies by which both the environmental and poverty alleviation objectives of PES programs can be achieved cost effectively. To meet this goal, we first create a conceptual framework to understand the implications of alternative targeting when policy makers have both environmental and poverty alleviation goals. We then use the Grain for Green program in China, the largest PES program in the developing world, as a case study. We also use a data set from a survey that we designed and implemented to evaluate the program. Using the data set we first evaluate what factors determined selection of program areas for the Grain for Green program. We then demonstrate the heterogeneity of parcels and households and examine the correlations across households and their parcels in terms of their potential environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participating, and the asset levels of households as an indicator of poverty. Finally, we compare five alternative targeting criteria and simulate their performance in terms of cost effectiveness in meeting both the environmental and poverty alleviation goals when given a fixed budget. Based on our simulations, we find that there is a substantial gain in the cost effectiveness of the program by targeting parcels based on the “gold standard,” i.e., targeting parcels with low opportunity cost and high environmental benefit managed by poorer households.

  12. Policy Review on Watershed Protection and Poverty Alleviation by the Grain for Green Program in China

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    The sustained growth of Chinese economy in the new century is a silver lining in the continuously depressed global economy. Meanwhile, the rapid development of Chinese economy is still confronted with constraints from deteriorating environment and rural poverty issues. It has become a significant policy option in maintaining high speed, efficiency and sound development of Chinese economy to rehabilitate forest resources, improve ecological conditions, increase farmers' income and get on a sustainable road featuring coordinated development of population, resources and environment. The Grain for Green Program, as a CDM activity of Chinese style, launched on trial in 1999 and implemented in 2002 across the country, is the biggest land use transition, watershed management and poverty alleviation program involving the largest population in Chinese history and across the globe. It covers 25 provinces/regions/cities and gets over 1600 counties, 15 million households and 60 million farmers were involved. Hence the Grain for Tree policy has a significant bearing on ecological protection and farmers' poverty alleviation in the soil and water erosion-prone region. A review and assessment of the background, essentials, effects, problems and trend of the Grain for Tree policy is of great significance for both China and the other developing countries in the world in their efforts to combat the deteriorating environment and alleviate poverty.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid enhances heat stress-impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function in Caco-2 cells.

    Guizhen Xiao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ barrier is known to have an important etiologic role in the pathophysiology of heat stroke. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, play a role in maintaining and protecting the TJ structure and function. This study is aimed at investigating whether n-3 PUFAs could alleviate heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal tight junction. METHODS: Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were pre-incubated with EPA, DHA or arachidonic acid (AA and then exposed to heat stress. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP permeability were measured to analyze barrier integrity. Levels of TJ proteins, including occludin, ZO-1 and claudin-2, were analyzed by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Messenger RNA levels were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. TJ morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: EPA effectively attenuated the decrease in TEER and impairment of intestinal permeability in HRP flux induced by heat exposure. EPA significantly elevated the expression of occludin and ZO-1, while DHA was less effective and AA was not at all effective. The distortion and redistribution of TJ proteins, and disruption of morphology were also effectively prevented by pretreatment with EPA. CONCLUSION: This study indicates for the first time that EPA is more potent than DHA in protecting against heat-induced permeability dysfunction and epithelial barrier damage of tight junction.

  14. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  15. Overexpression of estrogen receptor beta alleviates the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells via non-hormonal ligands

    Hui Wang; Lihui Si; Xiaoxi Li; Weiguo Deng; Haimiao Yang; Yuyan Yang; Yan Fu

    2012-01-01

    After binding to the estrogen receptor, estrogen can alleviate the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein, and thereby exert a therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease patients. Estrogen can increase the incidence of breast carcinoma and endometrial cancer in post-menopausal women, so it is not suitable for clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. There is recent evidence that the estrogen receptor can exert its neuroprotective effects without estrogen dependence. Real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry results showed that, compared with non-transfected PC12 cells, adenovirus-mediated estrogen receptor β gene-transfected PC12 cells exhibited lower expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β under stimulation with beta-amyloid protein and stronger protection from apoptosis. The Akt-specific inhibitor Abi-2 decreased the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of estrogen receptor β gene-transfection. These findings suggest that overexpression of estrogen receptor β can alleviate the toxic effect of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells, without estrogen dependence. The Akt pathway is one of the potential means for the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the estrogen receptor.

  16. Dietary deficiency increases presenilin expression, gamma-secretase activity, and Abeta levels: potentiation by ApoE genotype and alleviation by S-adenosyl methionine.

    Chan, Amy; Tchantchou, Flaubert; Rogers, Eugene J; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this risk arises from a deficient function of E4 or the lack of protection provided by E2 or E3 is unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that deprivation of folate and vitamin E, coupled with dietary iron as a pro-oxidant, for 1 month displayed increased presenilin 1 (PS-1) expression, gamma-secretase, and Abeta generation in mice lacking ApoE (ApoE-/- mice). While ApoE-/- mice are a model for ApoE deficiency, they may not reflect the entire range of consequences of E4 expression. We therefore compared herein the impact of the above deficient diet on mice expressing human E2, E3, or E4. As folate deficiency is accompanied by a decrease in the major methyl donor, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), additional mice received the deficient diet plus SAM. E2 was more protective than murine ApoE or E3 and E4. Surprisingly, PS-1 and gamma-secretase were over-expressed in E3 to the same extent as in E4 even under a complete diet, and were not alleviated by SAM supplementation. Abeta increased only in E4 mice maintained under the complete diet, and was alleviated by SAM supplementation. These findings suggest dietary compromise can potentiate latent risk factors for AD. PMID:19457069

  17. Dietary rosemary oil alleviates heat stress-induced structural and functional damage through lipid peroxidation in the testes of growing Japanese quail.

    Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Songül; Güvenç, Mehmet; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of natural antioxidants to diets of male poultry has been reported to be effective in reducing or completely eliminating heat stress (HS)-induced reproductive failures. In this study, the aim is to investigate whether rosemary oil (RO) has a protective effect on HS-induced damage in spermatozoa production, testicular histologic structures, apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) through lipid peroxidation mechanisms in growing Japanese quail. Male chicks (n=90) at 15-days of age were assigned to two groups. The first group (n=45) was kept in a thermo-neutral (TN) room at 22°C for 24h/d. The second group (n=45) was kept in a room with a greater ambient temperature of 34°C for 8h/d (from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM) and 22°C for 16h/d. Animals in each of these two groups were randomly assigned to three subgroups (RO groups: 0, 125, 250ppm), consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2×3 factorial design). Each of subgroups was replicated three times with each replicate including five chicks. The HS treatment significantly reduced the testicular spermatogenic cell counts, amount of testicular Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic marker) and amount of AR. In addition, it significantly increased testicular lipid peroxidation, Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositive staining, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in conjunction with some histopathologic damage. Dietary supplementation of RO to diets of quail where the HS treatment was imposed alleviated HS-induced almost all negative changes such as increased testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased numbers of spermatogenic cells, and decreased amounts of Bcl-2 and AR, increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and some testicular histopathologic lesion. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of RO for growing male Japanese quail reared in HS environmental conditions alleviates the HS-induced structural and functional damage by providing a decrease in lipid peroxidation. PMID:26656503

  18. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  19. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L. PMID:24840879

  20. Adenosine can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by radiotherapy. Therapeutic strategies alleviating protumor ADO activities

    Vaupel, Peter [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Multhoff, Gabriele [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Experimental Immune Biology, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    By studying the bioenergetic status we could show that the development of tumor hypoxia is accompanied, apart from myriad other biologically relevant effects, by a substantial accumulation of adenosine (ADO). ADO has been shown to act as a strong immunosuppressive agent in tumors by modulating the innate and adaptive immune system. In contrast to ADO, standard radiotherapy (RT) can either stimulate or abrogate antitumor immune responses. Herein, we present ADO-mediated mechanisms that may thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. An overview of the generation, accumulation, and ADO-related multifaceted inhibition of immune functions, contrasted with the antitumor immune effects of RT, is provided. Upon hypoxic stress, cancer cells release ATP into the extracellular space where nucleotides are converted into ADO by hypoxia-sensitive, membrane-bound ectoenzymes (CD39/CD73). ADO actions are mediated upon binding to surface receptors, mainly A2A receptors on tumor and immune cells. Receptor activation leads to a broad spectrum of strong immunosuppressive properties facilitating tumor escape from immune control. Mechanisms include (1) impaired activity of CD4 + T and CD8 + T, NK cells and dendritic cells (DC), decreased production of immuno-stimulatory lymphokines, and (2) activation of Treg cells, expansion of MDSCs, promotion of M2 macrophages, and increased activity of major immunosuppressive cytokines. In addition, ADO can directly stimulate tumor proliferation and angiogenesis. ADO mechanisms described can thwart antitumor immune responses elicited by RT. Therapeutic strategies alleviating tumor-promoting activities of ADO include respiratory hyperoxia or mild hyperthermia, inhibition of CD39/CD73 ectoenzymes or blockade of A2A receptors, and inhibition of ATP-release channels or ADO transporters. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungen des bioenergetischen Status ergaben, dass Tumorhypoxie neben vielen anderen bedeutsamen biologischen Effekten zu einem starken