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Sample records for acid abts radicals

  1. KINETICS PROFILES IN THE REACTION OF ABTS DERIVED RADICALS WITH SIMPLE PHENOLS AND POLYPHENOLS

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    CAROLA HENRIQUEZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic profile associated to the reaction of phenols with 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS derived radicals is extremely dependent of the characteristics of the substrate. In particular, polyphenols present complex profiles that can be associated to successive reactions of different reactive centers present in the target molecule. Also, changes in the secondary reactions of the produced radicals can lead to a partial recovery of the ABTS radical concentration at intermediate reaction times, as observed employing 1,4-dihydroxybenzene. Although the kinetic profiles of monophenols are considerably simpler, the stoichiometry of the process is unexpected. For example, the data obtained imply that four radicals are consumed by each p-tertbutylphenol molecule introduced into the system. This large stoichiometric coefficient is not compatible with a simple, phenol promoted, back reduction of the ABTS radical. These results, as well as the overshoot observed employing 1,4-dihydroxybencene, cast doubts on the use of ABTS based methodologies to quantitatively measure the capacity of a given compound to trap free radicals or the amount of free radical scavengers present in complex mixtures

  2. SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF DICLOFENAC: INTERACTION WITH ABTS RADICAL CATION AND PEROXYL RADICALS

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    C ROJO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenging activity of diclofenac was estimated by its capability to bleach ABTS radical cation, and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity methodology. In addition, GC-MS technique was used to establish if the lactamic derivative of diclofenac was formed as final product in the interaction with peroxyl radicals. Diclofenac bleached ABTS radical cation in a concentration-dependent way. In ORAC assays, diclofenac inhibited the consumption of fluorescein and c-phycocyanin mediated by peroxyl radicals. An ORAC-fluorescein, and ORAC-c-phycocyanin value of 0.3, and 0.004 was estimated, respectively. From the downcurvature observed in Stern-Volmer-like plots, we postulated that the low protection of c-phycocyanin is related to secondary damage of c-phycocyanin by the secondary radical of diclofenac. By GC-MS studies only a 2,6-dichloroaniline derivative was detected as product afterthe reaction with peroxyl radicals.

  3. Isolation and the characterization of the degradation products of the mediator ABTS-derived radicals formed upon reaction with polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A M; Wong, K K Y; Hill, S J; Fernyhough, A

    2006-02-10

    Two degradation products were obtained from the incubation of the widely used 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS, radical cations with the polyphenols, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and phloroglucinol in acetate buffer (pH 5). The products were purified by reversed-phase chromatography and characterized by UV-visible detection, mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The data allowed us to identify the degradation products as 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolinone imine and the corresponding sulfoxide, 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolone. Elemental composition strongly supported the proposed structures. Our results unequivocally demonstrated that ABTS radicals are not as stable as usually claimed because they could be degraded upon interaction with polyphenols, in addition to being reduced by these antioxidants back to the parent compound. Therefore, it is concluded that caution must be exercised in using ABTS radicals as a basis for the evaluation of antioxidant capacities of pure compounds and/or complex mixtures. PMID:16376855

  4. Kinetics of ABTS derived radical cation scavenging by bucillamine, cysteine, and glutathione. Catalytic effect of Cu(2+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Ivan; Topoľská, Dominika; Valachová, Katarína; Bujdák, Juraj; Šoltés, Ladislav

    2016-05-01

    Kinetics of reduction of the stable radical cation derived from 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) in reaction with the anti-rheumatic drug bucillamine (BUC) and two reference thiols - cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) was followed spectrophotometrically in acidic medium with 10-fold molar excess of the reductant. Decay of the radical is governed by pseudo-first order kinetics with small deviation in the case of GSH. H(+) ions displayed second order inhibition of the reaction with all the studied compounds. The reaction of BUC exhibits zero order kinetics to the radical at lower acidities with a moderate acceleration of the reaction rate by H(+) ions. A significant catalytic effect of Cu(2+) ions on the reactions with all the reductants was observed. The most sensitive to Cu(2+)-catalysis was the reaction of BUC with the radical cation, while Cu(2+) ions showed much lower effect on the reaction with GSH. The presence of EDTA strongly inhibited the reactions and equalized the reaction rates for all the reductants. A Cu(I) selective chelator bathocuproine disulfonate reduced the reaction rate with Cys, but accelerated the reaction with BUC at the lower acidities. The experimental results were rationalized in the framework of the mechanism of reductive chelation. The conclusions may have important consequences for interpretation of antioxidant capacity assays, such as TEAC, utilizing the ABTS derived radical cation. PMID:26978549

  5. Alteration of fatty acids content during cow's and goat's milk fermentation with ABT-2 culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vedran Slačanac; Jovica Hardi; Hrvoje Pavlović; Mato Vlainić; Mirela Lučan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, changes in composition and contents of each fatty acid during fermentation with ABT-2 culture were examined. The objective of this study was to determinate the increase of short (SCFA) and medium (MCFA) chain fatty acids in goat's and cow's milk during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. The hypothesis of this study was that higher contents of SCFA and MCFA are produced in goat's milk in comparison with cow's milk, during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. Obtained results have show...

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, ABTS radical-scavenging activity, antimicrobial and docking studies of some novel quinoline derivatives

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    Tabassum, Sumaiya; Suresha Kumara, T. H.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Sujan Ganapathy, P. S.; Sowmya, H. B. V.; More, Sunil S.; Nagendrappa, Gopalpur; Kaur, Manpreet; Jose, Gilish

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a series of nine novel 2-chloroquinolin-3-yl ester derivatives have been synthesized via a two-step protocol from 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde. The structures of all these compounds were confirmed by spectral data. The single crystal X-ray structure of two derivatives, (2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methyl acetate [6a] and (2-chloro-6-methylquinolin-3-yl)methyl acetate [6e] have also been determined. The synthesized compounds were further evaluated for their ABTS radical-scavenging activity and antimicrobial activities. Amongst all the tested compounds, 6a exhibited maximum scavenging activity with ABTS. Concerning antibacterial and antifungal activities, compound (2-chloro-6-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)methyl 2,4-dichlorobenzoate [6i] was found to be the most active in the series against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. albicans and A. niger species. The structure-antimicrobial activity relationship of these derivatives were studied using Autodock.

  7. Alteration of fatty acids content during cow's and goat's milk fermentation with ABT-2 culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Sla?anac

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, changes in composition and contents of each fatty acid during fermentation with ABT-2 culture were examined. The objective of this study was to determinate the increase of short (SCFA and medium (MCFA chain fatty acids in goat's and cow's milk during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. The hypothesis of this study was that higher contents of SCFA and MCFA are produced in goat's milk in comparison with cow's milk, during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. Obtained results have shown that fermentation process in goat's milk is faster than in cow's milk. The number of viable cells of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium spp. was statistically greater in goat's milk than in cow's milk; consequently, pH value decreased more obviously in goat's milk than in cow's milk during whole fermentation process. Increase of SCFA and MCFA contents during fermentation was noted in both types of milk due to activity of bifidobacteria derived from ABT-2 culture. However, considerably higher amounts of examined SCFA and MCFA were produced in goat's milk than in cow's milk.

  8. Methylseleninic acid potentiates multiple types of cancer cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by targeting Mcl-1 and Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Shutao; Dong, Yinhui; Li, Jinghua; Fan, Linghong; Wang, Lei; Lu, Junxuan; Vang, Ole; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    ABT-737, a novel small molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins, holds great promise to complement current cancer therapies. However many types of solid cancer cells are resistant to ABT-737. One practical approach to improve its therapeutic efficacy is to combine with the agents that can...... overcome such resistance to restore the sensitivity. In the present study, a second-generation selenium compound methylseleninic acid (MSeA) synergistically sensitized MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells and DU145 human prostate cancer cells to apoptosis induction by ABT...

  9. Methylseleninic acid potentiates multiple types of cancer cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by targeting Mcl-1 and Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Shutao; Dong, Yinhui; Li, Jinghua; Fan, Linghong; Wang, Lei; Lu, Junxuan; Vang, Ole; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    of Mcl-1 with RNAi approach supported the functional significance of this molecular target. More importantly, we identified inactivation of Bad by phosphorylation on ser-136 and ser-112 as a novel mechanism involved in ABT-737 resistance, which can be overcome by combining with MSeA. In addition, we......ABT-737, a novel small molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins, holds great promise to complement current cancer therapies. However many types of solid cancer cells are resistant to ABT-737. One practical approach to improve its therapeutic efficacy is to combine with the agents that can...... overcome such resistance to restore the sensitivity. In the present study, a second-generation selenium compound methylseleninic acid (MSeA) synergistically sensitized MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells and DU145 human prostate cancer cells to apoptosis induction by ABT...

  10. Practical problems when using ABTS assay to assess the radical-scavenging activity of peptides: Importance of controlling reaction pH and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Zhao, Mouming; Xiao, Chuqiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Su, Guowan

    2016-02-01

    Effects of reaction pH and time on the antioxidant behaviors of Tyr, Trp, Cys, and their related peptides (Tyr-Gly, Tyr-Glu, Tyr-Lys, Trp-Gly, Trp-Glu, Trp-Lys, Cys-Gly and Cys-Gly) in ABTS assay were investigated. Results showed that all these amino acids and peptides displayed a biphasic kinetic pattern with a fast initial step and a slow secondary step. The initial reaction rates of Tyr, Trp and their related peptides were strongly dependent on pH, while those of Cys and Cys-containing peptides were unaffected by pH. They failed to reach equilibrium over the short incubation period of 6-10 min typically used in this assay. Longer incubation time was needed for most of the peptides to approach equilibrium at lower pH. The observed biphasic kinetic pattern as well as the high TEAC values for these amino acids and peptides, could be a result of combined antioxidant behaviors of themselves plus the generated reaction products. PMID:26304349

  11. Antioxidant components of Viburnum opulus L. determined by on-line HPLC-UV-ABTS radical scavenging and LC-UV-ESI-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçelik, Ayça Aktaş; Küçük, Murat; İskefiyeli, Zeynep; Aydemir, Sezgin; De Smet, Seppe; Miserez, Bram; Sandra, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Antioxidant activity of the juice and seed and skin extracts prepared with methanol, acetonitrile, and water of Viburnum opulus L. grown in Eastern Black Sea Region were studied with an on-line HPLC-ABTS method and off-line antioxidant methods, among which a linear positive correlation was observed. The fruit extracts were analysed with the HPLC-UV method optimised with 14 standard phenolics. Identification of the phenolic components in the juice was made using an HPLC-UV-ESI-MS method. Nineteen phenolic compounds in juice were identified by comparing the retention times and mass spectra with those of the standards and the phenolics reported in the literature. The major peaks in the juice belonged to coumaroyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin trimer. Quite different antioxidant composition profiles were obtained from the extracts with the solvents of different polarities. The antioxidant activities of the seed extracts were higher than those of the skin extracts in general. PMID:25577058

  12. Radical intensity and cytotoxic activity of curcumin and gallic acid.

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    Nogaki, A; Satoh, K; Iwasaka, K; Takano, H; Takahama, M; Ida, Y; Sakagami, H

    1998-01-01

    Natural phenolic compounds, curcumin and gallic acid, were compared for their cytotoxic activity in relation to their radical modulating activity. These two compounds induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells and human oral squamous carcinoma HSC-4 cells. Curcumin was more cytotoxic than gallic acid. Catalase reduced significantly the cytotoxic activity of gallic acid, but not that of curcumin. ESR spectroscopy demonstrated that curcumin produced radicals under alkaline conditions, scavenged the superoxide anion radical, and enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate at higher concentrations. As compared with curcumin, gallic acid produced higher amounts of radicals and more efficiently scavenged the superoxide anion radical. Gallic acid reduced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate, suggesting a possible interaction between these two compounds. These data suggest that curcumin and gallic acid induce apoptosis by different mechanisms. PMID:9858929

  13. Determination of protective properties of Bardejovske Kuple spa curative waters by rotational viscometry and ABTS assay

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    TOPOLSKA Dominika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters from Bardejovske Kupele spa are natural, strongly mineralized, with healing effects. They are classified as hydrocarbonic - containing chloride and sodium - carbonic, cold, hypotonic, with a relatively high boric acid content. Potential anti-oxidative effects of curative waters from Bardejovske Kupele were investigated against the hyaluronan (HA degradation. High-molar-mass HA was exposed to the action of ascorbate and cupric ions, which initiate free-radical chain degradation. Time-dependent changes of dynamic viscosity (h of the HA solutions were monitored by rotational viscometry. The radical scavenging capacity of curative waters was determined by the ABTS assay. Despite a significantly high content of transition metal ions, especially iron, remarkable protective effects of the two curative spa waters were found, namely Alzbeta and Klara. Even though Alzbetas iron content was 3.5-fold higher than Klaras, Alzbeta was shown to have better protective properties against the HA degradation compared to Klara. Bolus addition of ferric ions to the reaction system instead of the natural iron-containing curative water caused a significant HA degradation. The ABTS decolorization assay revealed that the curative spa waters were proven as poorly effective scavengers of the ABTS+ cation radical.

  14. OH radical induced depolymerization of poly(methacrylic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyl radicals (generated pulse radiolytically in dilute N2O-saturated aqueous solutions) react with poly(methacrylic acid) producing two kinds of radicals. The primary radical is converted into a secondary one by H-abstraction (k=3.5x102 s-1) as monitored by changes in the UV spectrum. Subsequently, the secondary radicals undergo chain scission (k=1.8 s-1 at pH 7-9). This process has been followed both by spectrophotometry as well as by conductometry. In competition with the bimolecular decay of the radicals the ensuing end-chain radicals undergo efficient depolymerization resulting in the release of monomer. Since the lifetime of the radicals is much longer at high pH, where the polymer attains a rod-like conformation, depolymerization is most efficient in basic solution

  15. Hydroxylation of benzoic acid by electrochemical generated hydroxyl radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Raquel; Bento, M. Fátima; Geraldo, M. Dulce

    2012-01-01

    The generation of hydroxyl radicals is an important process in many applications such as organic synthesis [1], oxidative stress studies [2] and detoxification of effluents [3]. Due to the high instability of these radicals they are usually produced in situ by means of different methods, such as disproportionation of peroxynitrous acid or dissociation of hydrogen peroxide by UV action. The generation of hydroxyl radicals based on metal catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, Fenton o...

  16. Acid and base catalysed oxidation of 3-substituted 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid by hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyl radical reactions of 3,4-dihydroxy cinnamic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid were studied in the pH range 3-11. The initial reaction in these cases was formation of a radical adduct followed by elimination of water to yield the corresponding phenoxyl radical which was independently confirmed by one electron oxidation by azide radicals. The water elimination was found to be catalysed by both acid and base in case of 3,4-dihydroxy cinnamic acid, whereas it was only base catalysed in case of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid. (author)

  17. ESR study of the acid dissociation of NH protons. II. Cyclic peptide radicals and related radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free radicals formed by the reaction of OH or O- radicals with alicyclic compounds containing a peptide group (-CONH-) and structurally related compounds have been studied by the in situ radiolysis-steady state ESR method. Eight cyclic peptide radicals resulting from hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond adjacent to the peptide group have been observed. They are divided into two groups on the basis of the skeletal structure of the radicals: greater than C-NH-CO- and greater than C-CO-NH-. In basic solutions significant changes occur in the ESR parameters of these radicals which can be interpreted in terms of the dissociation of the NH proton in a peptide group. The pK/sub a/ values for the NH proton dissociation have been determined to be in the range of 7.6 to 13.6 for eight cyclic peptide radicals from 5-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidinone, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, hydantoin (for both first and second NH proton dissociations), 1-methylhydantoin, 2-thiohydantoin (second dissociation only), succinimide, and 2,5-piperazinedione (first dissociation only) and 10.9 for a related cyclic radical from 2-oxazolidone. These pK/sub a/ values are considerably lower than those for corresponding linear peptide radicals, partly because π-electron density on the nitrogen atom decreases in cyclic peptide radicals with a more delocalized π-electron system. Within each group of cyclicpeptide radicals with greater than C-NH-CO- or greater than C-CO-NH- the same trend of changes in ESR parameters was observed upon the dissociation of peptide proton

  18. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti; Gisela Pizarro de Mattos Barreto; Neura Bragagnolo; Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+), and Trolox as reference (TEAC) for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs) was calculated. For a...

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

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    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2?-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  20. Antioxidant activity of selected phenols estimated by ABTS and FRAP methods

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    Izabela Biskup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenols are the most abundant compounds in nature. They are strong antioxidants. Too high level of free radicals leads to cell and tissue damage, which may cause asthma, Alzheimer disease, cancers, etc. Taking phenolics with the diet as supplements or natural medicines is important for homeostasis of the organism. Materials and methods: The ten most popular water soluble phenols were chosen for the experiment to investigate their antioxidant properties using ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP assay. Results and discussion: Antioxidant properties of selected phenols in the ABTS test expressed as IC50 ranged from 4.332 ?M to 852.713 ?M (for gallic acid and 4- hydroxyphenylacetic acid respectively. Antioxidant properties in the FRAP test are expressed as ?mol Fe2 /ml. All examined phenols reduced ferric ions at concentration 1.00 x 10-3 mg/ml. Both methods are very useful for determination of antioxidant capacity of water soluble phenols.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Radical-Scavenging Activities of Fucoxanthin and Its Stereoisomers

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    Yiping Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin (Fuco is a characteristic carotenoid of brown seaweeds. In the present study, Fuco and its stereoisomers 9'Z-Fuco, 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco were extracted from Laminaria japonica Aresch. They were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. The radical-scavenging activities of the three stereoisomers were evaluated toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical. The order of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The order of 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were 9'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 13Z-and 13'Z-Fuco. The order of superoxide radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The scavenging activities of Fuco and its stereoisomers toward the four radical types were all dose-dependent. The ABTS, DPPH, and superoxide radical-scavenging activities were all weaker than that of tocopherol (VE, while their hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were stronger than that of VE. The results confirmed that Fuco and its stereoisomers have potent antioxidant activities.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the radical-scavenging activities of fucoxanthin and its stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiping; Fang, Hua; Xie, Quanling; Sun, Jipeng; Liu, Rui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fuco) is a characteristic carotenoid of brown seaweeds. In the present study, Fuco and its stereoisomers 9'Z-Fuco, 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco were extracted from Laminaria japonica Aresch. They were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. The radical-scavenging activities of the three stereoisomers were evaluated toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide radical. The order of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E)-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The order of 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were 9'Z-Fuco > (all-E)-Fuco > 13Z-and 13'Z-Fuco. The order of superoxide radical-scavenging activity was 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco > (all-E)-Fuco > 9'Z-Fuco. The scavenging activities of Fuco and its stereoisomers toward the four radical types were all dose-dependent. The ABTS, DPPH, and superoxide radical-scavenging activities were all weaker than that of tocopherol (VE), while their hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities were stronger than that of VE. The results confirmed that Fuco and its stereoisomers have potent antioxidant activities. PMID:24549234

  3. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion and repair of adenosine radicals by caffeic acid in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; L Charitha; M Adinarayana

    2005-07-01

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of adenosine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ and protects adenosine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for adenosine as well as for caffeic acid. The quantum yields of photooxidation of adenosine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of adenosine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cal) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ show that exptl values are lower than cal values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for $SO_{4}^{\\bullet-}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the transient adenosine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  4. Pulse radiolytic study of the acid dissociation of OH protons in radicals related to salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deprotonation of carboxylated benzosemiquinone radicals prepared by pulse radiolytic oxidation of dihydroxybenzoic acids has been examined by time-resolved absorption spectrophotometry. The pK/sub a/ for dissociation of the OH proton in 3-carboxyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone is found to be 6.47 or 2.4 units higher than that in the unsubstituted radical. This pK/sub a/ is, however, well below that of the OH proton in salicyclic acid (13.6) so that hydrogen bonding is appreciably decreased by the delocalization of the unpaired spin in this radical. Protonation of the basic form of the radical occurs at the diffusion-controlled rate. The rate constant for deprotonation by OH- is relatively low, 4.7 X 107 M-1 s-1, so that reaction with base becomes important only above pH 10. As a result this radical provides an excellent system for studying acid-base equilibration processes in near neutral solutions. Azide ion is shown to be an efficient catalyst which allows the acid-base equilibrium to be examined on the 10-μs time scale. Deprotonation is also catalyzed by the dihydroxybenzoic acid used as the radical source. Analogous studies on 4-carboxy-1,3-benzosemiquinone give the pK/sub a/ as 7.9. In spite of this high pK/sub a/, which indicates the rate constant for spontaneous dissociation of this radical to be > 103 s-1, the rate constant for deprotonation by OH-, 4.9 X 108 M-1 s-1, is considerably higher than in the case of 3-carboxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone

  5. Kinetics of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margitan, J. J.; Watson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive study was made of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid in a laser photolysis-resonance fluorescence system. A 266 nm laser was used to photolyze HNO3 in the temperature range 225-415 K at pressures of 20-300 torr. A temperature dependence was detected below room temperature, with a leveling off at 298 K and a wide spread in the rate constants. A pressure dependence was observed over the entire range and was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The results are noted to be in agreement with those of previous investigations. However, the wide range of rate constants are suggested to be a problem for stratospheric HO(x) modeling for anthropogenic effects. No explanation could be given of the varying results obtained by other investigators regarding the kinetics of the reactions.

  6. Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide, a Source of Hydroxyl Radicals, in Acid Electrolyzed Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Background Acid electrolyzed water (AEW), which is produced through the electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium chloride solution, is used as a disinfectant in various fields because of its potent antimicrobial activity. The hydroxyl radical, an oxygen radical species, is often suggested as a putative active ingredient for AEW antimicrobial activity. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the present study is to detect hydroxyl radicals in AEW. The hydroxyl radicals in A...

  7. Pulse radiolysis studies on reactions of ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals with nicotinamide and 6-methyl nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions of ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals derived from 2-propanol, ethanol and methanol with nicotinamide (NICAM) and 6-methyl nicotinic acid (6-MNA) were studied at various pHs using pulse radiolysis technique. It is found that ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals react with NICAM and 6-MNA at pHs when nitrogen is in the protonated state. In these reactions, radical adducts of NICAM/6-MNA with ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals are formed which have absorption maxima at about 340350 nm which subsequently decay to give pyridinyl type of radicals of NICAM and 6-MNA having ?max at 410 nm. Rate constants for the reactions of (CH3)2COH, CH3CHOH and CH2OH radicals with NICAM and 6-MNA were found to have linear dependence on reduction potentials of corresponding ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals. Adducts formed in the reactions of CH3CHOH and CH2OH radicals with both NICAM and 6-MNA decayed slowly compared to the decay of adduct formed in reactions with (CH3)2COH radicals. - Highlights: ? Adduct formation in the reactions of ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals with nicotinamide and 6-methyl nicotinic acid was studied by pulse radiolysis technique. ? Adducts undergo decay to give pyridinyl type of radicals of nicotinamide and 6-methyl nicotinic acid. ? Linear dependence of adduct formation rate constants on reduction potential of reducing radicals is seen.

  8. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N2O/O2-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N2O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N3 with rate constants exceeding 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 107 dm3 mol-1 s-?1), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 1033.730 - ABT reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ABT reports. 1033.730 Section 1033.730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.730 ABT reports. (a)...

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Radical-Scavenging Activities of Fucoxanthin and Its Stereoisomers

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YIPING; Fang, Hua; Xie, Quanling; Sun, Jipeng; LIU Rui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Fucoxanthin (Fuco) is a characteristic carotenoid of brown seaweeds. In the present study, Fuco and its stereoisomers 9'Z-Fuco, 13Z- and 13'Z-Fuco were extracted from Laminaria japonica Aresch. They were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. The radical-scavenging activities of the three stereoisomers were evaluated toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) ra...

  11. Mechanism and kinetics in reactions of caffeic acid with radicals by pulse radiolysis and calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of caffeic acid with eaq-, (CH3)2(OH) CCH2, CO2-, H, OH and N3 radicals were studied by ?-, pulse radiolysis and molecular orbital calculation. UV-visible spectra of electron/OH adducts, semi-quinone radicals of caffeic ions, and the stable products from the reactions were derived. The rate constants were determined. The attacked sites and the most favorable structures of the transient radicals were predicted. Reaction mechanisms were proposed. (author)

  12. Hydroxyl radical modify amino acids and prevent E. coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report that hydroxyl radical (/sup ./OH) damage to amino acids (AA) affects their incorporation into E. coli proteins. Modification of AA (Try, Trp, Met, Cys, His, Lys, Asn, Gln) by /sup ./OH was achieved by exposure to 60Co radiation (1-100 krads at 600 rads/min) in N2O saturated water. Following exposure to /sup ./OH, the modified AA were added to suspensions of 8 AA requiring E. coli mutants in M9 medium + glucose. Mutants incubated with the /sup ./OH modified AA underwent less growth than those incubated with unmodified AA; with a declining exponential relationship between /sup ./OH exposure of AA and cell growth. The sensitivity of each AA to modification by /sup ./OH was as follows: Tyr > Trp > Met > Cys > His > Lys > Asn > Gln. Essentially the same pattern was observed for inhibition of mutant growth, which was proportional to the concentration of remaining unmodified (i.e. native) AA. Furthermore, cell growth was restored to normal levels by replenishment of native AA. When AA were irradiated at 50?M and then diluted to concentrations expected to support exponential growth (different for each AA) the radiation doses at which mutant growth was inhibited by 63% were as follows (in krad): Tyr 41, Trp 48, Met 53, Cys 56, His 57, Lys 68, Asn 80, Gln 116. /sup ./OH-modified 3H-Trp was not a substrate for protein synthesis in Trp requiring mutants but was taken up by the cells. Modified Trp was also not incorporated in cell-free synthesis experiments. No toxicity was observed when wild type E. coli, in M9 medium + glucose, were supplemented with any of the/sup ./OH-modified AA. Thus /sup ./OH-modified AA do not support E. coli growth

  13. Localization and quantification of carbon-centered radicals on any amino acid of a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general strategy to localize and quantify carbon-centered radicals within proteins is described. The methodology was first exemplified on amino acids and then on a peptide. This method is applicable to any protein system regardless of size, and the site of hydrogen abstraction by OH radical on all residues within proteins is easily and accurately detected. (authors)

  14. Characterization of major radical scavenger species in bovine milk through size exclusion chromatography and functional assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Morten R; Skibsted, Leif H; Stagsted, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Radical scavenging activities of bovine milk components were quantified following size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with postcolumn characterization of fractions using the scavenging of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (ABTS*(+)) in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and peroxyl radicals formed from cleavage of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH) in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) fluorometric assay. Caseins were quantitatively the major radical scavenger species in both assays, whereas beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) and alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) were much less active and only in the peroxyl radical assay. The radical scavenging activity of the caseins could be quantitatively accounted for by their constituent amino acids, as there were no effects of denaturing agents or complete digestion with proteases. In contrast, the activities of the whey proteins were dependent on denaturation or partial hydrolysis and dominated by the free thiol in beta-lg. A component in milk serum with a molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa contributed significantly to both ABTS*(+) and peroxyl radical scavenging but was absent in whey. This radical scavenger was identified as beta-casein. The only significant low molecular weight radical scavenger species were identified as ascorbate and urate in both assays. PMID:19281275

  15. Electrochemical examination of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, M.; Honda, K.; Kondo, T.; Rao, T.N.; Tryk, D.A.; Fujishima, A

    2002-10-15

    A quasi-reversible redox reaction involving ascorbic acid was observed in non-aqueous electrolytes at conductive diamond electrode. The chemical reversibility of these reactions is consistent with ascorbic acid being reduced to the ascorbic acid radical anion in a one-electron process, with subsequent reoxidation to ascorbic acid. This is the first report on the electrochemical production of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes. Ascorbyl 6-stearate and 4-hydroxy 2(5H)-furanone, which have somewhat similar structures as ascorbic acid, also showed one-electron transfer reduction reaction producing radicals with a single negative charge, suggesting that these compounds follow the same electrochemical behavior as ascorbic acid. The double bond and hydroxyl substituent on the five-membered ring are shown to be necessary for the stabilization of the radical anions. It was confirmed by the calculation of the total energy using molecular orbital methods that resonance structures involving the double-bond and hydroxyl group provide significant stabilization of the radical anions. Electrochemical preparation may be a useful method for the detailed study of radicals, their molecular structure and reactivity.

  16. Electrochemical examination of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quasi-reversible redox reaction involving ascorbic acid was observed in non-aqueous electrolytes at conductive diamond electrode. The chemical reversibility of these reactions is consistent with ascorbic acid being reduced to the ascorbic acid radical anion in a one-electron process, with subsequent reoxidation to ascorbic acid. This is the first report on the electrochemical production of the ascorbic acid radical anion in non-aqueous electrolytes. Ascorbyl 6-stearate and 4-hydroxy 2(5H)-furanone, which have somewhat similar structures as ascorbic acid, also showed one-electron transfer reduction reaction producing radicals with a single negative charge, suggesting that these compounds follow the same electrochemical behavior as ascorbic acid. The double bond and hydroxyl substituent on the five-membered ring are shown to be necessary for the stabilization of the radical anions. It was confirmed by the calculation of the total energy using molecular orbital methods that resonance structures involving the double-bond and hydroxyl group provide significant stabilization of the radical anions. Electrochemical preparation may be a useful method for the detailed study of radicals, their molecular structure and reactivity

  17. Reactions of reducing and oxidizing radicals with caffeic acid: a pulse radiolysis and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular calculations coupled with pulse radiolysis studies are performed to understand the reactions of radicals with caffeic acid. From molecular calculation, we find that eaq- and ·OH tend to form adducts with caffeic acid, while N3· tends to abstract H from 4-hydroxyl group in benzene ring, generating a semi-quinoid radical. Based on comparison of the heat of formation, the most favorable radical attack sites and the most stable radical structures are predicted. The calculation results suggest that the stability of the electron adducts 9, (6.0±0.4)x107 and (2.0±0.2)x107 M-1 s-1, respectively), determined by pulse radiolysis. Molecular calculations seem to be a powerful tool to predict the stability and structures of transient radicals. (author)

  18. Free-radical redox reactions of uranium ions in sulphuric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolytic reduction of uranyl ions in degassed sulphuric acid solutions containing various organic solutes was studied. It was shown that while COOH, CO2-, and α-hydroxyl-alkyl radicals reduced uranyl ions, the β-hydroxy-alkyl radicals and those derived from gluconic acid could not affect the reduction. The oxidation of uranium(IV) by hydrogen peroxide at pH 0.7 involves hydroxyl radicals in a chain mechanism but at pH 2.0 the oxidation proceeds by a non-radical reaction pathway. From the enhancement of the rate of oxidation of uranium(IV) by oxygen in the presence of 2-propanol, a mechanism involving the perhydroxyl radical, which reconciles earlier published data on kinetics and oxygen tracer studies, is proposed for the oxygen-uranium(IV) reactions

  19. Determination of hyperfine constants for the RCONHO radical in randomly oriented samples of x-irradiated hydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCONHO radicals are identified in x-irradiated acetohydroxamic acid, hydroxyurethane, and propiohydroxamic acid. The hydrogen and nitrogen hyperfine coupling constants for these radicals are evaluated from ESR spectra taken of polycrystalline samples. The characteristic spectrum of randomly oriented RCONHO radicals is described. Equations for the coupling constants in terms of the width of the spectrum are given

  20. A determination of hyperfine constants for the RCONHO radical in randomly oriented samples of x-irradiated hydroxamic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Howard; de Lyon, Terence; Chiu, Fonjen; Hamrick, Phillip J., Jr.

    1982-11-01

    RCONHO radicals are identified in x-irradiated acetohydroxamic acid, hydroxyurethane, and propiohydroxamic acid. The hydrogen and nitrogen hyperfine coupling constants for these radicals are evaluated from ESR spectra taken of polycrystalline samples. The characteristic spectrum of randomly oriented RCONHO radicals is described. Equations for the coupling constants in terms of the width of the spectrum are given.

  1. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REN TORRES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation

  2. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LIGNANS AND FERULIC ACID FROM THE RESINOUS EXUDATE OF LARREA NITIDA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    REN, TORRES; FRANCISCO, URBINA; CLAUDIA, MORALES; BRENDA, MODAK; FRANCO DELLE, MONACHE.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available From the resinous exudate of twigs end leaves of Larrea nitida, two lignans nor isoguaiacine 1 and meso-nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid 2 and ferulic acid 3 were isolated. The antioxidant activities of resin and pure compounds were assesed by bleaching of the ABTS derived radical-cation [...

  3. Pulse radiolysis studies on reactions of ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals with nicotinamide and 6-methyl nicotinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, S. B.; Naik, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    Reactions of ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals derived from 2-propanol, ethanol and methanol with nicotinamide (NICAM) and 6-methyl nicotinic acid (6-MNA) were studied at various pHs using pulse radiolysis technique. It is found that ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals react with NICAM and 6-MNA at pHs when nitrogen is in the protonated state. In these reactions, radical adducts of NICAM/6-MNA with ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals are formed which have absorption maxima at about 340-350 nm which subsequently decay to give pyridinyl type of radicals of NICAM and 6-MNA having ?max at 410 nm. Rate constants for the reactions of (CH3)2Crad OH, CH3Crad HOH and rad CH2OH radicals with NICAM and 6-MNA were found to have linear dependence on reduction potentials of corresponding ?-hydroxyalkyl radicals. Adducts formed in the reactions of CH3Crad HOH and rad CH2OH radicals with both NICAM and 6-MNA decayed slowly compared to the decay of adduct formed in reactions with (CH3)2Crad OH radicals.

  4. Picosecond Pulse Radiolysis of Highly Concentrated Phosphoric Acid Solutions: Mechanism of Phosphate Radical Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Schmidhammer, Uli; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2015-06-18

    Eight solutions containing phosphoric acid with concentrations ranging from 2 mol L(-1) to neat acid have been studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis. The absorbance of the secondary radical H2PO4() formed within 7 ps of the electron pulse is observed using pulse-probe method in the visible. Kinetic analysis shows that the radicals of phosphoric acid are formed via two mechanisms: direct electron detachment and oxidation by the radical cation of water, H2O(+). On the basis of molar extinction coefficient value of 1850 L mol(-1) cm(-1), at 15 ps the radiolytic yield of H2PO4() formation by direct energy absorption is 3.7 0.1 10(-7) mol J(-1) in neat phosphoric acid. In highly concentrated phosphoric acid solutions, the total yield of phosphate radical at 15 ps exhibits an additional contribution that can be explained by electron transfer from phosphoric acid to H2O(+). The efficiency of the electron transfer to this strongly oxidizing species in phosphoric acid solutions is lower compared with the one in sulfuric acid solutions. Two explanations are given to account for a relatively low efficiency of H2O(+) scavenging in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions. PMID:25176139

  5. Reaction of thiyl radicals with alcohols, ethers and polyunsaturated fatty acids: A possible role of thiyl free radicals in thiol mutagenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible reactions of thiyl free radicals in biological environment are reviewed. In particular hydrogen transfer processes from model C-H compounds like alcohols and ethers as well as from polyunsaturated fatty acids to thiyl radicals are described to proceed with reasonably high rate constants (103-104 and 106-107 M-1 s-1, respectively). Thiyl radicals have thus to be considered as potentially hazardous species especially with respect to DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. (orig.)

  6. Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Bernadeta; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Waskiewicz, Agnieszka; Irzykowska, Lidia; Bocianowski, Jan; Karolewski, Zbigniew; Kostecki, Marian; Kruczynski, Zdzislaw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Weber, Zbigniew; Golinski, Piotr

    2011-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P=0.010 and P=0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe(3+) ions in porphyrin complexes (g=2.3, g=2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn(2+) concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum. PMID:21957331

  7. Pyrite-induced hydroxyl radical formation and its effect on nucleic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Leifer Nicole; Wimmer Eckard; Mueller Steffen; Cohn Corey A; Greenbaum Steven; Strongin Daniel R; Schoonen Martin AA

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Pyrite, the most abundant metal sulphide on Earth, is known to spontaneously form hydrogen peroxide when exposed to water. In this study the hypothesis that pyrite-induced hydrogen peroxide is transformed to hydroxyl radicals is tested. Results Using a combination of electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques and scavenging reactions involving nucleic acids, the formation of hydroxyl radicals in pyrite/aqueous suspensions is demonstrated. The addition of EDTA t...

  8. Diagnosis of hydroxyl radicals and the treatment of Acid Orange Π in negative pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of device supplied with negative pulsed high voltage was designed for water treatment. The nozzle discharge electrode was supplied with high voltage and the cylinder wall of the treatment chamber was grounded. Since the non-thermal plasma, especially, hydroxyl radicals played the dominant role in removing pollutants in the water by discharge plasma, hydroxyl radicals were measured in the negative pulsed discharge process by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) effects of the repetition rate and the peak value of the pulsed discharge on the hydroxyl radicals' production and the decomposition rate of the Acid Orange Π solution were studied.

  9. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic products-A gamma radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology (Austria); Reznicek, Gottfried [Department of Pharmacognosy, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH{sub 3} by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  10. OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic- and hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of aromatic productsA gamma radiolysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimmel, Birgit; Swoboda, Friederike; Solar, Sonja; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2010-12-01

    The OH-radical induced degradation of hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCiA) and methoxylated derivatives, as well as of chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid was studied by gamma radiolysis in aerated aqueous solutions. Primary aromatic products resulting from an OH-radical attachment to the ring (hydroxylation), to the position occupied by the methoxyl group (replacement -OCH 3 by -OH) as well as to the propenoic acid side chain of the cinnamic acids (benzaldehyde formations) were analysed by HPLC-UV and LC-ESI-MS. A comparison of the extent of these processes is given for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, isovanillic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid. For all cinnamic acids and derivatives benzaldehydes were significant oxidation products. With the release of caffeic acid from chlorogenic acid the cleavage of a phenolic glycoside could be demonstrated. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  11. Antioxidative properties of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves against DPPH, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vrchovska, V.; Sousa, C; Valentão, P.; Ferreres, F; J. A. Pereira; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the aqueous extract of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves to act as a scavenger of DPPH- and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid) was investigated. A phytochemical study was also undertaken, and thirteen phenolic compounds and five organic acids were identified and quantified. Tronchuda cabbage extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays, ...

  12. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  13. Reactions of clofibric acid with oxidative and reductive radicals-Products, mechanisms, efficiency and toxic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csay, Tamás; Rácz, Gergely; Salik, Ádám; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of clofibric acid induced by hydroxyl radical, hydrated electron and O2-•/HO2• reactive species was studied in aqueous solutions. Clofibric acid was decomposed more effectively by hydroxyl radical than by hydrated electron or O2-•/HO2•. Various hydroxylated, dechlorinated and fragmentation products have been identified and quantified. A new LC-MS method was developed based on 18O isotope labeling to follow the formation of hydroxylated derivatives of clofibric acid. Possible degradation pathways have been proposed. The overall degradation was monitored by determination of sum parameters like COD, TOC and AOX. It was found that the organic chlorine degrades very effectively prior to complete mineralization. After the treatment no toxic effect was found according to Vibrio fischeri tests. However, at early stages some of the reaction products were more harmful than clofibric acid.

  14. Free radical damage of nucleic acids and their components. I. Direct absorption of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to summarize our present understanding of free radical formation and reactions when energy from ionizing radiations is deposited directly in nucleic acids. The scope of the discussion is limited to recent progress, with reference to older work only when needed for coherence

  15. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancan Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Fe(acac3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(arylvinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%. The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  16. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancan Zhao; Hong Fang; Jianlin Han; Yi Pan

    2013-01-01

    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71–95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained.

  17. Iron-catalyzed decarboxylative alkenylation of cycloalkanes with arylvinyl carboxylic acids via a radical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiancan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A Fe(acac)3-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of 2-(aryl)vinyl carboxylic acids with cycloalkanes was developed by using DTBP as an oxidant through a radical process. This reaction tolerates a wide range of substrates, and products are obtained in good to excellent yields (71-95%). The reaction also shows excellent stereoselectivity, and only trans-isomers are obtained. PMID:24062833

  18. Effect of water and ethanol radicals on the protein part of human hemoglobin. Pt. 2. Damage to amino acid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the effect of interactions of water and ethanol radicals with human hemoglobin (Hb) amino acid residues. The OH radicals caused the greatest destruction of human hemoglobin amino acid residues. Among them the most sensitive to irradiation were cysteine tryptophan and histidine residues. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Diastereoselective radical addition to ?-alkyl-?-methylene-?-butyrolactams and the synthesis of a chiral pyroglutamic acid derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Yajima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cis- and trans-stereoselective radical additions to ?-methylene-?-alkyl- ?-lactams were investigated and the scope and limitation of the reaction were also revealed. This stereoselective radical reaction was used for synthesis of chiral pyroglutamic acid derivatives starting from a commercially available chiral amino acid.

  20. ESR study of free-radical protonation equilibria in strongly acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.F.; McManus, H.J.; Fessenden, R.W.

    1986-11-06

    Protonation of ascorbic acid radical, HPO/sub 3//sup -/, and SO/sub 3//sup -/ in strong perchloric acid solution has been studied by means of changes in ESR parameters. The behavior of the ascorbic acid radical shows that the use of published acidity functions does not well describe the observations in that changes in ESR parameters occur over a much wider range of acidity function than expected. Treatment in terms of an equilibrium involving H/sup +/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/ works much better. The pK so determined is -0.86 +/- 0.1 in contrast to an earlier value of -0.45. A continuous increase in /sup 31/P hyperfine constant for HPO/sub 3//sup -/ was observed from 650 G at pH 2.4 to 772 G at 61.2% HClO/sub 4/. This change could not be explained by a single protonation to H/sub 2/PO/sub 3/, but if a second step giving H/sub 3/PO/sub 3//sup +/ was also included a reasonable fit to the data could be obtained. Approximate pK values of 0.0 and -1.7 were found for the first and second steps, respectively. No systematic change in the g factor for phosphite radical outside of the error limits +/- 0.00008 was found over the whole range. The radical SO/sub 3//sup -/ was produced over the range from pH 11.3 to 61.2% HClO/sub 4/ and no change in the g factor larger than +/- 0.00001 was found. It is possible that this radical does protonate to HSO/sub 3/ but that no change in g factor accompanies this transformation.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Radical-scavenging Activity of the Phenolcarboxylic Acids Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid and Ferulic Acid, With or Without 2-Mercaptoethanol, a Thiol, Using the Induction Period Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolcarboxylic acid antioxidants do not act in vivo as radical-scavengers in isolation, but rather together with GSH (glutathione, a coantioxidant, they constitute an intricate antioxidant network. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid with or without 2-mercaptoethanol (ME, as a substitute for GSH, was investigated by the induction period (IP method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a source of alkyl radicals, R. and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a source of peroxy radicals, PhCOO. using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Upon PhCOO. radical scavenging, the stoichiometric factors (n, number of free radical trapped by one mole of antioxidant for caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid were 2.4, 1.8, 1.7 and 0.9, whereas upon R. radical scavenging, the corresponding values were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.8, respectively. Antioxidants with n values close to 2 suggest the stepwise formation of semiquinone radicals and quinones. By contrast, those with n values close to 1 suggest the formation of dimers after single-electron oxidation, possibly due to recombination of corresponding aryloxy radicals. The ratio of the rate constant of inhibition to that of propagation (kinh/kp declined in the order chlorogenic acid > p-coumaric acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid. The ratio of the observed IP for the phenolcarboxylic acid/2-mercapto-ethanol (ME mixture (1:1 molar ratio (A to the calculated IP (the simple sum of phenol acid antioxidant and ME (B was investigated. Upon R. scavenging, the caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid/ME mixture was A/B > 1, particularly the former was 1.2, suggesting a synergic effect. By contrast, upon PhCOO. scavenging, the corresponding mixture was A/B < 1, particularly the latter was 0.7, suggesting an antagonistic effect. Upon both radicals scavenging, the A/B for the ferulic acid or chlorogenic acid/ME mixture was approximately 1. The reported beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid may be related to their prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the presence of GSH.

  2. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  3. Mechanism and kinetics in reactions of caffeic acid with radicals by pulse radiolysis and calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xifeng; Cai, Zhongli; Katsumura, Yosuke [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab

    2000-03-01

    The interaction of caffeic acid with e{sub aq}{sup -}, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH) CCH{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}, CO{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -}, H{sup {center_dot}}, {center_dot}OH and N{sub 3}{sup {center_dot}} radicals were studied by {gamma}-, pulse radiolysis and molecular orbital calculation. UV-visible spectra of electron/{center_dot}OH adducts, semi-quinone radicals of caffeic ions, and the stable products from the reactions were derived. The rate constants were determined. The attacked sites and the most favorable structures of the transient radicals were predicted. Reaction mechanisms were proposed. (author)

  4. The role of oxidizing radicals in neptunium speciation in ?-irradiated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of aqueous nitric acid solutions generates transient, reactive species that are known to oxidize neptunium. However, nitrous acid is also a long-lived product of nitric acid irradiation, which reduces neptunium. When we irradiated nitric acid solutions of neptunium and measured its speciation by UV/Vis spectroscopy, we found that at short irradiation times, oxidation of Np(V) to Np(VI) occurred due to reactions with radicals such as OH, NO3 and NO2. However, at higher absorbed doses and after a sufficient amount of nitrous acid was produced, reduction of Np(VI) to Np(V) began to occur, eventually reaching an equilibrium distribution of these species depending on nitric acid concentration. Neptunium(IV) was not produced. (author)

  5. Hydroxyl radical-induced reactions in polyadenylic acid as studied by pulse radiolysis. Pt.IV. Reactions of primary radicals with reductants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption spectra of polyadenylic acid radicals in N2O saturated aqueous solutions in the absence of any scavengers and in a presence of cysteamine have been recorded after the completion of the following consecutive reactions: OH. addition, transformation of OH-adducts and intermolecular self repair between radical with open ring and amino radical being the products of later transformations. The scheme of competitive reactions with reductants (thiols) has been presented.The reactions of two OH-adducts with adenine (A) moiety of polyadenylic acid (poly A) at the positions C4 and C8 have not been observed within reductants concentrations up to 10 ?M cysteamine (CyA) and 80 ?M glutathione (GSH). From the competition studies with cationic thiols (cysteamine) as reductant and with selective scavenging of reducing radicals with oxygen two repair reactions have been observed; the first one (1.8 108 M-1S-1) in miliseconds region of repair of the radical with open ring being the product of the transformation of A8OH adduct and the second one (4.2106 M-1s-1) in seconds region for repair of the amino radical being the product of the transformation of A4OH adduct. However, with glutathione (anionic thiol) the protective effect was attributed only to OH. scavenging (author)

  6. Study of genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of the digallic acid isolated from Pistacia lentiscus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhouri, Wissem; Derbel, Safa; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Ines; Sghaier, Mohamed B; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne M; Dijoux-Franca, Marie G; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-03-01

    The digallic acid obtained from the fruit Pistacia lentiscus exhibits an inhibitory activity against nitrofurantoine and B[a]P induced genotoxicity when tested by the SOS chromotest bacterial assay system in the presence of Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. The antioxidant activity of the tested compound was determined by its ability to scavenge the free radical ABTS(+), to inhibit the xanthine oxidase, involved in the generation of free radicals, and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in the K562 cell line. Our results revealed that digallic acid shows an important free radical scavenging activity towards the ABTS(+) radical (99%) and protection against lipid peroxidation (68%). PMID:19563883

  7. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The BCL2-inhibitor ABT-263 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. → Apoptosis is inhibited by P-glycoprotein expression. → Overexpression of P-glycoprotein may contribute to resistance to ABT-263 or ABT-737. -- Abstract: Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using 3H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.

  8. Products of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) formed by free radical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittl, H.; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, N.

    2007-10-01

    The radiolysis of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been investigated under various experimental conditions. The highest vitamin degradation ( G=3.22) was observed in solutions saturated with N 2O, where 90% OH radicals are operating. As final products, the following were established: aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ammonia. Their yield strongly depends on the presence/absence of air as well as on N 2O (used to convert e aq- into OH) and was determined as a function of absorbed radiation dose. HPLC-analysis showed that in all media, a main product is formed, having the highest yield in aerated solutions. Based on the chemical analysis, it appears that the OH radicals are most involved in the degradation process. A precise sequence of the reaction steps could not be given presently, because of the implication of many simultaneous reactions.

  9. Products of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) formed by free radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolysis of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been investigated under various experimental conditions. The highest vitamin degradation (G=3.22) was observed in solutions saturated with N2O, where 90% OH radicals are operating. As final products, the following were established: aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ammonia. Their yield strongly depends on the presence/absence of air as well as on N2O (used to convert eaq- into OH) and was determined as a function of absorbed radiation dose. HPLC-analysis showed that in all media, a main product is formed, having the highest yield in aerated solutions. Based on the chemical analysis, it appears that the OH radicals are most involved in the degradation process. A precise sequence of the reaction steps could not be given presently, because of the implication of many simultaneous reactions

  10. Products of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) formed by free radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittl, H. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, R.M. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, N. [Section of Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, UZA II, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2007-10-15

    The radiolysis of aqueous vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) has been investigated under various experimental conditions. The highest vitamin degradation (G=3.22) was observed in solutions saturated with N{sub 2}O, where 90% OH radicals are operating. As final products, the following were established: aldehydes, carboxylic acids and ammonia. Their yield strongly depends on the presence/absence of air as well as on N{sub 2}O (used to convert e{sub aq} {sup -} into OH) and was determined as a function of absorbed radiation dose. HPLC-analysis showed that in all media, a main product is formed, having the highest yield in aerated solutions. Based on the chemical analysis, it appears that the OH radicals are most involved in the degradation process. A precise sequence of the reaction steps could not be given presently, because of the implication of many simultaneous reactions.

  11. The temperature dependence of the rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; Cornett, K. D.; Murphy, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with nitric acid in the 225-443 K temperature range has been measured by means of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Above 300 K, the rate constant levels off in a way that can only be explained by the occurrence of two reaction channels, of which one, operative at low temperatures, proceeds through the formation of an adduct intermediate. The implications of these rate constant values for stratospheric reaction constants is discussed.

  12. Effect of hydrocarbon radical length of fatty acid collectors on flotation separation process of thorium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown experimentally that the degree of flotation separation of thorium ions collected by their means increases firstly (potassium laurate), then decreases (potassium tridecanate) and after that increases again (potassium palminate) when increasing the length of the hydrocarbon radical of potassium soaps of saturated fatty acids. The first increase of the collector efficiency is due to the decrease of solubility of thorium-containing sublates, and drop and further increase is due to the change in colloidchemical properties of sublates

  13. Performance and penetration of laccase and ABTS inks on various printing substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Katriina; Hmlinen, Tiina; Savolainen, Anne; Sipilinen-Malm, Thea; Peltonen, Jouko; Erho, Tomi; Smolander, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Introduction of an enzyme and a colour-forming reagent into paper enables the development of an authenticity indicator. The purpose of this work was to study the performance of Trametes versicolor laccase, TvL, and ABTS, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt, in various printing substrates when printed with inkjet. The printing substrates included pre-coated mechanical paper additionally coated with PVA, silica and latex. The focus was on the bioanalytical performance and ink penetration. The setting of the printed TvL and ABTS ink was studied visually, with optical and confocal microscopy and with a so-called tape laminating technique. Technical properties of the printing substrates and effect of the surface chemistry were discussed and related to the bioanalytical properties. TvL activity persisted well during the printing. The best colour response was attained using the PVA-coated base paper. The film-forming ability of the PVA was found to be the main contributor to the colour reaction. The uniform, dense and non-porous PVA layer retains the ABTS and TVL molecules on top of the printing substrate. The high local ink concentration on the PVA coating layer combined with the absorptive paper substrate suggests that the PVA film acts as a filtering layer which retains TvL and ABTS molecules in the coating layer but allows most of the ink solvents to penetrate into the paper structure. TvL and ABTS molecules are also trapped in the PVA polymer network due to swelling effect of water. Electrostatic attractions between the PVA and ABTS and TvL molecules do not contribute to the colour reaction. PMID:22051108

  14. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, William L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 ?M from 100 ?M ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above. PMID:26593628

  15. Study of role of methyl radicals in ?-radiolysis of crystalline acetic acid at 770K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of the methane and the yield of methyl radicals formed by the radiolysis of the polycrystalline mixtures CH3COOH + CD3COOD and CH3COOD + CD3COOD + CD3COOD with ? rays at 770K was investigated. It was concluded that methane is formed from the methyl group of one acetic acid molecule and a hydrogen atom fromt he methyl group of another molecule. The formation of half the methane evolved can be explained by reactions of the type: CH3COOH+?CH3+CO2+H+; CH3+CO2+CH3COOH?CH4+CH2COOH. The other half of the methane arises from anion-radical reactions as the samples are warmed to room temperature

  16. Graphene Facilitated Removal of Labetalol in Laccase-ABTS System: Reaction Efficiency, Pathways and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shipeng; Xiao, Huifang; Huang, Qingguo; Zhang, Jian; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    The widespread occurrence of the beta-blocker labetalol causes environmental health concern. Enzymatic reactions are highly efficient and specific offering biochemical transformation of trace contaminants with short reaction time and little to none energy consumption. Our experiments indicate that labetalol can be effectively transformed by laccase-catalyzed reaction using 2, 2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as a mediator, while no significant removal of labetalol can be achieved in the absence of ABTS. A total of three products were identified. It is interesting that the presence of graphene greatly increased the reaction rate while not changed the products. In the presence of 100 μg/L graphene, the pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant was increased ~50 times. We found that the enhancement of graphene is probably attributed to the formation and releasing of ABTS2+ which has a much greater reactivity towards labetalol when graphene is present. This study provides fundamental information for laccase-ABTS mediated labetalol reactions and the effect of graphene, which could eventually lead to development of novel methods to control beta-blocker contamination.

  17. Bim Upregulation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Mediates Interactions with the Bcl-2 Antagonist ABT-737: Evidence for Distinct Roles for Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1▿

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, SHUANG; Dai, Yun; Pei, Xin-Yan; Grant, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 kills transformed cells in association with displacement of Bim from Bcl-2. The histone deactetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) was employed to determine whether and by what mechanism ABT-737 might interact with agents that upregulate Bim. Expression profiling of BH3-only proteins indicated that SBHA increased Bim, Puma, and Noxa expression, while SBHA concentrations that upregulated Bim significantly potentiated ABT-737 lethality. Concor...

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of perfluorinated carboxylic acids: Reaction with OH radicals and atmospheric lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Wallington, TJ; Ellis, DA; Martin, JW; Mabury, SA

    2004-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals with a homologous series of perfluorinated acids, F(CF2)(n)COOH (n = 1, 2, 3, 4), in 700 Torr of air at 296 +/- 2 K. For n > 1, the length of the F(CF2)(n) group had no discernible impact on the reactivity of...... atmospheric fate of F(CF2)(n)COOH. The major atmospheric removal mechanism for F(CF2)(n)COOH is believed to be wet and dry deposition which probably occurs on a time scale of the order of 10 days....

  19. Breaking the dogma: PCB-derived semiquinone free radicals do not form covalent adducts with DNA, GSH, and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpradit, Orarat; Rahaman, Asif; Mariappan, S V Santhana; Buettner, Garry R; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bond formations of free radical metabolites with biomolecules like DNA and proteins are thought to constitute a major mechanism of toxicity and carcinogenesis. Glutathione (GSH) is generally accepted as a radical scavenger protecting the cell. In the present study, we investigated a semiquinone radical (SQ(?-)) metabolite of the semivolatile 4-chlorobiphenyl, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were also employed to elucidate the radical interaction with DNA, amino acids, and GSH. We found that DNA and oligonucleotides stabilized SQ(?-) by electron delocalization in the ?-stacking system, resulting in persistent radical intercalated, rather than forming a covalent bond with SQ(?-). This finding was strongly supported by the semiempirical calculation of the semioccupied molecular orbital and the linear combination of the atomic orbitals, indicating 9.8kcalmol(-1) energy gain. The insertion of SQ(?-) into the DNA strand may result in DNA strand breaks and interruption of DNA replication process or even activate radical mediated secondary reactions. The presence of amino acids resulted in a decrease of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of SQ(?-) and correlated with their isoelectric points. The pH shifts the equilibrium of the dianions of hydroquinone and influenced indirectly the formation of SQ(?-). Similar findings were observed with GSH and Cys. GSH and Cys functioned as indirect radical scavengers; their activities depend on their chemical equilibria with the corresponding quinones, and their further reaction via Michael addition. The generally accepted role of GSH as radical scavenger in biological systems should be reconsidered based upon these findings, questioning the generally accepted view of radical interaction of semiquinones with biologically active compounds, like DNA, amino acids, proteins, and radical scavengers like GSH. PMID:26396011

  20. Reactivity of chlorine radical with submicron palmitic acid particles: kinetic measurements and products identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of Cl. radicals with sub-micron palmitic acid (PA particles was studied in an aerosol flow tube in the presence or in the absence of O2. Fine particles were generated by homogeneous condensation of PA vapors and introduced in the reactor where chlorine atoms are produced by photolysis of Cl2 using UV lamps surrounding the reactor. The effective reactive uptake coefficient (γ has been determined from the rate loss of PA measured by GC/MS analysis of reacted particles as a function of the chlorine exposure. In the absence of O2, γ = 14 ± 5 indicates efficient secondary chemistry involving Cl2. GC/MS analyses have shown the formation of monochlorinated and polychlorinated compounds in the oxidized particles. Although, the PA particles are solid, the complete mass can be consumed. In the presence of oxygen, the reaction is still dominated by secondary chemistry but the propagation chain length is smaller than in the absence of O2 which leads to an uptake coefficient γ = 3 ± 1. In the particulate phase, oxocarboxylic acids and dicarboxylic acids are identified by GC/MS. Formation of alcohols and monocarboxylic acids are also suspected. All these results show that solid organic particles could be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase radicals not only on their surface, but also in bulk by mechanisms which are still unclear. Furthermore the identified reaction products are explained by a chemical mechanism showing the pathway of the formation of more functionalized products. They help to understand the aging of primary tropospheric aerosol containing fatty acids.

  1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry applied to study the radical acetylation of amino acids, peptides and proteins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Atecla N. L., Alves; Leticia D. L., Jedlicka; Jlio, Massari; Maria A., Juliano; Etelvino J. H., Bechara; Nilson A., Assuno.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente nosso grupo demostrou experimentalmente que a hiptese de produo de radical acetil em meio tamponado no sistema diacetil/peroxinitrito era possvel. Diacetil um flavorizante em alimentos, cigarros e bebidas. O peroxinitrito encontrado na mitocndria, e em certas condies como um [...] processo de infeo em humanos, a concentrao aumenta significativamente. Em sistemas biolgicos, radicais podem facilmente modificar a estrutura e atividade de cidos nucleicos, protenas e outras biomolculas, causando significativo estres oxidativo. Baseado em dados de ressonncia magntica e espectrometria de massas, este artigo apresenta os produtos que provam a produo do radical acetil e a formao de compostos estveis devido ligao covalente entre o acetil e os aminocidos (produtos acetilados), e os adutos de peptdeos e protenas. Estes materiais foram separados por eletroforese capilar e identificados por espectrometria de massas. O meio reacional consistiu da mistura de diacetil e peroxynitrito em uma relao de 1:2 e em 20 mmol L-1 de fosfato de sdio, no valor de pH 7,2. Estes experimentos tambm revelam a dupla acetilao da lisina, demonstrando a alta reatividade do composto com biomolculas contendo grupos de nitrognio, abundantemente encontradas em sistemas biolgicos. A mudana estrutural de uma molcula acetilada uma fonte de modificaes ps-traduo com inmeras consequncias biolgicas. Abstract in english Recently, our group proposed a process that generated acetyl radicals in a reaction medium buffered with a diacetyl/peroxynitrite system. Diacetyl is a flavoring agent in food, cigarettes and drinks. Peroxynitrite is found in mitochondria, and in certain conditions, such as an infection in humans, i [...] ts concentration is augmented significantly. In biological systems, radical compounds can easily modify the structure and activity of nucleic acids, proteins and other biomolecules, causing significant oxidative stress. Based on paramagnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, this work discusses products that prove acetyl radicals are produced and are able to form stable covalent bonds with amino acid (acetylated products), peptide and protein adducts. These materials were separated and detected by capillary electrophoresis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry or offline mass spectrometry. The reaction medium contained a 1:2 mixture of diacetyl and peroxynitrite dissolved in 200 mmol L-1 of pH 7.2 sodium phosphate buffer. These experiments also reveal the double acetylation of lysine, demonstrating the high reactivity of these compounds when in contact with nitrogen-containing biomolecules readily found in biological systems. These structural changes might be an epigenetic source of post-translational protein modification.

  2. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Thiols, Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives and Phenolic Antioxidants Determined Using the Induction Period Method for Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Seiichiro Fujisawa; Yoshinori Kadoma

    2012-01-01

    The radical-scavenging activities of two thiols, eight (thio)barbituric acid derivatives and six chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants were investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The induction period (IP) for the thiols 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI) was about half that for pheno...

  3. Water soluble and heat resistant polymers by free radical polymerization of lactic acid-based monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hitoshi; Kibayashi, Tatsuya; Niwa, Miki

    2013-08-01

    Tactic heat resistant polymer was prepared by free radical polymerization of lactic acid-based monomers, i.e. chiral 2-isopropyl-5-methylene-1,3-dioxolan-4-ones (1). The polymerization of 1 proceeded smoothly without ring-opening to give a polymer with high isotacticity (mm) of 29.7~100% and glass transition temperature (Tg) of 172~213C. 1 also showed high reactivity in the copolymerization with styrene and methyl methacrylate, and the incorporation of 1 unit in the copolymer structure increased Tg of each polymer. In addition, hydrolysis of poly(1) produced a new type of water soluble poly(lactic acid), i.e. poly(?-hydroxy acrylate), and poly(?-hydroxy acrylate-co-divinyl benzene) hydrogel absorbed water as high as 1000 times of the original polymer weight.

  4. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that melatonin immediately and transiently stimulates intracellular free radical production on a set of leukocytes, possibly as a consequence of calmodulin binding. We show here that melatonin-induced ROS are produced by lipoxygenase (LOX), since they are prevented by a set of LOX inhibitors, and are accompanied by increase of the 5-LOX product 5-HETE. LOX activation is accompanied by strong liberation of AA; inhibition of Ca2+-independent, but not Ca2+-dependent, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), prevents both melatonin-induced arachidonic acid and ROS production, whereas LOX inhibition only prevents ROS, indicating that PLA2 is upstream with respect to LOX, as occurs in many signaling pathways. Chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of melatonin-calmodulin interaction, inhibits both ROS and arachidonic acid production, thus possibly placing calmodulin at the origin of a melatonin-induced pro-radical pathway. Interestingly, it is known that Ca2+-independent PLA2 binds to calmodulin: our results are compatible with PLA2 being liberated by melatonin from a steady-state calmodulin sequestration, thus initiating an arachidonate signal transduction. These results delineate a novel molecular pathway through which melatonin may participate to the inflammatory response.

  5. Electron spin resonance studies of barriers to hindered rotation in acetic acid, acetamide, and peptide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation energies for methyl group rotation in the radicals of type H3C-C2O) as well as in 8 M NaOD glasses have produced the acetic acid anion, the acetate dianion, and the acetamide anion. ESR spectra of these have revealed a doublet (ca. 32G) at 90 K reversibly interconverting to a 1:3:3:1 quartet, of ca. 15-G hyperfine splitting, at higher temperatures (170 K). This interconversion has been attributed to the hindered internal rotation of the methyl group about the H3C-C< bond. The ESR spectra are analyzed using modified Bloch equations for the three-jump process. The mean lifetime (tau) at each temperature (T) has been estimated by a comparison of experimental and simulated ESR spectra. The activation energy (E/sub a/) for the sixfold barrier to the rotation is found to be 5.0 +- 0.5 kcal/mol in the acetate dianion and is about 3.0 kcal/mol for the acetate and acetamide as well as N-acetylamino acids. ESR spectra characteristic of the tunneling methyl group were observed at low temperature (20 K< T<100K) for the radicals produced in ?-irradiated polycrystalline samples of glycyl-L-alanine and L-alanyl-L-alanine. 3 figures, 1 table

  6. ABT-773: Pharmacokinetics and Interactions with Ranitidine and Sucralfate

    OpenAIRE

    Pletz, M. W.; Preechachatchaval, V.; Bulitta, J.; Allewelt, M.; Burkhardt, O.; Lode, H

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the pharmacokinetics and interaction of ABT-773 in 12 volunteers receiving ABT-773 alone or concomitantly with ranitidine or sucralfate. Data for 150 mg of ABT-773 were as follows: the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax) was 318 ng/ml, its half-life was 5.66 h, and its area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to ? (AUC0-?) was 1,662 ng??h/ml. Coadministration of ranitidine, reduced the Cmax (?25.7%) and AUC0-? (?15.8%) significantly. Sucralfate had n...

  7. Free radicals in pyrimidines: ESR of. gamma. -irradiated 5-cyclohexenyl-1,5-dimethyl barbituric acid. [/sup 60/Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA); Erich, L.

    1981-06-01

    ESR studies have determined that ionizing radiation damage of hexobarbital (5-cyclohexenyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid) causes the formation of a free radical (A) by hydrogen abstraction from the cyclohexenyl group. Hyperfine coupling tensors were determined for coupling of the unpaired electron to four protons. Visible light of wavelengths near 450 nm reversibly converts this radical to a second free radical (B) which also has the unpaired electron localized in the cyclohexenyl group. The activation energy for a thermally induced reverse conversion (B ..-->.. A) was determined to be 1.4 eV.

  8. Free radicals in pyrimidines: ESR of γ-irradiated 5-cyclohexenyl-1,5-dimethyl barbituric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR studies have determined that ionizing radiation damage of hexobarbital (5-cyclohexenyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid) causes the formation of a free radical (A) by hydrogen abstraction from the cyclohexenyl group. Hyperfine coupling tensors were determined for coupling of the unpaired electron to four protons. Visible light of wavelengths near 450 nm reversibly converts this radical to a second free radical (B) which also has the unpaired electron localized in the cyclohexenyl group. The activation energy for a thermally induced reverse conversion (B → A) was determined to be 1.4 eV

  9. Iron and hydroxyl radicals in lipid oxidation: Fenton reactions in lipid and nucleic acids co-oxidized with lipid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals can initiate lipid peroxidation in liquids, but their high reactivity affords reaction paths so short that they are unlikely to reach lipids in membrane bilayers when formed exteriorly. EPR studies of Fenton-like reactions inducing oxidation in bulk lipids indicate that iron-dependent initiation of lipid oxidation in organelles and vesicles may result from hydroxyl radicals formed within the hydrophobic membrane interiors, where they would be inaccessible to typical hydrophilic radical scavengers. The cytotoxic or cytogenetic results of lipid peroxidation, especially in nuclear membranes, may include radiominetic chemical damage to adjacent DNA or nucleoprotein. Preliminary product analyses of nucleic acid basis cooxidized with lipids in vitro support this view.

  10. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Examination of Free Radical Formation in Salicylic Acid and Urea Exposed to UV Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals formed by UV irradiation of the two magistral formulas applied on the skin, salicylic acid and urea, were examined by X-band (9.3?GHz) EPR spectroscopy. The influence of the time of UVA (315400?nm) irradiation on free radical properties and concentrations in the drug samples was determined. The nonirradiated magistral formula did not contain free radicals. Amplitudes (A) and linewidths (?Bpp) of EPR spectra were analysed. Fast spin-lattice relaxation process existed in the test...

  11. A perspective on free radical autoxidation: the physical organic chemistry of polyunsaturated fatty acid and sterol peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ned A

    2013-04-19

    This Perspective describes advances from the author's laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation, and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation, and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals, and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic, and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants, and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author's laboratory. PMID:23445181

  12. Characterization of fatty acids, bioactive lipids, and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanien, M. F.R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of Canterbury bells (Campanula medium seed oil. C. medium seeds contained 9.2% extractable oil. The lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterol and tocopherol composition of C. medium seed oil were determined. The amount of neutral lipids in the oil was the highest, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. Linoleic and oleic were the main fatty acids. C. medium oil is characterized by high levels of phytosterols and β-sitosterol was the main compound. β-Tocopherol constituted 42.5% of the total tocopherol content followed by γ-tocopherol. The radical scavenging activity (RSA toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and galvinoxyl radicals of C. medium oil were higher than those of extra virgin olive oil. The diverse potential uses of C. medium oil may make this plant industrially important.El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composición química y la actividad de captación de radicales de aceites de semillas de campanillas de Canterbury (Campanula medium. Las semillas de C. medium contenían 9,2 % de aceite extraíble. Se determinó la composición de las diferentes clases de lípidos, ácidos grasos, fitoesteroles y tocoferoles. La cantidad de lípidos neutros en el aceite fue mayoritario, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Linoleico y oleico fueron los ácidos grasos principales. El aceite de C. medium se caracteriza por altos niveles de fitoesteroles y β-sitosterol fue el compuesto principal. β-tocoferol constituía 42,5 % del contenido total de tocoferol seguido de γ-tocoferol. La actividad de captación de radicales (RSA a 1,1-difenil-2- picrilhidrazil (DPPH y radicales galvinoxil de C. medium fueron superiores a las de aceite de oliva virgen extra. Los diversos usos potenciales de los aceites de C. medium pueden hacer que esta planta pueda ser importante industrialmente.

  13. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008 proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  14. Radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venskutonis, P R; Dvaranauskaite, A; Labokas, J

    2007-02-01

    Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of Lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (AA) by using ABTS(.)(+) decolourisation and DPPH(.) scavenging methods. All extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in DPPH(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in ABTS(.)(+) reaction. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in 1 g of plant extract. Quercetin glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin were identified in the extracts. PMID:17215088

  15. Linoleic acid hydroperoxide reacts with hypochlorous acid, generating peroxyl radical intermediates and singlet molecular oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Sayuri; Martinez, Glaucia R.; Rettori, Daniel; Augusto, Ohara; Marisa H. G. Medeiros; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with hydrogen peroxide is known to generate stoichiometric amounts of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Δg)]. This study shows that HOCl can also react with linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAOOH), generating O2 (1Δg) with a yield of 13 ± 2% at physiological pH. Characteristic light emission at 1,270 nm, corresponding to O2 (1Δg) monomolecular decay, was observed when HOCl was reacted with LAOOH or with liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides,...

  16. Interaction of retinoic acid radical cation with lysozyme and antioxidants: laser flash photolysis study in microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Mei; Wang, Ting; Sun, Dongmei; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Xiaoyu; Wu, Xianzheng; Wang, Shi-Long

    2013-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plays essential roles in the normal biological processes and the treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Considering its photosensitive property, many studies have been focused on the photochemistry of ATRA. In this study, we investigated the transient phenomena in the laser flash photolysis (LFP) of ATRA in microemulsion to further understand the photochemistry of ATRA. Results show that 355 nm LFP of ATRA in both acidic and alkaline conditions leads to the generation of retinoic acid cation radicals (ATRA(•+)) via biphotonic processes. The employment of microemulsion system allows us to investigate the reaction of hydrophobic ATRA(•+) with molecules of different polarity. Therefore, we studied the reaction activity of ATRA(•+) to many hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules. Results show that ATRA(•+) can efficiently interact with lysozyme, tyrosine, tryptophan and many antioxidants, such as curcumin (Cur), vitamin C (VC) and gallic acid (GA). The apparent rate constants of these reactions were measured and compared. These findings suggest that ATRA(•+) is a reactive transient product which may pose damage to lysozyme, and antioxidants, such as Cur, VC and GA, may inactivate ATRA(•+) by efficient quenching reactions. PMID:23819830

  17. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Regina Barros, Mariutti; Gisela Pizarro de Mattos, Barreto; Neura, Bragagnolo; Adriana Zerlotti, Mercadante.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos etanlicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-?-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e cido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfnico) (ABTS+), Trolox foi usado como refer [...] ncia para ambos radicais. As curvas cinticas seguiram o modelo cintico de primeira ordem, e a partir destas foram calculadas as constantes de velocidade de (k obs). Os extratos de slvia e de alecrim apresentaram as maiores capacidades redutoras de radicais livres, enquanto o extrato de cebola praticamente no apresentou atividade e o colorfico, um dos condimentos mais consumidos no Brasil, apresentou baixa atividade de aprisionamento de radicaisABTS+. Trs situaes distintas foram observadas em relao capacidade de aprisionar radicais DPPH: (1) extratos, como os de alecrim e de louro, que apresentaram as mesmas concentraes eficientes (EC50), porm, valores de TEAC e velocidade de ao (k obs) distintos ; (2) extratos, como os de alho e de manjerico, que apresentaram valores similares de EC50 e TEAC, com valores distintos de k obs e (3) extratos com a mesma velocidade de ao que diferiram totalmente na capacidade de aprisionamento de radicais livres, como de pimenta preta, segurelha, noz moscada, alecrim e slvia. Consideraes semelhantes podem ser feitas para os resultados de ABTS+. Osdois mtodos apresentaram boa correlao de TEAC, indicando que a reatividade dos compostos presentes nos extratos etanlicos foi similar. A atividade redutora de ABTS+ para pimenta da Jamaica, manjerico, cardamomo, cebolinha, colorfico, cominho, dill, louro, manjerona, salsinha e estrago foi reportada pela primeira vez. Abstract in english Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+), and Trolox a [...] s reference (TEAC) for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs) was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH scavenging capacities: (1) extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 ) but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs), (2) extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3) extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS+ results. For the first time the ABTS+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.

  18. Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists ABT-089 and ABT-107 attenuates the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alycia M; Arreola, Adrian C; Kimmey, Blake A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2014-11-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have modest efficacy, and most smokers relapse within the first few days after a quit attempt. Nicotine withdrawal-induced craving and cognitive impairments predict smoking relapse during abstinence and suggest that cognitive-enhancing drugs may prevent relapse. ABT-089 and ABT-107 are subtype-selective nAChR agonists that improve cognitive performance in laboratory animals. However, there are no studies examining the effects of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse in human smokers. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of the ?4?2*/?6?2* nAChR agonist ABT-089 and the ?7 nAChR agonist ABT-107 on nicotine taking and seeking in rats. The effects of acute ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement were tested in male Sprague Dawley rats. Parallel studies of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were tested in separate groups of rats to determine if the effects of these drug treatments generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Nicotine and sucrose self-administration behaviors were not altered following acute administration of ABT-089 (0, 0.12, 1.2 and 12.0mg/kg) or ABT-107 (0, 0.03 and 0.3mg/kg). In contrast, both ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reinstatement. These effects were reinforcer-specific as no effects of ABT-089 or ABT-107 pretreatment on sucrose seeking were noted. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABT-089 and ABT-107 do not affect nicotine consumption, but may reduce the likelihood that a smoking lapse will lead to relapse. PMID:25128791

  19. Concerted effects in the reaction of ·OH radicals with aromatics: radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic studies have been used to resolve the products produced in the radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid in aqueous solution. These studies have shown that, as in the case of phenol, ·OH radicals preferentially add to the positions ortho and para to the OH substituent. However, in contrast to its reaction with phenol, addition at the ortho position is favored over addition at the para position. Because ·OH radical is a strong electrophile this difference suggests that the electron population at the ortho position in the salicylate anion is enhanced as a result of the hydrogen bonding in salicylic acid

  20. One-component thioxanthone acetic acid derivative photoinitiator for free radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Duygu S; Temel, Gokhan; Balta, Demet K; Allonas, Xavier; Arsu, Nergis

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid-based thioxanthone (TXCH2 COOH) was synthesized and characterized and used as a photoinitiator for free radical photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence and presence of a tertiary amine (MDEA) in different solvents. Different absorption properties were observed depending on the solvent. Fluorescence and phosphorescence experiments were also carried out successfully. The fluorescence quantum yield was found to be 0.09 and the phosphorescence lifetime was calculated as 138 ms at 77 K. The photoinitiator undergoes efficient intersystem crossing into the triplet state and the lowest triplet state possesses π-π* configuration. Laser flash photolysis experiments show that transient absorption of TXCH2 COOH is similar to the parent thioxanthone and the triplet lifetime was calculated as 2.3 μs at 630 nm. PMID:24372104

  1. Radical-Scavenging Activity of Thiols, Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives and Phenolic Antioxidants Determined Using the Induction Period Method for Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichiro Fujisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of two thiols, eight (thiobarbituric acid derivatives and six chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants were investigated using the induction period method for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The induction period (IP for the thiols 2-mercaptoethanol (ME and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI was about half that for phenolic antioxidants. Except for the potent inhibitor 5,5-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (3, the IP for thiobarbituric acid derivatives was about one tenth of that for phenolic antioxidants. The IP for 1,3,5-trimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (1 and 5-allyl-1, 3-dimethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid (7 was less than that of the control, possibly due to inhibition by a small amount of atmospheric oxygen in the DSC container. The ratio of the chain inhibition to that of chain propagation (CI/CP for the thiols and thiobarbituric acid compounds except for 1, 3 and 7 was about 10 times greater or greater than that for phenolic compounds. A kinetic chain length (KCL about 10% greater than that of the control was observed for 1, suggesting that 1 had chain transfer reactivity in the polymerization of MMA. The average molecular weight of polymers formed from thiobarbituric acid derivatives is discussed.

  2. Caffeic Acid Inhibits the Formation of 7-Carboxyheptyl Radicals from Oleic Acid under Flavin Mononucleotide Photosensitization by Scavenging Singlet Oxygen and Quenching the Excited State of Flavin Mononucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Asano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of caffeic acid (CA and related compounds on 7-carboxyheptyl radical formation. This analysis was performed using a standard D2O reaction mixture containing 4.3 mM oleic acid, 25 ?M flavin mononucleotide (FMN, 160 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM cholic acid, 100 mM ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone, and 1 mM Fe(SO42(NH42 during irradiation with 7.8 J/cm2 at 436 nm. 7-Carboxyheptyl radical formation was inhibited by CA, catechol, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, noradrenalin, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quinic acid, benzoic acid, and p-anisic acid had no effect on radical formation. These results suggest that a phenol moiety is essential for these inhibitory effects. The fluorescence intensity of FMN decreased by 69% 2% after CA addition, suggesting that CA quenches the singlet excited state of FMN. When 1 mM CA was added to a standard reaction mixture containing 25 ?M FMN, 140 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, and 10 mM 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, the electron spin resonance signal of 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy disappeared. This finding suggests that singlet oxygen was scavenged completely by CA. Therefore, CA appears to inhibit 7-carboxyheptyl radical formation by scavenging singlet oxygen and quenching the excited state of FMN.

  3. Ascorbic Acid-Initiated Tandem Radical Cyclization of N-Arylacrylamides to Give 3,3-Disubstituted Oxindoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ascorbic acid-promoted and metal-free tandem room temperature cyclization of N-arylacrylamides with 4-nitrobenzenediazonium generated in situ was developed. This reaction proceeds smoothly through a radical mechanism and provides an environmentally friendly alternative approach to biologically active 3-alkyl-3-benzyloxindoles, avoiding the use of excess oxidants and light irradiation.

  4. On the Origin of the Methyl Radical Loss from Deprotonated Ferulic and Isoferulic Acids: Electronic Excitation of a Transient Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lv, Huiqing; Wu, Yanqing; Bian, Gaofeng; Jiang, Kezhi

    2013-06-01

    Formation of radical fragments from even-electron ions is an exception to the "even-electron rule". In this work, ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (IFA) were used as the model compounds to probe the fragmentation mechanisms and the isomeric effects on homolytic cleavage. Elimination of methyl radical and CO2 are the two competing reactions observed in the CID-MS of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-, of which losing methyl radical violates the "even-electron rule". The relative intensity of their product ions is significantly different, and thereby the two isomeric compounds can be differentiated by tandem MS. Theoretical calculations indicate that both the singlet-triplet gap and the excitation energy decrease in the transient structures, as the breaking C-O bond is lengthened. The methyl radical elimination has been rationalized as the intramolecular electronic excitation of a transient structure with an elongating C-O bond. The potential energy diagrams, completed by the addition of the energy barrier of the radical elimination, have provided a reasonable explanation of the different CID-MS behaviors of [FA - H]- and [IFA - H]-.

  5. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of essential oil components--an experimental and computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of eighteen different essential oil components have been determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The phenolic compounds, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, showed the best antioxidant activities, while camphor, menthol, and menthone were the least active. The structural and electronic properties of the essential oil components were assessed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. Correlations between calculated electronic properties and antioxidant activities were generally poor, but bond-dissociation energies (BDEs) seem to correlate with DPPH radical-scavenging activities, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay correlated with vertical ionization potentials calculated at the Hartree-Fock/6-311++G** level. PMID:25920239

  6. Effect of intrachain sulfonic acid dopants on the solid-state charge mobility of a model radical polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical polymers are an emerging class of non-conjugated, charge-conducting macromolecules that are capable of transporting charge through localized oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions that occur at the stable radical groups present as the pendant groups of the macromolecular chains. The chemical nature and oxidation state of these pendant radical groups are critical to the charge transporting abilities of radical polymers in the solid state. To date, however, the control of this chemistry has been limited to external oxidizing agents, and the concept of intramolecular dopants has not been explored fully. To this end, we have synthesized poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate)-co-poly(vinylsulfonic acid sodium salt) (PTMA-co-PVS). Then, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are implemented to evaluate the exact chemical nature of the pendant groups as a function of the PVS intramolecular dopants and exposure of the materials to external oxidation reactions. We correlate these changes in pendant group chemistry to charge transport ability, and we establish that the inclusion of a moderate amount of PVS dopants can improve the solid-state hole mobility of the material. Conversely, a large amount of sulfonic acidic dopants can be detrimental to the transport of the polymer relative to the homopolymer PTMA. Therefore, refinement of pendant group chemistry and careful addition of intramolecular dopants can enhance the solid-state transport ability of a radical polymer system. These fundamental principles, in turn, provide a vital foothold by which to optimize the solid-state charge transporting ability of current and next-generation radical polymer designs. - Highlights: • Sulfonic acid groups are copolymerized within the backbone of radical polymer chain. • Addition of the sulfonic acid groups alters the pendant group oxidation state. • Exact oxidation states are monitored with a variety of spectroscopic techniques. • Oxidation states alter the solid-state charge transport ability of radical polymers. • Optimized intramolecular doping and oxidization reaction times are established

  7. Manganese(II)-bicarbonate-mediated catalytic activity for hydrogen peroxide dismutation and amino acid oxidation: detection of free radical intermediates.

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, M B; Berlett, B S; Chock, P.B; Stadtman, E R

    1990-01-01

    To examine the structural identities of reactive free radicals and the mechanism of the oxidative modification of proteins, we used EPR and spin-trapping methods to investigate the oxidation of amino acids by H2O2 as well as the decomposition of H2O2 itself catalyzed by Mn(II) ions. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (O2-. and OH.) were trapped by a spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO), in a reaction mixture containing Mn(II) and H2O2 in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. When Hepes was used...

  8. Hydroxyl radical induced oxidation of acetylene in oxygenated aqueous solution. The formation of a highly acidic intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed irradiation was used in a study of the action of 2.8 MeV electron pulses on aqueous solutions containing an acetylene-oxygen mixture or an acetylene-oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture in order to investigate the reactions of the beta-hydroxy-vinyl-peroxyl radical. This radical is formed from acetylene by reaction with OH followed by addition of molecular oxygen. The results show that a highly acidic intermediate is formed with a pK value of greater or equal to 2. The decay of this intermediate leads to the observed products. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  9. Picosecond pulse radiolysis of highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions: evidence for the oxidation reactivity of radical cation H2O(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Schmidhammer, Uli; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2014-06-12

    Aqueous solution of sulfuric acid is used as a suitable system to investigate the reactivity of the short-lived radical cation H2O(+) which is generated by radiation in water. Ten aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid with concentration from 1 to 18 mol?L(-1) are studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis. The absorbance of the secondary radical SO4(-) (or HSO4()) formed within the 10 ps electron pulse is measured by a pulse-probe method in the visible range. The analysis of the kinetics show that the radicals of sulfuric acid are formed within the picosecond electron pulse via two parallel mechanisms: direct electron detachment by the electron pulse and oxidation by the radical cation of water H2O(+). In highly concentrated solution when SO4(2-) is in contact with H2O(+), the electron transfer becomes competitive against proton transfer with another water molecule. Therefore, H2O(+) may act as an extremely strong oxidant. The maximum radiolytic yield of scavenged H2O(+) is estimated to be 5.3 0.1 10(-7) mol?J(-1). PMID:24824373

  10. A pulse radiolysis investigation of the reactions of tributyl phosphate with the radical products of aqueous nitric acid irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincher, Bruce J; Mezyk, Stephen P; Martin, Leigh R

    2008-07-17

    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is the most common organic compound used in liquid-liquid separations for the recovery of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium from acidic nuclear fuel dissolutions. The goal of these processes is to extract the actinides while leaving fission products in the acidic, aqueous phase. However, the radiolytic degradation of TBP has been shown to reduce separation factors of the actinides from fission products and to impede the back-extraction of the actinides during stripping. As most previous investigations of the radiation chemistry of TBP have focused on steady state radiolysis and stable product identification, with dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) invariably being the major product, here we have determined room temperature rate constants for the reactions of TBP and HDBP with the hydroxyl radical [(5.00 +/- 0.05) x 10(9), (4.40 +/- 0.13) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)], hydrogen atom [(1.8 +/-0.2) x 10(8), (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)], nitrate radical [(4.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(6), (2.9 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)], and nitrite radical (<2 x 10 (5), <2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), respectively. These data are used to discuss the mechanism of TBP radical-induced degradation. PMID:18572898

  11. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and amino acid composition of human metallothionein-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lieven Goossens

    2011-06-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs), a low-mass class of metalloproteins, are characterized by a high thiolate sulphur and metal content. MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis of untreated and metal-depleted human MT-1 was tested under multiple aerobic and anaerobic conditions at increasing irradiation doses. Under all conditions, a rapid increase of serine in the early stages of irradiation was observed. Irradiation for longer times led to cysteic acid formation, except under argon atmosphere. Several other amino acid concentrations gradually decreased. Formation of limited amounts of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine and ornithine as well as some less common derivatives such as cystathionine occurred as side-effects.

  12. Characterization of a Cross-Linked Protein-Nucleic Acid Substrate Radical in the Reaction Catalyzed by RlmN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silakov, Alexey; Grove, Tyler L.; Radle, Matthew I.; Bauerle, Matthew R.; Green, Michael T.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Boal, Amie K.; Booker, Squire J. [NWU; (Penn)

    2014-08-14

    RlmN and Cfr are methyltransferases/methylsynthases that belong to the radical S-adenosylmethionine superfamily of enzymes. RlmN catalyzes C2 methylation of adenosine 2503 (A2503) of 23S rRNA, while Cfr catalyzes C8 methylation of the exact same nucleotide, and will subsequently catalyze C2 methylation if the site is unmethylated. A key feature of the unusual mechanisms of catalysis proposed for these enzymes is the attack of a methylene radical, derived from a methylcysteine residue, onto the carbon center undergoing methylation to generate a paramagnetic protein–nucleic acid cross-linked species. This species has been thoroughly characterized during Cfr-dependent C8 methylation, but does not accumulate to detectible levels in RlmN-dependent C2 methylation. Herein, we show that inactive C118S/A variants of RlmN accumulate a substrate-derived paramagnetic species. Characterization of this species by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in concert with strategic isotopic labeling shows that the radical is delocalized throughout the adenine ring of A2503, although predominant spin density is on N1 and N3. Moreover, 13C hyperfine interactions between the radical and the methylene carbon of the formerly [methyl-13C]Cys355 residue show that the radical species exists in a covalent cross-link between the protein and the nucleic acid substrate. X-ray structures of RlmN C118A show that, in the presence of SAM, the substitution does not alter the active site structure compared to that of the wild-type enzyme. Together, these findings have new mechanistic implications for the role(s) of C118 and its counterpart in Cfr (C105) in catalysis, and suggest involvement of the residue in resolution of the cross-linked species via a radical mediated process

  13. Neutral and acidic products derived from hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of arabinotriose assessed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; da Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosrio M

    2014-04-01

    The oxidation of ?-(1???5)-L-arabinotriose (Ara3), an oligosaccharide structurally related to side chains of coffee arabinogalactans, was studied in reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated under conditions of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)/H2O2). The acidic and neutral oxidation products were separated by ligand exchange/size-exclusion chromatography, subsequently identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and structurally characterised by tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). In acidic fraction were identified several oxidation products containing an acidic residue at the corresponding reducing end of Ara3, namely arabinonic acid, and erythronic, glyceric and glycolic acids formed by oxidative scission of the furanose ring. In neutral fractions were identified derivatives containing keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy moieties, as well as derivatives resulting from the ring scission at the reducing end of Ara3. In both acidic and neutral fractions, beyond the trisaccharide derivatives, the corresponding di- and monosaccharide derivatives were identified indicating the occurrence of oxidative depolymerisation. The structural characterisation of these oxidation products by ESI-MS/MS allowed the differentiation of isobaric and isomeric species of acidic and neutral character. The species identified in this study may help in detection of roasting products associated with the free radical-mediated oxidation of coffee arabinogalactans. PMID:24719343

  14. Addition and elimination kinetics in OH radical induced oxidation of phenol and cresols in acidic and alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of the two consecutive reactions, OH radical addition and H2O/OH- elimination, were studied by pulse radiolysis in highly acidic (pH=1.3-1.9) and alkaline (pH∼11) solutions, respectively, for phenol and for the three cresol isomers. The rate coefficient of the addition as measured by the build-up of phenoxyl radical absorbance and by a competitive method is the same (1.4±0.1)x1010 mol-1 dm3 s-1 both in acidic and alkaline solution. The rate coefficient of the H2O elimination in acidic solution is (1.6±0.2)x106 s-1, whereas the coefficient of the OH- elimination in alkaline solutions is 6-8 times higher. The kinetics of the phenoxyl radical formation was described by the two-exponential equation of the consecutive reactions: the first exponential is related to the pseudo-first-order addition, while the second to the elimination reaction. No considerable structure dependence was found in the rate coefficients, indicating that the methyl substitutent in these highly acidic or alkaline solutions influences neither the addition nor the elimination rate

  15. Thiyl radical-induced cis-trans-isomerization of arachidonic acid inhibits prostaglandin metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Thiyl radicals radiolytically generated from thiophenol in methanolic solution are known to isomerise double bonds of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). ?-irradiating of such a system containing all-cis 5,8,11,14 eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid, AA) with low doses (0.1-0.8 kGy) results in a mixture of 8 to 32% mono-trans-isomers. Here we report about the influence of mono-trans-AA on the primary steps of AA-metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis, catalysed by cyclooxygenase (COX). In the cell-free model system the reaction of COX-1 with AA was analysed by controlling the oxygen level during the enzymatic reaction. As an example, a mixture of a low quantity of mono-trans-isomerized AA (10%) and 90% all-cis-isomer exhibits a marked reduced oxygen consumption by 45%. As further proofs - the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the COX-coupled peroxidase reaction was detected, - and the COX-1 activity in presence of different amounts of trans-AA was characterized using a photometric assay based on the oxidation of TMPD. All these methods indicated semiquantitatively a reduced activity of COX-1, depending on the trans-isomer yield. Therefore, an inhibition of COX-1 activity by only one trans-double-bond in AA could be concluded. Furthermore, in vitro cell-line experiments were performed analysing the influence of mono-trans-isomerized AA on the activity of the cell-own COX-2. Hence, VD3-differentiated and LPS-stimulated monocyte-like cells were incubated with mono-trans-AA and ROS-production was detected by the chemiluminescence measurements mentioned above. Compared to the reaction with all-cis-AA we found a considerable lowered formation of ROS. Likewise, we obtained a reduced PGE2-expression between 15 and 40% for cells treated with 8 to 29% trans-AA. The model as well as in vivo experiments demonstrate an inhibition effect of mono-trans-AA and give rise for postulating an enzyme blocking mechanism for COX-1 and COX-2 by trans-isomers

  16. Interaction of aromatic alcohols, aldehydes and acids with α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals: A steady state radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzaldehyde and its derivatives efficaciously oxidize in aqueous solutions α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals (α-HCR) of various structures, suppressing thereby the radical recombination and fragmentation reactions. The compounds containing cinnamic moieties are capable of adding α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) to the carbon–carbon double bonds conjugated with the aromatic system to form molecular products identifiable by mass spectrometry. On radiolysis of aqueous ethanol solutions, reduction of α-HER by aromatic alcohols and acids has been shown to proceed via formation of their adducts with hydrated electron species. - Highlights: ► Benzaldehydes oxidize α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals. ► Phenylproranoids add α-hydroxyethyl radicals to the activated C=C bonds. ► Aromatic alcohols and acids form radical-adducts with eaq− in aqueous solutions.

  17. Concerted effects in the reaction of ·OH radicals with aromatics. Radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Liquid chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic studies have been used to resolve the products produced in the radiolytic oxidation of salicylic acid in aqueous solution. These studies have shown that, as in the case of phenol, OH radicals preferentially add to the 3- and 5-positions that are, respectively, ortho and para to the OH substituent. However, in contrast to its reaction with phenol, addition at the ortho position is favored over addition to the para position. Because ·OH radical is a strong electrophile this difference suggests that addition of ·OH to the ortho position is enhanced as a result of the hydrogen bonding in salicylic acid. Similarly, addition to the 6-position is discriminated against

  18. Screening for antioxidants in complex matrices using high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Geoffrey P; Conlan, Xavier A; Noonan, Laura K; Costin, Jason W; Mnatsakanyan, Mariam; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2011-01-17

    The use of high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection to screen for antioxidants in complex plant-derived samples was evaluated in comparison with two conventional post-column radical scavenging assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(+))). In this approach, acidic potassium permanganate can react with readily oxidisable compounds (potential antioxidants), post-column, to produce chemiluminescence. Using flow injection analysis, experimental parameters that afforded the most suitable permanganate chemiluminescence signal for a range of known antioxidants were studied in a univariate approach. Optimum conditions were found to be: 110(-3)M potassium permanganate solution containing 1% (w/v) sodium polyphosphates adjusted to pH 2 with sulphuric acid, delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) per line. Further investigations showed some differences in detection selectivity between HPLC with the optimised post-column permanganate chemiluminescence detection and DPPH and ABTS(+) assays towards antioxidant standards. However, permanganate chemiluminescence detection was more sensitive. Moreover, screening for antioxidants in green tea, cranberry juice and thyme using potassium permanganate chemiluminescence offers several advantages over the traditional DPPH and ABTS(+) assays, such as faster reagent preparation and superior stability; simpler post-column reaction manifold; and greater compatibility with fast chromatographic separations using monolithic columns. PMID:21167995

  19. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Y.; Y. B. Lim; Altieri, K.E.; Seitzinger, S.P.; Turpin, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor ...

  20. Mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production from abiotic oxidation of pyrite under acidic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Liao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (radOH) produced from pyrite oxidation by O2 have been recognized, but mechanisms regarding the production under anoxic and oxic conditions are not well understood. In this study, the mechanisms of radOH production from pyrite oxidation under anoxic and oxic conditions were explored using benzoic acid (BA) as an radOH probe. Batch experiments were conducted at pH 2.6 to explore radOH production under anoxic and oxic conditions. The cumulative radOH concentrations produced under anoxic and oxic conditions increased linearly to 7.5 and 52.2 μM, respectively within 10 h at 10 g/L pyrite. Under anoxic conditions, radOH was produced from the oxidation of H2O on the sulfur-deficient sites on pyrite surface, showing an increased production with the increase of pyrite surface exposure due to oxidation. Under oxic conditions, the formation of radOH proceeds predominantly via the two-electron reduction of O2 on pyrite surface along with a minor contribution from the oxidation of H2O on surface sulfur-defects and the reactions of Fe2+/sulfur intermediates with O2. For both O2 reduction and H2O oxidation on the surface sulfur-defects, H2O2 was the predominant intermediate, which subsequently transformed to radOH through Fenton mechanism. The radOH produced had a significant impact on the transformation of contaminants in the environment. Anoxic pyrite suspensions oxidized 13.9% As(III) (C0 = 6.67 μM) and 17.6% sulfanilamide (C0 = 2.91 μM) within 10 h at pH 2.6 and 10 g/L pyrite, while oxic pyrite suspensions improved the oxidation percentages to 55.4% for As(III) and 51.9% for sulfanilamide. The ratios of anoxic to oxic oxidation are consistent with the relative contribution of surface sulfur-defects to radOH production. However, Fe2+ produced from pyrite oxidation competed with the contaminants for radOH, which is of particular significance with the increase of time in a static environment. We conclude that radOH can be produced from abiotic oxidation of pyrite under acidic conditions, and the production dramatically increases in the the presence of O2. The oxidation induced by the radOH produced should be taken into account for substance transformation due to its highly reactive nature.

  1. 40 CFR 80.1270 - Who may generate benzene credits under the ABT program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may generate benzene credits under the ABT program? 80.1270 Section 80.1270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., Banking and Trading (abt) Program § 80.1270 Who may generate benzene credits under the ABT program?...

  2. Targeted acylation for all the hydroxyls of (+)-catechin and evaluation of their individual contribution to radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shan; Liu, Songbai

    2016-04-15

    The reactivity profile of all the hydroxyl groups in (+)-catechin towards acylation and their respective contribution to radical scavenging activity were systematically explored in this work. Selective acylation of the hydroxyls on different rings was carried out employing either a basic or acidic activation strategy. Monoacylation of B ring was achieved effectively with the aid of dimethyltin dichloride. Monoacylation of A ring was accomplished by sequential protection and deprotection of B and C rings. Based on specific acylation of all the individual hydroxyls of (+)-catechins, the structure radical scavenging activity relationship of each hydroxyl of (+)-catechin was established. It was demonstrated that the vicinal phenolic hydroxyls on B ring played the most important role in the ABTS radical scavenging activity and those on A and C rings made a much smaller contribution. This study has laid solid groundwork for further modification of the catechins and improvement of their properties. PMID:26616969

  3. Reaction pathway of the degradation of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid by sulfate radical generated by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) in aqueous solutions by ionizing radiation was studied. The phenolic pollutant was easily removed by the electron beam irradiation, as more than 80% of the initial 100 M introduced was degraded for a dose of 600 Gy. It was shown that the addition of persulfate, producing the sulfate radical as additional reactive species, induced a change in the reaction pathway. LCMS analyses were performed in order to identify the different by-products formed. In the absence of persulfate, the main by-product formed was 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, while in presence of persulfate, 1,4-benzoquinone was detected and the hydroxylated by-products were not present. A reaction pathway of HBA degradation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals was proposed from the identification of the chemical structure of the different by-products detected. The influences of pH and dissolved oxygen were also studied. A high decline of HBA degradation was observed at pH 11 compared to pH 4.5, this decrease was minimized in the presence of persulfate. The dissolved oxygen concentration was found to be a limiting parameter of HBA degradation, however an excess of dissolved oxygen in solution did not improve the degradation to a large extent. - Highlights: p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) is easily removed by e-beam irradiation. The sulfate radicals formed from persulfate induce loss of the benzoic acid skeleton. The dissolved oxygen concentration is a limiting parameter of the HBA degradation. The effect of pH is minimized in presence of persulfate

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Kielmeyera variabilis (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing research on antioxidant agents from Brazilian flora, we screened the free radical scavenging activity of two extracts and eight fractions of Kielmeyera variabilis (Clusiaceae using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate and ABTS+ [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] colorimetric assays. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of the leaves of K. variabilis displayed the strongest activity (IC50 of 3.5 0.3 and 4.4 0.2 ?g mL?1 for DPPH and 6.6 0.4 and 3.1 0.1 ?g mL?1 for ABTS+, respectively. Chromatographic fractionation of the most potent fractions led to identification of three flavonols with previously described antioxidant activity, quercitrin (1, quercetin-3-O-b-glucoside (3, and quercetin-3-O-b-galactoside (4, and of one biflavone, podocarpusflavone A (2. This is the first time that the presence of these flavonoids in Kielmeyera variabilis has been reported.

  5. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  6. Melt Free-Radical Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) by Using Styrene as A Comonomer

    OpenAIRE

    Piming Ma; Long Jiang; Tao Ye; Weifu Dong; Mingqing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Maleic anhydride (MA) was grafted onto poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in the presence of styrene (St) by using a free-radical grafting methodology. The grafting degree (Dg) of MA was increased from 0.65 wt % to 1.1 wt % with the St/MA ratio up to 2/1, where the grafting efficiency (Eg) of MA was 27%. However, both Dg and Eg were decreased with further increasing of the St/MA ratio to 4/1. The Dg of MA increased with MA concentration and showed a maximum at 180 °C in the temperature range of 165 °C–1...

  7. Measurments of nitrous acid, nitrate radicals, formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide for the Southern California Air Quality Study by differential optical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that two rapid scanning (∼3000 scan min-1) differential optical absorption spectrometers were interfaced to 25 m basepath open, multiple reflection systems operated routinely at a total optical path of 800 m at Long Beach and Claremont, CA during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study. These instruments permitted measurements of atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde at the part per billion levels, and detection of the nitrate radicals with sensitivity of several tens of parts per trillion

  8. Reactivity of OH radicals with chlorobenzoic acids-A pulse radiolysis and steady-state radiolysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja; Getoff, Nikola; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of OH radicals with 2-, 3-, 4-chlorobenzoic acids (ClBzA) and chlorobenzene (ClBz), k(OH+substrates)=(4.5−6.2)×109 dm3 mol−1 s−1, have been studied by pulse radiolysis in N2O saturated solutions. The absorption maxima of the OH-adducts were in the range of 320−340 nm. Their decay wa...... degradation. The order for the efficiency of dehalogenation was 4->2->3-ClBzA. Several primary radiolytic products could be detected by HPLC. To evaluate the toxicity of final products a bacterial bioluminescence test was carried out....

  9. Reactivity of OH radicals with chlorobenzoic acids-A pulse radiolysis and steady-state radiolysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zona, Robert; Solar, Sonja; Getoff, Nikola; Sehested, Knud; Holcman, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The reactions of OH radicals with 2-, 3-, 4-chlorobenzoic acids (ClBzA) and chlorobenzene (ClBz), k(OH+substrates)=(4.5?6.2)109 dm3 mol?1 s?1, have been studied by pulse radiolysis in N2O saturated solutions. The absorption maxima of the OH-adducts were in the range of 320?340 nm. Their decay wa...... degradation. The order for the efficiency of dehalogenation was 4->2->3-ClBzA. Several primary radiolytic products could be detected by HPLC. To evaluate the toxicity of final products a bacterial bioluminescence test was carried out....

  10. E.S.R. of spin-trapped radicals in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline nucleic acid constituents and their halogenated derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free radicals in γ-irradiated polycrystalline nucleic acid constituents and their 5-halogenated derivatives have been studied by e.s.r. and spin-trapping. After γ-irradiation at room temperature, the polycrystalline samples were dissolved in aqueous solutions of t-nitrosobutane (tNB) in the absence or presence of oxygen. For many of the nucleic acid constituents two types of radicals, -C(5)RH-C(6)H- and -C(5)R-C(6)H2-, formed by H-addition to the double bond [-C(5)R = C(6)H-] of the base, were observed, where R is -CH3 or -H. In addition, radicals formed on the sugar moiety were found for some nucleosides. When oxygen was present in the tNB solution, the relative stability of trapped radicals was changed, and thus the presence of more than one radical species could be established. For halogenated bases, the radical produced by H-abstraction from N(1) was observed, and an additional radical species formed by H-addition to the C(6) position was found for 5-fluorouracil. For halogenated nucleosides, the same spectrum was observed in all compounds except the 5-fluoroderivatives, and was assigned to the radicals produced on the sugar moiety. For 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and 5-fluorouridine, the radical formed by H-addition to the C(6) position of the base was observed. In general, the present results are in good agreement with those of previous single crystal studies, but in the case of halogenated compounds other than the 5-fluoroderivatives, it was not possible to spin-trap the α-halo radicals which were the most prominent radicals formed from γ-irradiation of single crystals at room temperature. (author)

  11. The Effect of Nitrate as a Radical Scavenger for the Removal of Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions by Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Tahereh Jasemizad; Monireh Kheirkha; Reza Amraei; Fatemeh Sahlabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Humic acids have adverse effects on the water quality, then should be removed from water resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrate as a radical scavenger for removal of humic acid from aqueous solutions by electron beam irradiation. Materials and Methods: In this study, after preparation of stock humic acid solution in alkaline condition, different concentrations of humic acid (10, 25 and 50 mg/l) were prepared. Different concentrations of nitrate (2...

  12. Proline as a charge stabilizing amino acid in peptide radical cations

    OpenAIRE

    Monney, Nicolas P.-A.; Bally, Thomas; Giese, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Long distance electron transfer in proteins requires relay stations that can be transitorily oxidized or reduced. Although individual prolines cannot assume this function, because of their high ionization energy, it has been shown that polyprolines have the ability to transfer charges. In order to determine the role of the proline in the hole distribution and transport within a PheProPhe tripeptide, the radical cation of a model compound where the phenylalanines carry two or three methoxy gro...

  13. Norcantharidin enhances ABT-737-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by transcriptional repression of Mcl-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuijun; Li, Gongquan; Ma, Xiuxian; Wang, Yu; Liu, Guangzhi; Feng, Liushun; Zhao, Yongfu; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xuexiang; Qin, Baoming; Lu, Jianfeng

    2012-09-01

    Small-molecule cell-permeable Bcl-2/Bcl-xL antagonist ABT-737 has recently emerged as a novel cancer therapeutic agent because it potently induces apoptosis in certain cancer cells. However, since ABT-737 binds to Mcl-1 with low affinity, ABT-737-mediated apoptosis signaling is inhibited in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and other solid cancer cells due to the elevated expression of Mcl-1. Accordingly, strategies that target Mcl-1 are explored for overcoming ABT-737-resistance. In this study, we reported that Norcantharidin (NCTD), a small-molecule anticancer drug derived from Chinese traditional medicine blister beetle (Mylabris), induced transcriptional repression of Mcl-1 and considerably enhanced ABT-737-triggered cell viability inhibition and apoptosis in multiple HCC cell lines. Moreover, we observed that the enhancement of ABT-737-mediated apoptosis by NCTD was associated with activation of mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway, which involved cytosolic release of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Additionally, knockdown of Bax/Bak, the key effectors permeabilizing mitochondrial outer membrane significantly attenuated the enhancement, indicating mitochondrial apoptosis pathway played an essential role in the execution of the apoptosis. Finally, knockdown of Mcl-1 substantially potentiated ABT-737-mediated apoptotic cell death, confirming the potency of Mcl-1 repression by NCTD in enhancing ABT-737-induced apoptosis. These results therefore suggest that combination treatment with NCTD can overcome ABT-737 resistance and enhance ABT-737 therapeutic efficacy in treating human HCC. PMID:22609455

  14. A pulse radiolysis study of the OH radical induced autoxidation of methanesulfinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.

    1996-01-01

    takes place. During the course of the chain oxidation a peroxyacid, presumably methaneperoxymonosulfonic acid, is formed and accumulated. This acid absorbs in the UV and eventually decays by reaction with excess methanesulfinic acid k = 5 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). The final product of the chain autoxidation...

  15. Reactivity of OH radicals with chlorobenzoic acids-A pulse radiolysis and steady-state radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zona, Robert [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Solar, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sehested, Knud; Holcman, Jerzy [RISO National Laboratory Environmental Science and Technology Department, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    The reactions of OH radicals with 2-, 3-, 4-chlorobenzoic acids (ClBzA) and chlorobenzene (ClBz), k({sup c}entre dotOH+substrates)=(4.5-6.2)x10{sup 9} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}, have been studied by pulse radiolysis in N{sub 2}O saturated solutions. The absorption maxima of the OH-adducts were in the range of 320-340 nm. Their decay was according to a second-order reaction, 2k=(1-9)x10{sup 8} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. In the presence of N{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} the formation of peroxyl radicals was detectable for 2-, 4-ClBzA and ClBz, k(OH-adduct+O{sub 2})=(2-4)x10{sup 7} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}, while this reaction for 3-ClBzA was too slow to be registered. In the presence of N{sub 2}O the degradation rates induced by gamma radiation were very similar for all chlorobenzoic acids, yet the chloride formation was distinctly higher for 3-ClBzA. In the presence of oxygen the initial degradation of 2-and 4-ClBzA equaled the OH-radical concentration, whereas in case of 3-ClBzA only approx60% of {sup c}entre dotOH led to degradation. The order for the efficiency of dehalogenation was 4->2->3-ClBzA. Several primary radiolytic products could be detected by HPLC. To evaluate the toxicity of final products a bacterial bioluminescence test was carried out.

  16. Synthesis of Hydrogel Based on Nata De Coco and Acrylic Acid as Co-Monomer Using Free Radical Polymerization Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nata de Coco or known as bacterial cellulose is produced by Acetobacter xylinum where it is more stable than plant cellulose. Moreover, it also provides outstanding advantages to be developed as an environmental responsive hydrogels. In this study the bacterial cellulose-g-acrylic acid hydrogel was synthesized by using a free radical polymerization method. Ammonium persulfate (APS) was used to initiate the reaction, while N,N'-methylene bis acrylamide has been used as the crosslinking agent. In order to test the hydrogel respond, swelling tests were made at different pH. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR analysis was used to determine the interactions between bacterial cellulose and acrylic acid. Finally, the determination of glass transition (Tg) was made by using DSC. (author)

  17. Immobilized transition metal-based radical scavengers and their effect on durability of Aquivion perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, C.; Oldani, C.; Baglio, V.; Merlo, L.; Aric, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and broadly applicable preparation procedure to obtain silica-supported transition metal (namely Cr, Co and Mn)-based radical scavengers, containing sulfonic acid functionalities, is reported. These systems are widely characterised in terms of structure, bulk and surface composition and morphology by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The scavenger material is loaded in ePTFE reinforced membranes prepared from Aquivion perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) dispersions. All these composite membranes show longer lifetime in Accelerated Stress Tests (AST) and reduced fluoride release in Fenton's tests than the scavenger-free membranes without any loss in electrochemical performance. The Cr-scavenger-based polymer electrolyte shows a three-time larger stability than the pristine membrane.

  18. Tropospheric chemistry of natural hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and peroxy radicals: Their connections to sulfuric acid production and climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work has shown that natural hydrocarbon emissions can significantly affect the levels of urban and regional tropospheric ozone. We report on the reactivities of these biogenic trace gases, particularly isoprene, focusing on their importance in the production of aldehydes and peroxy radicals, leading to increased levels of hydrogen over regional forests. Hydrogen peroxide can lead to the wet oxidation of sulfur dioxide to acidic sulfate in aerosols, fogs, and clouds. In turn, acidic sulfate can act to as a light scattering aerosol and a source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), potentially leading to global cooling. Aerosol sulfate and other dissolved organic and inorganic compounds can also play important roles as a greenhouse species in the lower troposphere

  19. Chemical Constituents with Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities from the Stem of Microcos paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging activities of various solvent extracts of Microcos paniculata were evaluated through in vitro model systems, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS and Co (II EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection. In all three of these systems the ethyl acetate (EtOAc extract showed the highest free-radical-scavenging activity compared with the other three (n-BuOH, water and petroleum ether extracts. Free-radical-scavenging assay-guided chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract, using a normal-phase and reverse-phase silica gel column chromatography yielded five compounds: a new triterpene named methyl 3b-O-p-hydroxy-E-cinnamoyloxy-2a,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate (1, whose spectral data are presented for the first time, together with four known compounds, epicatechin (2, 3-trans-feruloyl maslinic acid (3, maslinic acid (4 and sucrose (5. All of the compounds were isolated from Microcos paniculata for the first time. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compound 2 displayed significant free-radical-scavenging activity which is similar to that of standard antioxidant ascorbic acid (VC and therefore may be a promising natural antioxidant.

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla in India, is used in Ayurveda as rejuvenating herb since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and ?-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.3389.00%), ABTS (23.0394.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.9470.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 6.09 ?g/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) has potent antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH, ABTS and LPO assaysMEO has potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema modelThe phenolic compounds of MEO might be a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation. Abbreviations used: ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNS, reactive nitrogen species, LPO, lipid peroxidation, NO, nitric oxide, IL, interleukin; TNF ? tumor necrosis factor alpha; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs; AA, ascorbic acid; MEO, methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit; ABTS+; 2,2 azino bis 3 ethylbenzthiazoline 6 sulphonic acid; DPPH, 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; MDA, malondialdehyde; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

  1. Peroxyacetic acid in urban and rural atmosphere: concentration, feedback on PAN-NOx cycle and implication on radical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetic Acid (PAA is one of important atmospheric organic peroxides, which have received increasing attention for their potential contribution to the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and the formation of secondary aerosols. We report here that, for the first time, a series of data for atmospheric PAA concentrations at urban and rural sites, from five field campaigns carried out in China in summer 2006, 2007 and 2008. For these five measurements, daytime mean PAA concentrations on sunlit days were 0.02–0.14 ppbv with a maximum level of ~1 ppbv. The various meteorological and chemical parameters influencing PAA concentrations were examined using the Principal Factor Analysis. This statistical analysis shows that the local photochemical production was the major source of PAA, and its concentration increased with increasing temperature, solar radiation and ozone but decreased with increasing NOx (NO and NO2, CO, SO2, and relative humidity. Based on the dataset, several issues are highlighted in this study: (i because PAA is a product from the photochemical oxidation of some specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs that lead to acetyl peroxy radicals, the importance of various VOCs with respect to the PAA formation is therefore ranked using the incremental reactivity method. (ii The contribution of PAN thermal degradation to PAA formation under conditions of different NOx concentrations is estimated based on the chemical kinetics analysis. The result shows that PAN seems to play an important role in the formation of PAA when the NO/NO2 concentration ratio was less than 0.2 and PAA would correspondingly have feedback on the PAN-NOx cycle. (iii PAA and other peroxides, such as methyl hydroperoxide (MHP and H2O2, usually exhibited a similar asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. However, at a high SO2 level, H2O2 showed a profile different from those of MHP and PAA. The combination of linear regression and chemical kinetics analysis reveals that a possible unknown pathway results in the significant removal of H2O2 and the extent of H2O2 undergoing this pathway needs a further study. (iv Considering that PAA is the reservior of free radicals, its fate is expected to have an effect on the free radical budget in the atmosphere. A box model based on the CBM-IV mechanism has been performed to access its influence on the radical budget. We suggest that the detailed information on PAA in the atmosphere is of importance to better understand the free radical chemistry.

  2. Peroxyacetic acid in urban and rural atmosphere: concentration, feedback on PAN-NOx cycle and implication on radical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacetic acid (PAA is one of the most important atmospheric organic peroxides, which have received increasing attention for their potential contribution to the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and the formation of secondary aerosols. We report here, for the first time, a series of data for atmospheric PAA concentrations at urban and rural sites, from five field campaigns carried out in China in summer 2006, 2007 and 2008. For these five measurements, daytime mean (08:00–20:00 LT PAA concentrations on sunlit days were 21.4–148.0 pptv with a maximum level of ~1 ppbv. The various meteorological and chemical parameters influencing PAA concentrations were examined using Principal Factor Analysis. This statistical analysis shows that the local photochemical production was the major source of PAA, and its concentration increased with increasing temperature, solar radiation and ozone but decreased with increasing NOx (NO and NO2, CO, SO2, and relative humidity. Based on the dataset, several issues are highlighted in this study: (i Because PAA is a product from the photochemical oxidation of some specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs that lead to acetyl peroxy radicals, the importance of various VOCs with respect to the PAA formation is therefore ranked using the incremental reactivity method. (ii The contribution of PAN thermal degradation to PAA formation under conditions of different NOx concentrations is estimated based on the chemical kinetics analysis. The result shows that PAN seems to play an important role in the formation of PAA when the NO/NO2 concentration ratio was less than 0.2 and PAA would correspondingly have feedback on the PAN-NOx cycle. (iii PAA and other peroxides, such as methyl hydroperoxide (MHP and H2O2, usually exhibited a similar asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. However, under some conditions, H2O2 diurnal cycle was out of phase with MHP and PAA. The combination of linear regression and kinetics analysis indicate that the formation and removal processes of H2O2 may be different from those of MHP and PAA. (iv Considering that PAA is the reservior of free radicals, its fate is expected to have an effect on the free radical budget in the atmosphere. A box model based on the CBM-IV mechanism has been performed to access its influence on the radical budget. We suggest that the detailed information on PAA in the atmosphere is of importance to better understand the free radical chemistry.

  3. Formulation design and evaluation of amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Rajan; Kumar, Sumit; Shen, Jie; Jugade, Nital; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-02-10

    Amorphous nanoparticles are able to enhance the kinetic solubility and concomitant dissolution rates of BCS class II and BCS class II/IV molecules due to their characteristic increased supersaturation levels, smaller particle size and greater surface area. A DoE approach was applied to investigate formulation and spray drying process parameters for the preparation of spray dried amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles. Stability studies were performed on the optimized formulations to monitor physical and chemical changes under different temperature and humidity conditions. SLS/soluplus() and SLS/PVP K25 were the best stabilizer combinations. Trehalose was used to prevent nanoparticle aggregation during spray drying. Particle size distribution, moisture content, PXRD, PLM, FTIR and in vitro dissolution were utilized to characterize the spray dried nanoparticle formulations. The formulations prepared using soluplus() showed enhanced dissolution rate compared to those prepared using PVP K25. Following three months storage, it was observed that the formulations stored at 4C were stable in terms of particle size distribution, moisture content, and crystallinity, whereas those stored at 25C/60%RH and 40C/75%RH were unstable. A predictive model to prepare stable solid spray dried amorphous ABT-102 nanoparticles, incorporating both formulation and process parameters, was successfully developed using multiple linear regression analysis. PMID:26705150

  4. Population Analyses of Efficacy and Safety of ABT-594 in Subjects with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Sandeep; Hosmane, Balakrishna S.; Awni, Walid M.

    2012-01-01

    ABT-594, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand, is 30- to 100-fold more potent than morphine in animal models of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Efficacy and safety of ABT-594 in subjects with painful diabetic polyneuropathy was evaluated in a phase 2 study. The objective of this work was to use a nonlinear mixed effects model-based approach for characterizing the relationship between dose and response (efficacy and safety) of ABT-594. Subjects (N = 266) were randomized into fo...

  5. Radical-mediated dehydrogenation of bile acids by means of hydrogen atom transfer to triplet carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, P; Marin, M L; Miranda, M A

    2016-02-24

    The aim of the present paper is to explore the potential of radical-mediated dehydrogenation of bile salts (BSs), which is reminiscent of the enzymatic action of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (HSDH). The concept has been demonstrated using triplet carbonyls that can be efficiently generated upon selective UVA-excitation. Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from BSs to triplet benzophenone (BP) derivatives gave rise to radicals, ultimately leading to reduction of the BP chromophore with concomitant formation of the oxo-analogs of the corresponding BSs. The direct reactivity of triplet BP with BSs in the initial step was evaluated by determining the kinetic rate constants using laser flash photolysis (LFP). The BP triplet decay was monitored (?max = 520 nm) upon addition of increasing BS concentrations, and the obtained rate constant values indicated a reactivity of the methine hydrogen atoms in the order of C-3 kinetics of the overall process, monitored through the disappearance of the typical BP absorption band at 260 nm, was much faster under N2 than under O2, also supporting the role of the oxygen-quenchable triplet in the dehydrogenation process. Furthermore, irradiation of deaerated aqueous solutions of sodium cholate in the presence of KPMe provided the oxo-analogs, 3[O],7[O]-CA, 3[O]-CA and 7[O]-CA, arising from the HAT process. PMID:26833240

  6. Free radical grafting of gallic acid (GA) on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCS) and evaluation of antioxidant reinforced gellan gum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, P.; Fraschini, C.; Salmieri, S.; Becher, D.; Safrany, A.; Lacroix, M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiradical properties were introduced on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by redox pair (RP) initiator and γ-radiation treatments. Different procedures were tested on CNC, first a 2 h reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/ascorbic acid (AA) was performed on CNC solution. γ-Radiation treatment at 20 kGy dose was then applied and immediately after GA was reacted during 24 h with the pretreated CNCs, giving CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA. The formation of new carboxylic acids and carbonyl groups were characterized by FT-IR at 1650 and 1730 cm-1 respectively. Carboxylic acid functionalities were also analyzed by conductometric titration where an increase from 49 to 134 mmol COOH kg-1 was found from native to irradiated CNCs. A similar increase in the carboxylic acid content (132 mmol kg-1) was observed for CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA, showing the highest radical scavenging properties (8 mM Trolox eq/mg CNC). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the structural changes onto CNC. Film packaging containing 20% of CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was then added to a gellan-based film packaging. A significant improvement (p<0.05) of the tensile strength (TS), the tensile modulus (TM) and the elongation at break (EB) and water vapor permeability reduction was observed when CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was added to the film packaging formulation.

  7. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1′-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  8. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  9. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dan; Ma, Xiaolong; Zhou, Jizhi [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Qian, Guangren, E-mail: grqian@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: • A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. • The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. • The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. • The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 °C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH composite could be applied widely for the treatment of organic dyes in wastewater.

  10. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO4?) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe3O4/Cu1.5Ni0.5Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO4?). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO4?), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH composite could be applied widely for the treatment of organic dyes in wastewater

  11. Identification of essential amino-acid residues in Azotobacter vinelandii isocitrate dehydrogenase by radical anions and H atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure TPN+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was irradiated with H atoms generated in a γ-irradiated solution at pH 6.5. A G(-activity) = 0.12 +- 0.01 was found. At the same time no corresponding loss in free sulfhydryls was observed. These results confirmed the essentiality of methionine for the enzymatic activity as known from previous studies. Irradiation with the radical anions, (CNS)2- and Br2- generated in γ-irradiated solutions at pH 6.5, strongly inactivated isocitrate dehydrogenase with yields of G(-activity) of 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Part of the inactivating effect, however, is due to oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. These results lead to the conclusion that tryptophan is an essential amino-acid residue to isocitrate dehydrogenase from A. vinelandii. The presence of tryptophan in the enzyme was demonstrated by pulse radiolysis

  12. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L. and Ceiba pentandra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts from H. isora fruits and C. pentandra seeds were investigated by employing established in vitro systems, which included reducing power, OH(?), DPPH(?), ABTS(?+), linoleic acid emulsion, metal chelation and antihemolytic activity. The extracts of C. pentandra contained relatively higher levels of total phenolics and flavonoids than those of H. isora. All the extracts showed dose dependent reducing power activity and moreover, they were well correlated with the total phenolic substances. A similar dose dependant trend has also been observed for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DPPH(?) radical scavenging activity. Further, addition of 250?g of extracts to the reaction mixture produced 41.3-54.6% peroxidation inhibiting activity during 60h of incubation. The potential of multiple antioxidant activity of samples can be further evidenced by inhibition of reactive oxygen mediated erythrocyte cell lysis and metal ion chelating activity. PMID:24425970

  13. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Ye?ilo?lu, Ye?im; Bayrak, Yksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 ?g/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  14. Factors Influencing the ABT Phenomenon among Graduate Students in a Master Program in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Vicente; Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study examining the factors that influence the ABT phenomenon (all but thesis) among graduate students of a Master in Education program in the Southeast of Mexico. Findings of the study identified individual and organizational factors influencing ABT. The study allowed for a better understanding about how

  15. Low-weight Molecular Organic Peroxides, Acids and Carbonyls Production in the Gas-phase OH radical-initiated Reaction of Alpha-pinene at Different Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, L.; Chen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) plays an important role in the chemistry of atmosphere. Although alpha-pinene is the most widely observed monoterpene among BVOCs, its photooxidation mechanism is still incompletely understood. In this study, we has investigated the OH radical-initiated reaction of alpha-pinene in the gas phase using a flow tube reactor at different relative humidity, focusing on the low-weight molecular products, including carbonyls, carboxylic acids and organic peroxides. The results show the relationship between these products and water vapor concentrations and indicate that the water vapor may affect the reactions of RO2 radicals. Interestingly, we find the formation of peroxy carboxylic acids in this reaction for the first time. Our findings provide a useful insight into the role of water vapor in the reaction of alpha-pinene with OH radicals.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DO RADICAL N,N-DIETIL-1,4-FENILENODIAMINO (DEPD•+ COMO SONDA ESPECTROFOTOMÉTRICA PARA DETERMINAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE EM BEBIDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicleide Viturina dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMany well-established methods for determining the antioxidant capacities in several samples have been described in literature. However, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid are the main two methods that utilize radicals as spectrophotometric probes for analysis. Nevertheless, these methods have certain limitations because of their slower kinetics, solvent polarity effects, the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the compounds, chemical costs, etc. In this study, a spectrophotometric method for determining the antioxidant capacity in beverages was developed based on an exploration of the cation radical derived from DEPD. This method was based on the oxidation of aromatic amines with Fe(III ions at pH 4.0, which leads to their corresponding purple cation radicals (DEPD•+ with λmax values at 500 and 540 nm. The addition of an antioxidant after the formation of the radical leads to a reduction in color intensity that is proportional to the antioxidant concentration in the medium. Results obtained using this method were compared with the Folin-Ciocalteau, ABTS and DPPH methods in terms of applications in wines, teas, and infusions samples. Linear correlation analysis at a 95% confidence level was employed to compare the results, which were in good agreement with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.9000. Thus, the developed method was simple, accurate, and consistent with other assays for the determination of the total amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

  17. DEGRADATION OF ACRYLIC ACID-GRAFTED CELLULOSE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM WITH RADICAL INITIATORS

    OpenAIRE

    AÍDA NEIRA; MIGUEL TARRAGA; ROSA CATALAN

    2008-01-01

    The chemical modification of cellulose by grafting reaction with Acrylic Acid (AA) considering different reaction factors was investigated. Natural polymers such as Santa Fe Cellulose, Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicell) and Secondary Pulp were studied as substrates. pH effect; Ce (IV), Mn(VII) and Fenton as initiators; time and temperature polymerization were investigated. Grafting reachs a maximum, 90 % graft, at pH 7. A medium to weak C=0 band at 1715 cm"¹ for carboxylic group in FTIR spe...

  18. The ratio of oleic-to-stearic acid in the prostate predicts biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study examined lifestyle-related factors that may influence the prognosis of clinically localized prostate cancer, we evaluated the relative impact of obesity and prostatic fatty acid concentrations at diagnosis on risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy. Height and weight w...

  19. First-principles study of radiation-induced radicals in solid-state amino acids and sugars: confrontation of density-functional calculations with experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Pauwels, Ewald

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we present an extensive computational study of several radiationinduced radicals of biomolecules. In particular, two specific types of molecular systems will be highlighted: amino acids and sugars. Both systems are abundantly present in the natural world and are vital to the existence of life in all its forms. Amino acids are the building blocks of polypeptides and proteins, which are involved in nearly all biochemical processes. Sugars (or carbohydrates) also play a key role, n...

  20. α-Hydrogen Abstraction by •OH and •SH Radicals from Amino Acids and Their Peptide Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bun; Karton, Amir; Easton, Christopher J; Radom, Leo

    2016-04-12

    We have used computational quantum chemistry to investigate the thermochemistry of α-hydrogen abstraction from the full set of amino acids normally found in proteins, as well as their peptide forms, by •OH and •SH radicals. These reactions, with their reasonable complexity in the electronic structure (at the α-carbon), are chosen as a consistent set of models for conducting a fairly robust assessment of theoretical procedures. Our benchmarking investigation shows that, in general, the performance for the various classes of theoretical methods improves in the order nonhybrid DFT → hybrid DFT → double-hybrid DFT → composite procedures. More specifically, we find that the DSD-PBE-P86 double-hybrid DFT procedure yields the best agreement with our high-level W1X-2 vibrationless barriers and reaction energies for this particular set of systems. A significant observation is that, when one considers relative instead of absolute values for the vibrationless barriers and reaction energies, even nonhybrid DFT procedures perform fairly well. To exploit this feature in a cost-effective manner, we have examined a number of multilayer schemes for the calculation of reaction energies and barriers for the abstraction reactions. We find that accurate values can be obtained when a "core" of glycine plus the abstracting radical is treated by DSD-PBE-P86, and the substituent effects are evaluated with M06-2X. Inspection of the set of calculated thermochemical data shows that the correlation between the free energy barriers and reaction free energies is strongest when the reactions are either endergonic or nearly thermoneutral. PMID:26950040

  1. The structure and properties of free radicals: An electron spin resonance study of radiation damage to nucleic acid and protein components and to some sulfur-substituted derivitives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When cellular systems are exposed to ionizing radiation the long-term effects may range from minor disturbances to such dramatic changes as mutations and cell death. The processes leading to these macroscopical injuries are primarily confined at the molecular level. In all models aimed at a description of the action of radiation at the molecular level the formation of free radicals (which are species containing unpaired electrons) is a central concept. The technique of ESR spectroscopy is uniquely suited to study free radicals, as it is based on resonance absorption of energy by unpaired electrons in a magnetic field. ESR spectroscopy makes it possible to detect free radicals and, in some cases, to identify them. In order to study free radicals by ESR it is necessary to build up a sufficient number of unpaired spins in the sample (approximately 1011 or more, depending on the shape of the resonance). This may be different techniques have been used to trap the induced radicals or to attain a sufficient steady state concentration level. A procedure which seems to contain a large amount of information is to irradiate at low temperatures, and, by subsequent heat-treatment of the sample to study the reactions and fate of the induced radicals. In this thesis single crystal studies of aromatic amino acids and pyrimidine derivitives together with some substituted purine derivitives are presented, and the results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge about radical formation in these classes of compounds. Single crystal studies of some sulfur-containing aromatic compounds have been presented with the purpose of shedding light on the electronic structure of sulfur-centred radicals. (JIW)

  2. DEGRADATION OF ACRYLIC ACID-GRAFTED CELLULOSE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM WITH RADICAL INITIATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AÍDA NEIRA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification of cellulose by grafting reaction with Acrylic Acid (AA considering different reaction factors was investigated. Natural polymers such as Santa Fe Cellulose, Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicell and Secondary Pulp were studied as substrates. pH effect; Ce (IV, Mn(VII and Fenton as initiators; time and temperature polymerization were investigated. Grafting reachs a maximum, 90 % graft, at pH 7. A medium to weak C=0 band at 1715 cm"¹ for carboxylic group in FTIR spectroscopy is presented. Santa Fe and Avicel cellulose grafted whith AA at 17 hours are degraded. Secondary pulp with Fenton at 50-60 and 70 °C at 17 hours are degraded too. The degradation of polymers at long reaction times at 17 hours and 70°C were analized by FTIR spectroscopy and electronic microscopy analysis (SEM.

  3. DEGRADATION OF ACRYLIC ACID-GRAFTED CELLULOSE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM WITH RADICAL INITIATORS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADA, NEIRA; MIGUEL, TARRAGA; ROSA, CATALAN.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification of cellulose by grafting reaction with Acrylic Acid (AA) considering different reaction factors was investigated. Natural polymers such as Santa Fe Cellulose, Microcrystalline Cellulose (Avicell) and Secondary Pulp were studied as substrates. pH effect; Ce (IV), Mn(VII) and [...] Fenton as initiators; time and temperature polymerization were investigated. Grafting reachs a maximum, 90 % graft, at pH 7. A medium to weak C=0 band at 1715 cm" for carboxylic group in FTIR spectroscopy is presented. Santa Fe and Avicel cellulose grafted whith AA at 17 hours are degraded. Secondary pulp with Fenton at 50-60 and 70 C at 17 hours are degraded too. The degradation of polymers at long reaction times at 17 hours and 70C were analized by FTIR spectroscopy and electronic microscopy analysis (SEM).

  4. Free radical derivatives formed from cyclooxygenase-catalyzed dihomo-?-linolenic acid peroxidation can attenuate colon cancer cell growth and enhance 5-fluorouracil?s cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA and its downstream fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA are both nutritionally important ?6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?6s. Evidence shows that, via COX-mediated peroxidation, DGLA and its metabolites (1-series prostaglandins are associated with anti-tumor activity, while AA and its metabolites (2-series prostaglandins could be tightly implicated in various cancer diseases. However, it still remains a mystery why DGLA and AA possess contrasting bioactivities. Our previous studies showed that DGLA could go through an exclusive C-8 oxygenation pathway during COX-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in addition to a C-15 oxygenation pathway shared by both DGLA and AA, and that the exclusive C-8 oxygenation could lead to the production of distinct DGLA?s free radical derivatives that may be correlated with DGLA?s anti-proliferation activity. In the present work, we further investigate the anti-cancer effect of DGLA?s free radical derivatives and their associated molecular mechanisms. Our study shows that the exclusive DGLA?s free radical derivatives from C-8 oxygenation lead to cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human colon cancer cell line HCA-7 colony 29, probably by up-regulating the cancer suppressor p53 and the cell cycle inhibitor p27. In addition, these exclusive radical derivatives were also able to enhance the efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, a widely used chemo-drug for colon cancer. For the first time, we show how DGLA?s radical pathway and metabolites are associated with DGLA?s anti-cancer activities and able to sensitize colon cancer cells to chemo-drugs such as 5-FU. Our findings could be used to guide future development of a combined chemotherapy and dietary care strategy for colon cancer treatment.

  5. Chemistry of free radical-induced damage of deoxyribonucleic acid model compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this investigation was to identify the principal lesions produced by ionizing radiation and autoxidation processes in DNA model compounds. Synthetic deoxynuclei acid oligomers were subjected to ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions. The damage products of d(ApT) irradiated under N2O saturation were isolated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography in different solvent systems. The major components of the HPLC profile were studied mainly by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The product profile was dramatically altered when mediators such as oxygen were present. One product, identified as a N-formamido derivative of d(ApT), formed due to the breakdown of the thymine base, was predominant. The presence of radiation protectors markedly altered the products obtained from d(ApT). Two stereoisomers of dihydrothymine derivatives were identified. d(ApT) irradiated in the solid state generated direct damage products which were isolated by HPLC and identified by NMR spectroscopy. A comparative study of the degradation of d(ApT) produced by ionizing radiation and by chemical degradation by autoxidizing agents was carried out. The result showed that the autoxidizing agents produced the same profile of damaged products as ionizing radiation with oxygen present

  6. Self-catalyzed syntheses, structural characterization, DPPH radical scavenging-, cytotoxicity-, and DFT studies of phenoxyaliphatic acids of 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Antony Muthu Prabhu, A.; Seethalashmi, P. G.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2014-02-01

    One-pot, in-water syntheses of phenoxyaliphatic acids of 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene derived from dimedone and formylphenoxyaliphatic acids are reported. Geometries of compounds 2b, 2c, and 5a have been examined crystallographically. The synthesized compounds showed better DPPH radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity against A431 cancer cell line. The molecular properties of all synthesized xanthenes have been investigated using single crystal XRD and DFT method. Self-catalyzed Bronsted-Lowry acid catalytic behavior was also investigated by both experimental and theoretical methods.

  7. Melt Free-Radical Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid by Using Styrene as A Comonomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piming Ma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maleic anhydride (MA was grafted onto poly(lactic acid (PLA in the presence of styrene (St by using a free-radical grafting methodology. The grafting degree (Dg of MA was increased from 0.65 wt % to 1.1 wt % with the St/MA ratio up to 2/1, where the grafting efficiency (Eg of MA was 27%. However, both Dg and Eg were decreased with further increasing of the St/MA ratio to 4/1. The Dg of MA increased with MA concentration and showed a maximum at 180 °C in the temperature range of 165 °C–190 °C. The grafting mechanisms of MA in the presence of St are analyzed based on titration, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared results, i.e., MA is grafted onto PLA chains via single monomers and a charge-transfer-complex (CTC at St/MA ratios of ≤ 1/1, while dominantly via St-co-MA oligomers at St/MA ratios of around 2/1. Copolymerization rather than grafting of St and MA occurs at St/MA ratios of around 4/1. The thermal stability of PLA was compromised to a certain extent by the grafting of MA, resulting in reductions in the decomposition temperature (Td-5% and molecular weight of the PLA. In addition, the crystallization and melting temperatures of the PLA were slightly reduced after the grafting.

  8. Phytochemical Analysis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Medicinal Plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sougata; Derle, Abhishek; Ahire, Mehul; More, Piyush; Jagtap, Soham; Phadatare, Suvarna D.; Patil, Ajay B.; Jabgunde, Amit M; Sharma, Geeta K.; Shinde, Vaishali S.; Pardesi, Karishma; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Balu A. Chopade

    2013-01-01

    Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS+ and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis....

  9. The BH3-mimetic ABT-737 effectively kills acute myeloid leukemia initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Baev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 are abundantly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and/or progenitor cells. Furthermore, leukemic cells expressing these proteins are enriched in minimal residual disease cell populations. This prompted us to test the BH3-mimetic compound ABT-737 for its ability to eradicate putative leukemic stem cells. ABT-737 demonstrated potent cytotoxic effects in all patient samples tested. The efficacy of ABT-737 against AML blasts and the primitive CD34+/CD38− population was equal and independent of sensitivity to cytarabine/daunorubicin. These results, together with previously reported synergistic effects of ABT-737 with chemotherapeutics make BH3-mimetics promising candidates for future AML treatment regimens.

  10. Norcantharidin enhances ABT-263-mediated anticancer activity in neuroblastoma cells by upregulation of Noxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Gu, Zhimin; Li, Gongquan; Zhang, Shufeng; Cao, Zhenjie; Yang, Zhanfeng; Liu, Guangzhi

    2014-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease. Even with intensive conventional treatments, the long term survival rate for children with neuroblastoma remains less than 40%, highlighting the importance of finding new therapies. Bcl-2 family proteins play crucial roles in survival, proliferation and chemotherapeutic resistance of neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, targeting Bcl-2 with small molecule inhibitor ABT-263 could be a novel strategy for treatment of neuroblastoma. However, previous studies indicated that most neuroblastoma cell lines are resistant to ABT-263-mediated apoptosis. Thus, it is crucial to discover approaches that could overcome ABT-263 resistance. In this study, we examined the anticancer activity of ABT-263 in combination with norcantharidin (NCTD), a small-molecule anticancer drug derived from a traditional Chinese medicine, in human malignant neuroblastoma cells. We found that NCTD substantially enhanced ABT-263-mediated apoptosis induction, cell viability inhibition, and clonal formation inhibition in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and CHLA-119 cell lines. Moreover, the combination anticancer activity was accompanied by upregulation of Noxa, and was associated with characteristics of mitochondrial apoptosis signaling, such as cytosolic release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9,-3, and cleavage of PARP. Notably, we observed that knockdown of Noxa significantly attenuated cell death induction by cotreatment with ABT-263 and NCTD, indicating Noxa essentially contributes to the combination anticancer effect. Collectively, our study demonstrated that NCTD could overcome ABT-263-resistance in neuroblastoma cells, and suggested that combinational treatment of ABT-263 with NCTD might be a novel therapeutic option for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:24891300

  11. Effect of free-radical spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone on seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. S6 (2005), s. 375-375. ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /26./. 28.08.2005-01.09.2005, Paris] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1238; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015 Keywords : free radical scavenger * epilepsy * immature rats * homocysteic acid Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Modeling nitrous acid and its impact on ozone and hydroxyl radical during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Czader

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO mixing ratios for the Houston metropolitan area were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model for an episode during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II in August/September 2006 and compared to in-situ MC/IC (mist-chamber/ion chromatograph and long path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements at three different altitudes. Several HONO sources were accounted for in simulations, such as gas phase formation, direct emissions, nitrogen dioxide (NO2* hydrolysis, photo-induced formation from excited NO2* and photo-induced conversion of NO2 into HONO on surfaces covered with organic materials. Compared to the gas-phase HONO formation there was about a tenfold increase in HONO mixing ratios when additional HONO sources were taken into account, which improved the correlation between modeled and measured values. Concentrations of HONO simulated with only gas phase chemistry did not change with altitude, while measured HONO concentrations decrease with height. A trend of decreasing HONO concentration with altitude was well captured with CMAQ predicted concentrations when heterogeneous chemistry and photolytic sources of HONO were taken into account. Heterogeneous HONO production mainly accelerated morning ozone formation, albeit slightly. Also HONO formation from excited NO2 only slightly affected HONO and ozone (O3 concentrations. Photo-induced conversion of NO2 into HONO on surfaces covered with organic materials turned out to be a strong source of daytime HONO. Since HONO immediately photo-dissociates during daytime its ambient mixing ratios were only marginally altered (up to 0.5 ppbv, but significant increase in the hydroxyl radical (OH and ozone concentration was obtained. In contrast to heterogeneous HONO formation that mainly accelerated morning ozone formation, inclusion of photo-induced surface chemistry influenced ozone throughout the day.

  13. Modeling nitrous acid and its impact on ozone and hydroxyl radical during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Czader

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO mixing ratios for the Houston metropolitan area were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Model for an episode during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II in August/September 2006 and compared to in-situ MC/IC (mist-chamber/ion chromatograph and long path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements at three different altitude ranges. Several HONO sources were accounted for in simulations, such as gas phase formation, direct emissions, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 hydrolysis, photo-induced formation from excited NO2 and photo-induced conversion of NO2 into HONO on surfaces covered with organic materials. Compared to the gas-phase HONO formation there was about a tenfold increase in HONO mixing ratios when additional HONO sources were taken into account, which improved the correlation between modeled and measured values. Concentrations of HONO simulated with only gas phase chemistry did not change with altitude, while measured HONO concentrations decrease with height. A trend of decreasing HONO concentration with altitude was well captured with CMAQ predicted concentrations when heterogeneous chemistry and photolytic sources of HONO were taken into account. Heterogeneous HONO production mainly accelerated morning ozone formation, albeit slightly. Also HONO formation from excited NO2 only slightly affected HONO and ozone (O3 concentrations. Photo-induced conversion of NO2 into HONO on surfaces covered with organic materials turned out to be a strong source of daytime HONO. Since HONO immediately photo-dissociates during daytime its ambient mixing ratios were only marginally altered (up to 0.5 ppbv, but significant increase in the hydroxyl radical (OH and ozone concentration was obtained. In contrast to heterogeneous HONO formation that mainly accelerated morning ozone formation, inclusion of photo-induced surface chemistry influenced ozone throughout the day.

  14. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Reducing Capacity of Five Southern Thai Indigenous Vegetable Extracts

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    Worawan PANPIPAT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compounds of five southern Thai indigenous vegetables including Mon-pu (Glochidion wallichianum Muell Arg, Cha-plu (Piper sarmentosum Roxb., white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit., djenkol tree (Archidendrom jiringa I. C. Nielsen. and stink bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were extracted using different solvents (50 % acetone, 80 % methanol and distilled water at a ratio of sample to extracting medium of 1:25 (w/v. The extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, free radical scavenging capacity by using 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods, and reducing capacity by using a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. The acetone extracts of all plants possessed the highest total phenolic content followed by the methanolic and distilled water extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic content was found in the acetone extracts of Mon-pu and white popinac (p < 0.05. The acetone extracts of all plants showed higher free radical scavenging capacity and reducing capacity than those of their methanolic and water extracts counterparts, respectively (p < 0.05. Among all plants tested, the extracts of Mon-pu extracted with all extracting media exhibited the highest free radical scavenging and reducing abilities (p < 0.05. The present study suggested that the acetone extract of Mon-pu was a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  15. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

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    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  16. In vitro alpha glucosidase inhibition and free-radical scavenging activity of propolis from Thai stingless bees in mangosteen orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyadist Vongsak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe chemical component and biological activity of propolis depend on flora area of bee collection and bee species. In the study, the propolis from three stingless bee species, Lepidotrigona ventralis Smith, Lepidotrigona terminata Smith, and Tetragonula pagdeni Schwarz, was collected in the same region of mangosteen garden from Thailand. Total phenolic content, alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect, and free-radical scavenging activity using FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays were determined. The most potent activity of propolis extract was investigated for bioactive compounds and their quantity. The ethanol extract of T. pagdeni propolis had the highest total phenolic content 12.83 ± 0.72 g of gallic acid equivalents in 100 g of the extract, and the strongest alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect with the IC50 of 70.79 ± 6.44 µg/ml. The free-radical scavenging activity evaluated by FRAP, ABTS, DPPH assays showed the FRAP value of 279.70 ± 20.55 µmol FeSO4 equivalent/g extract and the IC50 of 59.52 ± 10.76 and 122.71 ± 11.76 µg/ml, respectively. Gamma- and alpha-mangostin from T. pagdeni propolis extract were isolated and determined for the biological activity. Gamma-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity for both alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect and free-radical scavenging activity. Using HPLC quantitative analysis method, the content of gamma- and alpha-mangostin in the extract was found to be 0.94 ± 0.01 and 2.77 ± 0.08% (w/w, respectively. These findings suggested that T. pagdeni propolis may be used as a more suitable raw material for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products and these mangostin derivatives as markers.

  17. Application of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy To Determine the Chlorogenic Acid Isomer Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Lu, Xiaonan; Hu, Yaxi; Kitts, David D

    2016-01-27

    The chlorogenic acid isomer profile and antioxidant activity of both green and roasted coffee beans are reported herein using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric analyses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantified different chlorogenic acid isomer contents for reference, whereas ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the same coffee bean extracts. FTIR spectral data and reference data of 42 coffee bean samples were processed to build optimized PLSR models, and 18 samples were used for external validation of constructed PLSR models. In total, six PLSR models were constructed for six chlorogenic acid isomers to predict content, with three PLSR models constructed to forecast the free radical scavenging activities, obtained using different chemical assays. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with PLSR, serves as a reliable, nondestructive, and rapid analytical method to quantify chlorogenic acids and to assess different free radical-scavenging capacities in coffee beans. PMID:26725502

  18. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. PMID:26213005

  19. A non-acid-assisted and non-hydroxyl-radical-related catalytic ozonation with ceria supported copper oxide in efficient oxalate degradation in water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Oxalate is usually used as a refractory model compound that cannot be effectively removed by ozone and hydroxyl radical oxidation in water. In this study, we found that ceria supported CuO significantly improved oxalate degradation in reaction with ozone. The optimum CuO loading amount was 12%. The molar ratio of oxalate removed/ozone consumption reached 0.84. The catalytic ozonation was most effective in a neutral pH range (6.7-7.9) and became ineffective when the water solution was acidic or alkaline. Moreover, bicarbonate, a ubiquitous hydroxyl radical scavenger in natural waters, significantly improved the catalytic degradation of oxalate. Therefore, the degradation relies on neither hydroxyl radical oxidation nor acid assistance, two pathways usually proposed for catalytic ozonation. These special characters of the catalyst make it suitable to be potentially used for practical degradation of refractory hydrophilic organic matter and compounds in water and wastewater. With in situ characterization, the new surface Cu(II) formed from ozone oxidation of the trace Cu(I) of the catalyst was found to be an active site in coordination with oxalate forming multi-dentate surface complex. It is proposed that the complex can be further oxidized by molecular ozone and then decomposes through intra-molecular electron transfer. The ceria support enhanced the activity of the surface Cu(I)/Cu(II) in this process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Free Radical Scavenging Profile and Myeloperoxidase Inhibition of Extracts from Antidiabetic Plants: Bauhinia forficata and Cissus sicyoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAJEH M KHALIL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that reactive oxygen species are implicated in several physiological and pathological processes. To protect biological targets from oxidative damage, antioxidants must react with radicis and other reactive species faster than biological substrates do. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Bauhinia forficata Link (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae and Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae (two medicinal plants used popularly in the control of diabetes mellitus, using several different assay systems, namely, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS decolorization, superoxide anin radical (0(2- scavenging and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity. In the ABTS assay for total antioxidant activity, B. forficata showed IC50 = 8.000.07 ?g/mL, while C. sicyoides showed IC50 = 13.00.2 ?g/mL. However, the extract of C. sicyoides had a stronger effect on 0(2- (IC50 = 60.02.3 ?g/mL than the extract of B. forficata (IC50 = 90.04.4 ?g/ mL. B. forficata also had a stronger inhibitory effect on MPO activity, as measured by guaiacol oxidation, than C. sicyoides. These results indicate that aqueous extracts of leaves of B. forficata and C. sicyoides are a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress.

  1. Pulse radiolytic study of electron transfer reaction for fast repair of the one-electron oxidized radicals of dAMP and dGMP by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the techniques of pulse radiolysis, it has been demonstrated that the interaction of one-electron-oxidized radicals of dAMP (2'-deoxyadenosine-5-monophosphate) and dGMP (2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate), produced by SO-4 radical reaction, with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceeds via electron transfer reaction. The rate constants of electron transfer from hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives to oxidizing free radicals of dAMP and dGMP were obtained to be (1-3)x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1

  2. Studies of the Novel Ketolide ABT-773: Transport, Binding to Ribosomes, and Inhibition of Protein Synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Capobianco, John O.; Cao, Zhensheng; Shortridge, Virginia D.; Ma, Zhenkun; Robert K. Flamm; Zhong, Ping

    2000-01-01

    Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been associated with two main mechanisms: target modification by Erm methyltransferases and efflux by macrolide pumps. The ketolide ABT-773, which has a 3-keto group and no l-cladinose sugar, represents a new class of drugs with in vitro activity against a variety of resistant bacteria. Several approaches were undertaken to understand how ABT-773 was able to defeat resistance mechanisms. We demonstrated tighter ribosome binding of ABT-773 t...

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, Free Radical Scavenging Capacity, and Tyrosinase Inhibitory of Flavonoid Compounds and Ferulic Acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers. Ames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Pin Liang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W, water extraction using UAE (W+U, 75% ethanol extraction (E, 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis.

  4. Growth of ABT-5 bacteria culture in whey supplemented with whey protein concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Matijević; Rajka Božanić; Ljubica Tratnik

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to decrease the duration of whey fermentation and to analyze the impact of whey protein concentrates (WPC) addition on growth and activity as well as on survival of mixed ABT-5 culture bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus) during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (5 °C). Whey fermentation was observed at 37 °C with and without 1.5 and 3 % WPC addition. Whey fermentation with mixed ABT-5 bacterial cultu...

  5. Efficacies of ABT-773, a New Ketolide, against Experimental Bacterial Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mitten, M. J.; Meulbroek, J; Nukkala, M.; Paige, L; Jarvis, K.; Oleksijew, A.; Tovcimak, A.; Hernandez, L.; Alder, J D; P. Ewing; Or, Y. S.; Ma, Z.; Nilius, A. M.; Mollison, K.; Flamm, R. K.

    2001-01-01

    ABT-773 is a novel ketolide effective against antibacterial-resistant respiratory tract pathogens. The pharmacokinetic profile of ABT-773 was studied in rats and consisted of a mean peak concentration in plasma of 1.07 ?g/ml and an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 12.03 ?g??h/ml when the compound was delivered at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. It concentrated in rat lung tissue, with a lung tissue-to-plasma ratio of 29 based on the AUC. In acute systemic infections in mic...

  6. Primary steps in the reaction of OH radicals with amino acids at low temperatures in Laval nozzle expansions: perspectives from experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liessmann, Matthias; Hansmann, Bjrn; Blachly, Patrick G; Francisco, Joseph S; Abel, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    Recent work has focused on the damaging effects of free radicals on biological molecules. This study investigates the kinetics of the attack of OH radicals on L-alanine ethyl ester in the gas phase in cold beams of Laval nozzle expansions. Experiments and high-level theory are used to understand the preferred site of attack by the OH radical. Optimizations of L-alanine and L-alanine ethyl ester show that the essential transition state features for hydrogen abstraction off the C(alpha), C(beta), and N are similar. The energetics show that for L-alanine, the C(alpha)-site, C(beta)-site, and N-site transition states are all below the reactants level. For L-alanine ethyl ester, however, the energetics for hydrogen abstraction off the C(alpha) and N are the preferred site of reaction. These findings are supported by the observed negative temperature dependence of the rate constants of OH with alanine ethyl ester in Laval nozzle expansion experiments. More importantly, both the experiments and theory show that L-alanine ethyl ester provides a good model for gas phase studies of the amino acids such as L-alanine. PMID:19552478

  7. A novel detection approach based on chromophore-decolorizing with free radical and application to photometric determination of copper with acid chrome dark blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Chen, Fang-Fang; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Teng; Pan, Lu-Ting; Li, Jian-Hua; Luo, Hua-Fei

    2007-03-21

    A novel detection approach named chromophore-decolorizing with free radicals is developed for determination of trace heavy metal. The hydroxyl radicals (HO) generated from Fe(III) and hydrogen peroxide will oxidize the free chromophore into almost colorless products. The copper-acid chrome dark blue (ACDB) complexation was investigated at pH 5.07. In the presence of Fe(III) and hydrogen peroxide, the excess ACDB was decolorized in the Cu-ACDB reaction solution, and the final solution contained only one color compound, the Cu-ACDB complex. After oxidation of free hydroxyl radicals, the complexation becomes sensitive and selective and it has been used for the quantitation of trace amounts of Cu(II) dissolved in natural water. Beer's law is obeyed in the range from 0 to 0.500 microg mL(-1) Cu(II) and the limit of detection is only 6 microg L(-1) Cu(II). Besides, the Cu-ACDB complex formed was characterized. PMID:17386753

  8. Dosimetric Applications of Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements of Free Radicals Formed in Amino Acids: Construction of a Tissue-Equivalent Dosimeter Based on Alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of amino acids rupture of the molecules due to the action of radiation is found to produce free radicals. The number of these radicals can be measured by means of an electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometer and this number is proportional to the dose absorbed. Alanine has been used for this purpose since it possesses this property over a wide dose range (from 10 to 5 x 106 rads). The present paper covers essentially the following points: (a) Pre-irradiation effect in non-irradiated alanine: this dose limits the minimum measurable dose to approximately 10 rads. The origin of this dose and means of re- ducing it have been studied; (b) Energy response of the alanine: by virtue of the close similarity of its composition to that of tissue, this dosimeter has a good energy response for gamma radiations; the loss of efficiency at low energies can be corrected by the addition of a higher Z material (Ba or Ca); (c) Response to neutrons: with neutrons the radical yield is lower than in the case of gamma radiation, although this yield can be increased by adding a hydrogenated substance (paraffin); (d) Construction of a dosimeter in pellet form: the addition of paraffin improves the response to neutrons and enables moulded pellets of the mixture to be produced. These are easier to use than alanine in powder form and the dosimeters can be produced in any desired form. (author)

  9. OH-radical induced degradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA): A pulse radiolysis and gamma-radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactions of OH, H and eaq? with 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were studied by pulse radiolysis. The site of OH-radicals addition to the aromatic ring of 2,4,5-T was found to beC1: ?18%, C2/C4/C5: total ?28% and C3/C6: total ?41%. The overall rate constants with OH-radicals were k(OH+2,4,5-T)=6.4 (0.5)109 mol dm?3 s?1 and k(OH+MCPA)=8.5 (0.8)109 mol dm?3 s?1. The radiation induced decomposition of the pesticides, chloride- and product formation (phenolic compounds, aliphatic acids) was studied by gamma radiolysis as a function of dose. A mechanism for acetate formation is discussed. The presence of oxygen during irradiation affected the decomposition rate only indiscernibly, however, chloride elimination, ring fragmentation (formation of aliphatic acids), TOC- and toxicity reduction were strongly enhanced. For complete removal of 500 ?mol dm?3 herbicides a dose of ?4 kGy was required. Using air saturation during irradiation a reduction of 3740% of the TOC was observable at 5 kGy, detoxification (luminescence inhibition <20%) was achieved with 10 kGy. - Highlights: ? Degradation of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides by ionizing radiation. ? Primary pattern of OH-radical addition to the aromatic ring of 2,4,5-T. ? Strong influence of oxygen concentration on chloride elimination, formation of phenolic intermediates and aliphatic acids. ? Detoxification of 500 ?mol herbicide solutions is obtained with 10 kGy.

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Chemoradiation Using the Oral PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays a critical role in the recognition and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). ABT-888 is an orally available inhibitor of this enzyme. This study seeks to evaluate the use of ABT-888 combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) in colorectal carcinoma models. Methods and Materials: RT clonogenic assays were performed on HCT116 and HT29 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin with or without ABT. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy and dose-modifying factor at 10% survival were analyzed. Synergism was assessed by isobologram analysis for combination therapies. γH2AX and neutral comet assays were performed to assess the effect of therapy on DSB formation/repair. In vivo assessments were made by use of HCT116 cells in a xenograft mouse model. Tumor growth delay was measured at a volume of 500 mm3. Results: Both lines were radiosensitized by ABT alone, and ABT further increased chemotherapy dose-modifying factors to the 1.6 to 1.8 range. All combinations were synergistic (combination indices <0.9). ABT treatment significantly increased DSB after RT (γH2AX, 69% vs 43%; P=.017) and delayed repair. We found tumor growth delays of 7.22 days for RT; 11.90 days for RT and ABT; 13.5 days for oxaliplatin, RT, and ABT; 14.17 days for 5-fluorouracil, RT, and ABT; and 23.81 days for irinotecan, RT, and ABT. Conclusion: ABT-888 radiosensitizes at similar or higher levels compared with classic chemotherapies and acts synergistically with these chemotherapies to enhance RT effects. In vivo confirmation of these results indicates a potential role for combining its use with existing chemoradiation regimens

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Enhancement of Chemoradiation Using the Oral PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, Joseph W., E-mail: jwshelt@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Landry, Jerome; Gao, Huiying; Xu, Yanbo; Wang, Lanfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shu, Hui-Kuo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase plays a critical role in the recognition and repair of DNA single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). ABT-888 is an orally available inhibitor of this enzyme. This study seeks to evaluate the use of ABT-888 combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) in colorectal carcinoma models. Methods and Materials: RT clonogenic assays were performed on HCT116 and HT29 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin with or without ABT. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy and dose-modifying factor at 10% survival were analyzed. Synergism was assessed by isobologram analysis for combination therapies. γH2AX and neutral comet assays were performed to assess the effect of therapy on DSB formation/repair. In vivo assessments were made by use of HCT116 cells in a xenograft mouse model. Tumor growth delay was measured at a volume of 500 mm{sup 3}. Results: Both lines were radiosensitized by ABT alone, and ABT further increased chemotherapy dose-modifying factors to the 1.6 to 1.8 range. All combinations were synergistic (combination indices <0.9). ABT treatment significantly increased DSB after RT (γH2AX, 69% vs 43%; P=.017) and delayed repair. We found tumor growth delays of 7.22 days for RT; 11.90 days for RT and ABT; 13.5 days for oxaliplatin, RT, and ABT; 14.17 days for 5-fluorouracil, RT, and ABT; and 23.81 days for irinotecan, RT, and ABT. Conclusion: ABT-888 radiosensitizes at similar or higher levels compared with classic chemotherapies and acts synergistically with these chemotherapies to enhance RT effects. In vivo confirmation of these results indicates a potential role for combining its use with existing chemoradiation regimens.

  12. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Derived Neuroprogenitors Display Differential Degrees of Susceptibility to BH3 Mimetics ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Nicolás Alexis; Fernandez Espinosa, Damián Darío; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio; Romorini, Leonardo; Scassa, María Elida

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress and display lower survival ability relative to their differentiated progeny. Herein, we attempted to investigate the source of this difference by comparing the DNA damage responses triggered by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, in hESCs, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hESCs-derived neuroprogenitors (NP). We observed that upon camptothecin exposure pluripotent stem cells underwent apoptosis more swiftly and at a higher rate than differentiated cells. However, the cellular response encompassing ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase activation and p53 phosphorylation both on serine 15 as well as on serine 46 resulted very similar among the aforementioned cell types. Importantly, we observed that hESCs and hiPSCs express lower levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 than NP. To assess whether Bcl-2 abundance could account for this differential response we treated cells with ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199, small molecules that preferentially target the BH3-binding pocket of Bcl-xL and/or Bcl-2 and reduce their ability to sequester pro-apoptotic factors. We found that in the absence of stress stimuli, NP exhibited a higher sensitivity to ABT- 263 and WEHI-539 than hESCs and hiPSCs. Conversely, all tested cell types appeared to be highly resistant to the Bcl-2 specific inhibitor, ABT-199. However, in all cases we determined that ABT-263 or WEHI-539 treatment exacerbated camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Importantly, similar responses were observed after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-xL or Bcl-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Bcl-xL contrary to Bcl-2 contributes to ensure cell survival and also functions as a primary suppressor of DNA double-strand brake induced apoptosis both in pluripotent and derived NP cells. The emerging knowledge of the relative dependence of pluripotent and progenitor cells on Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL activities may help to predict cellular responses and potentially manipulate these cells for therapeutic purposes in the near future. PMID:27030982

  14. Histone H1- and other protein- and amino acid-hydroperoxides can give rise to free radicals which oxidize DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxford, C; Morin, B; Dean, R T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    decomposition of these hydroperoxides to radicals, might result in oxidative damage to associated DNA. We demonstrate here that exposure of histone H1 and model compounds to gamma-radiation in the presence of oxygen gives hydroperoxides in a dose-dependent manner. These hydroperoxides decompose to oxygen- and....../ml). Evidence has also been obtained with DNA for reaction at cytosine and thymine, but not adenine; the lack of damage to the latter may result from damage transfer to 2'-deoxyguanosine residues. These studies demonstrate that initial radical-induced damage to nuclear proteins can give rise to subsequent DNA...... damage; the latter includes both DNA-protein cross-links and formation of oxidized DNA bases....

  15. Aqueous-phase photolysis of biacetyl (An ?-dicarbonyl compound): A sink for biacetyl, and a source of acetic acid, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and the highly oxidizing acetylperoxyl radical in aqueous aerosols, fogs, and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Bruce C.; Powell, Kendall; Rao, C. Janakiram; Anastasio, Cort

    Aqueous-phase photolysis of biacetyl represents a heretofore uncharacterized sink for biacetyl and source of organic acids and peroxides to aqueous aerosols, and fog and cloud drops. The photolysis half-life of aqueous-phase biacetyl is approximately 1.0-1.6 h for a solar zenith angle of 36 (midday equinox sunlight in Durham, NC). Major products of aqueous biacetyl photolysis are acetic acid, peroxyacetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. Pyruvic acid and methylhydroperoxide are minor photoproducts. Common atmospheric reductants (H-atom donors), such as formate, formaldehyde, glyoxal, phenol (as a model for phenolic compounds) and ?- D-glucose (as a model for carbohydrates), substantially increase the quantum yields of peroxyacetic acid Formate also significantly increases the quantum yields of hydrogen peroxide. The highly oxidizing acetylperoxyl radical is proposed as a key intermediate in the photolysis of aqueous biacetyl. The sources and reactions of acetylperoxyl radicals in aqueous aerosols, fogs, and clouds should be investigated in future studies of atmospheric water-drop chemistry.

  16. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents). PMID:25731579

  17. Studies on the syntheses, structural characterization, antimicrobial-, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the cocrystals caffeine:cinnamic acid and caffeine:eosin dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G. S.; Seethalakshmi, P. G.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2013-10-01

    Two organic cocrystals namely, caffeine:cinnamic acid [(caf)(ca)] (1) and caffeine:eosin dihydrate [(caf)(eos)]·2H2O (2) were synthesized and studied by FT-IR, TGA/DTA, and single crystal XRD. The crystal system of cocrystal 1 is triclinic with space group P-1 and Z = 2 and that of cocrystal 2 is monoclinic with space group P21/C and Z = 4. An imidazole-carboxylic acid synthon is observed in the cocrystal 1. The intermolecular hydrogen bond, O-H⋯N and π-π interactions play a major role in stabilizing 1 whereas the intermolecular hydrogen bonds, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N, and intramolecular hydrogen bond, O-H⋯Br; along with π-π interactions together play a vital role in stabilizing the structure of 2. The antimicrobial- and DPPH radical scavenging activities of both the cocrystals were studied.

  18. Formation of 7-carboxyheptyl radical induced by singlet oxygen in the reaction mixture of oleic acid, riboflavin and ferrous ion under the UVA irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the radicals was performed for the standard reaction mixtures, which contained 4.3 mM oleic acid, 25 µM riboflavin, 1 mM FeSO4(NH4)2SO4, 10 mM cholic acid, 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone under the UVA irradiation (365 nm), using an electron spin resonance, an high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance and an high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance-mass spectrometry. The electron s...

  19. 78 FR 29367 - Access to Confidential Business Information by ABT Associates, Incorporated; Perry Johnson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by ABT Associates, Incorporated; Perry Johnson Registrars, Inc.; SGS North America, Inc.; SAI Global, Inc.; Orion Registrar, Inc.; NSF-ISR International... Global; Orion Registrar, Inc.; NSF- ISR International, and T V S D America, Inc., also known as...

  20. 40 CFR 1051.730 - What ABT reports must I send to EPA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What ABT reports must I send to EPA? 1051.730 Section 1051.730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Averaging, Banking,...

  1. ABT-737, Synergistically Enhances Daunorubicin-Mediated Apoptosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Dariushnejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensive chemotherapy with daunorubicin (DNR is associated with serious side effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients. In this study the effect of small-molecule BH3-mimetic, ABT-737, on the sensitivity of HL60 and U937 AML cell lines was investigated. Methods: The cytotoxic effects of DNR and ABT-737, alone or in combination were assessed using MTT assay and combination index analysis. The effects of treatments on the cell proliferation was determined by trypan blue assay. ELISA cell death assay was used for measurement of apoptosis. Results: IC50 values of DNR and ABT-737 were 2.52 and 0.59 ?M for HL-60 cells line and 1.31 and 0.80 ?M for U937 cell line at 24 h, respectively. Surprisingly, combination treatment significantly lowered the IC50 values in a synergic manner in both cell lines. Moreover, treatment with a mixture of two agents had more growth inhibition effect relative to the monotherapy. Results of apoptosis assay showed that the cytotoxic effects are related to the enhancement of apoptosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that ABT-737 synergistically enhances the cytotoxic effect of DNR in AML cell lines and therefore may be useful to overcome chemoresistance of leukemia patients.

  2. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  3. Carotenoid Radicals and Radical Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamey, Ali; McGarvey, David J.

    Various types of carotenoid-derived ions, radicals and radical ions are referred to in this Chapter and elsewhere in this Volume. The different species are defined below and their relationship to the parent carotenoid is illustrated by the example of ?-carotene (3, C40H56).

  4. Population analyses of efficacy and safety of ABT-594 in subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandeep; Hosmane, Balakrishna S; Awni, Walid M

    2012-06-01

    ABT-594, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand, is 30- to 100-fold more potent than morphine in animal models of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Efficacy and safety of ABT-594 in subjects with painful diabetic polyneuropathy was evaluated in a phase 2 study. The objective of this work was to use a nonlinear mixed effects model-based approach for characterizing the relationship between dose and response (efficacy and safety) of ABT-594. Subjects (N = 266) were randomized into four groups in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 7-week study to receive twice daily regimens of placebo or 150, 225, and 300 μg of ABT-594. The primary efficacy variable, pain score (11-point Likert scale), was assessed on five occasions. The probability of change from baseline pain score of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 was modeled using cumulative logistic regression with dose and days of treatment as explanatory variables. The incidence of five most frequently occurring adverse events (AEs) was modeled using linear logistic regression. ABT-594 ED(50) values (improvement in 50% of subjects) for improvement in pain scores of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 were 50, 215, and 340 μg, respectively, for the average number of days (33) on treatment. The rank order of ED(50) values for AEs was nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, and abnormal dreams; nicotine users were less sensitive to AEs. Population pharmacodynamic models developed to characterize the improvement in pain score and incidence of adverse events indicate an approximately twofold separation between the ED(50) values for efficacy and AEs. PMID:22328206

  5. Pulmonary delivery of a dopamine D-1 agonist, ABT-431, in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Marsh, K C; Bertz, R J; El-Shourbagy, T; Adjei, A L

    1999-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of intrapulmonary delivery of ABT-431, a selective D1 receptor agonist. Following intratracheal instillation of the drug solution, the lung bioavailability was found to be approximately 75% in dogs. An aerosol suspension formulation was then developed by dispersing the drug in tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a, with the aid of poloxamer 124 and vitamin E. This ABT-431 MDI aerosol formulation showed about 40% of the particles emitted from the valve and actuator system to be under 5 microm in diameter. Also, the primary package (15 mL aluminum container, DF10/ACT-150 valve, and Micron-4-actuator with the orifice 0.4 mm) was satisfactory for accurate and reproducible dosimetry. Using tracheostomized beagle dogs, the C(max) following tracheal administration of 5 mg aerosolized ABT-431 was found to be 13.3+/-0.9 ng ml(-1) and the AUC(0-24) was estimated at 33.2+/-10.6 h ng ml(-1). The lung bioavailability of the aerosolized drug was 34% compared to intravenous injection in dogs. In humans, results from a single rising dose study demonstrated that rapid absorption of ABT-431 following oral inhalation administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the area under the plasma-time curve at dosage levels between 3.3 and 13.2 mg. There is a possibility of up to 25% absorption of the drug from human lung. Thus, pulmonary bioavailability of ABT-431 is significantly greater than that of oral administration. Also, these findings suggest that small and lipophilic compounds, especially with hepatic first pass effect, may be effectively delivered systemically using oral inhalation aerosols. PMID:10564839

  6. Identification of the radicals formed in the reactions of some endogenous photosensitizers with oleic acid under the UVA irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Electron spin resonance measurements were performed for the reactions of some endogenous photosensitizers (flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide or folic acid or β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate or urocanic acid) with oleic acid under the ultraviolet light A irradiation using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as a spin trap reagent. Of the endogenous photosensitizers, prominent electron spin r...

  7. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % 2.2 on ?-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent ?-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 ?g/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  8. Caracterização físico-química de polpas de frutos da Amazônia e sua correlação com a atividade anti-radical livre Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele André Baptista Canuto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Características físico-químicas (cor, pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, conteúdo de lipídios e umidade e níveis de compostos bioativos (ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais foram determinados em quinze amostras de polpas de frutos procedentes da região Amazônica (abiu, acerola, açaí, araçá-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. A atividade de radicais livres foi avaliada pelo método de ABTS. Algumas polpas apresentaram alta potencialidade antioxidante, associada com a atividade antirradicais livres obtida e os conteúdos dos componentes bioativos como compostos fenólicos e ácido ascórbico, destacando-se acerola e acaí. O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos foi correlacionado à capacidade antioxidante das polpas.Physical and chemical characteristics (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lipid content, moisture and levels of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics were determined in fifteen samples of fruit pulps from Amazonia (abiu, acerola, açaí, araça-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. The free radical scavenger activity was evaluated by the ABTS assay. Some pulps presented high antioxidant potential, associated with the free radical scavenger activity measured and the content of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, especialy in acerola and açaí. The total phenolic content was correlated to antioxidant capacity of pulps.

  9. Impact of nitrous acid photolysis on the total hydroxyl radical budget during the Limitation of Oxidant Production/Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono study in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, B.; Platt, U.; Stutz, J.

    2002-11-01

    The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) in the early morning hours is believed to be a significant source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the most important daytime oxidizing species. Although the importance of this mechanism has been recognized for many years, no accurate experimental quantification is available. Here we present measurements of HONO, NO2, SO2, O3 and HCHO by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) during the Limitation of Oxidant Production/Pianura Padana Produzione di Ozono (LOOP/PIPAPO) study in May-June 1998 in Milan, Italy. The concentration of NO and J(NO2)/J(HONO) were simultaneously monitored by in situ monitors. The photolysis frequencies of HCHO and O3 were determined with a radiative transfer model. High nocturnal HONO mixing ratios of up to 4.4 ppb were regularly observed. Elevated daytime HONO levels during cloudy periods show that the formation of HONO proceeds after sunrise and therefore also represents a source of hydroxyl radicals throughout the day. Averaged over 24 hours, HCHO photolysis is the most important source of OH in Milan, followed by either ozone or HONO photolysis. Our observations indicate that on certain days the OH production from HONO can be even more important than that from ozone photolysis. The diurnal variation of the different OH formation mechanisms shows that HONO photolysis is by far the most important source in the early hours of the morning, and can be as large as and even surpass the total OH production at noon.

  10. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by phenols: relation to positions of hydroxyl groups and peroxyl radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, J; Riutta, A; Mucha, I; Vapaatalo, H; Metsä-Ketelä, T

    1993-01-01

    We have shown earlier that catecholamines have opposite regulative effects on prostaglandin (PG)E2 and leukotriene (LT)B4 formation with a receptor-independent mechanism in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and whole blood. To shed further light on the mechanisms involved and structure-action relationship, we tested the effects of phenols (catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, and resorcinol) on the synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 in human A23187-stimulated PMNs. To study the mechanism of how phenols influence PGE2 and LTB4 synthesis, their peroxyl radical-scavenging properties were analyzed. In general, low concentrations of phenols stimulated (catechol > hydroquinone > phenol) and high concentrations inhibited (resorcinol > catechol > hydroquinone > phenol) PGE2 formation. Resorcinol was different from the other phenols: It did not stimulate PGE2 synthesis at all, but it was effective inhibitor at high concentrations. Phenols had only an inhibitory effect on LTB4 formation (catechol = hydroquinone > phenol > resorcinol). The order of both stochiometric factors and reactivities of phenols for scavenging peroxyl radicals was catechol > hydroquinone > resorcinol > phenol. According to these results, phenols having hydroxyl groups in ortho- or paraposition have the greatest stimulative effect on PGE2 synthesis, the highest inhibitory action on LTB4 synthesis, and are good antioxidants. Resorcinol, having hydroxyl groups in the metaposition, behaves differently. It neither stimulates PGE2 nor inhibits LTB4 formation, but it is the most potent inhibitor of PGE2 formation. In spite of resorcinol's two hydroxyl groups, it mimics as an antioxidant phenol more than catechol and hydroquinone. PMID:8384148

  11. Understanding sensitivity to BH3 mimetics: ABT-737 as a case study to foresee the complexities of personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamelos Vasileios A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract BH3 mimetics such as ABT-737 and navitoclax bind to the BCL-2 family of proteins and induce apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. There is considerable variability in the sensitivity of different cells to these drugs. Understanding the molecular basis of this variability will help to determine which patients will benefit from these drugs. Furthermore, this understanding aids in the design of rational strategies to increase the sensitivity of cells which are otherwise resistant to BH3 mimetics. We discuss how the expression of BCL-2 family proteins regulates the sensitivity to ABT-737. One of these, MCL-1, has been widely described as contributing to resistance to ABT-737 which might suggest a poor response in patients with cancers that express levels of MCL-1. In some cases, resistance to ABT-737 conferred by MCL-1 is overcome by the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins that bind to apoptosis inhibitors such as MCL-1. However, the distribution of the pro-apoptotic proteins amongst the various apoptosis inhibitors also influences sensitivity to ABT-737. Furthermore, the expression of both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins can change dynamically in response to exposure to ABT-737. Thus, there is significant complexity associated with predicting response to ABT-737. This provides a paradigm for the multiplicity of intricate factors that determine drug sensitivity which must be considered for the full implementation of personalized medicine.

  12. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact of NO emissions. Our project shows that the urban canopy should be included in future air quality models to better represent nocturnal chemistry. This project has considerably advanced our understanding of the chemistry of the urban nocturnal boundary layer. The results of this project have implications for air quality studies in the urban nocturnal boundary layer. The study has also identified new questions on nocturnal processes, which we will continue to address through other projects.

  13. A peripherally acting, selective T-type calcium channel blocker, ABT-639, effectively reduces nociceptive and neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael F; Scott, Victoria E; McGaraughty, Steve; Chu, Katharine L; Xu, Jun; Niforatos, Wende; Milicic, Ivan; Joshi, Shailen; Zhang, Qingwei; Xia, Zhiren

    2014-06-15

    Activation of T-type Ca? channels contributes to nociceptive signaling by facilitating action potential bursting and modulation of membrane potentials during periods of neuronal hyperexcitability. The role of T-type Ca? channels in chronic pain is supported by gene knockdown studies showing that decreased Ca(v)3.2 channel expression results in the loss of low voltage-activated (LVA) currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and attenuation of neuropathic pain in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. ABT-639 is a novel, peripherally acting, selective T-type Ca? channel blocker. ABT-639 blocks recombinant human T-type (Ca(v)3.2) Ca? channels in a voltage-dependent fashion (IC?? = 2 ?M) and attenuates LVA currents in rat DRG neurons (IC?? = 8 ?M). ABT-639 was significantly less active at other Ca? channels (e.g. Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)2.2) (IC?? > 30 ?M). ABT-639 has high oral bioavailability (%F = 73), low protein binding (88.9%) and a low brain:plasma ratio (0.05:1) in rodents. Following oral administration ABT-639 produced dose-dependent antinociception in a rat model of knee joint pain (ED?? = 2 mg/kg, p.o.). ABT-639 (10-100 mg/kg, p.o.) also increased tactile allodynia thresholds in multiple models of neuropathic pain (e.g. spinal nerve ligation, CCI, and vincristine-induced). [corrected]. ABT-639 did not attenuate hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain models induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or carrageenan. At higher doses (e.g. 100-300 mg/kg) ABT-639 did not significantly alter hemodynamic or psychomotor function. The antinociceptive profile of ABT-639 provides novel insights into the role of peripheral T-type (Ca(v)3.2) channels in chronic pain states. PMID:24726441

  14. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  15. Identification and quantification of phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties of methanolic extracts of Chinese propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiming; Yang, Haisha; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-12-19

    Fifteen propolis samples collected from different regions of China were investigated and compared for their phytochemical composition and anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging properties. Eleven compounds including caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, isoferulic, and 3,4-dimethylcaffeic acids, pinobanksin, chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin, pinobanksin 3-acetate, and caffeic acid phenylethyl ester were quantified for the 15 propolis samples using a UHPLC method, whereas 38 compounds were identified by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The 15 propolis samples significantly differed in their total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The methanol extracts of propolis also showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells at 10 ?g propolis extract/mL concentration. Additionally, the propolis samples differed in their DPPH, ABTS cation, hydroxyl, and peroxide radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing abilities. The results from this study may be used to improve the commercial production and consumption of Chinese propolis products. PMID:23176258

  16. The BCL2 inhibitor ABT-199 significantly enhances imatinib-induced cell death in chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Tun Kiat; Chuah, Charles T.H.; Huang, John W. J.; Ng, King-Pan; Ong, S. Tiong

    2014-01-01

    BCR-ABL1-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors prolong the life of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but cannot completely eradicate CML progenitors. The BH3 mimetic, ABT-263, targets prosurvival BCL2 family members, and has activity against CML progenitors. However, the inhibitory effect of ABT-263 on BCL-XL, which mediates platelet survival, produces dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. A second-generation BH3 mimetic, ABT-199, has been developed to specifically bind BCL2 but not BCL-XL...

  17. Effects of Extraction and Processing Methods on Antioxidant Compound Contents and Radical Scavenging Activities of Laver (Porphyra tenera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2014-01-01

    Laver is one of the most consumed edible red algae seaweeds in the genus Porphyra. Laver is primarily prepared in the form of dried, roasted, and seasoned products. We investigated the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of laver products, and evaluated the in vitro antioxidant properties of solvent extracts from commercially processed laver products. Significant differences in the concentration of phenolic compounds were found among differently processed laver. The total phenolic content for laver extracts ranged from 10.81 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract to 32.14 mg GAE/g extract, depending on extraction solvent and temperature. Laver extracts contained very few flavonoids (0.55 mg catechin equivalent/g extracts to 1.75 mg catechin equivalent/g extracts). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion scavenging assays were used to determine the radical scavenging capacities of laver extracts. These assays revealed that the processing method and extraction condition affected the antioxidant potentials of laver. Antioxidant activity of dried laver, roasted laver, and seasoned laver increased in a concentration-dependent manner (100~1,000 ?g/mL). The radical scavenging activities of 37C and 100C water extracts were lower than that of a 37C 70% ethanol extract. The highest radical scavenging capacity was observed in the 37C 70% ethanol extracts of dried laver, roasted laver, and seasoned laver. Overall, these results support that notion that laver contains bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and flavonoids, which may have a positive effect on health. PMID:24772408

  18. Radical Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an aporia in Kant’s analysis of evil: he defines radical evilas an invisible disposition of the will, but he also demands an inferential connection between visible evil actions and this invisible disposition. This inference,however, undermines the radical invisibility of radical evil according to Kant’s own definition of the latter. Noting how this invisibility of moral worth is a distinctive feature of Kant’s approach to the moral problem, the paper then asks why, in the Groundwork, he nonetheless forecloses a question about evil that seems to be consistent with this approach. It is argued that to account for this aporia and this foreclosure, one has to interrogate the way in which the category of religion orients Kant’s incipient philosophy of history in Die Religion.

  19. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 increases treatment efficiency of paclitaxel against hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of current chemotherapy in hepatoblastoma (HB) is reduction of tumour volume and vitality to enable complete surgical resection and reduce risk of recurrence or metastatic disease. Drug resistance remains a major challenge for HB treatment. In some malignancies inhibition of anti-apoptotic pathways using small BH3 mimetic molecules like ABT-737 shows synergistic effects in combination with cystotoxic agents in vitro. Now we analysed toxicology and synergistic effects of this approach in HB cells and HB xenografts. Viability was monitored in HB cells (HUH6 and HepT1) and fibroblasts treated with paclitaxel, ABT-737 and a combination of both in a MTT assay. HUH6 xenotransplants in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice (NSG) were treated accordingly. Tumour volume and body weight were monitored. Xenografted tumours were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 and TUNEL assay). ABT-737 reduced viability in HUH6 and HepT1 cells cultures at concentrations above 1 ?M and also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel when used in combination. Thereby paclitaxel could be reduced tenfold to achieve similar reduction of viability of tumour cells. In contrast no toxicity in fibroblasts was observed at the same regiments. Subcutaneous HB (HUH6) treated with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg body weight, n = 7) led to delayed tumour growth in the beginning of the experiment. However, tumour volume was similar to controls (n = 5) at day 25. Combination treatment with paclitaxel and ABT-737 (100 mg/kg, n = 8) revealed significantly 10 fold lower relative tumour volumes compared to control and paclitaxel groups. Paclitaxel dependent toxicity was observed in this mice strain. Our results demonstrate enhancement of chemotherapy by using modulators of apoptosis. Further analyses should include improved pharmacological formulations of paclitaxel and BH3 mimetics in order to reduce toxicological effects. Sensitising HB to apoptosis may also render resistant HB susceptible to established chemotherapy regimens

  20. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 increases treatment efficiency of paclitaxel against hepatoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Jrg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary goal of current chemotherapy in hepatoblastoma (HB is reduction of tumour volume and vitality to enable complete surgical resection and reduce risk of recurrence or metastatic disease. Drug resistance remains a major challenge for HB treatment. In some malignancies inhibition of anti-apoptotic pathways using small BH3 mimetic molecules like ABT-737 shows synergistic effects in combination with cystotoxic agents in vitro. Now we analysed toxicology and synergistic effects of this approach in HB cells and HB xenografts. Methods Viability was monitored in HB cells (HUH6 and HepT1 and fibroblasts treated with paclitaxel, ABT-737 and a combination of both in a MTT assay. HUH6 xenotransplants in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice (NSG were treated accordingly. Tumour volume and body weight were monitored. Xenografted tumours were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 and TUNEL assay. Results ABT-737 reduced viability in HUH6 and HepT1 cells cultures at concentrations above 1 ?M and also enhanced the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel when used in combination. Thereby paclitaxel could be reduced tenfold to achieve similar reduction of viability of tumour cells. In contrast no toxicity in fibroblasts was observed at the same regiments. Subcutaneous HB (HUH6 treated with paclitaxel (12 mg/kg body weight, n = 7 led to delayed tumour growth in the beginning of the experiment. However, tumour volume was similar to controls (n = 5 at day 25. Combination treatment with paclitaxel and ABT-737 (100 mg/kg, n = 8 revealed significantly 10 fold lower relative tumour volumes compared to control and paclitaxel groups. Paclitaxel dependent toxicity was observed in this mice strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate enhancement of chemotherapy by using modulators of apoptosis. Further analyses should include improved pharmacological formulations of paclitaxel and BH3 mimetics in order to reduce toxicological effects. Sensitising HB to apoptosis may also render resistant HB susceptible to established chemotherapy regimens.

  1. Clearance of senescent cells by ABT263 rejuvenates aged hematopoietic stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Shao, Lijian; Laberge, Remi-Martin; Demaria, Marco; Campisi, Judith; Janakiraman, Krishnamurthy; Sharpless, Norman E; Ding, Sheng; Feng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaoyan; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Krager, Kimberly; Ponnappan, Usha; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Meng, Aimin; Zhou, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells (SCs) accumulate with age and after genotoxic stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI). Clearance of SCs in a progeroid mouse model using a transgenic approach delays several age-associated disorders, suggesting that SCs play a causative role in certain age-related pathologies. Thus, a 'senolytic' pharmacological agent that can selectively kill SCs holds promise for rejuvenating tissue stem cells and extending health span. To test this idea, we screened a collection of compounds and identified ABT263 (a specific inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-xL) as a potent senolytic drug. We show that ABT263 selectively kills SCs in culture in a cell type- and species-independent manner by inducing apoptosis. Oral administration of ABT263 to either sublethally irradiated or normally aged mice effectively depleted SCs, including senescent bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and senescent muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Notably, this depletion mitigated TBI-induced premature aging of the hematopoietic system and rejuvenated the aged HSCs and MuSCs in normally aged mice. Our results demonstrate that selective clearance of SCs by a pharmacological agent is beneficial in part through its rejuvenation of aged tissue stem cells. Thus, senolytic drugs may represent a new class of radiation mitigators and anti-aging agents. PMID:26657143

  2. Growth of ABT-5 bacteria culture in whey supplemented with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Matijević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to decrease the duration of whey fermentation and to analyze the impact of whey protein concentrates (WPC addition on growth and activity as well as on survival of mixed ABT-5 culture bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (5 °C. Whey fermentation was observed at 37 °C with and without 1.5 and 3 % WPC addition. Whey fermentation with mixed ABT-5 bacterial culture took about 6.5 hours, and WPC did not affect the fermentation dynamics, regardless of the added amount. The viable cell count of Lactobacillus acidophilus was higher in fermented whey with WPC (about 7.13 log CFU/mL compared to whey without WPC (about 6.63 log CFU/mL. WPC addition did not affect the growth of bacteria Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus nor the survival of ABT-5 culture bacteria in fermented whey during 28 days of cold storage (5 °C.

  3. ABT737 enhances cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholangiocarcinoma responses weakly to cisplatin. Mitochondrial dynamics participate in the response to various stresses, and mainly involve mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in orchestrating mitochondrial dynamics, and are involved in the resistance to cisplatin. Here we reported that ABT737, combined with cisplatin, can promote cholangiocarcinoma cells to undergo apoptosis. We found that the combined treatment decreased the Mcl-1 pro-survival form and increased Bak. Cells undergoing cisplatin treatment showed hyperfused mitochondria, whereas fragmentation was dominant in the mitochondria of cells exposed to the combined treatment, with higher Fis1 levels, decreased Mfn2 and OPA1 levels, increased ratio of Drp1 60 kD to 80 kD form, and more Drp1 located on mitochondria. More p62 aggregates were observed in cells with fragmented mitochondria, and they gradually translocated to mitochondria. Mitophagy was induced by the combined treatment. Knockdown p62 decreased the Drp1 ratio, increased Tom20, and increased cell viability. Our data indicated that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in the response of cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin. ABT737 might enhance cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the balance within Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, p62 seems to be critical in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • Cholangiocarcinoma may adapt to cisplatin through mitochondrial fusion. • ABT737 sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin by promoting fission and mitophagy. • p62 might participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy

  4. ABT737 enhances cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhongqi [Department of Hepatobiliary & Pancreas Surgery, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Yu, Huimei [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Cui, Ni [Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Kong, Xianggui; Liu, Xiaomin; Chang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130033 (China); Wu, Yao [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Sun, Liankun, E-mail: sunlk@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Wang, Guangyi, E-mail: wgymd@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary & Pancreas Surgery, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma responses weakly to cisplatin. Mitochondrial dynamics participate in the response to various stresses, and mainly involve mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission. Bcl-2 family proteins play critical roles in orchestrating mitochondrial dynamics, and are involved in the resistance to cisplatin. Here we reported that ABT737, combined with cisplatin, can promote cholangiocarcinoma cells to undergo apoptosis. We found that the combined treatment decreased the Mcl-1 pro-survival form and increased Bak. Cells undergoing cisplatin treatment showed hyperfused mitochondria, whereas fragmentation was dominant in the mitochondria of cells exposed to the combined treatment, with higher Fis1 levels, decreased Mfn2 and OPA1 levels, increased ratio of Drp1 60 kD to 80 kD form, and more Drp1 located on mitochondria. More p62 aggregates were observed in cells with fragmented mitochondria, and they gradually translocated to mitochondria. Mitophagy was induced by the combined treatment. Knockdown p62 decreased the Drp1 ratio, increased Tom20, and increased cell viability. Our data indicated that mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in the response of cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin. ABT737 might enhance cholangiocarcinoma sensitivity to cisplatin through regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the balance within Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, p62 seems to be critical in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • Cholangiocarcinoma may adapt to cisplatin through mitochondrial fusion. • ABT737 sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma to cisplatin by promoting fission and mitophagy. • p62 might participate in the regulation of mitochondrial fission and mitophagy.

  5. The Effect of Methyl, Hydroxyl, and Ketone Functional Groups on the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Succinic Acid Aerosol by OH Radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M.; Zhang, H.; Wilson, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous oxidation of atmospheric organic aerosols can influence their effects on climate, human health, and visibility. During oxidation, functionalization occurs when an oxygenated functional group is added to a molecule, leaving the carbon skeleton intact. Fragmentation involves carbon-carbon bond cleavage and produces two products with smaller carbon numbers than the parent compound. To gain better insights into how the molecular structure of more oxygenated organic compounds affects heterogeneous reactivity, succinic acid aerosols are photo-oxidized in an aerosol flow tube reactor, and the reaction products are analyzed using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry for online chemical analysis. The effect of various functional groups (CH3, OH, C=O) along the carbon backbone on the heterogeneous reaction mechanisms are also investigated using model compounds. For this series of compounds, the formation of more oxygenated products through functionalization can be explained by well-known condensation-phase reactions such as Russell and Bennett and Summers. The number of fragmentation products is found to increase with the presence of OH and CH3 groups. This can be attributed to the increased number of tertiary carbons, enhancing the fragmentation after multiple oxidation steps. Smaller dicaids (oxalic acid and malonic acid) can be formed through the fragmentation processes in the heterogeneous oxidation of succinic acid. The effect of molecular structure on reaction kinetics, volatilization, and the relative importance of functionalization and fragmentation pathways will be discussed.

  6. Phenolic acid content and radical scavenging activity of extracts from medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit at different stages of ripening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grúz, Jiří; Ayaz, F. A.; Torun, H.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2011), s. 271-277. ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phenolic acids * HPLC * Mass spectrometry * Fruit * Ripening Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.655, year: 2011

  7. Beyond prostaglandins - chemistry and biology of cyclic oxygenated metabolites formed by free-radical pathways from polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Galano, J. M.; Durand, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 32 (2008), s. 5894-5955. ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biological activity * fatty acids * isoprostanes * oxidation * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.879, year: 2008

  8. Changes in optical density, amino acid composition, and fluorescence of papain inactivated by hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatography of irradiated papain on an affinity column with the Gly-Gly-Tyr(Bzl)-Arg inhibitor peptide gave rise to three clearly resolved peaks. The first one was relatively small and contained completely inactive nonreparable enzyme, which appeared to have suffered a massive conformational change or loss of several binding sites. The second contained the inactive sulfenic acid derivative, which can be reactivated with cysteine. The third peak was composed of nonrepairable enzyme as well as some repairable enzyme and some fully active papain. Changes in absorbance and amino acid analysis established a significant loss of tyrosine residues, while tryptophan destruction appeared to be insignificant up to 10 krad. Fluorescence measurements indicated changes in the active-site region, which are probably largely due to the inactivating modification of the Cys-25 sulfhydryl group, for which evidence has already been reported

  9. Modeling nitrous acid and its impact on ozone and hydroxyl radical during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Czader, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; P. Percell; Byun, D. W.; F. Ngan; Kim, S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios for the Houston metropolitan area were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for an episode during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) II in August/September 2006 and compared to in-situ MC/IC (mist-chamber/ion chromatograph) and long path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements at three different altitude ranges. Several HONO sources were accounted for in simulations, such as gas phase fo...

  10. Modeling nitrous acid and its impact on ozone and hydroxyl radical during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Czader, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; P. Percell; Byun, D. W.; F. Ngan; Kim, S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios for the Houston metropolitan area were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for an episode during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) II in August/September 2006 and compared to in-situ MC/IC (mist-chamber/ion chromatograph) and long path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements at three different altitudes. Several HONO sources were accounted for in simulations, such as gas phase formation, direct emission...

  11. Modeling nitrous acid and its impact on ozone and hydroxyl radical during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Czader, B. H.; Rappenglück, B.; P. Percell; Byun, D. W.; F. Ngan; Kim, S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) mixing ratios for the Houston metropolitan area were simulated with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for an episode during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) II in August/September 2006 and compared to in-situ MC/IC (mist-chamber/ion chromatograph) and long path DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements at three different altitude ranges. Several HONO sources were accounted for in simulations, such as gas phase formation, direct em...

  12. Phase I Study of PARP Inhibitor ABT-888 in Combination with Topotecan in Adults with Refractory Solid Tumors and Lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kummar, Shivaani; Chen, Alice; Ji, Jiuping (Jay); Zhang, Yiping; Reid, Joel M.; Ames, Matthew; Jia, Lee; Weil, Marcie; Speranza, Giovanna; Murgo, Anthony J; Kinders, Robert; Wang, Lihua; PARCHMENT, RALPH E.; Carter, John; Stotler, Howard

    2011-01-01

    A phase I trial of ABT-888 (veliparib), a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP inhibitor), in combination with topotecan, a topoisomerase I–targeted agent, was performed to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the combination in patients with refractory solid tumors and lymphomas. Varying schedules and doses of intravenous topotecan in combination with ABT-888 (10 mg) administered orally twice a day (BID) were evaluated. Plasma and urine pharm...

  13. Comparative evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Boerhaavia diffusa root extracts (BDRE and determination of dose effectivity against radiation induced damages in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dhakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose of the study was to evaluate free radical scavenging activity (FRSA of root extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa in different solvents and to examine its dose effectivity against radiation induced damages in Swiss albino mice. Scavenging activities of aqueous, ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts of B. diffusa roots were evaluated by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl, ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and NO (nitric oxide assay to find the most effective extract and results were expressed as IC50. To find the most effective dose, hydroethanolic root extract (50:50 of B. diffusa was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg.body.weight for 15 consecutive days prior to irradiation with 8 Gy gamma radiation. Results indicates that hydroethanolic extract exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity in DPPH., ABTS.+ and NO. assays showing IC50 as 293.77, 43.62 and 32.58 µg/ml, respectively. Reduced symptoms of radiation sickness, decline in body weight and mortality were minimum when mice were pre-treated with hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 1000 mg/Kg.body.weight prior to irradiation with 8 Gy gamma radiation as compared to mice pre-treated with extract at  the dose of 250 and 500 mg/Kg.body.weight prior to irradiation with same dose of radiation. Thus, it was Concluded that certain phenolic constituents of B. diffusa roots like quercitin, caeffic acid, kempferol etc. and their derivatives act as antioxidant compounds confirming B. diffusa roots a potential source of antioxidant agent. Industrial Relevance: Having noticed with the importance of phytochemicals including flavonoids and phenolic acids as contributing factors to the antioxidant activity and common use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa in majority of medicinal aspects can be responsible in curing oxidative stress related diseases in human beings. This study perhaps will be helpful in development of the effective drug for providing protection to biological systems against free radical induced damage. Keywords: Radioprotection, Boerrhavia diffusa, Free Radical Scavenging Activity, Dose Reduction Factor, Antioxidants.

  14. Fast repair of oxidizing OH radical adducts of dGMP, dAMP and DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a pulse radiolytic technique, it has been demonstrated that the interaction of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceeds via an electron transfer process with rate constant of (5-7) x 108dm3mol-1s-1. Besides, the rate for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rate for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents, such as dGMP (2-3*109 dm1mol-1s-1). The slower rate for oxidizing OH adduct of dAMP and DNA has indicated that repair of oxidizing OH adduct of dAMP may be the rate determining process during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adduct of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA components. On other hand, the yields for oxidizing OH radical adduct with dGMP and dAMP were determined to be 50% and 30% respectively

  15. Perifosine and ABT-737 synergistically inhibit lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Qiong

    2016-05-13

    Here we explored the potential synergism between the novel Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-737 and the AKT inhibitor perifosine in lung cancer cells. Our in vitro results showed that perifosine and ABT-737 synergistically induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in both established (A549 and H460 lines) and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The combined activity was dramatically more potent than either single agent. For the molecular study, we showed that perifosine downregulated Mcl-1 expression, thus potentiating ABT-737 lethality against lung cancer cells. Exogenous over-expression of Mcl-1 remarkably attenuated perifosine plus ABT-737 combo-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, perifosine and ABT-737 co-administration strikingly inhibited A549 lung cancer xenograft growth in nude mice. The combined treatment in vivo was again superior than single treatment establishing a synergistic activity. Mcl-1 expression was also downregulated in combo-treated A549 tumors. The results of this preclinical study support the feasibility of further investigation of the perifosine plus ABT-737 regimen in future lung cancer clinical tests. PMID:27073162

  16. Radical Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hataminezhad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary sciences emerging and specialization were result of historical conditions. Lack of common and grand theories have caused social sciences such as Geography disintegrated to many courses. The Geography science has been divided two main courses, Physical and Human through the time. Every one used another similar science in theoretical principles and methodologies for their domain development and strengthening of their bases. The Human Geography was influenced by Anthropology during nineteenth century and was affected by nineteenth century and dawn twentieth century by Sociology and from mid twentieth century until present time by Biological sciences, Psychology, Political economics and social theories. Radical Geography was one of the Human Geography branches that was influenced by Political economics and left ideology. Radical Geography emphasizes on investigation about quality of life in different spaces and attempts to change socio-economic and spatial relationships, therefore critical Geography is one of its similar approaches.

  17. Protective Effect of Sinapine against Hydroxyl Radical-Induced Damage to Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xican; Han, Lu; Li, Yunrong; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jiemin; Lu, Wenbiao; Zhao, Xiaojun; Lai, Yingtao; Chen, Dongfeng; Wei, Gang

    2016-04-01

    As a phenolic alkaloid occurring in Cruciferous plants, sinapine was observed to protect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against ·OH-induced damage in this study. It was also found to prevent DNA from damage, to scavenge various free radicals (·OH, ·O2(-), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt) (ABTS)(+·), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·)), and to reduce Cu(2+) to Cu(+). To further explore the mechanism, the end-product of sinapine reaction with DPPH· was determined using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS and HPLC-diode array detector (DAD). Four molecular ion peaks (m/z 701, 702, 703, and 351) in HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis indicated a radical adduct formation (RAF) pathway; while a bathochromic shift (λmax 334→475 nm) in HPLC-DAD indicated the formation of quinone as the oxidized product of the phenolic -OH group. Based on these results, it may be concluded that, (i) sinapine can effectively protect against ·OH-induced damage to DNA and MSCs; such protective effect may provide evidence for a potential role for sinapine in MSC transplantation therapy, and be responsible for the beneficial effects of Cruciferous plants. (ii) The possible mechanism for sinapine to protect against ·OH-induced oxidative damage is radical-scavenging, which is thought to be via hydrogen atom (H·) transfer (HAT) (or sequential electron (e) proton transfer (SEPT))→RAF pathways. PMID:26842908

  18. Exploiting the synergy between carboplatin and ABT-737 in the treatment of ovarian carcinomas.

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-01-06

    Platinum drug-resistance in ovarian cancers mediated by anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-xL is a major factor contributing to the chemotherapeutic resistance of recurrent disease. Consequently, concurrent inhibition of Bcl-xL in combination with chemotherapy may improve treatment outcomes for patients. Here, we develop a mathematical model to investigate the potential of combination therapy with ABT-737, a small molecule inhibitor of Bcl-xL, and carboplatin, a platinum-based drug, on a simulated tumor xenograft. The model is calibrated against in vivo experimental data, wherein xenografts established in mice were treated with ABT-737 and/or carboplatin on a fixed periodic schedule. The validated model is used to predict the minimum drug load that will achieve a predetermined level of tumor growth inhibition, thereby maximizing the synergy between the two drugs. Our simulations suggest that the infusion-duration of each carboplatin dose is a critical parameter, with an 8-hour infusion of carboplatin given weekly combined with a daily bolus dose of ABT-737 predicted to minimize residual disease. The potential of combination therapy to prevent or delay the onset of carboplatin-resistance is also investigated. When resistance is acquired as a result of aberrant DNA-damage repair in cells treated with carboplatin, drug delivery schedules that induce tumor remission with even low doses of combination therapy can be identified. Intrinsic resistance due to pre-existing cohorts of resistant cells precludes tumor regression, but dosing strategies that extend disease-free survival periods can still be identified. These results highlight the potential of our model to accelerate the development of novel therapeutics such as BH3 mimetics.

  19. Hybrid Co2Al-ABTS/reduced graphene oxide Layered Double Hydroxide: Towards O2 biocathode development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of new redox mediator intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide using the coprecipitation synthesis. • Presence of electroactive Co into the LDH layers to enhance electroactivity of the system. • Improvement of the electronic conductivity by association with reduced graphene oxide (GOr) into composite system. • Application potentiality as biocathode material for O2 reduction with immobilization of Bilirubin Oxidase enzyme. • Enhancement of the electrocatalytic response in the presence of a biopolymer like carrageenan into the electrode formulation - Abstract: Co2Al-ABTS layered double hydroxides and associated Co2Al-ABTS@graphene composite were prepared in one pot technique by in situ coprecipitation. The as-obtained materials were then fully characterized by means of Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transformed InfraRed and Scanning Electron Microscopy confirming the intercalation of azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) between the LDH layers. Their electrochemical properties, according to Cyclic Voltammetry and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy data, were improved compared to Zn2Al-ABTS reference material. Co2Al-ABTS hybrid LDH was found to combine both electronic transfers: interlayer provided by the presence of ABTS and intralayer due to the Co redox species. Moreover, an improvement of electronic transfer between the LDH particles was further achieved by addition of graphene. The resulting composite assemblies were tested for the first time as oxygen bioelectrode based on bilirubin oxidase. This original approach gives rise to enhanced electroenzymatic currents (×2.5) for oxygen reduction at 0 V and pH 7.0 as regard to that obtained for the reference laccase/LDH-ABTS based bioelectrode at pH 5.5

  20. ?-scission of ?-thioalkyl radicals. Time-resolved ESR detection in the pulse radiolysis of ?-(alkylthio)-substituted acetamide, acetic acid, and acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ?-(methylthio)acetamide CH3SCH2C(O)NH2, yields significant quantities of acetamide radicals, CH2C(O)NH2. The acetamide radicals were identified by time-resolved electron spin resonance (TRESR), and yields of the acetamide radicals were estimated at pH 1 and pH 7. The yields of the acetamide radicals roughly track the yields of hydrogen atoms from the radiolysis of water at both pH values. At low pH, where hydrated electrons are converted in large yield to hydrogen atoms, the yield of the acetamide radicals in proportionally higher than the yield at neutral pH. Although this correspondence, between the H-atom and acetamide yields, is evidence that the H-atoms could be main precursors of the acetamide radicals, molecular orbital calculations throw doubt on this as the main reaction pathway. At pH 1, the most plausible mechanism for formation of acetamide radicals is by hydroxyl radical attack at the sulfur atom, forming hydroxysulfuranyl radicals which decay by elimination of water; the resulting sulfur radical cations, in turn, decay via deprotonation forming CH2-S-CH2C(O)NH2 which decays via ?-scission. In similar experiments, CH2COOH radicals were identified by TRESR in the pulse radiolysis of low pH aqueous solutions of CH3SCH2COOH. A third example of ?-scission is given where CH2-C(O)CH3 radicals are observed following the pulse radiolysis of CH3CH2SCH2C(O)CH3

  1. 3H-labeling of prokinetic motilide ABT-229 for biodistribution and metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prokinetic drug candidate, ABT-229, has been successfully [3H]-labeled in the macrolactone ring. This was accomplished with [3H]-NaBH4 reduction of the 11-ketone analog in a four step synthetic sequence beginning with the drug candidate. The 3H-labeled drug was obtained with specific activity of 9.0 Ci/mmol and radiochemical purity > 99%. This constitutes the first methodology for 3H-labeling of the macrolactone in an erythromycin derivative. (author)

  2. The molecular basis of synergism between carboplatin and ABT-737 therapy targeting ovarian carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Harsh Vardhan; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to standard chemotherapy (carboplatin + paclitaxel) is one of the leading causes of therapeutic failure in ovarian carcinomas. Emergence of chemoresistance has been shown to be mediated in part by members of the Bcl family of proteins including the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L), whose expression is correlated with shorter disease-free intervals in recurrent disease. ABT-737 is an example of one of the first small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) that has been shown to increas...

  3. Radical-scavenging capacity of phenol fractions in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum: an electrochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Nathalie; Hauchard, Didier; Audibert, Laetitia; Gall, Erwan Ar

    2011-04-15

    In this article, the radical-scavenging capacity of phenol fractions extracted from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum was assessed using in parallel colorimetric methods (ABTS and DPPH) and electrochemistry (cyclic voltammetry). Results obtained by the three methods correlated in the case of global fractions, whereas only ABTS and DPPH correlated when activities were expressed on a phenol basis. The successive fractions separated by both their average molecular size and their polarity exhibited activities largely dependent on their phenol content, suggesting that phlorotannins are the main anti-oxidant molecules in hydro-alcoholic extracts of A. nodosum. In addition, phenol fractions of relative low molecular weight were clearly more active than others. This work opens new opportunities to better evaluate the radical-scavenging potential of phenol pools in algae using both bi-parametric fractionating and electrochemistry. PMID:21376981

  4. Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate Brushes from Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Phosphonic Acid Based Initiator by Ambient Temperature Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kothandapani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPoly(methyl methacrylate in the brush form is grown from the surface of magnetite nanoparticles by ambient temperature atom transfer radical polymerization (ATATRP using a phosphonic acid based initiator. The surface initiator was prepared by the reaction of ethylene glycol with 2-bromoisobutyrl bromide, followed by the reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and hydrolysis. This initiator is anchored to magnetite nanoparticles via physisorption. The ATATRP of methyl methacrylate was carried out in the presence of CuBr/PMDETA complex, without a sacrificial initiator, and the grafting density is found to be as high as 0.90 molecules/nm2. The organic–inorganic hybrid material thus prepared shows exceptional stability in organic solvents unlike unfunctionalized magnetite nanoparticles which tend to flocculate. The polymer brushes of various number average molecular weights were prepared and the molecular weight was determined using size exclusion chromatography, after degrafting the polymer from the magnetite core. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectra and diffused reflection FT-IR were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  5. Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes from Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Phosphonic Acid Based Initiator by Ambient Temperature Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATATRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) in the brush form is grown from the surface of magnetite nanoparticles by ambient temperature atom transfer radical polymerization (ATATRP) using a phosphonic acid based initiator. The surface initiator was prepared by the reaction of ethylene glycol with 2-bromoisobutyrl bromide, followed by the reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and hydrolysis. This initiator is anchored to magnetite nanoparticles via physisorption. The ATATRP of methyl methacrylate was carried out in the presence of CuBr/PMDETA complex, without a sacrificial initiator, and the grafting density is found to be as high as 0.90 molecules/nm2. The organicinorganic hybrid material thus prepared shows exceptional stability in organic solvents unlike unfunctionalized magnetite nanoparticles which tend to flocculate. The polymer brushes of various number average molecular weights were prepared and the molecular weight was determined using size exclusion chromatography, after degrafting the polymer from the magnetite core. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectra and diffused reflection FT-IR were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Grafted Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Poly(Carboxylic Acid) Iron Particles via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Joko; Fuchs, Alan; Evrensel, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    This research relates to the preparation and characterization of surface grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(carboxylic acid)micron-size iron particles via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The surface grafted polymersiron particles result in multifunctional materials which can be used in biomedical applications. The functionalities consist of cell targeting, imaging, drug delivery, and immunological response. The multifunctional materials are synthesized in two steps. First, surface grafting is used to place polymer molecules on the iron particles surface. The second step, is conjugation of the bio-molecules onto the polymer backbone. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to confirm the presence of polymers on the iron particles. The thickness of the grafted polymers and glass transition temperature of the surface grafted polymers were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The covalent bond between grafted polymers and iron particles caused higher glass transition temperature as compared with non-grafted polymers. The ability to target the bio-molecule and provide fluorescent imaging was simulated by conjugation of rat immunoglobulin and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled anti-rat. The fluorescence intensity was determined using flow cytometry and conjugated IgG-FITC anti-rat on iron particles which was imaged using a fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25382869

  7. Transient effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure on some metabolic and free radical processes in goldfish white muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Husak, Viktor V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to assess effects of 96 h goldfish exposure to 1, 10 and 100 mg/L of the herbicide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), on metabolic indices and free radical process markers in white muscle of a commercial fish, the goldfish Carassius auratus L. Most oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes were not affected at 2,4-D fish treatment. 2,4-D fish exposure induced the elevated levels of total (by 46% and 40%) and reduced (by 77% and 73%) glutathione in muscles of goldfish of 10 mg/L 2,4-D and recovery (after 100 mg/L of 2,4-D exposure) groups, respectively. However, in muscles of 100 mg/L 2,4-D exposed goldfish these parameters were depleted (by 47% and 64%). None of investigated parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolisms changed in white muscles of 2,4-D exposed fish, with exception of lactate dehydrogenase activity, which was slightly (by 11-15%) elevated in muscles of goldfish exposed to 10-100 mg/L of 2,4-D, but also recovered. Thus, the short term exposure of goldfish to the selected concentrations of 2,4-D does not substantially affect their white muscle, suggesting the absence of any effect under the environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:23806294

  8. Some reactions of oxidizing radicals with enzymes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of oxidizing radicals including some inorganic radical anions and the superoxide radical, can be generated by radiolysis of aqueous solutions. These radicals are more selective in their reactions with amino acids than the hydroxyl radical. Factors controlling the apparent reactivity of radical anions with proteins, such as free radical equilibria and ion-binding, are described. The superoxide radical inactivates papain by reaction with the cysteine residue. This reaction has been studied in solutions subjected to radiations of varying linear energy transfer. (Auth.)

  9. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  10. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Moukette, Moukette; Constant Anatole, Pieme; Jacques Romain, Njimou; Cabral Prosper Nya, Biapa; Bravi, Marco; Jeanne Yonkeu, Ngogang.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or [...] limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH); showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract) and flavonoid (5.69 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight) as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic), alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol), theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  11. In vitro antioxidant properties, free radicals scavenging activities of extracts and polyphenol composition of a non-timber forest product used as spice: Monodora myristica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moukette Moukette

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive production of free radicals causes direct damage to biological molecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates leading to tumor development and progression. Natural antioxidant molecules from phytochemicals of plant origin may directly inhibit either their production or limit their propagation or destroy them to protect the system. In the present study, Monodora myristica a non-timber forest product consumed in Cameroon as spice was screened for its free radical scavenging properties, antioxidant and enzymes protective activities. Its phenolic compound profile was also realized by HPLC. RESULTS: This study demonstrated that M. myristica has scavenging properties against DPPH',OH',NO', and ABTS'radicals which vary in a dose depending manner. It also showed an antioxidant potential that was comparable with that of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT and vitamin C used as standard. The aqueous ethanol extract of M. myristica barks (AEH; showed a significantly higher content in polyphenolic compounds (21.44 0.24 mg caffeic acid/g dried extract and flavonoid (5.69 0.07 quercetin equivalent mg/g of dried weight as compared to the other studied extracts. The HPLC analysis of the barks and leaves revealed the presence of several polyphenols. The acids (3,4-OH-benzoic, caffeic, gallic, O- and P- coumaric, syringic, vanillic, alcohols (tyrosol and OH-tyrosol, theobromine, quercetin, rutin, catechine and apigenin were the identified and quantified polyphenols. All the tested extracts demonstrated a high protective potential on the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities. CONCLUSION: Finally, the different extracts from M. myristica and specifically the aqueous ethanol extract reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities and protective potential effects on liver enzymes.

  12. Anticancer compound ABT-263 accelerates apoptosis in virus-infected cells and imbalances cytokine production and lowers survival rates of infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kakkola, L; Denisova, O V; Tynell, J; Viiliäinen, J; Ysenbaert, T; Matos, R C; Nagaraj, A; Öhman, T.; Kuivanen, S; Paavilainen, H; Feng, L; Yadav, B; Julkunen, I; Vapalahti, O; Hukkanen, V.

    2013-01-01

    ABT-263 and its structural analogues ABT-199 and ABT-737 inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), BCL2L1 long isoform (Bcl-xL) and BCL2L2 (Bcl-w) proteins and promote cancer cell death. Here, we show that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, these small molecules accelerate the deaths of non-cancerous cells infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or other viruses. In particular, we demonstrate that ABT-263 altered Bcl-xL interactions with Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (...

  13. Chemical repair of trypsin-histidinyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxyl radicals, such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl and peroxyl, react with biomolecules to produce bioradicals. Unless chemically repaired by suitable antioxidants, these bioradicals form stable products. This leads to loss of biological function of parent biomolecules with deleterious biological results, such as mutagenesis and cancer. Consequently, the understanding of the mechanisms of oxyl radical damage to biomolecules and chemical repair of such damage is crucial for the development of strategies for anticarcinogenesis and radioprotection. In this study the chemical repair of the histidinyl radical generated upon the trichloromethylperoxyl radical reaction with trypsin vas investigated by gamma radiolysis. The trypsin histidinyl radical is a resonance-stabilized heterocyclic free radical which was found to be unreactive with oxygen. The efficacy of the chemical repair of the trypsin-histidinyl radical by endogenous antioxidants which are electron donors (e.g. 5-hydroxytryptophan, uric acid) is compared to that of antioxidants which are H-atom donors (e. g. glutathione). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Antioxidant Activity and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of the Polycondensate of Catechin with Glyoxylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate polymeric flavonoids, the polycondensate of catechin with glyoxylic acid (PCG) was prepared and its chemically antioxidant, cellular antioxidant (CAA) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and antiproliferative effect of PCG were lower than those of catechin, while PCG had higher CAA activity than catechin. In addition, PCG had very high α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 value, 2.59 μg/mL) in comparison to catechin (IC50 value, 239.27 μg/mL). Inhibition kinetics suggested that both PCG and catechin demonstrated a mixture of noncompetitive and anticompetitive inhibition. The enhanced CAA and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of PCG could be due to catechin polymerization enhancing the binding capacity to the cellular membrane and enzymes. PMID:26960205

  15. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of the selective alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist, ABT-107, in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Lenz, Robert A; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jianling; Awni, Walid M; Dutta, Sandeep

    2011-04-01

    ABT-107 is a potent, selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist under development for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of escalating single oral doses (1, 3, 10, 30, 60, 80, and 100 mg; double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, incomplete crossover design) and multiple oral doses (2, 6, and 15 mg once daily for 7 days; double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group design) of ABT-107 were evaluated. Additionally, effect of food on ABT-107 pharmacokinetics (20-mg single dose) was evaluated using an open-label, 2-period, fasting and nonfasting, randomized, complete crossover design. ABT-107 exhibited nonlinear (more than dose-proportional) pharmacokinetics. ABT-107 half-life ranged from 7 to 10 hours, and steady state was achieved by day 6 of dosing. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-107 exposure. ABT-107 was safe and well tolerated over the tested dose range. The most frequently reported adverse events were nausea, headache, and tremor following single dosing and somnolence following multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability profiles of ABT-107 pose it as a good candidate for further development. PMID:20495134

  16. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of halophytic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Magné, Christian

    2008-03-01

    For the first time, both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities are simultaneously reported in halophytic plants, particularly on polar fractions. Chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the halophytes Eryngium maritimum L., Crithmum maritimum L. and Cakile maritima Scop. were tested for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacterial and yeast strains. In addition, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities were assessed, as well as total phenol contents. Only one bacterial strain (Listeria monocytogenes) was not inhibited by plants extracts, and apolar (chloroformic) fractions were generally more active than polar (methanolic) ones. Eryngium maritimum presented the weakest radical scavenging activity (ABTS IC(50)=0.28 mg ml(-1)), as well as the lowest total phenol content (16.4 mg GAE g(-1) DW). However, the three halophytic species had relatively strong total antioxidant activities (from 32.7 to 48.6 mg ascorbate equivalents g (-1) DW). Consequences on the potential use of these plants in food or cosmetic industry are discussed. PMID:18164885

  17. In vitro antioxidant potential and deoxyribonucleic acid protecting activity of CNB-001, a novel pyrazole derivative of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are underpinned to initiate cascade of toxic events leading to oxidative stress and resultant cell death in many neurodegenerative disorders. Now-a-days antioxidants have become mandatory in the treatment of various diseases apart from the drug′s modes of action. CNB-001, a novel hybrid molecule synthesized by combining curcumin and cyclohexyl bisphenol A is known to possess various biological activities, but the antioxidative property of the compound has not yet been elucidated. Aim: The present study is aimed to analyze various free radicals scavenging by employing in vitro antioxidant assays and to evaluate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA protecting the ability of CNB-001 against hydroxyl radicals. Materials and methods: The in vitro antioxidant potential of CNB-001 was evaluated by analyzing its ability to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide radicals and reducing power using spectroscopic method. The DNA protecting activity of CNB-001 was also evaluated on pUC19 plasmid DNA subjected to hydroxyl radicals using standard agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: From the assays, it was observed that CNB-001 scavenged free radicals effectively in a dose dependent manner. CNB-001 scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 44.99 μg/ml, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (IC50 = 17.99 μg/ml, nitric oxide (IC50 = 1.36 μg/ml, superoxide radical (IC50 = 77.17 μg/ml, hydrogen peroxide (IC50 = 492.7 μg/ml, superoxide (IC50 = 36.92 μg/ml and hydroxyl (IC50 = 456.5 μg/ml radicals effectively and the reducing power was found to be 11.53 μg/ml. CNB-001 showed considerable protecting activity against plasmid DNA (pUC19 strand scission by ·OH at dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Results from these assays concluded that CNB-001 has a good antioxidant potential by reducing reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen radicals and it showed significant protecting activity against DNA scission by hydroxyl radicals. Hence, CNB-001 can be further developed as potential drug for free radical induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). PMID:26948649

  19. Antioxidant activities and radical scavenging activities of flavonoids studied by the electrochemical methods and ESR technique based on the novel paramagnetic properties of poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: ESR spectra of the PAASA/RGO/graphite electrodes: (1) in the buffer solution consisting of 0.20 M phosphate and methanol (80: 20, v/v), (2) in the buffer solutions containing 150 μM of (+)-catechin. -- Abstract: Four kinds of flavonoid, viz. flavanone naringenin, Flavone apigenin, flavonol kaempferol, and flavanol (+)-catechin, are used to investigate their antioxidant and radical scavenging activitis in the water-methanol solution of pH 6.3, using the electrochemical methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Poly(aniline-co-5-aminosalicylic acid) (PAASA) is first used as a radical source that was polymerized on a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/glassy carbon (GC) disk or on the RGO/graphite fiber electrode. The assessment of the antioxidant activities is performed using both cyclic voltammetry and the open circuit potential measurement. On the basis of results from both electrochemical mathods, the order of the antioxidant actitvities of flavonoids is as follows: (+)-catechin > kaempferol > apigenin > naringenin However, the difference in the antioxidant activities between naringenin and apigenin is very small. On the basis of the ESR signal intensities of PAASA, the order of the radical scavenging activities of flavonoids is in good agreement with that of the above antioxdant activities.Three oxidation peaks on the cyclic voltammograms of (+)-catechin are first detected, which gives us a deep insight into the oxidation mechanism of (+)-catechin

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of ABT-594 in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Michael C; Duan, W Rachel; Thomas, James; Nothaft, Wolfram; Backonja, Misha-Miroslav

    2009-12-01

    ABT-594 is a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NNR) agonist that exhibits potent analgesic activity in preclinical models of acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain. The purpose of this phase 2, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the safety and analgesic efficacy of ABT-594 in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP). A total of 266 DPNP patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive placebo, ABT-594 150 microg BID, ABT-594 225 microg BID, or ABT-594 300 microg BID. Patients were titrated to a fixed-dose of ABT-594 over 7 days and remained at this dose for another 6 weeks. Compared to placebo, all three ABT-594 treatment groups showed significantly greater decreases on the average diary-based 0-10 Pain Rating Scale (PRS) score from baseline to final evaluation, the primary efficacy measure (placebo, -1.1; 150 microg BID, -1.9; 225 microg BID, -1.9; 300 microg BID, -2.0). The proportion of patients achieving at least a 50% improvement in the average diary-based PRS was greater in all three ABT-594 treatment groups. However, adverse event (AE) dropout rates were significantly higher in all three ABT-594 treatment groups (28% for 150 microg BID, 46% for 225 microg BID, and 66% for 300 microg BID) than for the placebo group (9%). Consistent with the expected side-effect profile of NNR agonists, the most frequently reported AEs were nausea, dizziness, vomiting, abnormal dreams, and asthenia. This study establishes proof of concept for NNR agonists as a new class of compounds for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:19632048

  1. Bcl-xL stimulates Bax relocation to mitochondria and primes cells to ABT-737.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thibaud T; Teijido, Oscar; Missire, Florent; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Velours, Gisèle; Arokium, Hubert; Beaumatin, Florian; Llanos, Raul; Athané, Axel; Camougrand, Nadine; Priault, Muriel; Antonsson, Bruno; Dejean, Laurent M; Manon, Stéphen

    2015-07-01

    Bax cytosol-to-mitochondria translocation is a central event of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Bcl-xL is an important regulator of this event and was recently shown to promote the retrotranslocation of mitochondrial Bax to the cytosol. The present study identifies a new aspect of the regulation of Bax localization by Bcl-xL: in addition to its role in Bax inhibition and retrotranslocation, we found that, like with Bcl-2, an increase of Bcl-xL expression levels led to an increase of Bax mitochondrial content. This finding was substantiated both in pro-lymphocytic FL5.12 cells and a yeast reporting system. Bcl-xL-dependent increase of mitochondrial Bax is counterbalanced by retrotranslocation, as we observed that Bcl-xLΔC, which is unable to promote Bax retrotranslocation, was more efficient than the full-length protein in stimulating Bax relocation to mitochondria. Interestingly, cells overexpressing Bcl-xL were more sensitive to apoptosis upon treatment with the BH3-mimetic ABT-737, suggesting that despite its role in Bax inhibition, Bcl-xL also primes mitochondria to permeabilization and cytochrome c release. PMID:25862283

  2. In vitro reduction of coplanar PCB congeners by ABTS oxidases from the culture of Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoki, S. [High-Tech Research Center, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Sue, T.; Hisamatsu, S. [Graduate School of Environmental Health, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Nagasaka, H. [Inst. of Environmental Ecology, Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co., Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, the environmental contamination by the harmful polluted chemicals becomes more serious. Among them, especially, the dioxins such as coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs) and PCDDs are hard to be decomposed due to their stability and hydrophobic nature, leading to the world-wide contamination. To clean up the polluted environment, bioremediation using a microorganism is expected to solve the environmental pollution problem because of cost-effective alternative to the more established engineering method. There are some reports on the biodegradation of dioxins using various organisms, in which basidiomycetes, so-called white-rot fungi, have been extensively studied in the process of lignin degradation. As a result unique extracellular oxidative lignindegrading enzymes, such as lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were supposed to be responsible for degrading dioxins. Overall many studies on biodegradation of dioxins or other chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have focused on using white-rot fungi; however, few reports referred to the metabolism of these environmental pollutants in the in vitro reaction by use of lignin-degrading enzymes produced by white-rot fungi. In this study, we reported the reduction of levels of Co-PCBs in the in vitro incubation with the fractions which had the oxidase activity toward 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in the culture fluid of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor.

  3. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  4. Hydrogen bond network between amino acid radical intermediates on the proton-coupled electron transfer pathway of E. coli α2 ribonucleotide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Thomas U; Lee, Wankyu; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank; Stubbe, JoAnne; Bennati, Marina

    2015-01-14

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides in all organisms. In all Class Ia RNRs, initiation of nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) reduction requires a reversible oxidation over 35 Å by a tyrosyl radical (Y122•, Escherichia coli) in subunit β of a cysteine (C439) in the active site of subunit α. This radical transfer (RT) occurs by a specific pathway involving redox active tyrosines (Y122 ⇆ Y356 in β to Y731 ⇆ Y730 ⇆ C439 in α); each oxidation necessitates loss of a proton coupled to loss of an electron (PCET). To study these steps, 3-aminotyrosine was site-specifically incorporated in place of Y356-β, Y731- and Y730-α, and each protein was incubated with the appropriate second subunit β(α), CDP and effector ATP to trap an amino tyrosyl radical (NH2Y•) in the active α2β2 complex. High-frequency (263 GHz) pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of the NH2Y•s reported the gx values with unprecedented resolution and revealed strong electrostatic effects caused by the protein environment. (2)H electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy accompanied by quantum chemical calculations provided spectroscopic evidence for hydrogen bond interactions at the radical sites, i.e., two exchangeable H bonds to NH2Y730•, one to NH2Y731• and none to NH2Y356•. Similar experiments with double mutants α-NH2Y730/C439A and α-NH2Y731/Y730F allowed assignment of the H bonding partner(s) to a pathway residue(s) providing direct evidence for colinear PCET within α. The implications of these observations for the PCET process within α and at the interface are discussed. PMID:25516424

  5. A radical approach to radical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Dirk; Ende, Jan van der

    2014-01-01

    Innovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  6. A radical approach to radical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Deichmann, Dirk; van der Ende, Jan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  7. Free-radical chemistry of thiourea in aqueous solution, induced by OH radical, H atom, α-hydroxyalkyl radicals, photoexcited maleimide, and the solvated electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyl radicals react with thiourea (and its tetramethyl derivative) yielding dimeric radical cations which are characterized by strong absorptions at 400 nm (450 nm). An analysis of the kinetics of the buildup of these absorptions gives evidence for the intermediacy of OH-adducts and the monomeric radical cations. The dimeric radical cations are also generated in the reactions of triplet-excited maleimide with those thioureas. Moreover, in acidic solutions even reducing radicals such as the H atom and α-hydroxy alkyl radicals give rise to these intermediates in full yields, albeit displaying different kinetics. Potential mechanistic implications are discussed. The dimeric thiourea radical cations are strong oxidants and readily oxidize the anions of phenol and 2'-deoxyguanosine. The solvated electron gives rise to an intermediate which is rapidly protonated by water (pKa > 11). Quantum mechanical calculations support the assignment of the 400 nm (450 nm) absorption to the respective dimeric thiourea radical cation. (author)

  8. Free radical reactions with subtilisin Carlsberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis has been used to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced inactivation of enzymes. However, interpretation of the results is often complicated by the fact that the G values for enzyme inactivation are usually much smaller than the G values for the radicals formed from water radiolysis. Where inactivation by oxidative free radical attack is concerned, the problem can often be greatly simplified by the use of the free radical probe technique. These free radicals, which include the halide-type radicals Cl2-, Br2-,I2- and (CNS)2-, react much more selectively than OH radicals with amino acids. They can be used to demonstrate that selective oxidation of certain amino acid residues can lead to enzyme inactivation. The technique assists, therefore, in determining whether such sensitive amino acids are present in the active centre and are crucial to the activity of the protein. A number of enzymes have been studied by this method and the amino acid residues found to be necessary for enzymic activitya are in agreement with those identified by conventional biochemical techniques. In these enzymes, free radical attack by the halide radicals leads to inactivation by damage to a single type of amino acid residue which is involved either in catalysis or binding of the substrate. Subtilisin Carlsberg is a serine protease consisting of a poly-peptide chain lacking both cysteine and cystine residues. This paper indicates the use of the selective probe technique in demonstrating that damage to one or more histidine residues leads to inactivation of the enzyme. (author)

  9. Melatonin's unique radical scavenging properties - roles of its functional substituents as revealed by a comparison with its structural analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggeler, Burkhard; Thuermann, Sandra; Dose, Andreas; Schoenke, Markus; Burkhardt, Susanne; Hardeland, Rdiger

    2002-08-01

    Melatonin's O-methyl and N-acetyl residues are not only the basis of its amphilicity enabling the molecule to enter all organs and all subcellular compartments, but are also decisive for its antioxidant properties. We have compared melatonin's redox chemistry with that of several structural analogs: tryptamine, N-acetyltryptamine, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin, 5-methoxytryptamine, 6-chloromelatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Scavenging of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) was measured in a scavenger competition assay based on ABTS cation radical (ABTS(*)+) formation. The capability of undergoing single-electron transfer reactions was studied using an ABTS(*)+ reduction assay, reflecting the more general property of scavenging organic cation radicals. Direct scavenging of superoxide anions (O2(*)-), under non-catalyzed conditions, was investigated in a hematoxylin autoxidation assay. Measurements of chemiluminescence were used for studying scavenging of O2(*)- under catalyzed conditions, either by hemin-mediated interaction or by combination with the respective indolyl cation radicals. Light emission was determined in the absence or presence of the *OH scavenger dimethylsulfoxide and the O2(*)- scavenger Tiron. Products formed by oxidation of the respective indoles in a moderately alkaline, hemin-catalyzed H2O2 system were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and fluorometry. Absence of either the O-methyl or the N-acetyl residue causes marked diminutions in the capacities of scavenging *OH and ABTS(*)+ as well as in chemiluminescence emitted during oxidation. The importance of the N-acetyl group is insofar remarkable as it seems, at first glance, to be isolated from the indolic moiety; interactions between side chain and indolic moiety are therefore decisive for melatonin's redox properties. The 5-hydroxylated compounds are not generally more efficient scavengers, but particularly better reducers of ABTS(*)+; in the alkaline H2O2 system generating *OH and O2(*)-, melatonin was much more rapidly oxidized than the 5-hydroxylated and non-substituted analogs. Oxidative products formed from any of the compounds studied contained much less of substituted kynuramines as in the case of melatonin, indicating that radical chain termination by O2(*)- is considerably more efficient with melatonin. These findings are supported by measurements of chemiluminescence, which largely reflects pyrrole ring cleavage as a result of combination with superoxide anions. In this regard, only 6-chloromelatonin equalled melatonin, whereas the efficiency of 2-iodomelatonin was much lower, another indication for the importance of 2,3-dioxygenation. PMID:12121482

  10. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  11. Hydroxyl radical detection in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevion, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Hydroxyl radicals have been implicated as the actual species responsible for the deleterious effects of active oxygen in biology. However, in most cases, its presence has only been inferred by circumstantial evidence. Using electrochemical detection coupled to HPLC separation technique the authors can identify and quantitate (at sub-picomole level) the hydroxylated products of 3 aromatic compounds (phenol, salicylate, and 2-deoxy-guanosine) as a direct measure of hydroxyl radical formation. Firstly, the authors showed that mixing ascorbate with copper ions (in the absence of presence of a protein) yields catechols, dihydroxybenzoic acids and 8-OH-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG). This approach has been used to study the formation of OH in vivo. Human granulocytes stimulated with TPA showed that 8-OHdG was formed in the cellular DNA at high levels (one 8-OHdG/800 DNA bases). Unstimulated granulocytes contained 8-OHdG below detection level. Formation of 8-OHdG in the TPA-stimulated granulocytes DNA was decreased by the addition of SOD and catalase. Using salicylate as an in vivo scavenger of hydroxyl radicals the authors showed that the level of trapped-dihydroxybenzoic acids is increased approx.8 and approx.3 fold in the lungs and liver of paraquat-poisoned mice, respectively, as compared to normal animals. Similarly, the detected level of dihydroxybenzoic acids in the hearts of adriamycin-treated rats was increased over 100-fold as compared to the hearts of control animals.

  12. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl3COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 200C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl3COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl3COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  13. Discrepancies between the rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with ferrocenyl-substituted carboxylic acids determined by direct measurement and by competition with thiocyanate-ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate constants for the reaction of OH radical with 3-ferrocenyl-propanoate and 2-ferrocenyl-ethanoate have been determined using competition with thiocyanate ion. However, the corrections involved in these determinations were large, ranging up to 38.5%, and we have, therefore, considered it necessary to attempt the direct measurement of these rate constants by pulse radiolysis. In this communication we report these direct measurements of the rate constants for these reactions and compare the values so obtained with those determined by competition with thiocyanate ion. We also report similar measurements for the reaction of OH with ferrocenylformate. (author)

  14. Free-radical inactivation of muscle aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbit muscle aldolase has been shown to be deactivated by addition of irradiated crystals of various sugars and amino acids. Inactivation observed immediately upon dissolution is ascribed to reaction with free radicals, whereas post-dissolution inactivation is ascribed to acid-catalyzed reaction with nonradical radiolysis products. (U.S.)

  15. Chemotherapeutic drugs sensitize human renal cell carcinoma cells to ABT-737 by a mechanism involving the Noxa-dependent inactivation of Mcl-1 or A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zantl Niko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human renal cell carcinoma (RCC is very resistant to chemotherapy. ABT-737 is a novel inhibitor of anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family that has shown promise in various preclinical tumour models. Results We here report a strong over-additive pro-apoptotic effect of ABT-737 and etoposide, vinblastine or paclitaxel but not 5-fluorouracil in cell lines from human RCC. ABT-737 showed very little activity as a single agent but killed RCC cells potently when anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 or, unexpectedly, A1 was targeted by RNAi. This potent augmentation required endogenous Noxa protein since RNAi directed against Noxa but not against Bim or Puma reduced apoptosis induction by the combination of ABT-737 and etoposide or vinblastine. At the level of mitochondria, etoposide-treatment had a similar sensitizing activity and allowed for ABT-737-induced release of cytochrome c. Conclusions Chemotherapeutic drugs can overcome protection afforded by Mcl-1 and A1 through endogenous Noxa protein in RCC cells, and the combination of such drugs with ABT-737 may be a promising strategy in RCC. Strikingly, A1 emerged in RCC cell lines as a protein of similar importance as the well-established Mcl-1 in protection against apoptosis in these cells.

  16. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  17. Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry for High Flux Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Applications Using a Simple Optical Detection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) by fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) is a powerful benchtop tool used to probe protein structure, interactions, and conformational changes in solution. However, the reproducibility of all HRPF techniques is limited by the ability to deliver a defined concentration of hydroxyl radicals to the protein. This ability is impacted by both the amount of radical generated and the presence of radical scavengers in solution. In order to compare HRPF data from sample to sample, a hydroxyl radical dosimeter is needed that can measure the effective concentration of radical that is delivered to the protein, after accounting for both differences in hydroxyl radical generation and nonanalyte radical consumption. Here, we test three radical dosimeters (Alexa Fluor 488, terepthalic acid, and adenine) for their ability to quantitatively measure the effective radical dose under the high radical concentration conditions of FPOP. Adenine has a quantitative relationship between UV spectrophotometric response, effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered, and peptide and protein oxidation levels over the range of radical concentrations typically encountered in FPOP. The simplicity of an adenine-based dosimeter allows for convenient and flexible incorporation into FPOP applications, and the ability to accurately measure the delivered radical dose will enable reproducible and reliable FPOP across a variety of platforms and applications. PMID:26455423

  18. Cethromycin: A-195773, A-195773-0, A-1957730, Abbott-195773, ABT 773.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Cethromycin [ABT 773, A-195773, Abbott-195773, A-1957730, A-195773-0] is a once-daily ketolide antibiotic that originated from Abbott Laboratories' research into next-generation compounds to the macrolide antibacterial, clarithromycin. The aim of the research programme was to maintain the positive attributes of clarithromycin and to add the property of efficacy against macrolide-resistant organisms. Cethromycin acts by binding to the 23S molecule of the 50S ribosomal subunit. Advanced Life Sciences is conducting multinational, pivotal phase III trials of cethromycin for the treatment of mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia, phase II/III trials for treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, as well as preclinical trials for the treatment of anthrax. Advanced Life Sciences plans to advance discussions with prospective commercialisation partners for cethromycin during 2006. Abbott Laboratories and Taisho Pharmaceutical entered a collaboration to develop and commercialise new macrolide antibacterials in October 1997. Each company brought its existing macrolides into the collaboration and both companies were to jointly develop novel new macrolides. Abbott was to have exclusive marketing, manfacturing and supply rights worldwide (except in Japan) to any compounds resulting from this collaboration. Taisho was to receive royalties on Abbott's sales in consideration of granted rights. In Japan, the two companies were to co-market any resulting macrolide antibacterials. This agreement extended to the development of cethromycin; however, the agreement was suspended in April 2004 and appears to have been terminated. Abbott exclusively licensed cethromycin to Advanced Life Sciences worldwide excluding Japan in December 2004. Advanced Life Sciences initiated commercial manufacturing agreements for cethromycin with DSM and Cardinal Health in May 2006. In March 2006, Advanced Life Sciences completed private placement of $US36 million from which the net proceeds will be used to advance development of cethromycin. The company plans to submit an NDA for cethromycin in 2007. In Japan, phase II trials were being conducted with Abbott's partner, Taisho Pharmaceutical. Although development in the US had been put on hold, Abbott was to continue to support product development in Japan by Taisho. However, in April 2004, Taisho and Abbott Japan decided to suspend co-development activities for cethromycin. A patent has been granted for cethromycin (US patent number 5 866 549) that expires in September 2016. PMID:17324007

  19. Effect of Bucillamine on Free-Radical-Mediated Degradation of High-Molar-Mass Hyaluronan Induced in vitro by Ascorbic Acid and Cu(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mria Ba?asov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The bucillamine effect on free-radical-mediated degradation of high-molar-mass hyaluronan (HA has been elucidated. As HA fragmentation is expected to decrease its dynamic viscosity, rotational viscometry was applied to follow the oxidative HA degradation. Non-isothermal chemiluminometry, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC were applied to characterize resulting HA fragments. Although bucillamine completely inhibited the HA viscosity decrease caused by oxidative system, indicating HA protection from degradation, SEC analysis suggested that some other mechanisms leading to the bucillamine transformations without the decay of the viscosity may come into a play as well. Nonetheless, the link between the reduction of chemiluminescence intensity and disappearance of the differential scanning calorimetry exotherm at 270 C for fragmented HAs indicates a particular role of the bucillamine in preventing the decrease of HA viscosity.

  20. Spatial features of radical reactions in irradiated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Spin Echo (ESE) method is used to obtain data on the spatial distribution of radical particles originated in irradiated solid matrices from two types of precursors: ionized molecules (R+-type radicals), and secondary electrons (R--type radicals). For methanol with Cd+2 acceptors and for water solutions of acids and alkalis the radical tracks are shown to have a complex structure. Possible reasons for long path lengths of secondary electrons in polar media are analyzed. Pair distribution functions, as well as their changes due to diffusion and chemical reactions, are reported for radicals generated by photolysis and radiolysis. (author)

  1. Anticancer compound ABT-263 accelerates apoptosis in virus-infected cells and imbalances cytokine production and lowers survival rates of infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkola, L; Denisova, O V; Tynell, J; Viiliäinen, J; Ysenbaert, T; Matos, R C; Nagaraj, A; Ohman, T; Kuivanen, S; Paavilainen, H; Feng, L; Yadav, B; Julkunen, I; Vapalahti, O; Hukkanen, V; Stenman, J; Aittokallio, T; Verschuren, E W; Ojala, P M; Nyman, T; Saelens, X; Dzeyk, K; Kainov, D E

    2013-01-01

    ABT-263 and its structural analogues ABT-199 and ABT-737 inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), BCL2L1 long isoform (Bcl-xL) and BCL2L2 (Bcl-w) proteins and promote cancer cell death. Here, we show that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, these small molecules accelerate the deaths of non-cancerous cells infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or other viruses. In particular, we demonstrate that ABT-263 altered Bcl-xL interactions with Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), uveal autoantigen with coiled-coil domains and ankyrin repeats protein (UACA). ABT-263 thereby activated the caspase-9-mediated mitochondria-initiated apoptosis pathway, which, together with the IAV-initiated caspase-8-mediated apoptosis pathway, triggered the deaths of IAV-infected cells. Our results also indicate that Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense virus constituents to regulate cellular apoptosis. Importantly, premature killing of IAV-infected cells by ABT-263 attenuated the production of key pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines. The imbalance in cytokine production was also observed in ABT-263-treated IAV-infected mice, which resulted in an inability of the immune system to clear the virus and eventually lowered the survival rates of infected animals. Thus, the results suggest that the chemical inhibition of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w could potentially be hazardous for cancer patients with viral infections. PMID:23887633

  2. The Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic ABT-510 Increases the Uptake and Effectiveness of Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in a Mouse Model of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC comprises approximately 90% of ovarian cancers and arises from the surface epithelium. Typical treatment of EOC involves cytoreductive surgery combined with chemotherapy. More recent therapies have targeted the tumor vasculature using antiangiogenic compounds such as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1. TSP-1 mimetic peptides such as ABT-510 have been created and have been in various clinical trials. We have previously shown that ABT-510 reduces abnormal vasculature associated with tumor tissue and increases the presence of mature blood vessels. It has been hypothesized that treatment with antiangiogenic compounds would allow increased delivery of cytotoxic agents and enhance treatment. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of ABT-510 and various chemotherapeutics (cisplatin and paclitaxel on tumor progression, angiogenesis, and the benefits of combinational treatments on tissue uptake and perfusion using an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of EOC. Animals were treated with ABT-510 (100 mg/kg per day alone or in combination with cisplatin (2 mg/kg per 3 days or paclitaxel (10 mg/kg per 2 days at 60 days after tumor induction. Radiolabeled and fluorescently labeled paclitaxel demonstrated a significant increase in tumor uptake after ABT-510 treatment. Combined treatment with ABT-510 and cisplatin or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in tumor cell and tumor endothelial cell apoptosis and a resultant decrease in ovarian tumor size. Combined treatment also regressed secondary lesions and eliminated the presence of abdominal ascites. The results from this study show that through vessel normalization, ABT-510 increases uptake of chemotherapy drugs and can induce regression of advanced ovarian cancer.

  3. Characterization of pH-responsive hydrogels of poly(itaconic acid-g-ethylene glycol) prepared by UV-initiated free radical polymerization as biomaterials for oral delivery of bioactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Tania; Pardo, Juan; Soo, Ken; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2010-04-01

    Effective oral delivery of proteins is impeded by steep pH gradients and proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as low absorption of the proteins into the bloodstream because of their size, charge, or solubility. In this work, pH-responsive complexation hydrogels of poly(itaconic acid) (PIA) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafts were synthesized for applications in oral drug delivery. These hydrogels were expected to be in collapsed configuration at low pH because of hydrogen bonding between PIA carboxyl groups and PEG, and to swell with increasing pH because of charge repulsion between deprotonated carboxylic acid groups. Hydrogels were prepared by UV-initiated free radical polymerization using tetraethylene glycol as the crosslinking agent and Irgacure 2959 as the initiator. The effect of monomer ratios, crosslinking ratio, and solvent amount on the properties of the hydrogels were investigated. The composition of the hydrogels was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Equilibrium swelling studies in the pH range of 1.2-7 revealed that the extent of swelling increased with increasing pH up to a pH of about 6, when no further carboxylic acid deprotonation occurred. Studies in Caco-2 colorectal carcinoma cells confirmed the cytocompatibility of these materials at concentrations of up to 5 mg/mL. PMID:19536838

  4. Radical Perineal Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Gkta?

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Complete surgical removal of the prostate is the most commonly used treatment option for patients with localized prostate cancer. Surgical treatment of localized prostate cancer includes radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy and robotic/ laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Since lympadenectomy from the same incision is not possible in radical retropubic prostatectomy, this approach is less preferable. On the other hand, when radical perineal prostatectomy in well selected cases is compared with radical retropubic prostatectomy in terms of many operational or functional criteria, similar results were obtained. In this paper, we aimed to report our experiences with this uncommon surgical approach.

  5. Automatic flow system for sequential determination of ABTS scavenging capacity and Folin-Ciocalteu index: A comparative study in food products

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Luís M.; Segundo, Marcela A.; Reis, Salette; Lima, José L.F.C.; Tóth, Ildikó V.; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, an automatic flow procedure for the sequential spectrophotometric determination of Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FC assay) and 2,2 -azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging capacity expressed as the trolox equivalent (TEAC assay) is proposed for a comparative study of antioxidant properties in food products. Exploiting the flexibility of flow management associated to the computer control offered by multisyringe flow injectio...

  6. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author)

  7. Radical Scavenging Effects of Different Veronica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan ?ebnem Harput

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the excessive production of reactive oxygen species is hazardous for living organisms and damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, lipid and protein. To find new products reducing free radical damage is very important researches in recent pharmaceutical investigations. Considering this information, fourteen Veronica species are decided to research in the view point of their antioxidant capacity and the chemical content. Water extracts of the plants were tested for their radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide (SO and nitric oxide (NO radicals spectroscopically. Dose dependent radical scavenging activity was observed and the results were found to be comparable to that of ascorbic acid, quercetin and BHA which are known antioxidative compounds. In addition, gallic acid equivalent total phenolic contents of the plants were also determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The most significant scavenging activity was found for V. chamaedrys against SO radical (IC50 113.40 ?g/ml and V. officinalis against DPPH and NO radicals (IC50 40.93 ?g/ml, 570.33 ?g/ml, respectively .

  8. Oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased reaction rates of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs with SO2 to produce sulfuric acid is investigated using data from two different locations, SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Results from MALTE, a zero-dimensional model, show that using previous values for the rate coefficients of sCI + SO2, the model underestimates gas phase H2SO4 by up to a factor of two when compared to measurements. Using the rate coefficients recently calculated by Mauldin et al. (2012 increases sulfuric acid by 30–40%. Increasing the rate coefficient for formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO with SO2 according to the values recommended by Welz et al. (2012 increases the H2SO4 yield by 3–6%. Taken together, these increases lead to the conclusion that, depending on their concentrations, the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with SO2 could contribute as much as 33–46% to atmospheric sulfuric acid gas phase concentrations at ground level. Using the SMEAR II data, results from SOSA, a one-dimensional model, show that the contribution from sCI reactions to sulfuric acid production is most important in the canopy, where the concentrations of organic compounds are the highest, but can have significant effects on sulfuric acid concentrations up to 100 m. The recent findings that the reaction of sCI + SO2 is much faster than previously thought together with these results show that the inclusion of this new oxidation mechanism could be crucial in regional as well as global models.

  9. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). PMID:23273450

  10. Free radical scavenging activity of papaya juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya juice is an efficient scavenger of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH radical) formed during 60Co irradiation of water. The OH anion radicals were detected by the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique of spin trapping using DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) or by a colorimetric assay in which salicylate is converted into polyhydroxybenzoic acids. Papaya juice is also able to quench the ESR signal of a stable free radical (TEMPOL) and the ESR signal of the DMPO-OH adduct. The active substance(s) in papaya juice are heat-stable, dialyzable, and soluble in water but not in lipid solvents. The active agents do not appear to be ascorbate, tocopherol, or carotenoids. (author)

  11. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of culinary herbs subjected to various cooking and storage processes using the ABTS(*+) radical cation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Magali; Forster-Wilkins, Gary; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2008-06-01

    Culinary herbs have the potential to be a significant source of antioxidants in the diet. However, many culinary herbs are cooked or undergo some other form of processing before they are consumed as part of a meal and such factors may affect their significance as a source of dietary antioxidants. Thus, the impact of cooking (simmering, microwaving, stewing, stir frying and grilling) and storage (vinegar maceration, cold maceration and freezing) on the antioxidant capacity of common culinary herbs was investigated. Extracts of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, ginger, lavender, parsley, rose, rosemary, sage and thyme were prepared pre and post cooking or storage and their antioxidant capacities determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC). Simmering, soup making and stewing significantly increased antioxidant capacity, whilst grilling and stir frying decreased it. Both freezing herbs at -20 degrees C and cold maceration had preservative effects on antioxidant capacity. Herbs in cold vinegar macerations for 1 week showed a decrease in antioxidant capacity compared to the control extracts. These results indicate that the potential of culinary herbs to be significant contributors to dietary antioxidant intake is significantly affected by both cooking and storage. PMID:18224444

  12. Effect of free radical spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) on seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 1 (2006), s. 105-119. ISSN 0014-4886 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1238 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid induced seizures * neuronal damage * protection Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.156, year: 2006

  13. Radical formation in single crystals of aromatic amines and radical transformation by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of the four aromatic bioamine salts phenylethylamine hydrochloride, tyramine hydrochloride, tryptamine hydrochloride, and histamine dihydrochloride were grown in various states of deuteration. Free radicals were produced by exposure to X-rays between 77 and 300 K and investigated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Dissociation of atomic hydrogen from Csub(?) of the aliphatic chain occurs in all compounds studied except tryptamine. However deamination as usually present in the analogous amino acids is not found. The Csub(?)-radical is characterized by an anisotropic Hsub(?)-splitting and two isotropic Hsub(?)-splittings. The latter splittings depend strongly on temperature in tyramine. In comparison to the analogous amino acids, radical formation in the aromatic residues is favoured. Among the seven different aromatic radicals found only one is identified in histamine but two in each of the three other bioamines. Two of these are characterized by hydrogen dissociation which occurs in phenylethylamine and tyramine. One hydrogen addition radical is found in each of the three compounds phenylethylamine, tyramine and histamine. In tryptamine two different addition radicals are detected. One of the two products can be converted into the other by visible light. The reverse process is induced by heat, thus permitting the switching of the radical site reversibly between two different structures. (author)

  14. Radicals derived from 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radicals derived from three 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinones containing NH2, NHMe and OH substituent groups have been studied in methanol solution using the technique of pulse radiolysis. Absorption spectra and rates of formation of semiquinone radical species (DH. and D-.), formed respectively under acidic and alkaline conditions, have been recorded. Aggregation of the ground state dye must be assumed to obtain positive extinction coefficients for the radical formed under alkaline conditions. (author)

  15. Prostatectomia radical laparoscpica Radical laparoscopic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIO A CASTILLO C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La Prostatectomia radical laparoscpica (PRL se ha convertido en una tcnica atractiva para el tratamiento quirrgico del cncer de prstata localizado. Si bien, los resultados actuales son inicialmente comparables a la prostatectomia radical abierta, es importante mencionar que la tendencia quirrgica en cncer de prstata, se ha modificado a pesar de que no hay estudios que confirmen la superioridad del mtodo endoscpico y hoy, el estndar dorado sigue siendo la prostatectomia radical abierta. Dos rutas de acceso quirrgico pueden ser utilizadas para la realizacin de PRL, la va extraperitoneal y la transperitoneal. Un menor sangrado y menor tasa de transfusin, as como, tiempo de hospitalizacin y recuperacin ms cortos, son ventajas incuestionables para los procedimientos laparoscpicos. Los resultados oncolgicos y funcionales de la prostatectomia laparoscpica son hoy en da comparables, pero en ningn caso mejores que la tcnica retropbica abierta estndar. Recientemente, Hu y colaboradores, en base a una revisin de cerca de 3.000 pacientes tratados en los Estados Unidos, plantean la posibilidad de que los pacientes tratados con prostatectomia laparoscpica (pura o asistida por robot, pudiesen tener mayor riesgo de recurrencia de la enfermedad. Esta es una posicin discutible, ya que el anlisis, a pesar de ser extenso es limitado para establecer conclusiones finales en el tema. Es importante recordar que la PRL sigue siendo una intervencin tcnicamente difcil y debiera ser realizada en centros seleccionados con equipos experimentados. La prostatectoma laparoscpica asistida por Robot, facilita el procedimiento y en suma, pareciera mejorar los resultados oncolgicos y funcionales. La PRL es hoy en da una alternativa vlida a la prostatectoma retropbica tradicional, con ciertas ventajas adicionales.Radical laparosocpic prostatectomy (RLP is an attractive therapeutic modality for localized prostate cancer. The results obtained with this technique are similar to those obtained with open radical prostatectomy, which continues to be the gold standard for the treatment of prostate cancer. The surgical access for RLP can be extra-peritoneal or trans-peritoneal. The advantages of laparoscopy are lower bleeding rates, less need for transfusion and shorter recuperation time and hospital stay. The oncological results of RLP are similar, but in any case better, that those obtained with open retropubic radical prostatectomy. Recent reports raised the concern that laparoscopic prostatectomy could have higher rates of relapse of cancer. However this opinion is questionable. RLP is a difficult technique and should be performed by experienced teams. Robot assistance facilitates the procedure and could improve functional and oncological results. Therefore RLP is nowadays an alternative to traditional retropubic prostatectomy.

  16. Fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante estimada con los ensayos DPPH/ABTS en rosas en soluciones preservantes / Total phenols and antioxidant capacity estimated with DPPH/ABTS assays in roses on preservative solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadia, Zenil Lugo; Ma. Teresa, Colinas Len; Cecilio, Bautista Bauelos; Tito Roque, Vzquez Rojas; Hctor, Lozoya Saldaa; Ma.Teresa, Martnez Damin.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tallos de rosa 'Freedom' se evaluaron en dos soluciones preservantes: 8-citrato de hidroxiquinoleina (HQC) y Chrysal CLEAR Professional 2 T-bag (CHRYSAL) en un pulso de 24 h a temperatura ambiente (24 2 C, 75 % HR) y agua como testigo. Se utiliz un diseo completamente al azar con cuatro repeti [...] ciones, la unidad experimental fue un tallo floral. Se evalu la vida de florero, el contenido de fenoles totales con el mtodo colorimtrico de Folin-Ciocalteauy la capacidad antioxidante total (caT) con los ensayos DPPH y ABTS tanto en hoja como en ptalo. Se realiz el ANOVA y correlaciones simples entre la caT y el contenido de fenoles, y entre ambos ensayos. Los resultados muestran que las soluciones preservantes promueven un aumento en la caT y contenido de fenoles totales en hoja, pero no en ptalo. Las hojas de los tallos florales tratados con CHRYSAL presentaron los mayores contenidos de fenoles totales y caT, mientras que el testigo los menores. La vida media de florero fue de: 13, 11 y 9 das para los tratados con CHRYSAL, HQC y el testigo, respectivamente. El contenido de fenoles totales present una estrecha relacin positiva (?? 0.01) con la caT: 0.87 y 0.85 medida con el ABTS y 0.92 y 0.85 con el DPPH en hoja y ptalo respectivamente y tambin ambos mtodos se correlacionaron entre s positiva y significativamente (r= 0.91) en hoja y (r= 0.93) en ptalo. Abstract in english Rose stems 'Freedom' were evaluated in two preservative solutions: 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (HQC) and Chrysal CLEAR Professional 2 T-bag (CHRYSAL) in a pulse of 24 h at room temperature (24 2 C, 75% HR) and water as control. A completely randomized design with four replications was used; the e [...] xperimental unit was a flower stem. Vase life, total phenolic content with the colorimetric method Folin-Ciocalteauy, total antioxidant capacity (caT) with DPPH and ABTS assays in both leaf and petal was evaluated. ANOVA and simple correlations between caT and content of phenols and between both assays was made. The results show that preservative solutions promote an increase in caT and total phenolic content in leaf, but not in petal. The leaves of the flowering stems treated with CHRYSAL had the highest contents of total phenols and caT, while control the lowest. The average vase life was 13, 11 and 9 days for those treated with CHRYSAL, HQC and control, respectively. The total phenolic content showed a strong positive relation (? ?0.01) with caT: 0.87 and 0.85 measured with ABTS and 0.92 and 0.85 with DPPH in leaf and petal respectively and also both methods were correlated positively and significantly with each other (r= 0.91) in leaf and (r= 0.93) in petal.

  17. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  18. Gallic Acid Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Neurotoxicity in Wistar Rats Through Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Improvement in Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Saba, Adebowale Bernard; Olowu, Ebunoluwa Racheal; Dada, Racheal Omolola; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a widely used anticancer chemotherapeutic agent and its toxicity has been associated with its toxic metabolites phosphormide mustard. Therefore, the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid against neurotoxicity was examined in this study. Sixty rats were grouped into 10 rats per group. Group 1 received saline orally. Group 2 received CPA at 100 mg/kg single dose intraperitoneally on day 1. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with Gallic acid (GA) at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight only for 10 days and also received a single dose of CPA (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on day 1, respectively. Rats in groups 5 and 6 received GA at 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight only for 10 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received GA orally. The cerebellar and cerebral malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and hydrogen peroxide generation were significantly (p GST) activities were significantly (p benefit to the pharmaceutical industries as an adjuvant in chemotherapy with little or no side effects. PMID:26716793

  19. Carbohydrate radicals: from ethylene glycol to DNA strand breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sonntag, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    Radiation-induced DNA strand breakage results from the reactions of radicals formed at the sugar moiety of DNA. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this reaction investigations were first performed on low molecular weight model systems. Results from studies on deoxygenated aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol, 2-deoxy-d-ribose and other carbohydrates and, more relevantly, of d-ribose-5-phosphate have shown that substituents can be eliminated from the ?-position of the radical site either proton and base-assisted (as in the case of the OH substituent), or spontaneously (as in the case of the phosphate substituent). In DNA the C(4') radical undergoes strand breakage via this type of reaction. In the presence of oxygen the carbon-centred radicals are rapidly converted into the corresponding peroxyl radicals. Again, low molecular weights models have been investigated to elucidate the key reactions. A typical reaction of DNA peroxyl radicals is the fragmentation of the C(4')-C(S') bond, a reaction not observed in the absence of oxygen. Although OH radicals may be the important direct precursors of the sugar radicals of DNA, results obtained with poly(U) indicate that base radicals may well be of even greater importance. The base radicals, formed by addition of the water radicals (H and OH) to the bases would in their turn attack the sugar moiety to produce sugar radicals which then give rise to strand breakage and base release. For a better understanding of strand break formation it is therefore necessary to investigate in more detail the reactions of the base radicals. For a start, the radiolysis of uracil in oxygenated solutions has been reinvestigated, and it has been shown that the major peroxyl radical in this system undergoes base-catalysed elimination of [Formula: see text], a reaction that involves the proton at N(l). In the nucleic acids the pyrimidines are bound at N(l) to the sugar moiety and this type of reaction can no longer occur. Therefore, with respect to the nucleic acids, pyrimidines are good models only in acid solutions where the [Formula: see text] elimination reaction is too slow to compete with the bimolecular reactions of the peroxyl radicals. Moreover, the long lifetime of the radical sites on the nucleic acid strand may allow reactions to occur which are kinetically of first order, and which cannot be studied in model systems at ordinary dose rates. It is therefore suggested to extend model system studies to low dose rates and to oligonucleo-tides. Such studies might eventually reveal the key reactions in radical-induced DNA degradation. PMID:24882513

  20. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-29

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  1. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgenii T.; Solodova, S. L.; Denisova, Taisa G.

    2010-12-01

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  2. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  3. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor ABT-384 and its two active metabolites in healthy volunteers: population analysis of data from a drug-drug interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Katz, David A; Marek, Gerard; Awni, Walid; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-05-01

    ABT-384 [1-piperazineacetamide, N-[5-(aminocarbonyl) tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl]-α,α-dimethyl-4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-,stereoisomer] is a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD-1). ABT-384 has been shown to be safe and well tolerated in humans at doses up to 100 mg daily, and to fully inhibit both peripheral and brain HSD-1 at a dose of 2 mg daily. The effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of ABT-384 and its two active metabolites, A-1331480 and A-847082, was investigated in healthy volunteers. When 10 mg of ABT-384 was coadministered with ketoconazole, ABT-384 exposures increased 18-fold for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and 3.5-fold for Cmax. The results suggest that ABT-384 is a sensitive substrate of CYP3A. After ketoconazole coadministration, exposures of A-1331480 and A-847082 were also greatly increased. A population pharmacokinetic model was constructed for ABT-384 and its metabolites using NonMEM. A two-compartment model with three transit absorption compartments best described ABT-384 data. The model predicted a 69.3% decrease in ABT-384 clearance and 91.1% increase in the volume of distribution of ABT-384 in the presence of ketoconazole. A-1331480 was shown to be formation rate-limited and A-847082 was elimination rate-limited. Both metabolites were characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order rate constants of formation and elimination. Overall the model adequately captured the concentration-time profiles of ABT-384, A-1331480, and A-847082 in both ABT-384-alone and ketoconazole-coadministration conditions. Although ABT-384 exposures were greatly increased in the presence of ketoconazole, coadministration of ABT-384 with ketoconazole or other strong/moderate CYP3A inhibitors is not expected to contribute to any major clinical safety issues considering the favorable safety profile of ABT-384. PMID:23431112

  4. Myeloperoxidase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities of flavones from Pterogyne nitens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniara Cristina; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Bolzani, Vanderlan Silva; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira

    2008-05-01

    Two new flavone glucosides, nitensosides A and B (1, 2), together with four known compounds, sorbifolin (3), sorbifolin 6-O-beta-glucopyranoside (4), pedalitin (5), and pedalitin 6-O-beta-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from Pterogyne nitens. Their structures were elucidated from 1D and 2D NMR analysis, as well as by high resolution mass spectrometry. All the isolated flavones were evaluated for their myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitory activity. The most active compound, pedalitin, exhibited IC50 value of 3.75 nM on MPO. Additionally, the radical-scavenging capacity of flavones 1-6 was evaluated towards ABTS and DPPH radicals and compared to standard compounds quercetin and Trolox. PMID:18451567

  5. Data on the DNA damaging and mutagenic potential of the BH3-mimetics ABT-263/Navitoclax and TW-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Maja M.; Shekhar, Tanmay M.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, the mutagenic activities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy can provoke development of therapy-induced malignancies in cancer survivors. Non-mutagenic anti-cancer therapies may be less likely to trigger subsequent malignant neoplasms. Here we present data regarding the DNA damaging and mutagenic potential of two drugs that antagonize proteins within the Bcl-2 family: ABT-263/Navitoclax and TW-37. Our data reveal that concentrations of these agents that stimulated Bax/Bak-dependent signaling provoked little DNA damage and failed to trigger mutations in surviving cells. The data supplied in this article is related to the research work entitled "Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells" [1].

  6. Synthesis of [14C]ABT-418, a cholinergic channel activator labeled at two sites on the isoxazole ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]ABT-418, (S)-3-[14C]methyl-5-[N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl] [4-14C]isoxazole hydrochloride, was labeled in two positions at maximum specific activity. Starting with 100 mCi of sodium [2-14C]acetate, 14.6 mCi at 105 mCi/mmol was obtained in 8 steps including the formation of [1,3-14C]acetone in the pyrolysis of barium [2-14C]acetate. The key step was the formation of the dianion of [1,3-14C]acetone oxime and its condensation with L-proline methyl ester. (author)

  7. Synthesis of [{sup 14}C]ABT-418, a cholinergic channel activator labeled at two sites on the isoxazole ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, B.W.; Thomas, S.B. [Abbott Labs., Drug Metabolism, Abbott Park, IL (United States); Elliott, R.L.; Kopecka, Hana [Abbott Labs., Neuroscience Research, Abbott Park, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    [{sup 14}C]ABT-418, (S)-3-[{sup 14}C]methyl-5-[N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl] [4-{sup 14}C]isoxazole hydrochloride, was labeled in two positions at maximum specific activity. Starting with 100 mCi of sodium [2-{sup 14}C]acetate, 14.6 mCi at 105 mCi/mmol was obtained in 8 steps including the formation of [1,3-{sup 14}C]acetone in the pyrolysis of barium [2-{sup 14}C]acetate. The key step was the formation of the dianion of [1,3-{sup 14}C]acetone oxime and its condensation with L-proline methyl ester. (author).

  8. Radical simplification made easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, R. E. B.

    1977-01-01

    Problems encountered in manipulating algebraic numbers and functions are discussed. Methods for simplifying nested and un-nested radicals are described. Results obtained are either classical or direct corollaries of classical results.

  9. Estudio comparativo sobre la capacidad de atrapamiento del catiónradical ABTS+. Por los aceites esenciales de especies aromáticas con alto contenido de trans-ANETOL Y ESTRAGOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amner Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición química de aceites esenciales (AEs y extractos de seis especies aromáticas con alto contenido de trans-anetol y estragol (estragón de invierno, estragón, anís estrellado, anisillo, hinojo y sígueme morado, obtenidos por hidrodestilación asistida por radiación de microondas (MWHD y destilación-extracción simultánea con solvente (SDE. La separación e identificación de los compuestos se realizó por GC-MS en columna apolar DB-5MS, comparando sus espectros de masas con los de las bases de datos ADAMS, NIST02 y Wiley138 e índices de retención de kovàts. Para todos los AEs se evaluó su capacidad del atrapamiento del catión-radical ABTS+. (ácido 2,2’ -azino-bis -(3-etiltiazolina-bencenosulfónico-6.

  10. Digital radicalization of youth

    OpenAIRE

    Geeraerts, Sanne B.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses to what extent it can be argued that the Internet has an influence on the radicalization of youth. Although it is commonly assumed that the Internet facilitates exposure to different perspectives, it is also thought to produce homogeneous "echo rooms" in which participants sharing a particular political or civic viewpoint have a greater chance of becoming radicalized. Because participants in homogeneous groups share similar perspectives, opposing views are not expressed ...

  11. Hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, G.; Corsi, R.; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, D. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Resources; Weschler, C.J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.

    2002-08-01

    Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations were estimated using a new indoor air quality model which employs the SAPRC-99 atmospheric chemistry model to simulate indoor homogenous reactions. Model results indicate that typical indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are lower than typical outdoor summertime urban hydroxyl radical levels of 5-10 x 10{sup 6} molecules cm{sup -3}; however, indoor levels can be similar to or greater than typical nighttime outdoor hydroxyl radical levels of approximately 5 x 10{sup 4} molecules cm{sup -3}. Effects of selected parameters on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are presented herein. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are predicted to increase non-linearly with increasing outdoor ozone concentrations, indoor alkene emission rates, and air exchange rates. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations decrease with increasing outdoor nitric oxide concentrations. Indoor temperature and indoor light intensity have moderate impacts on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Outdoor hydroxyl radical concentrations, outdoor nitrate (NO{sub 3}) radical concentrations, outdoor hydroperoxy radical concentrations, and hydroxyl radical removal by indoor surfaces are predicted to have no appreciable impact on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Production of hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments appears to be controlled primarily by reactions of alkenes with ozone, and nitric oxide with hydroperoxy radical. Estimated indoor hydroxyl radical levels may potentially affect indoor air quality. Two examples are presented in which reactions of d-limonene and {alpha}-pinene with indoor hydroxyl radicals produce aldehydes, which may be of greater concern than the original compounds.(author)

  12. Poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid): Comparing of Traditional Heating and Microwave-Assisted Free Radical Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In organic chemistry microwave irradiation has become a common heat source and the use of microwave irradiation is also increasingly studied for polymerization reactions. Polymers have been synthesized at long reaction times by classical thermal methods. In contrast, microwave-assisted polymer synthesis is a well-known and most useful method, which is requiring shorter reaction times. In this study, our aims are to compare THPS and MAPS methods between themselves, and investigate the effect of temperature in MAPS method at different parameters such as reaction times, weight average molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (PDI), hydrodynamic radius (Rh), intrinsic and Mark Houwink equation constant (a) of copolymers, viscosity Firstly we synthesized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-acrylic acid copolymers (P(VP-co-AA)) both with traditional heating polymer synthesis (THPS) and microwave-assisted polymer synthesis (MAPS) method comparatively in this study. Secondly, to research temperature effect on MAPS method in addition to microwave irradiation power, polymer synthesis at 40 degree C, 50 degree C and 80 degree C were tried. For analyzing of copolymers Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) system with four detectors were used. (author)

  13. Antioxidant capacity automatic assay based on inline photogenerated radical species from L-glutathione-capped CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela M C; Ribeiro, David S M; Frigerio, Christian; Rodrigues, S Sofia M; Santos, João L M; Prior, João A V

    2015-08-15

    This work aimed at the development of a methodology implemented in an automatic flow system for determination of the antioxidant capacity in food samples, based on the luminol oxidation by inline photogenerated radical species from cadmium telluride nanoparticles capped with L-glutathione. Radical species were generated inline by a high-power visible light obtained by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) assembled in a multipumping flow system (MPFS). The use of visible light instead of UV radiation allowed the development of a new methodology for antioxidant capacity determination, more environment friendly and to circumvent the risk for UV photo-induced degradation of sample antioxidant compounds. Additionally, the formation of superoxide radical species was theoretically predicted considering the variation of the redox potential with the size of CdTe QDs and the values of redox potential of the oxidizing and oxidable species present in the irradiated medium. The obtained results of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) from the analysis of commercial beverages were compared with the results of ABTS and DPPH batch assays through Spearman's-Rho correlation coefficients and no correlation was found (for ABTS: ρ=0.2, pdetermination rate of about 79h(-1), a total waste generation of 20.5mL h(-1) and the consumption of 0.100mg h(-1) of QDs and 2.1mg h(-1) of luminol. PMID:25966406

  14. MLL-Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias Activate BCL-2 through H3K79 Methylation and Are Sensitive to the BCL-2-Specific Antagonist ABT-199.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Juliana M; Godfrey, Laura; Kojima, Kensuke; Hogdal, Leah; Wunderlich, Mark; Geng, Huimin; Marzo, Isabel; Harutyunyan, Karine G; Golfman, Leonard; North, Phillip; Kerry, Jon; Ballabio, Erica; Chonghaile, Triona Ní; Gonzalo, Oscar; Qiu, Yihua; Jeremias, Irmela; Debose, LaKiesha; O'Brien, Eric; Ma, Helen; Zhou, Ping; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Park, Eugene; Coombes, Kevin R; Zhang, Nianxiang; Thomas, Deborah A; O'Brien, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Leverson, Joel D; Kornblau, Steven M; Andreeff, Michael; Müschen, Markus; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A; Mulloy, James C; Letai, Anthony; Milne, Thomas A; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-12-29

    Targeted therapies designed to exploit specific molecular pathways in aggressive cancers are an exciting area of current research. Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) mutations such as the t(4;11) translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to conventional treatment. The t(4;11) translocation produces an MLL/AF4 fusion protein that activates key target genes through both epigenetic and transcriptional elongation mechanisms. In this study, we show that t(4;11) patient cells express high levels of BCL-2 and are highly sensitive to treatment with the BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetic ABT-199. We demonstrate that MLL/AF4 specifically upregulates the BCL-2 gene but not other BCL-2 family members via DOT1L-mediated H3K79me2/3. We use this information to show that a t(4;11) cell line is sensitive to a combination of ABT-199 and DOT1L inhibitors. In addition, ABT-199 synergizes with standard induction-type therapy in a xenotransplant model, advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias. PMID:26711339

  15. MLL-Rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias Activate BCL-2 through H3K79 Methylation and Are Sensitive to the BCL-2-Specific Antagonist ABT-199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. Benito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies designed to exploit specific molecular pathways in aggressive cancers are an exciting area of current research. Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL mutations such as the t(4;11 translocation cause aggressive leukemias that are refractory to conventional treatment. The t(4;11 translocation produces an MLL/AF4 fusion protein that activates key target genes through both epigenetic and transcriptional elongation mechanisms. In this study, we show that t(4;11 patient cells express high levels of BCL-2 and are highly sensitive to treatment with the BCL-2-specific BH3 mimetic ABT-199. We demonstrate that MLL/AF4 specifically upregulates the BCL-2 gene but not other BCL-2 family members via DOT1L-mediated H3K79me2/3. We use this information to show that a t(4;11 cell line is sensitive to a combination of ABT-199 and DOT1L inhibitors. In addition, ABT-199 synergizes with standard induction-type therapy in a xenotransplant model, advocating for the introduction of ABT-199 into therapeutic regimens for MLL-rearranged leukemias.

  16. Radical scavenging activities of Tyr-, Trp-, Cys- and Met-Gly and their protective effects against AAPH-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Dong, Hongzhu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-04-15

    Radical scavenging activities of Tyr-, Trp-, Cys- and Met-Gly and their protective effects against AAPH-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes were evaluated in this study. This damage includes hemolysis, oxidation of hemoglobin, formation of MDA and the depletion of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). Results showed that Tyr- and Trp-Gly could quench the radicals effectively in ABTS and ORAC assays with TE (Trolox equivalent) values of more than 1.0?mol TE/?mol, followed by Cys- and Met-Gly. All these dipeptides could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. They could also significantly (perythrocytes. The protective effects of these dipeptides decreased in the following order: Trp-Gly>Tyr-Gly>Met-Gly>Cys-Gly, which were consistent with their peroxyl radical scavenging activities. It suggested that these dipeptides might protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced oxidative damage, mainly by acting as the direct radical scavengers. PMID:26617020

  17. Aliphatic peptidyl hydroperoxides as a source of secondary oxidation in hydroxyl radical protein footprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Saladino, Jessica; Liu, Mian; Live, David; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical footprinting is a technique for studying protein structure and binding that entails oxidizing a protein system of interest with diffusing hydroxyl radicals, and then measuring the amount of oxidation of each amino acid. One important issue in hydroxyl radical footprinting is limiting amino acid oxidation by secondary oxidants to prevent uncontrolled oxidation which can cause amino acids to appear more solvent accessible than they really are. Previous work suggested that hydro...

  18. Oxygen radicals stimulate guinea pig gallbladder glycoprotein secretion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several animal models of cholelithiasis, and in humans with gallstones, hypersecretion of gallbladder mucin is observed. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of oxygen radicals on guinea pig gallbladder glycoprotein secretion in organ culture. Mucosal explants were incubated with [3H]glucosamine hydrochloride to label glycoproteins, then exposed to oxygen radicals generated by chelated ferric iron and ascorbic acid. Marked stimulation of glycoprotein release was observed after a 30-min exposure to the oxygen radical-generating system, and the effect was inhibited by mannitol. The stimulatory effect of hydroxyl radical was not accompanied by leakage of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase. Parallel experiments with human granulocytes activated with f-Met-Leu-Phe and coincubated with gallbladder explants revealed similar results. These results indicate that oxygen radicals, especially the hydroxyl radical (OH), are capable of stimulating rapid release of mucous-type glycoproteins from gallbladder epithelium

  19. Sorafenib Sensitizes Glioma Cells to the BH3 Mimetic ABT-737 by Targeting MCL1 in a STAT3-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kiprianova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is overactivated in malignant glioma and plays a key role in promoting cell survival, thereby increasing the acquired apoptosis resistance of these tumors. Here we investigated the STAT3/myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1 signaling pathway as a target to overcome the resistance of glioma cells to the Bcl-2-inhibiting synthetic BH3 mimetic ABT-737. Stable lentiviral knockdown of MCL1 sensitized LN229 and U87 glioma cells to apoptotic cell death induced by single-agent treatment with ABT-737 which was associated with an early activation of DEVDase activity, cytochrome c release, and nuclear apoptosis. Similar sensitizing effects were observed when ABT-737 treatment was combined with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib which effectively suppressed levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and MCL1 in MCL1-proficient LN229 and U87 glioma cells. In analogous fashion, these synergistic effects were observed when we combined ABT-737 with the STAT3 inhibitor WP-1066. Lentiviral knockdown of the activating transcription factor 5 combined with subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that sorafenib-dependent suppression of MCL1 occurred at the transcriptional level but did not depend on activating transcription factor 5 which previously had been proposed to be essential for MCL1-dependent glioma cell survival. In contrast, the constitutively active STAT3 mutant STAT3-C was able to significantly enhance MCL1 levels under sorafenib treatment to retain cell survival. Collectively, these data demonstrate that sorafenib targets MCL1 in a STAT3-dependent manner, thereby sensitizing glioma cells to treatment with ABT-737. They also suggest that targeting STAT3 in combination with inducers of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis may be a promising novel strategy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

  20. An exploratory study on the peroxyl-radical-scavenging activity of 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol and its heterocyclic analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Sikora, Magdalena; Bonikowski, Radosław; Kula, Józef

    2016-03-01

    The structural properties and radical scavenging activity of 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol (1) and its new heterocyclic analogues, i.e. 2-methyl-4-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)-butan-2-ol (2) and 2-methyl-4-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-butan-2-ol (3) and have been studied by using the experimental and theoretical methods for the first time. Activity of title compounds against the peroxyl radical was determined by using standard fluorimetric test, i.e. the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay (ORACFL). Furthermore, the electron-donating ability of odorants has been evaluated by using colorimetric ABTS assay. According to the experimental results obtained from the ORACFL test 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol was characterized by the highest activity in comparison with the novel counterparts. Nevertheless, all investigated compounds exhibited pronounced anti-peroxyl radical activity comparable to that exerted by the one of the most prominent antioxidant among the monoterpene alcohols, i.e. by linalool. On the other hand, the title compounds exerted relatively low capacity to quench the radical cation of ABTS. Theoretical calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with the hybrid functional B3LYP were carried out in order to investigate selected structural and electronic properties including the geometrical parameters as well as the energy of frontier molecular orbitals of parent molecules and the resulting radicals. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of peroxyl-radical-scavenging has been determined by using the thermodynamic descriptors such as the bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and ionization potentials (IPs). These theoretical data pointed out the relevance of HAT mechanism in the peroxyl-radical-scavenging exhibited by 2,6-dimethyl-5-hepten-2-ol and its new heterocyclic analogues in polar and non-polar medium.

  1. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L. and Ceiba pentandra L.

    OpenAIRE

    Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts from H. isora fruits and C. pentandra seeds were investigated by employing established in vitro systems, which included reducing power, OH?, DPPH?, ABTS?+, linoleic acid emulsion, metal chelation and antihemolytic activity. The extracts of C. pentandra contained relatively higher levels of total phenolics and flavonoids than those of H. isora. All the extracts showed dose dependent reducing power activity and moreover, they...

  2. Thermochemistry of fluorocarbon radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ideal gas thermodynamic functions (entropy, heat capacity, enthalpy) for free radicals can only be determined by statistical thermodynamics as the species are much too reactive for extended calorimetric measurements. These functions have been calculated in the rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator approximation and hindered, internal rotations have been treated by Pitzer's semiclassical approximations. This approximation has been shown to give quite satisfactory agreement with exact calculations. These calculations require detailed structural and mechanical data for the free radical. Very little of these data are known, though difluoromethylene and trifluoromethyl are exceptions, so that much must be estimated. Though these data are limited, they can be combined with group additivity to form the basis for the thermochemistry of several classes of free radicals. Caution must be exercised when this estimation procedure is applied to compounds with groups of very different polarity. 41 references, 12 tables

  3. Sources, sinks, and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical (•OH) photoproduction and consumption in authentic acidic continental cloud waters from Whiteface Mountain, New York: The role of the Fe(r) (r = II, III) photochemical cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Faust, Bruce C.

    1998-02-01

    Hydroxyl radical (•OH) photoproduction in 25 authentic acidic (pH = 2.9-4.4) continental cloud waters from Whiteface Mountain, New York was quantified by phenol formed from the •OH-mediated oxidation of benzene (1.2 mM) that was added as an •OH scavenger. Based on the effect of added bisulfite (HSO3-/HOSO2-), an HOOH sink, the •OH photoproduction in these samples was apportioned into two categories: HOOH-dependent sources (dominant), and HOOH-independent sources (minor). On average only a small percentage (median = 9.4%, mean±standard deviation = 16±12%) of the HOOH-dependent •OH source is due to direct photolysis (313 nm) of HOOH. Nearly all of the HOOH-dependent •OH source is accounted for by an iron(II)-HOOH photo-Fenton reaction mechanism (Fe(II) + HOOH → Fe(III) + •OH + OH-) that is initiated by photoreduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) in the presence of HOOH. A photostationary state is established, involving rapid photolysis of Fe(III) to form Fe(II), and rapid reoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Consequently, a new term is introduced, Fe(r) (r = II, III), to represent the family of labile Fe(III) and Fe(II) species whose rapid photoredox cycling drives the Fenton production of •OH. The Fe(r) photochemical cycle, which drives the aqueous phase photoformation of •OH, is analogous to the classical NOx photochemical cycle, which drives the gas phase formation of O3 and thus •OH. Based on the cloud waters studied here, the iron(II)-HOOH photo-Fenton reaction is a significant source of •OH to acidic continental cloud waters in comparison to gas-to-drop partitioning processes. Filtering (0.5 μm Teflon) cloud water samples had little effect on the •OH photoformation kinetics. Measured lifetimes of aqueous •OH ranged from 2.4 to 10.6 μs in these cloud waters, and decreased with increasing concentration of dissolved organic carbon. In acidic atmospheric water drops, the principal aqueous sinks for •OH will be reactions with dissolved organic compounds, bisulfite, and Cl-. Given such short chemical reaction lifetimes, little of the aqueous phase photoformed •OH is likely to escape to the gas phase.

  4. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community...... will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding...

  5. A 'Radical' Approach to Reading Development in Chinese: The Role of Semantic Radicals and Phonetic Radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, CSH; Ng, TT; Ng, WK

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the significance of radical knowledge in Chinese reading development are reported in this paper. Study 1 examined the semantic radical knowledge of 20 Grade 1, 20 Grade 3, and 20 Grade 5 Chinese children in Hong Kong. It was found that various types of semantic radical knowledge, including the position and semantic category of semantic radicals, correlated significantly with Chinese word reading and sentence comprehension. Study 2 examined phonetic radical knowledge ...

  6. Biocompatible and biodegradable poly(Tannic Acid) hydrogel with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Silan, Coskun; Aktas, Nahit; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    A novel resourceful bulk poly(Tannic Acid) (p(TA)) hydrogel was prepared by crosslinking TA molecules with an epoxy crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPGDE), in an autoclave at 90C for 2h. The obtained p(TA) hydrogels were in disk form and have highly porous morphology. The swelling characteristics of p(TA) hydrogels were investigated in wound healing pH conditions of pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 at 37.5C, and the hydrogels showed good swelling and moisture content behavior. Especially, p(TA) hydrogels were found to be sensitive to pH 9 with 1669% maximum swelling. P(TA) hydrogels were completely degraded at pH 9 hydrolytically in 9 days. Total phenol contents and the effects of scavenging ABTS(+) radicals of degraded p(TA) hydrogels at pH 5.4, 7.4, and 9 were evaluated and calculated in terms of gallic acid equivalent and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, respectively, and found to be very effective. Moreover, degraded p(TA) hydrogels display strong antimicrobial behavior against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria strains and Candida albicans fungus strain. The WST-1 results indicated that bulk p(TA) hydrogels have no cyctotoxicity to the L929 fibroblast cell line in vitro. PMID:26526171

  7. Radical Financial Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Radical financial innovation is the development of new institutions and methods that permit risk management to be extended far beyond its former realm, covering important new classes of risks. This paper compares past such innovation with potential future innovation, looking at the process that produced past success and the possibilities for future financial innovation.

  8. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks and foi...

  9. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Radical School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia

  11. The amorphous solid dispersion of the poorly soluble ABT-102 forms nano/microparticulate structures in aqueous medium: impact on solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank KJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kerstin J Frank,1,3 Ulrich Westedt,2 Karin M Rosenblatt,2 Peter Hölig,2 Jörg Rosenberg,2 Markus Mägerlein,2 Gert Fricker,3 Martin Brandl11Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 2Abbott GmbH and Co. KG, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, GermanyAbstract: Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs are a promising formulation approach for poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, because they ideally enhance both dissolution rate and solubility. However, the mechanism behind this is not understood in detail. In the present study, we investigated the supramolecular and the nano/microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an ASD in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on solubility. The ASD, prepared by hot melt extrusion, contained the poorly soluble ABT-102 (solubility in buffer, 0.05 µg/mL, a hydrophilic polymer, and three surfactants. The apparent solubility of ABT-102 from the ASD-formulation was enhanced up to 200 times in comparison to crystalline ABT-102. At the same time, the molecular solubility, as assessed by inverse equilibrium dialysis, was enhanced two times. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in combination with a multiangle light-scattering detector, an ultraviolet detector, and a refractometer enabled us to separate and identify the various supramolecular assemblies that were present in the aqueous dispersions of the API-free ASD (placebo and of binary/ternary blends of the ingredients. Thus, the supramolecular assemblies with a molar mass between 20,000 and 90,000 could be assigned to the polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate 64, while two other kinds of assemblies were assigned to different surfactant assemblies (micelles. The amount of ABT-102 remaining associated with each of the assemblies upon fractionation was quantified offline with high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet-visible. The polymeric and the micellar fraction contributed to the substantial increase in apparent solubility of ABT-102. Furthermore, a microparticulate fraction was isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. The microparticles were found to be amorphous and to contain two of the surfactants besides ABT-102 as the main component. The amorphous microparticles are assumed to be the origin of the observed increase in molecular solubility ("true" supersaturation.Keywords: solid dispersion, AFlFFF, micelles, solubility, supersaturation

  12. Toward Radicalizing Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    This article advocates a radicalized theoretical construction of community service learning. To accomplish this radicalization, I initially take up a discussion of traditional understandings of CSL rooted in pragmatic/progressive thought. I then suggest that this traditional structural foundation can be radicalized by incorporating Deborah…

  13. DEMOCRACIA RADICAL Y CIUDADANA

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Serna

    2008-01-01

    En el presente texto se presentan dos miradas con respecto a la democracia y su relacin con el pensamiento liberal, mostrando de manera especfica las caractersticas principales de la democracia radical y la manera como sta puede realizar un adecuado encuentro entre lo individual y lo social, sin afectar las garantas mnimas que se le deben dar a todos los individuos para la realizacin de su propia concepcin de bien. Debe propiciar tambin unas condiciones adecuadas de participacin y c...

  14. Effects of radical scavengers on aqueous solutions exposed to heavy-ion irradiation using the liquid microjet technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryousuke; Miyahara, Kento; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the radical scavenger ascorbic acid on water radiolysis are studied by fast heavy-ion irradiation of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid, using the liquid microjet technique under vacuum. To understand the reaction mechanisms of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions, we directly measure secondary ions emitted from solutions with different ascorbic acid concentrations. The yield of hydronium secondary ions is strongly influenced by the reaction between ascorbic acid and hydroxyl radicals. From analysis using a simple model considering chemical equilibria, we determine that the upper concentration limit of ascorbic acid with a radical scavenger effect is approximately 70 ?M.

  15. Silicon based radicals, radical ions, diradicals and diradicaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Mondal, Kartik; Roy, Sudipta; Roesky, Herbert W

    2016-02-21

    Radicals are an important class of species which act as intermediates in numerous chemical and biological processes. Most of the radicals have short lifetimes. However, radicals with longer lifetimes can be isolated and stored in a pure form. They are called stable radicals. Over the last five decades, the syntheses of several stable radicals have been reported. Recently, highly unstable radicals have been successfully stabilized via strong ?-donation of singlet carbenes. Cyclic aklyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) is regarded as a stronger ?-donor and a better ?-acceptor when compared with that of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). In this article we review preferentially the results of our group to generate stable radical centers on the carbene carbon atoms by employing the so far hidden and unique ability of the cAACs. We focus on the development of new synthetic routes to stable and isolable radicals containing silicon atoms. All the compounds have been well characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis; the mono-radicals have been distinguished by EPR spectroscpy and the ground state of the diradicals has been studied by magnetic susceptibility measurements and theoretical calculations. Many of these compounds are studied by cyclic voltammetry and are often converted to their corresponding radical cations or radical anions via electron abstraction or addition processes. Some of them are stable, having long lifetimes and hence are isolated and characterized thoroughly. Not much information has been obtained on the short lived persistent radical species. Herein, we discuss some of the examples of such a type of species and focus on what kind of chemical reactions are initiated by these short-lived radical species in solution. We also briefly mention the syntheses and charaterization of the so far reported stable silicon centered radicals. PMID:26585359

  16. Hydroxyl Radical and Its Scavengers in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boguslaw Lipinski

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that diseases caused by oxidative stress should be treated with antioxidants. However, clinical trials with such antioxidants as ascorbic acid and vitamin E, failed to produce the expected beneficial results. On the other hand, important biomolecules can be modified by the introduction of oxygen atoms by means of non-oxidative hydroxyl radicals. In addition, hydroxyl radicals can reduce disulfide bonds in proteins, specifically fibrinogen, resulting in their unfolding...

  17. Lipid peroxyl radicals mediate tyrosine dimerization and nitration in membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartesaghi, Silvina; Wenzel, Jorge; Trujillo, Madia; Lpez, Marcos; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine dimerization and nitration by biologically-relevant oxidants usually depend on the intermediate formation of tyrosyl radical (Tyr). In the case of tyrosine oxidation in proteins associated to hydrophobic biocompartments, the participation of unsaturated fatty acids in the process must be considered since they typically constitute preferential targets for the initial oxidative attack. Thus, we postulate that lipid-derived radicals mediate the one-electron oxidation of tyrosin...

  18. Conformational Analysis of Therapeutic Proteins by Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Caroline; Sharp, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike small molecule drugs, therapeutic protein pharmaceuticals must not only have the correct amino acid sequence and modifications, but also the correct conformation to ensure safety and efficacy. Here, we describe a method for comparison of therapeutic protein conformations by hydroxyl radical protein footprinting using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) as an analytical platform. Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting allows for rapid analysis of the conformation of therapeut...

  19. Structure and lyoluminescent reactions of free radicals of irradiated lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine mechanisms of processes, resulting in lyoluminescence the structure of fren radicals in γ-irradiated lactose was investigated by the method of electron paramagnetic resonance. Analysis of dependences of different radical content in irradiated crystals and lyoluminescent characteristics of these samples on the period of their storing enabled to confirm suggested earlier luminescence mechanism with lambdasub(max)=630 nm of irradiated carbon-hydrate in neutral and acid media. The possibility of controlling the content of different types of radicals in samples by lyoluminescent method was shown

  20. Resonant cavity spectroscopy of radical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Grant

    2015-04-01

    Photo-oxidation in the troposphere is highly complex, being initiated by short lived radical species, in the daytime dominated by the hydroxyl radical, OH, with contributions from Cl atoms, and at night by either NO3 radicals or ozone. Chemical oxidation cycles, which couple OH, HO2 and peroxy (RO2) radical species, remove primary emitted trace species which are harmful to humans or to the wider environment. However, many of the secondary products produced by atmospheric photo-oxidation are also directly harmful, for example O3, NO2, acidic and multifunctional species, many of which are of low volatility and are able to partition effectively to the condensed phase, creating secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which contributes a significant fraction of tropospheric aerosol, with associated impacts on climate and human health. The accuracy of atmospheric models to predict these impacts necessarily requires accurate knowledge of the chemical oxidative cycling. Two of the simplest intermediates are the hydroperoxy radical, HO2, and the smallest and dominant organic peroxy radical, CH3O2, formed directly by the reactions of OH with CO/O2 and CH4/O2, respectively, and indirectly following the oxidation of larger VOCs. OH, HO2 and RO2 (collectively known as ROx) are rapidly cycled, being at the centre of tropospheric oxidation, and hence are some of the best targets for models to compare with field data. The reaction of HO2 and RO2 with NO constitutes the only tropospheric in-situ source of O3. Despite their importance, neither HO2 nor CH3O2 is measured directly in the atmosphere. HO2 is only measured indirectly following its conversion to OH and CH3O2 is not measured at all. Typically only the sum of RO2 radicals is measured, making no distinction between different organic peroxy radicals. This contribution will detail recent studies using (i) optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with both quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-IR, and (ii) near-IR diode laser based noise immune cavity enhanced heterodyne molecular spectroscopy as potential methods for the direct detection of HO2 and CH3O2 at atmospheric levels.

  1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor ABT-888 potentiates the cytotoxic activity of temozolomide in leukemia cells: influence of mismatch repair status and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Terzah M.; Jenkins, Gaye; Pati, Debananda; Zhang, Linna; Dolan, M Eileen; Ribes-Zamora, Albert; Bertuch, Alison A.; Blaney, Susan M; Delaney, Shannon L.; Hegde, Madhuri; Berg, Stacey L.

    2009-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor ABT-888 potentiates the antitumor activity of temozolomide (TMZ). TMZ resistance results from increased O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity and from mismatch repair (MMR) system mutations. We evaluated the relative importance of MGMT activity, MMR deficiency, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and PARP activity in ABT-888 potentiation of TMZ. MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient leukemia cells with varying MGMT activity, as well a...

  2. Pomegranate seed oil: Effect on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and elucidation of unsaturated fatty acids composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabahi, Bushra N; Fatope, Majek O; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Subash, Selvaraju; Al-Busafi, Saleh N; Al-Kusaibi, Fatma S N; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2014-09-19

    Background Seed oils are used as cosmetics or topical treatment for wounds, allergy, dandruff, and other purposes. Natural antioxidants from plants were recently reported to delay the onset or progress of various neurodegenerative conditions. Over one thousand cultivars of Punica granatum (Punicaceae) are known and some are traditionally used to treat various ailments. Aim The effect of pomegranate oil on 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP) induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) neuronal cells was analyzed in this study. Furthermore, the analysis of unsaturated fatty acid composition of the seed oil of pomegranate by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was done. Results GC-MS study showed the presence of 6,9-octadecadiynoic acid (C18:2(6,9)) as a major component (60%) as 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. The total extractable oil with light petroleum ether by Soxhlet from the dry seed of P. granatum was 4-6%. The oil analyzed for 48.90?1.50mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil, and demonstrated radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities in various in vitro assays like the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl, % IP=35.20.9%), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylene benzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid, % IP 2.20.1%), and ?-carotene bleaching assay (% IP=263%), respectively, which could be due the possible role of one methylene interrupted diynoic acid system for its radical-scavenging/antioxidant properties of oil. The oil also reduced lipid peroxidation, suppressed reactive oxygen species, extracellular nitric oxide, lactate/pyruvate ratio, and lactase dehydrogenase generated by 3-NP- (100mM) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, and enhanced the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants at 40?g of gallic acid equivalents. Conclusion The protective effect of pomegranate seed oil might be due to the ability of an oil to neutralize ROS or enhance the expression of antioxidant gene. PMID:25238165

  3. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Aki; Kajita, Masashi; Kim, Juewon; Kanayama, Atsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yusei [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bioscience Building 402, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Takahashi, Kyoko; Mashino, Tadahiko, E-mail: yusei74@k.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)

    2009-11-11

    A polyacrylic acid (PAA)-protected platinum nanoparticle species (PAA-Pt) was prepared by alcohol reduction of hexachloroplatinate. The PAA-Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed and homogeneous in size with an average diameter of 2.0 {+-} 0.4 nm (n = 200). We used electron spin resonance to quantify the residual peroxyl radical AOO. generated from 2,2-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) by thermal decomposition in the presence of O{sub 2} and a spectrophotometric method to quantify the residual 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. PAA-Pt scavenged these two radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Platinum was the functional component. PAA-Pt reduced the rate of oxygen consumption required for linoleic acid peroxidation initiated by AOO. generated from AAPH, indicating inhibition of the propagation of linolate peroxidation. A thiobarbituric acid test also revealed dose-dependent inhibition of the linolate peroxidation by PAA-Pt. Fifty micromolar platinum, as PAA-Pt, completely quenched 250 {mu}M DPPH radical for 5 min. Even when twice diluted in half, the PAA-Pt still quenched 100% of the 250 {mu}M DPPH radical. The scavenging activity of PAA-Pt is durable. These observations suggest that PAA-Pt is an efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  4. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of platinum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyacrylic acid (PAA)-protected platinum nanoparticle species (PAA-Pt) was prepared by alcohol reduction of hexachloroplatinate. The PAA-Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed and homogeneous in size with an average diameter of 2.0 ± 0.4 nm (n = 200). We used electron spin resonance to quantify the residual peroxyl radical AOO. generated from 2,2-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) by thermal decomposition in the presence of O2 and a spectrophotometric method to quantify the residual 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. PAA-Pt scavenged these two radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Platinum was the functional component. PAA-Pt reduced the rate of oxygen consumption required for linoleic acid peroxidation initiated by AOO. generated from AAPH, indicating inhibition of the propagation of linolate peroxidation. A thiobarbituric acid test also revealed dose-dependent inhibition of the linolate peroxidation by PAA-Pt. Fifty micromolar platinum, as PAA-Pt, completely quenched 250 μM DPPH radical for 5 min. Even when twice diluted in half, the PAA-Pt still quenched 100% of the 250 μM DPPH radical. The scavenging activity of PAA-Pt is durable. These observations suggest that PAA-Pt is an efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate radical anion under anoxic conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; M Adinarayana

    2003-04-01

    The rates of photooxidation of thymine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) have been determined by measuring the absorbance of thymine at 264 nm spectrophotometrically. The rates and the quantum yields () of oxidation of thymine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of thymine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ and protects thymine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for thymine as well as for caffeic acid. The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been calculated to be 1.24 × 1010 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The quantum yields of photooxidation of thymine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of thymine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cl) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ radicals show that exptl values are lower than cl values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for SO$^{\\bullet-}_{4}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the thymine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.

  6. Complications Following Radical Nephroureterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jay D; Jafri, Syed M

    2016-05-01

    Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) is the gold standard treatment strategy for bulky, high-grade, or muscle-invasive upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Many patients with UTUC who require RNU are elderly, comorbid, and at risk for perioperative complications. Recognition of likelihood and extent of such complications guides preoperative counseling, decision-making process for major surgery, and perioperative care. A critical review of such data is essential, given the inevitable impact of complications on hospital duration, need for readmission, resource utilization, and costs associated with management. PMID:26968416

  7. A radical publishing collective: the Journal of Radical Librarianship

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Barron

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of Radical Librarianship is a new open-access journal publishing scholarly work in the field of radical librarianship. The focus on critical approaches to librarianship and anti-marketisation of information is reflected not only in our subject matter but in our publishing model, our licensing model, and our organisational practices. We hope to foster open and engaging discussions about radical approaches to librarianship and information studies.

  8. The specificities of radical innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, Damien; Yannou, Bernard; Bjärnemo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a special case of new product development (NDP), that of radical innovation. When a company desires to go outside a current saturated market, it is necessary to offer a new product which is radically different from the competition. If successful, the offering will create a new market that the company can expect to dominate a least for a while until the competition strikes back. A radical NPD has several characteristics that are quite unique and distinct from othe...

  9. The macroeconomics of radical uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. M. Roos

    2015-01-01

    Macroeconomics must take radical uncertainty into account, if it aims at contributing to the solution of serious real-world problems such as climate change. Allowing for radical uncertainty must happen at two levels: the level of modeling and the level of the scientifi c discipline. I argue that the complexity approach which sees the economy as a complex adaptive system is better suited to deal with radical uncertainty than the mainstream DSGE approach. I review a number of agent-based models...

  10. A radical publishing collective: the Journal of Radical Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Barron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: the Journal of Radical Librarianship is a new open-access journal publishing scholarly work in the field of radical librarianship. The focus on critical approaches to librarianship and anti-marketisation of information is reflected not only in our subject matter but in our publishing model, our licensing model, and our organisational practices. We hope to […

  11. Alkylphenol oxidation with a laccase from a white-rot fungus: effects of culture induction and of ABTS used as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnet, A M; Chevremont, A C; Gil, G; Gastaldi, S; Ferre, E

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the potential of the laccase from the white-rot fungus Marasmius quercophilus to transform certain alkylphenols (p-nonylphenol, p-octylphenol and p-t-octylphenol). We tested the reactivity of this enzyme under different conditions: in liquid cultures and using the partially purified laccase with and without 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid (ABTS) as a mediator. The percentage of p-t-octylphenol disappearance in liquid cultures was 69.0 1.5% and 81 5% after a 8-d or 15-d incubation, respectively, with p-nonylphenol, these percentages were 62 4% and 91 6% and with p-octylphenol 37 3% and 65 1% after a 15-d and a 21-d incubations, respectively. Induced pre-cultures were also used to inoculate the liquid cultures to enhance p-octylphenol transformation: the percentages of disappearance were 91.0 0.5% and 97 1% after a 8-d and a 15-d incubation, respectively. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the products of oxidation of p-octylphenol were dimers with a mass of 411 m/z. Furthermore, we identified a purple compound (m/z 476) formed when ABTS was added to the reaction medium with the purified laccase. This result confirms that, in complex environments such as soils or litters where many molecules can interact with the enzyme substrate or the product of oxidation, laccase activities and those of other phenoloxidases should not be measured with ABTS. PMID:20980040

  12. Radical AdoMet enzymes in complex metal cluster biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, Benjamin R; Hamilton, Trinity L; Shepard, Eric M; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

    2012-11-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) enzymes comprise a large superfamily of proteins that engage in a diverse series of biochemical transformations through generation of the highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate. Recent advances into the biosynthesis of unique iron-sulfur (FeS)-containing cofactors such as the H-cluster in [FeFe]-hydrogenase, the FeMo-co in nitrogenase, as well as the iron-guanylylpyridinol (FeGP) cofactor in [Fe]-hydrogenase have implicated new roles for radical AdoMet enzymes in the biosynthesis of complex inorganic cofactors. Radical AdoMet enzymes in conjunction with scaffold proteins engage in modifying ubiquitous FeS precursors into unique clusters, through novel amino acid decomposition and sulfur insertion reactions. The ability of radical AdoMet enzymes to modify common metal centers to unusual metal cofactors may provide important clues into the stepwise evolution of these and other complex bioinorganic catalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22269887

  13. Setting the stage for electron transfer: Molecular basis of ABTS-binding to four laccases from Trametes versicolor at variable pH and protein oxidation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Johan; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2014-01-01

    and activity for unknown reasons, and are thus useful probes of stability-function trade-offs relevant to protein engineering. We report here the first systematic comparison of ABTS-binding to different proteins, i.e. the four isoforms of Trametes versicolor, using a combination of sequence clustering......, density functional theory calculations, homology modeling, and multiple induced-fit docking protocols at variable pH-dependent protonation states and T1-copper oxidation state. Clustering analysis provided a systematic overview of laccases across Trametes and revealed distinct isoenzyme classes (A–J) with...

  14. Synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Kannan; Perumal, Perumal; Sundarabaalaji, Narayanan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study 2-allyl amino 4-methyl sulfanyl butyric acid (AMSB) was synthesized in good yield. AMSB was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (1H and 13C) and Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay of AMSB was assessed using 1-1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and was found to be 44.1, 34.71 and 41.7 μg/ml respectively. The compound showed effective inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. AMSB was identified to be a reversible mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The molecular docking study was carried out to evaluate the specific groove binding properties and affords valuable information of AMSB binding mode in the active site of α-glucosidase the study may lead to the which leads to the rational design of new class of antidiabetic drugs targeting α-glucosidase based on AMSB in near future.

  15. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. PMID:23561148

  16. Screening tests for free radical scavengers on cutaneous cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Hudson, M S; Cornelis, M; Lindenbaum, A; Wepierre, J

    1990-06-01

    Synopsis Numerous studies discuss the important development of free radicals in human skin after exposure to UV irradiation. They suggest that these reactive molecules are responsible for sun-accelerated cutaneous aging. We reproduced two types of radical agression on cutaneous human cell cultures. The first brings into action oxygen radicals generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system and the second involves the use of UV radiation. These complementary models may be used as screening methods for antioxidant molecule research because they allow the distinction between molecules with filtering properties and free radical scavengers. The possibility of introducing molecules at different stages (before, during and after exposure to agression) permits the study of the molecular mecanism. These models were tested on silymarin, catechin, ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol. PMID:19291025

  17. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium azide: reactions of azide radical with tryptophan and tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azide radicals (N3) are formed on reactions of azide anions (N-sub(3aq)) and hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solutions. Mechanisms of formation of N3 and its reactions with the amino acids tryptophan (trpH) and tyrosine (tyrH), which gave the radicals trp and tyr, respectively, and with some inorganic transients, have been studied by use of the pulse radiolysis technique. Variation of pH has no significant effect on the formation or decay of the azide radical. Its decay rate increases with the concentration of N-sub(3aq); this is consistent with the formation of the diazide radical anion. Electron transfer reactions of N-sub(3aq) with the isopropyl radical and the dithiocyanate radical anion have been studied. The results are discussed. (author)

  18. Studies of radiation-produced radicals and radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolytic oxidation of anti-5-methylbicyclo[2.1.0]pentane gives the 1-methylcyclopentene radical cation as the sole rearrangement product H migration whereas oxidation of its syn isomer results in the highly selective formation of the 3-methylcyclopentene radical cation by methyl group migration. Since exactly the same stereoselectivity of olefin formation was observed in corresponding PET (photosensitized electron transfer) studies in the liquid phase, it is concluded that the rearrangement in this case also occurs through the intermediacy of radical cations. Clearly, the radical cation rearrangement must occur very rapidly (10-8--10-9s) under liquid-phase conditions at room temperature to compete with back electron transfer, and therefore the hydrogen (or methyl) migration is a fast process under these conditions. An intramolecular cycloaddition reaction was demonstrated in the radical cation rearrangement of 4-vinylcyclohexene to bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene. ESR studies show that the radiolytic oxidation of quadricyclane in Freon matrices under conditions of high substrate dilution leads to the bicyclo[3.2.0]hepta-2,6-diene radical cation as well as the previously reported norbornadiene radical cation, the former species predominating at sufficiently low concentrations

  19. The detection of hydroxyl radicals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freinbichler, Wolfhardt; Bianchi, Loria; Colivicchi, M Alessandra; Ballini, Chiara; Tipton, Keith F; Linert, Wolfgang; Corte, Laura Della

    2008-01-01

    Several indirect methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of highly reactive oxygen species (hROS), which may exist either as free hydroxyl radicals, bound "crypto" radicals or Fe(IV)-oxo species, in vivo. This review discusses the strengths and weaknesses associated with those most commonly used, which determine the hydroxylation of salicylate or phenylalanine. Chemical as well as biological arguments indicate that neither the hydroxylation of salicylate nor that of phenylalanine can guarantee an accurate hydroxyl radical quantitation in vivo. This is because not all hydroxylated product-species can be used for detection and the ratio of these species strongly depends on the chemical environment and on the reaction time. Furthermore, at least in the case of salicylate, the high concentrations of the chemical trap required (mM) are known to influence biological processes associated with oxidative stress. Two, newer, alternative methods described, the 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HBA) and the terephthalate (TA) assays, do not have these drawbacks. In each case reaction with hROS leads to only one hydroxylated product. Thus, from a chemical viewpoint, they should provide a better hROS quantitation. Further work is needed to assess any possible biological effects of the required millimolar (4-HBA) and micromolar (TA) concentrations of the chemical traps. PMID:18262275

  20. The ensemble reactions of hydroxyl radical exhibit no specificity for primary or secondary structure of DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rokita, S E; Romero-Fredes, L

    1992-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical reacts at numerous sites within nucleic acids to form a wide range of derivatives yet the conformational specificity of only one of these processes, direct strand fragmentation, has received much attention to date. Since the deleterious effects of this radical are not likely limited to strand fragmentation in vivo, this report examined the conformational specificity expressed in a more general manner. For this, modification of DNA was induced by the hydroxyl radical generatin...

  1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Twelve Traditionally Used Indian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    AQIL, Farrukh; AHMAD, IQBAL; MEHMOOD, Zafar

    2006-01-01

    The methanolic crude extracts of 12 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties using a-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) as standard antioxidants. Antioxidant activity was measured by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) assay and compared with the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The overall antioxidant activity of Lawsoni...

  2. Radical Scavenging Efficacy of Thiol Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumudini Chandraker; Sandeep Kumar Vaishanav; Rekha Nagwanshi; Manmohan L Satnami

    2015-12-01

    Radical scavenging efficacy of L-cysteine (L-Cys), glutathione (GSH) and thioctic acid (TA) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals as spectrophotometric assay. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging efficacy has been determined by titration method. Ascorbic acid has been used as standard for all radical scavenging efficacies. In general, antioxidant activity decreases in the presence of AgNPs. The covalent interactions of thiols (-SH) were found to be a key factor for the decreases in scavenging activity. The effect of thiol concentrations has been discussed. The size and shape of the nanoparticles and AgNP-SR interactions have been characterized through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively.

  3. Competitive reduction of perferrylmyoglobin radicals by protein thiols and plant phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne N; Skibsted, Leif H; Davies, Michael J

    2014-11-19

    Radical transfer from perferrylmyoglobin to other target species (myofibrillar proteins, MPI) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), extracts from green tea (GTE), mat (ME), and rosemary (RE), and three phenolic compounds, catechin, caffeic acid, and carnosic acid) was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine the concentrations of plant extracts required to protect against protein oxidation. Blocking of MPI thiol groups by N-ethylmaleimide was found to reduce the rate of reaction of MPI with perferrylmyoglobin radicals, signifying the importance of protein thiols as radical scavengers. GTE had the highest phenolic content of the three extracts and was most effective as a radical scavenger. IC50 values indicated that the molar ratio between phenols in plant extract and MPI thiols needs to be >15 in order to obtain efficient protection against protein-to-protein radical transfer in meat. Caffeic acid was found most effective among the plant phenols. PMID:25343706

  4. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  5. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Della Porta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  6. Free-radical polymerization of some dental and medical materials by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The extensive use of N-P-tolylglycine (NPG) analogues in adhesive bonding technologies calls for a better understanding of their role in initiating free-radical polymerization. The fast oxidation and reductions of NTG proceed via the formation of various types of free radicals and radical cation and anion intermediates. These intermediates were identified and their reactivity with oxygen, to produce the corresponding peroxyl radicals, has been measured. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) were used to initiate oxidation reactions of NTG, while the reduction reactions were initiated with hydrated electrons (eaq-). In the presence and absence of oxygen, the oxidation reaction mechanism of NTG by OH proceeded predominately by addition to the aromatic ring followed by OH- elimination reactions to produce NTG+ radical cations. In the presence of oxygen, OH-NTG also reacted with oxygen to produce peroxyl radicals. The reduction reaction of NTG with eaq- proceed via addition to the aromatic ring and amine-elimination, to produce various radicals: addition to the aromatic ring was followed by a fast protonation reaction to produce cyclohexadienyl radicals, and the amine-elimination reaction produced acetic acid free radicals and 4-methylaniline. In addition, it was found that the H-atom reaction with NTG also produced radical cations

  7. The role of the acidity of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides as inhibitors of bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, B Barry; Miller-Moslin, Karen; Yusuff, Naeem; Perez, Lawrence; Doré, Michael; Joud, Carol; Michael, Walter; DiPietro, Lucian; van der Plas, Simon; McEwan, Michael; Lenoir, Francois; Hoe, Madelene; Karki, Rajesh; Springer, Clayton; Sullivan, John; Levine, Kymberly; Fiorilla, Catherine; Xie, Xiaoling; Kulathila, Raviraj; Herlihy, Kara; Porter, Dale; Visser, Michael

    2013-02-14

    Overexpression of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is commonly associated with cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Here, we describe the structure-based optimization of a series of N-heteroaryl sulfonamides that demonstrate potent mechanism-based cell death. The role of the acidic nature of the sulfonamide moiety as it relates to potency, solubility, and clearance is examined. This has led to the discovery of novel heterocyclic replacements for the acylsulfonamide core of ABT-737 and ABT-263. PMID:24900652

  8. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra. PMID:19921583

  9. Switching radical stability by pH-induced orbital conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryn'ova, Ganna; Marshall, David L; Blanksby, Stephen J; Coote, Michelle L

    2013-06-01

    In most radicals the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is the highest-energy occupied molecular orbital (HOMO); however, in a small number of reported compounds this is not the case. In the present work we expand significantly the scope of this phenomenon, known as SOMO-HOMO energy-level conversion, by showing that it occurs in virtually any distonic radical anion that contains a sufficiently stabilized radical (aminoxyl, peroxyl, aminyl) non-?-conjugated with a negative charge (carboxylate, phosphate, sulfate). Moreover, regular orbital order is restored on protonation of the anionic fragment, and hence the orbital configuration can be switched by pH. Most importantly, our theoretical and experimental results reveal a dramatically higher radical stability and proton acidity of such distonic radical anions. Changing radical stability by 3-4 orders of magnitude using pH-induced orbital conversion opens a variety of attractive industrial applications, including pH-switchable nitroxide-mediated polymerization, and it might be exploited in nature. PMID:23695628

  10. Free radicals in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiki Oshida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Eiki Oshida, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Kiyomi Arai1Department of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanPurpose: To clarify the presence of oxidative stress in glaucoma and discuss whether free radicals contribute to neovascular glaucoma (NVG and non-NVG.Methods: Two patient groups were formed: the NVG group (n = 10 and the non-NVG group (n = 17. Free radicals in aqueous humor were detected by measuring the electron spin resonance (ESR. To identify free radical species, either superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase was added to the aqueous humor and compared with aqueous humor in which SOD or catalase was not added.Results: In the NVG group, free radical waveforms were detected that differed from ascorbate-free radical (AFR in all cases. Under SOD was added, the characteristic waveforms disappeared and the AFR of a specific waveform appeared. After catalase was added, the waveforms were unchanged. In the non-NVG group, the AFR of specific waveforms were detected in all cases. In 4 cases, the waveforms detected the presence of a trace of superoxide.Conclusions: In the NVG group, superoxides were detected, suggesting that superoxide scavenging activity was decreased markedly. L-ascorbic acid likely has an antioxidative function in the non-NVG group, suggesting that the aqueous humor in the NVG group was under higher oxidative stress compared with the non-NVG group.Keywords: oxidative stress, free radicals, glaucoma, ascorbate

  11. Urogynaecological dysfunction after radical hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, S M; Petersen, L K; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To identify self-reported urogynaecological dysfunctions in women treated by radical hysterectomy, and predict risk factors. METHODS: A survey using questionnaires. Questionnaires were mailed to 396 patients. RESULTS: Symptoms of urinary incontinence and urinary retention were reported by...

  12. Prostate Cancer: Radical Prostatectomy (Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been replaced with robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALP) The prostate is removed through ports in your belly using a robotic system. The system holds and guides the laparoscopic ...

  13. Radical Innovation and Network Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Phlippen, Sandra; Riccaboni, M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines how a radical technological innovation affects alliance formation of firms and subsequent network structures. We use longitudinal data of interfirm R&D collaborations in the biopharmaceutical industry in which a new technological regime is established. Our findings suggest that it requires radical technological change for firms to leave their embedded path of existing alliances and form new alliances with new partners. While new partners are mostly found throug...

  14. Radical polymerization of monoethyl itaconate

    OpenAIRE

    Katsikas Lynne; Nišević Nataša; Ignjatović Milka; Adamović Vladimir; Đakov Tatjana A.; Popović Ivanka G.

    2003-01-01

    The radical polymerization of monoethyl itaconate (MEI) was investigated in bulk and in solution at 60°C using a,a'-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. It was established that the obtained polymer poly(monoethyl itaconate) was insoluble in its monomer, implying that the bulk polymerization of MEI was a precipitation polymerization. The polymerization kinetics of MEI were discussed and compared to the polymerization kinetics of structurally similar alkyl itaconates. The homogeneous radical po...

  15. Radical Innovation and Network Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Phlippen, Sandra; Riccaboni, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how a radical technological innovation affects alliance formation of firms and subsequent network structures. We use longitudinal data of interfirm R&D collaborations in the biopharmaceutical industry in which a new technological regime is established. Our findings suggest that it requires radical technological change for firms to leave their embedded path of existing alliances and form new alliances with new partners. While new partners are mostly found through the firms’...

  16. Mechanistic studies of the atmospheric oxidation of methyl butenol by OH radicals, ozone and NO 3 radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantechi, G.; Jensen, N. R.; Hjorth, J.; Peeters, J.

    In a recent field study, strong indications have been obtained that 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (methyl butenol, MBO) is a compound emitted in important quantities by some types of vegetation. The atmospheric oxidation products from MBO are not yet well known. In this investigation we studied the reaction mechanisms and products of the reaction of MBO with OH radicals, O 3 and NO 3 radicals. All the experiments were performed in a 480 ? Teflon coated Pyrex glass chamber equipped with a long path length FTIR spectrometer. As products from the reaction between MBO and OH we identified and quantified acetone, glycolaldehyde, formaldehyde, formic acid, CO and CO 2. From the reaction between MBO and O 3, the products acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, CO and CO 2 have been identified; also, 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanal (HMPR) is tentatively put forward as a product on the basis of HPLC and GC-MS analysis of the DNPH derivative. Organic nitrates, peroxynitrates and carbonyl nitrates, together with acetone were observed as products of the reaction between MBO and the nitrate radical. Tentative reaction mechanisms for the oxidation of MBO by OH radicals, O 3 and NO 3 radicals are proposed.

  17. Radical scavenging and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal B; Zbikowska, Halina M; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta; Pawlaczyk, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria chamomilla L. (MC), a member of the Asteraceae family, is one of the oldest medicinal plants, widely used worldwide for a variety of healing applications. Its recommendations, derived from both traditional and modern medicine, include numerous disorders such as inflammation, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, stomach ache, pharyngitis, rheumatic pain, as well as the other ailments. This work is focused on another aspect of the biological activity of chamomile polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates--their antioxidant properties in the protection of blood plasma components against in vitro oxidative stress. Measurements of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging indicated considerable anti-free radical action of MC. Pre-incubation of blood plasma with MC considerably diminished the extent of ONOO(-)-induced oxidative modifications such as protein carbonyl groups, SH groups, 3-nitrotyrosine, as well as the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. The analysis of the FRAP assay result shows a considerable increase of ferric reducing ability of blood plasma in the presence of MC. The results obtained in this study indicate that polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from M. chamomilla substances possess antioxidant properties. The M. chamomilla macromolecular glycoconjugates may be useful in the creation of new natural-based medications or dietary supplements, helpful in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-mediated disorders. PMID:25285848

  18. The games radicals play : special issue on free radicals and radical ions

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, John C; Ffrancon Williams

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and a...

  19. Crystalline bipyridinium radical complexes and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Barnes, Jonathan C.; Li, Hao; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Basuray, Ashish Neil; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2015-09-01

    Described herein are methods of generating 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY.sup..cndot.+), and methods for utilizing the radical-radical interactions between two or more BIPY.sup..cndot.+ radical cations that ensue for the creation of novel materials for applications in nanotechnology. Synthetic methodologies, crystallographic engineering techniques, methods of physical characterization, and end uses are described.

  20. Crystalline bipyridinium radical complexes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Barnes, Jonathan C.; Li, Hao; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Basuray, Ashish Neil; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2015-09-01

    Described herein are methods of generating 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY.sup..cndot.+), and methods for utilizing the radical-radical interactions between two or more BIPY.sup..cndot.+ radical cations that ensue for the creation of novel materials for applications in nanotechnology. Synthetic methodologies, crystallographic engineering techniques, methods of physical characterization, and end uses are described.

  1. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study Of Radicals Produced In L-Glutamine Hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate free radicals formed in gamma irradiated L-glutamine hydrochloride amino acid powders. The free radicals produced in L-glutamine hydrochloride powders were attributed to the CH2CHCOOH radical. The g-values of the radicals and the hyperfine structure constants of the free electron with the environmental protons were determined. The samples were not displayed before they were not irradiated. The free radicals were found stable at room temperature for more than six months. Some spectroscopic properties and suggestions concerning possible structure of the radicals are discussed in this work.The powders were irradiated at room temperature with a 60Co gamma-ray source of 20 kGy. After irradiation, sample was kept in plastic bags at room temperature in the dark. The EPR spectroscopy was carried out in a Varian model X-band E-109C EPR spectrometer at room temperature.

  2. Formation and reactions of radical cations of substituted benzenes in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical cations of anisole, methylated benzenes, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, tert-butylbenzene and N,N-dimethylaniline were studied in aqueous media by pulse radiolytic technique. Absorption spectra and reaction kinetics of the radical cations were recorded. The radical cations are formed from the corresponding OH adducts by the elimination of OH-, either by a simple dissociation or by an acid catalyzed reaction. The rate constants of the formation of the radical cations and their reactions with water, OH- and Fe2+, or the reaction of a proton loss, were measured. The rate constants for the reaction with water and OH-, together with the rate constants for the dissociation of the OH adducts, are correlated with the ionization potential of the parent compound. These correlations offer a possibility of predicting the acid-base properties of radical cations of substituted benzenes, or the estimation of their ionization potential. (author)

  3. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2+ΣRO2, R = organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PeRCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  4. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2*=HO2+ΣRO2, R= organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PerCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  5. Hydroxyl radical, sulfate radical and nitrate radical reactivity towards crown ethers in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction rate constants of crown ethers (12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6) and their analogs 1,4-dioxane (6C2) with some important oxidative radicals, hydroxyl radical (·OH), sulfate radical (SO4·−) and nitrate radical (NO3·), were determined in various aqueous solutions by pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis techniques. The reaction rate constants for 6C2 and crown ethers with ·OH and SO4·− increase with the number of hydrogen atoms in the ethers, indicating that the hydrogen-atom abstraction is a dominant reaction between crown ethers and these two radicals. The presence of cations in solution has negligible effect on the rate constants of crown ether towards ·OH and SO4·−. However, for the NO3·, the rate constants are not proportional to the number of hydrogen atoms in ethers, and 12-crown-4 (12C4) is the most reactive compared with other crown ethers. Except 12C4 and 6C2, the cations in the aqueous solution affect the reactivities of 15-crown-5 (15C5) and 18-crown-6 (18C6). The cations with high binding stability for crown ether would improve the reactivity of 15C5. For the studied crown ethers, the reaction rate constants of these oxidative radicals have the order ·OH>SO4·−>NO3·. Furthermore, the formation of radicals after the reaction of crown ethers with sulfate radical could be observed in the range of 260–280 nm using laser photolysis and pulse radiolysis. This is the first report on the kinetic behavior of crown ethers with NO3·, and it would be helpful for the understanding of stability of crown ethers in the processing of spent nuclear fuel. - Highlights: ► The rate constants of NO3· and SO4·− towards various crown ethers in aqueous solution were determined for the first time. ► The rate constants of these radicals towards crown ethers have the order ·OH>SO4·−>NO3·. ► Hydrogen atom abstraction is the dominant reaction between these radicals and crown ethers. ► The binding capacity of crown ethers with cations in solution will affect k (NO3·+ ethers).

  6. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  7. Global radicals : Caribbean radical thought 1920-1983

    OpenAIRE

    Rvauger, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the development of radical thought in the Caribbean, from the 1920s until the American invasion of Grenada in 1983. The thrust of the argument is that radical thinkers had a global outlook, and not a nationalistic parochial one. They were aware of world debates and included within the international movements of their time. George Padmore is a case in point. An agent of the Communist International in the USSR and Germany, he fell foul with communism and became a Pan Afri...

  8. Radical-Enhanced Chinese Character Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yaming; Lin, Lei; Tang, Duyu; Yang, Nan; Ji, Zhenzhou; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to leverage radical for learning Chinese character embedding. Radical is a semantic and phonetic component of Chinese character. It plays an important role as characters with the same radical usually have similar semantic meaning and grammatical usage. However, existing Chinese processing algorithms typically regard word or character as the basic unit but ignore the crucial radical information. In this paper, we fill this gap by leveraging radical for learning continuous r...

  9. The production of OH radicals in the radiolysis of water with 4He ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formic acid solutions of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 mM have been irradiated with 4He ions of 5 to 25 MeV, and the production of OH radicals has been determined by measuring the yield of CO2. The differential OH radical yields were obtained from the observed energy dependencies; with 25 MeV 4He ions they range from 1.91 to 3.48 molecules/100 eV for formic acid concentrations of 1 to 1000 mM, respectively. The OH radical yields decrease with decreasing particle energy, and at the maximum LET (230 eV/nm) they range from 0.30 at 1 mM to 0.82 molecules/100 eV at 1000 mM. These values are only 15 to 20% of that found with fast electrons. The OH radical yields are relatively more dependent on formic acid concentration at higher 4He ion energies. The average time dependencies of the OH radical from 7.7 ns to 7.7 microseconds were estimated from the formic acid concentration dependencies at various 4He energies. In terms of absolute yields, there is a considerable variation in the yields of OH radicals with time at the highest energies, but at the maximum LET the OH radical yields are nearly invariant with time after about 10 ns

  10. In vivo positron emission tomography studies on the novel nicotinic receptor agonist [11C]MPA compared with [11C]ABT-418 and (S)(-)[11C]nicotine in Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel 11C-labeled nicotinic agonist (R,S)-1-[11C]methyl-2(3-pyridyl)azetidine ([11C]MPA) was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for in vivo characterization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of Rhesus monkeys in comparison with the nicotinic ligands (S)-3-methyl-5-(1-[11C]methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)isoxazol ([11C]ABT-418) and (S)(-)[11C]nicotine. The nicotinic receptor agonist [11C]MPA demonstrated rapid uptake into the brain to a similar extent as (S)(-) [11C]nicotine and [11C]ABT-418. When unlabeled (S)(-)nicotine (0.02 mg/kg) was administered 5 min before the radioactive tracers, the uptake of [11C]MPA was decreased by 25% in the thalamus, 19% in the temporal cortex, and 11% in the cerebellum, whereas an increase was found for the uptake of (S)(-)[11C]nicotine and [11C]ABT-418. This finding indicates specific binding of [11C]MPA to nicotinic receptors in the brain in a simple classical displacement study. [11C]MPA seems to be a more promising radiotracer than (S)(-)[11C]nicotine or [11C]ABT-418 for PET studies to characterize nicotinic receptors in the brain

  11. Photoionization of the OH radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most thoroughly studied free radicals because of its importance in atmospheric chemistry, combustion processes, and the interstellar medium. Detailed experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the ground electronic state (X 2PI/sub i/) and on the four lowest bound excited electronic states (A 2Σ+, B 2Σ+, D 2Σ-, and C2Σ+). However, because it is difficult to distinguish the spectrum of OH from the spectra of the various radical precursors, the absorption spectrum in the wavelength region below 1200 A has not been well characterized. In the present work, the spectrum of OH has been determined in the wavelength region from 750 to 950 A using the technique of photoionization mass spectrometry. This technique allows complete separation of the spectrum of OH from that of the other components of the discharge and permits the unambiguous determination of the spectrum of OH

  12. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. PMID:20550963

  13. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martnez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the new social movements and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  14. Laparoscopic radical and partial cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challacombe Ben

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for muscle invasive organ confined bladder carcinoma. Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy (LRC is an advanced laparoscopic procedure that places significant demands on the patient and the surgeon alike. It is a prolonged procedure which includes several technical steps and requires highly developed laparoscopic skills including intra-corporeal suturing. Here we review the development of the technique, the indications, complications and outcomes. We also examine the potential benefits of robotic-assisted LRC and explore the indications and technique of laparoscopic partial cystectomy.

  15. Quantification of a radical beam source for methyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radical beam source for methyl radicals (CH3) was characterized applying ionization-threshold mass spectrometry. The beam source is based on thermal dissociation of methane (CH4) or azomethane (N2(CH3)2) in a heated tungsten capillary. A flux of (3±1)x1013 cm-2 s-1 CH3 radicals is produced using methane as precursor gas and a capillary temperature of 1650 K. Alternatively, a flux of (3±1)x1014 cm-2 s-1 CH3 is produced using azomethane as precursor gas and a capillary temperature of 1150 K. The dominant production of methyl from the precursor methane occurs due to reaction 2 CH4+M→2 CH3+H2+M at the hot tungsten surface. The dominant production of methyl from azomethane occurs due to the reaction N2(CH3)2→2 CH3+N2. Besides methyl radicals, only stable molecules contribute to the emitted flux; within the detection limit, no atomic hydrogen is observed. From the comparison of ionization-threshold mass spectrometry and standard mass spectrometry, it is concluded that the cracking pattern of methane varies with the methane gas temperature. This is explained by the vibrational assisted dissociation of methane

  16. The role of proteins in damage induced by free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebicki, J.M. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The initial consequence of oxidative stress in living organisms is chemical modification of cell components. Recently increasing attention in this area has been paid to the modification of proteins. A form of protein modification which has been studied in some detail only recently is peroxidation. In the last 8 years, we and our collaborators have shown that a range of isolated proteins acquire hydroperoxide groups when exposed to a range of biologically plausible oxidants. These include HO free radicals generated by radiation or in the Fenton reaction, peroxyl radicals, oxidants released by activated neutrophils, and peroxynitrite. In more complex systems, we also found protein peroxides in the apo B component of LDL treated with 20 {mu}M Cu{sup ++}, and in irradiated blood serum. These observations suggest that the formation of protein peroxides is a possible consequence of oxidative stress in vivo. A remarkable feature of the process of protein peroxidation is its high efficiency. This is most easily measured with proteins oxidized by radiation-generated free radicals. It was found that, for some proteins, peroxide yields reached 40% of the numbers of HO radicals generated. Thus in effect, almost half of these radicals can be converted to the much more long-lived protein peroxide groups. If they, in turn, have the capacity to damage other molecules, the major oxidative pathway in vivo may have the sequence: free radical ? protein peroxide ? another oxidized molecule. This hypothesis was tested by studying the ability of protein peroxides to react with selected molecules and the results are briefly discussed. Clearly, these effects are specific to individual proteins. More generally, amino acid and protein peroxides were found to be a potential source of a range of free radicals when reduced by Fe{sup ++}. If this turns out to be a common phenomenon, protein peroxides may prove to be a major source of oxidative damage.

  17. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Sofidiya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae, Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae, Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae, Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640 an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564.

  18. Molecular mechanisms induced by the effects of ionizing radiation on nucleic acids: Free radicals in 5-halogenated uracil derivatives after reaction of radiolysis products of water in low-temperature glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the molecular mechanisms induced by the effects of ionizing radiation on the DNA. The study has been made for the main purpose of clarifying the possible role of the indirect effect, namely the attack of diffusible water radicals, in the process of radiosensitivity enhancement due to the incorporation of bromouracil instead of thymine into the DNA. The results of the experiments can be summarized by the statement that among the reactions studied in the low-temperature glasses, none revealed such a clear difference between uracil and thymine on the one hand, and the halogenated uracils on the other, that this difference could suffice to explain in terms of quality and quantity the observed in-vivo enhancement of radiosensitivity by halogenated uracils. This conclusion is in agreement with the results of radiobiological measurements on phagae and bacteria which in all cases revealed no or only very slight enhancement of the radiosensitivity in the indirect effect subsequent to bromouracil incorporation. (orig./AJ)

  19. Radical surgery for pilonidal sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, James P S; Lee, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Pilonidal sinus disease in 72 patients was treated by radical excision and primary wound closure and the results compared with those other currently practised techniques. A number of factors have been examined in an attempt to identify a group of patients in whom the risk of delayed healing is high.

  20. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Karampelas, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill the...

  1. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  2. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Pu...

  3. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return. On the...

  4. The Other Women: Radicalizing Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia; Darder, Antonia; Merrill, Barbara; de los Reyes, Eileen; Stromquist, Nelly

    A recent international symposium on radicalizing feminism explored ways of developing a dialogic feminism that emphasizes working in different settings under the common goal of including women who have been invisible in the dominant feminist literature by furthering theories and practices based on the principles of dialogic feminism. The seminar

  5. Reactions of Hydroxyalkyl Radicals with Cysteinyl Peptides in a NanoESI Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Craig A.; Xia, Yu

    2014-07-01

    In biological systems, carbon-centered small molecule radicals are primarily formed via external radiation or internal radical reactions. These radical species can react with a variety of biomolecules, most notably nucleic acids, the consequence of which has possible links to gene mutation and cancer. Sulfur-containing peptides and proteins are reactive toward a variety of radical species and many of them behave as radical scavengers. In this study, the reactions between alkyl alcohol carbon-centered radicals (e.g., CH2OH for methanol) and cysteinyl peptides within a nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) plume were explored. The reaction system involved ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of a nanoESI plume using a low pressure mercury lamp consisting of 185 and 254 nm emission bands. The alkyl alcohol was added as solvent into the nanoESI solution and served as the precursor of hydroxyalkyl radicals upon UV irradiation. The hydroxyalkyl radicals subsequently reacted with cysteinyl peptides either containing a disulfide linkage or free thiol, which led to the formation of peptide- S-hydroxyalkyl product. This radical reaction coupled with subsequent MS/MS was shown to have analytical potential by cleaving intrachain disulfide linked peptides prior to CID to enhance sequence information. Tandem mass spectrometry via collision-induced dissociation (CID), stable isotope labeling, and accurate mass measurement were employed to verify the identities of the reaction products.

  6. Efficient scavenging of ?-carotene radical cations by antiinflammatory salicylates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hong; Liang, Ran; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2014-01-01

    anion of salicylic acid with 2.2 10 L mol s, but still of possible importance for light-exposed tissue. Surprisingly, acetylsalicylate, the aspirin anion, reacts with an intermediate rate in a reaction assigned to the anion of the mixed acetic-salicylic acid anhydride formed through base induced......The radical cation generated during photobleaching of ?-carotene is scavenged efficiently by the anion of methyl salicylate from wintergreen oil in a second-order reaction approaching the diffusion limit with k = 3.2 10 L mol s in 9:1 v/v chloroform-methanol at 23 C, less efficiently by the...... rearrangements. The relative scavenging rate of the ?-carotene radical cation by the three salicylates is supported by DFT-calculations. 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  7. Es sostenible el constructivismo radical? / Is radical constructivism tenable?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Gaete.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo intento mostrar que el constructivismo epistemolgico radical es un tesis insostenible, no tanto porque los argumentos a favor de dicha tesis sean deficientes sino porque hasta ahora existen problemas cruciales que ningn constructivista parece haber resuelto y que, sin embargo, debe [...] n ser resueltos para poder siquiera formular la tesis en cuestin. Tambin me refiero a una consecuencia que estas consideraciones tienen en educacin. Abstract in english In this work I try to show that radical, epistemological constructivism is an untenable thesis. Not so much because the arguments in favor of such a thesis are deficient, but because there are crucial problems that no constructivist seems to have solved and that must be solved in order for it to be [...] possible to even formulate the thesis in question. I also mention a consequence that these considerations have in education.

  8. From Radical Translation to Radical Interpretation and Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Zilhão

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Quine and Davidson put forth programs of empirical semantics satisfying the conditions that characterize the so-called “standpoint of interpretation.” Quine’s less ambitious program of radical translation rests upon two buttresses: causality and empathy. Davidson’s more ambitious program of radical interpretation replaces causality with truth and empathy with rationality. Although the replacement of causality with intersubjective truth seems to me to be a fully justified move, I nevertheless contend that it is more realistic to develop the work of interpretation drawing upon Quine’s less ambitious requirement of empathy than upon Davidson’s view of human agency as rational agency. In order to substantiate this contention, I present an argument to the effect that Davidson’s characterization of human agency as rational is not compatible with his other requirement that truth should pro-vide the essential link connecting speech with environment and action.

  9. Multiple free-radical scavenging capacity in serum

    OpenAIRE

    Oowada, Shigeru; Endo, Nobuyuki; Kameya, Hiromi; Shimmei, Masashi; Kotake, Yashige

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a method to determine serum scavenging-capacity profile against multiple free radical species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, alkyl radical, and singlet oxygen. This method was applied to a cohort of chronic kidney disease patients. Each free radical species was produced with a common experimental procedure; i.e., uv/visible-light photolysis of free-radical precursor/sensitizer. The decrease in free-radical concentration b...

  10. Polyenyl cations and radical cations synthesis, spectroscopic properties and reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kildahl-Andersen, Geir

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, polyene precursors for the formation of charged polyenyl species were synthesised. Their conversion to charge delocalised radical cations and diamagnetic mono- and dications was carried out by treatment with Brnsted and Lewis acids. Reaction conditions were optimised to achieve sufficient stability of the charged polyenes for characterisation by modern spectroscopic methods; in particular nearinfrared absorption spectroscopy (NIR), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resona...

  11. Characterization of pH-Responsive Hydrogels of Poly(Itaconic acid-g-Ethylene Glycol) Prepared by UV-Initiated Free Radical Polymerization as Biomaterials for Oral Delivery of Bioactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Tania; Pardo, Juan; Soo, Ken; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Effective oral delivery of proteins is impeded by steep pH gradients and proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as low absorption of the proteins into the bloodstream due to their size, charge or solubility. In the present work, pH-responsive complexation hydrogels of poly(itaconic acid) with poly(ethylene glycol) grafts were synthesized for applications in oral drug delivery. These hydrogels were expected to be in collapsed configuration at low pH due to hydrogen bonding ...

  12. Free-radical chemistry of sulfite.

    OpenAIRE

    Neta, P; Huie, R E

    1985-01-01

    The free-radical chemistry of sulfite oxidation is reviewed. Chemical transformations of organic and biological molecules induced by sulfite oxidation are summarized. The kinetics of the free-radical oxidations of sulfite are discussed, as are the kinetics of the reactions of the sulfite-derived radicals SO3 and the peroxy derivative SO5 with organic compounds.

  13. Bounded confidence, radical groups, and charismatic leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Hegselmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    By few simple extensions it is possible to model radical groups, charismatic leaders and processes of radicalization in the bounded confidence framework. In the resulting model we get a lot of surprising (non-)monotonicities. In certain regions of the parameter space more radicals or more ‘charismaticity’ may lead to less radicalisation.

  14. Inhibition of hydroxyl radical reaction with aromatics by dissolved natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, M.E.; Tarr, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Reaction of aromatic compounds with hydroxyl radical is inhibited by dissolved natural organic matter (NOM). The degree of inhibition is significantly greater than that expected based on a simple model in which aromatic compound molecules bound to NOM are considered to be unreactive. In this study, hydroxyl radical was produced at steady-state concentrations using Fenton chemistry (H2O2 + Fe2+ ??? Fe3+ + HO- + HO??). Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid were used as NOM. The most likely mechanism for the observed inhibition is that hydroxyl radical formation occurs in microenvironmental sites remote from the aromatic compounds. In addition to changes in kinetics, pyrene hydroxyl radical reaction also exhibited a mechanistic change in the presence of fulvic acid. The mechanism changed from a reaction that was apparently firstorder in pyrene to one that was apparently secondorder in pyrene, indicating that pyrene self-reaction may have become the dominant mechanism in the presence of fulvic acid. Dissolved NOM causes significant changes in the rate and mechanism of hydroxyl radical degradation of aromatic compounds. Consequently, literature rate constants measured in pure water will not be useful for predicting the degradation of pollutants in environmental systems. The kinetic and mechanistic information in this study will be useful for developing improved degradation methods involving Fenton chemistry.Reaction of aromatic compounds with hydroxyl radical is inhibited by dissolved natural organic matter (NOM). The degree of inhibition is significantly greater than that expected based on a simple model in which aromatic compounds molecules bounds to NOM are considered to be unreactive. In this study, hydroxyl radical was produced at steady-state concentrations using Fenton chemistry (H2O2 + Fe2+ ??? Fe3+ + HO- + HO??). Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid were used as NOM. The most likely mechanisms for the observed inhibition is that hydroxyl radical formation occurs in microenvironmental sites remote from the aromatic compounds. In addition to changes in kinetics, pyrene hydroxyl radical reaction also exhibited a mechanistic change in the presence of fulvic acid. The mechanism changed from a reaction that was apparently first-order in pyrene to one that was apparently second-order in pyrene, indicating that pyrene self-reaction may have become the dominant mechanism in the presence of fulvic acid. Dissolved NOM causes significant changes in the rate and mechanism of hydroxyl radical degradation of aromatic compounds. Consequently, literature rate constants measured in pure water will not be useful for predicting the degradation of pollutants in environmental systems. The kinetic and mechanistic information in this study will be useful for developing improved degradation methods involving Fenton chemistry.

  15. DNA binding hydroxyl radical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores, which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. - Highlights: → Examined four aromatic groups as a means to detect hydroxyl radicals by fluorescence. → Coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. → Characterized its reactivity when linked to a hexa-arginine peptide.

  16. ESTIMATION OF HYDROXYL AND HYDROPEROXYL RADICALS CONCENTRATIONS IN THE URBAN ATMOSPHERE OF SANTIAGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angélica Rubio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical smog episodes are frequent in Santiago of Chile city. We have measured the concentration of the main free radical precursors (formaldehyde, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate and nitrous acid, nitrogen monoxide and the irradiance. Calculations of the rate of OH* production were performed for different periods of the year and at emission (Cerrillos and Estacion Central and receptor sites (Las Condes. From these data and simple steady state considerations were derived the concentrations of hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals. Daily profiles of both radicals show a noticeable accumulation during early afternoon, the time of most intense oxidants accumulation. During summer time, hydroperoxyl radical concentrations are higher in Las Condes than in Cerrillos. The concentrations calculated for both radicals are higher than those estimated in other cities, suggesting a particularly high photochemical activity in the urban atmosphere of Santiago of Chile

  17. Kierkegaard as radical Christian thinker

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsi? Sofija

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is the reaffirmation and emphasis of the radical, revolutionary aspect of Kierkegaards thought which has been mainly neglected in the standard literature on the Danish thinker. The author contends that there were two crises in Kierkegaards life: in 1838 and 1848. In 1838 Kierkegaard completely withdrew from the world and people into his hidden inwardness, which he claimed to be the essence of true Christianity. In 1848 he bro...

  18. Synergistic cooperation between ABT-263 and MEK1/2 inhibitor: effect on apoptosis and proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airiau, Kelly; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Rousseau, Benoit; Pigneux, Arnaud; Jeanneteau, Marie; Giraudon, Manon; Allou, Kaoutar; Dubus, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In spite of intensive research to improve treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) more than half of all patients continue to develop a refractory disease. Therefore there is need to improve AML treatment. The overexpression of the BCL-2 family anti-apoptotic members, like BCL-2 or BCL-xL has been largely reported in lymphoid tumors but also in AML and other tumors. To counteract the anti-apoptotic effect of BCL-2, BH3 mimetics have been developed to target cancer cells. An increase in activity of ERK1/2 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase has also been reported in AML and might be targeted by MEK1/2 inhibitors. Hence, in the current work, we investigated whether the association of a BH3 mimetic such ABT-263 and the MEK1/2 inhibitor pimasertib (MEKI), was efficient to target AML cells. A synergistic increasing of apoptosis was observed in AML cell lines and in primary cells without affecting normal bone marrow cells. Such cooperation was confirmed on tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of AML. In addition we demonstrated that MEKI sensitized the cells to apoptosis through its ability to promote a G1 cell cycle arrest. So, this combination of a MAP Kinase pathway inhibitor and a BH3 mimetic could be a promising strategy to improve the treatment of AML. PMID:26625317

  19. Cyclic Group 15 Radical Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brckner, Angelika; Hinz, Alexander; Priebe, Jacqueline B; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2015-06-15

    Singlet cyclo-1,3-dipnicta-2,4-diazane-1,3-diyls of the type [E(?-NTer)2 E] (2, E=P, As, Ter=2,6-dimesitylphenyl) can undergo a one-electron-oxidation utilizing silver salts of weakly coordinating anions such as [AgLn][B(C6F5)4 ] (L=donor solvents) to afford the novel cyclic radical cations, [E(?-NTer)2E](+) (3(+)). When smaller and more basic anions were employed in the reaction, the anions were found to form covalent bonds to the radical centers yielding dipnictadiazanes, [FP(?-NTer)2PF] (5) and [(CF3CO2)P(?-NTer)2P(CF3CO2)] (6). A two-electron oxidation process, resulting in the formation of dications of the type [E(?-NTer)2E](2+), could not be observed. Computational and EPR data revealed that the spin density is almost completely localized at the two heavier pnictogen centers E of the former 1,3-dipnictadiazane-1,3-diyls. The bonding situation in the radical cations features a rare example of a transannular one-electron ? bond without having a ? bond. PMID:25960190

  20. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David Jacques; Glina, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the main and most frequent side effect after radical prostatectomy. Also, ED is the primary impact factor for quality of life after radical prostatectomy. ED post radical prostatectomy is mainly due to lesions in the neurovascular bundles which can occur by partial or total sectioning, by stretching (the most common), or by thermal lesion of the nervous fibers, leading to a condition called "neuropraxia". The term penile rehabilitation (PR) after prostatectomy has been defined as any intervention with the intent of reestablishing preoperative erectile function and includes the isolated or combined use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), intracavernous injection, vacuum erectile device therapy, and use of intraurethral drugs. The use of intracavernous drugs, of intraurethral prostaglandin and the use of vacuum therapy have a poorly defined role regarding postoperative penile rehabilitation and must be better investigated through further studies. The use of PDE5i as PR is strongly supported by experimental research, but most clinical trials found controversial results. PMID:25642716

  1. Evidence for formation of hydroxyl radicals during reperfusion after global cerebral ischaemia in rats using salicylate trapping and microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, T; Balchen, T; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Systemic administration of salicylate (SA) to rats (100 mg kg-1 i.p. ) was used as an in vivo trap of hydroxyl radicals (.OH). In the brain SA reacts with hydroxyl radicals to form the stable adducts 2, 3- and 2,5 dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBAs) which can thus be taken as an index of .OH formation...

  2. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM 14N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging

  3. Serum Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity as Quantified with Iron-Free Hydroxyl Radical Source

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Nobuyuki; Oowada, Shigeru; Sueishi, Yoshimi; Shimmei, Masashi; Makino, Keisuke; Fujii, Hirotada; Kotake, Yashige

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple ESR spin trapping based method for hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging-capacity determination, using iron-free OH radical source. Instead of the widely used Fenton reaction, a short (typically 5 seconds) in situ UV-photolysis of a dilute hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution was employed to generate reproducible amounts of OH radicals. ESR spin trapping was applied to quantify OH radicals; the decrease in the OH radical level due to the specimen’s scavenging activity was ...

  4. Mechanisms of strand breaks in DNA induced by OH radicals in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma irradiation of N2O-saturated aqueous solutions of DNA in the absence of O2 leads to the formation of three detached altered sugars. It is predominantly OH radical which leads to the permanent and biological significant damage of DNA, and it is especially the OH radical which produces chain breaks. The OH radicals in aqueous solutions react with DNA predominantly (about 80%) by addition to the C=C bonds of the bases, and about 20% abstracts H atoms from sugar moiety. All three isolated sugars show new C=O bonds only at the position C-4. Chain-breaking reaction is identified as the heterolytic splitting of the sugar phosphoric acid ester bond, producing a cation radical of the sugar moiety and an anion of the DNA phosphoric acid ester (SN1 reaction). The formation of the observed detached and attached altered sugars as end products is explained by the reaction of the cation radical with water in which branching in the reaction occurs, and by the subsequent reaction of the radicals formed. Two important features of the Scheme I mechanism are, first, the much faster bond breaking at the position 3' as compared with that at the position 5', and secondly, the formation of not only detached altered sugars but also altered sugar end groups. Quantitative results show that a large fraction of DNA chain breaks induced by OH radicals can be accounted for by the Scheme I. (Yamashita, S.)

  5. Myeloperoxidase as an effective inhibitor of hydroxyl radical production. Implications for the oxidative reactions of neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Winterbourn, C C

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals have been generated from hydrogen peroxide and superoxide (produced with xanthine oxidase), and an iron (EDTA) catalyst, and detected with deoxyribose, or in some cases with benzoate or alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid. Purified myeloperoxidase, and neutrophils stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe and cytochalasin B, strongly inhibited this hydroxyl radical production in a concentration-dependent manner. Supernatants from stimulated cells also inhibited, and inhibition by cells ...

  6. Monitoring Equilibrium Changes in RNA Structure by 'Peroxidative' and 'Oxidative' Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Bachu, Ravichandra; Padlan, Frances-Camille S.; Rouhanifard, Sara; Brenowitz, Michael; Schlatterer, Jörg C.

    2011-01-01

    RNA molecules play an essential role in biology. In addition to transmitting genetic information, RNA can fold into unique tertiary structures fulfilling a specific biologic role as regulator, binder or catalyst. Information about tertiary contact formation is essential to understand the function of RNA molecules. Hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are unique probes of the structure of nucleic acids due to their high reactivity and small size.1 When used as a footprinting probe, hydroxyl radicals map th...

  7. Novel azo-peresters radical initiators used for the synthesis of acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA based on two monomers: 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and acrylic acid were synthesized in organic solvent ethyl acetate using AIBN (2, 2'?-azo-diisobutyronitrile and new synthesized azo-peresters as radical initiators. After polymerization the viscosity, molecular weight and polydispersity of synthesized acrylic PSA were evaluated. The novel synthesized radical azo-perester initiators were synthesized, isolated and compared with industrial predominant usable azo-initiator AIBN.

  8. Bactericidal activity of alkyl peroxyl radicals generated by heme-iron-catalyzed decomposition of organic peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ijiri, S; Miyamoto, Y; Kohno, M; Ando, M; Maeda, H

    1992-04-01

    To clarify the nature of cytocidal molecular species among the radicals generated in the iron-catalyzed reactions of peroxides (ROOH), we examined the cytocidal effects of these radicals against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the presence or absence of various radical scavengers. Three organic peroxides, t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKOOH), and cumene hydroperoxide, were used. Each radical generated from these peroxides was identified and quantitated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). The major cytotoxic radical species generated in the mixtures of various peroxides and heme iron, especially methemoglobin, metmyoglobin, or hemin, was the alkyl peroxyl radical (ROO.). Strong bactericidal action against gram-positive bacteria was observed in the peroxide-heme iron system, especially in the case of t-BuOOH and MEKOOH. Killing curves for gram-positive bacteria showed an initial lag period, which may indicate the multihit/multitarget kinetics of cell killing. When the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Fe2+ complex was used as a catalyst for decomposition of various peroxides, alkyl, alkoxyl, and alkyl peroxyl radicals were identified by spin-trapping analysis. However, study of the time course of alkyl peroxyl radical production in the DTPA-Fe2+ complex system revealed that radical species generated in this system were very short lived: a maximal level was achieved within 1 min and then declined sharply, and no bactericidal activity was observed after 10 min. In contrast, the alkyl peroxyl radical level generated by the organic peroxide-heme iron system remained high for 30 min or longer. The generation of alkyl peroxyl radicals quantified by ESR correlated quite well with the bactericidal effect of the system of peroxide plus iron. In addition, bactericidal activity was completely inhibited by the addition of the spin trap DMPO, as well as of other various radical scavengers (alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid), into the peroxide-heme iron system, but this effect was not observed with superoxide dismutase, beta-carotene, dimethyl sulfoxide, diphenylamine, or butylated hydroxyltoluene. In view of these results, it is assumed that alkyl peroxyl radicals are the potent molecular species that are cytotoxic against bacteria, whereas alkoxyl radicals (RO.) generated in this system do not affect bacterial viability. PMID:1312811

  9. Sonovoltammetric behavior of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid at glassy carbon electrodes: Analysis using pulsed sonovoltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Compton; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    1996-01-01

    The effect of power ultrasound on the voltammetric behavior of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid at a glassy carbon electrode is described. The voltammetric characteristics of both compounds were found to be modified by ultrasonically formed radicals. In the case of dehydroascorbic acid the single sweep voltammogram shows an anodic signal in the presence of ultrasound which probably results from the formation of an oxidizable radical known to be an intermediate of ascorbic acid oxidation...

  10. On the reaction of molecular oxygen with thiyl radicals: a re-examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute rate constants for the addition of oxygen to thiyl radicals, i.e. RS radicals + O2 ? RSOO radicals, have been determined by applying a new competition method based on RS radicals formation via one-electron reduction of the corresponding disulphides, and the competition between RS radicals reacting with O2 and an electron donor such as ascorbate. Bimolecular rate constants have been obtained for the thiyl radicals derived from cysteine (6.1 x 107 mol-1 dm3 s-1), penicillamine (2.5 x 107 mol-1 dm3 s-1), homocysteine (8.0 x 107 mol-1 dm3 s-1), cysteamine (2.8 x 107 mol-1 dm3 s-1), 3-thiopropionic acid (2.2 x 108 mol-1 dm3 s-1) and glutathione (3.0 x 107 mol-1 dm3 s-1), respectively. The values obtained for the O2 addition to the thiyl radicals from glutathione and cysteine are considerably lower (by about two orders of magnitude) than those previously published. This indicates that the RS radicals + O2 reaction may be of complex nature and is generally a process which is not solely controlled by the diffusion of the reactants. (author)

  11. Radical Budget and Ozone Production in Houston, TX during SHARP 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X.; van Duin, D.; Cazorla, M.; Chen, S.; Brune, W. H.; Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Wong, K.; Tsai, C.; Stutz, J.

    2010-12-01

    The chemistry of atmospheric radicals, especially the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), together called HOx, is deeply involved in the formation of the secondary pollutants ozone and fine particles. Radical precursors such as nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) significantly affects HOx budget in urban environments like Houston. These chemical processes connect surface emissions, both human and natural, to local and regional pollution, and climate change. Using the data collected during the Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP) in Houston, TX in spring 2009, we test our understanding of photochemistry through the analysis of the radical budget and ozone production. A numerical box model was used to simulate the oxidation processes and observed OH and HO2 during this study. Using the model results, we calculate the radical budget and analyze the sensitivity of ozone production to nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radical budget shows that the photolysis of HONO and the photolysis of HCHO were significant HOx sources in this urban environment. We also compare the observed OH reactivity and ozone production rate to the model calculations. In general, ozone production rate was VOC limited in the morning and NOx limited in the afternoon. This relationship results from the ratio of VOCs to NOx in Houston. Results from this study provide additional support for regulatory actions to reduce reactive VOCs in Houston in order to reduce ozone and other secondary pollutants.

  12. A Radical Cascade Classifier for Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Enzhi Ni; Changle Zhou; Minjun Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Radical extraction is the core technique for radical-based Chinese character recognition. In this paper, we proposed a new method of radical extraction – radical cascade classifier. The radical cascade classifier consists of multiple AdaBoost classifiers. It can detect and extract specific radical from characters. To apply cascade classifier to radical extraction, we focus on two main points: feature selection and radical detection. In this paper, we discussed feature selection for the ...

  13. Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical reaction with substituted aryl sulphides: A pulse radiolysis study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Mohan

    2002-12-01

    In neutral aqueous solution of (phenylthio)acetic acid, hydroxyl radical is observed to react with a bimolecular rate constant of 7.2 × 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1 and the transient absorption bands are assigned to ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical addition to benzene and sulphur with a rough estimated values of 50 and 40% respectively. The reaction of the ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical with diphenyl sulphide ( = 4.3 × 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1) is observed to take place with formation of solute radical cation, OH-adduct at sulphur and benzene with estimated values of about 12, 28 and 60% respectively. The transient absorption bands observed on reaction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical, in neutral aqueous solution of 4-(methylthio) phenyl acetic acid, are assigned to solute radical cation (max = 550 and 730 nm), OH-adduct at sulphur (max = 360 nm) and addition at benzene ring (max = 320 nm). The fraction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical reacting to form solute radical cation is observed to depend on the electron-withdrawing power of substituted group. In acidic solutions, depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute radical cation is the only transient species formed on reaction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical with the sulphides studied.

  14. Establishment of activity indicator of TiO2 photocatalytic reaction-Hydroxyl radical trapping method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new, low cost and easy method, hydroxyl radical trapping method, was employed to investigate the photo-activity of UV/TiO2 photocatalytic reaction. The Taguchi method was utilized to optimize the preparation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin-film reactor through the modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The optimal yield of hydroxyl radicals was then evaluated by calculating the conversion ratio of salicylic acid under the optimal conditions. In the experiments, salicylic acid was used as the free-radical scavenger and the formation of three different intermediates were examined to shed light on the trend and kinetics of reaction of hydroxyl radical with organic substance under different operation conditions. The results indicated that the yield of hydroxyl radicals increased with increasing irradiation intensity and dissolved oxygen level. The optimal experimental conditions obtained in this study were irradiation with intensity of 2.9 mW cm-2 on salicylic acid at concentration of 250 mg L-1 by both agitation and aeration processes (dissolved oxygen level = 8.2 mg O2 L-1) at pH 5. Such conditions could achieve the optimal hydroxyl radical yield of 5.1 x 10-17 M.

  15. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  16. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  17. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a ? source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order Ea(III)>Ea(II)>Ea(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied

  18. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a ? source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order Ea(III)> Ea(II)> Ea(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied.

  19. Free radical kinetics of irradiated durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M.; Polat, M

    2000-04-01

    In the present work, a detailed ESR investigation of characteristic features and kinetic behaviors at three different temperatures of free radicals produced in a species of durum wheat cultivated in Turkey and irradiated at doses of up to 5 kGy by a {gamma} source, is reported. Unirradiated wheat samples exhibit a weak, single-line ESR signal originating from a radical of unknown structure called radical III in this work. Irradiation produces two more radicals identified as hydroxyalkyl (I) and aldehydalkyl (II) radicals beside radical III. The radicals (I, II and III) follow complicated kinetics. Species I and II initially decay very fast after the irradiation followed by slower decay. Radical half-life times depend on whether they were induced in the crystalline or amorphous fractions of the wheat starch. Activation energy values of the radicals were found to follow the order E{sub a}(III)>E{sub a}(II)>E{sub a}(I). ESR parameters of the radical species were determined by simulating experimental spectra recorded following the irradiation. Room temperature dose-response curves and variations of different spectral parameters between 120 and 390 K were also studied.

  20. A phase I trial of veliparib (ABT-888) and temozolomide in children with recurrent CNS tumors: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jack M.; Thompson, Patrick; Adesina, Adekunle; Li, Xiao-Nan; Kilburn, Lindsay; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Kocak, Mehmet; Chyla, Brenda; McKeegan, Evelyn; Warren, Katherine E.; Goldman, Stewart; Pollack, Ian F.; Fouladi, Maryam; Chen, Alice; Giranda, Vincent; Boyett, James; Kun, Larry; Blaney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background A phase I trial of veliparib (ABT-888), an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, and temozolomide (TMZ) was conducted in children with recurrent brain tumors to (i) estimate the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) or recommended phase II doses (RP2Ds) of veliparib and TMZ; (ii) describe the toxicities of this regimen; and (iii) evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and extent of PARP inhibition in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following veliparib. Methods TMZ was given once daily and veliparib twice daily for 5 days every 28 days. Veliparib concentrations and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) levels in PBMCs were measured on days 1 and 4. Analysis of pharmacokinetic and PBMC PAR levels were performed twice during study conduct to rationally guide dose modifications and to determine biologically optimal MTD/RP2D. Results Twenty-nine evaluable patients were enrolled. Myelosuppression (grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) were dose limiting. The RP2Ds are veliparib 25 mg/m2 b.i.d. and TMZ 135 mg/m2/d. Only 2 out of 12 patients treated at RP2Ds experienced dose-limiting toxicities. Although no objective response was observed, 4 patients had stable disease >6 months in duration, including 1 with glioblastoma multiforme and 1 with ependymoma. At the RP2D of veliparib, pediatric pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those in adults. Conclusions Veliparib and TMZ at the RP2D were well tolerated in children with recurrent brain tumors. A phase I/II trial to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of veliparib, TMZ, and radiation in children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas is in progress. PMID:24908656

  1. Characterization of Kevlar 49 fibers by electron paramagnetic resonance. Final report, 20 May 1981-20 June 1982. [Radicals induced by ultraviolet or fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.M.; Sandreczki, T.C.

    1982-06-20

    EPR was used to investigate the free radicals created in Kevlar 49 fibers by stress-induced and photo-induced macromolecular chain scissions. Mn/sup +2/ ions were identified from the EPR spectrum of frozen solutions of concentrated sulfuric acid containing Kevlar 49. Other ions present are Cu/sup +2/, and possibly Fe/sup +3/, Cr/sup +3/, and Ti/sup +3/. EPR lineshape anisotropy indicates that some of the metal ions and first coordinate spheres are oriented. The concentration of stress-induced radicals (2 x 10/sup 10/ per filament) suggest that chain scission occurs in more weak planes than are estimated to exist in the fracture surfaces of the fiber core. These radicals are unstable in air and have some aromatic character. Several different types of radicals were obtained following uv irradiations of the Kevlar 49 fibers in vacuum (photodegradative radicals) and in air (photo-oxidative radicals). The photodegradative radicals are identified with primary radicals involved in the photo-Fries rearrangement reaction, secondary radicals formed as a result of a hydrogen atom abstraction by the primary radical, and/or ketyl radicals produced as a result of uv irradiation of the photo-Fries rearrangement product. The photo-oxidative radicals are identified with the uv irradiation products of a peroxide intermediate. Lineshape anisotropy indicates that both radical types are oriented. 31 figures.

  2. Nanostructured hybrid hydrogels prepared by a combination of atom transfer radical polymerization and free radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencherif, Sidi A.; Siegwart, Daniel J.; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Horkay, Ferenc; Hollinger, Jeffrey O.; Washburn, Newell R.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    A new method to prepare nanostructured hybrid hydrogels by incorporating well-defined poly(oligo (ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether methacrylate) (POEO300MA) nanogels of sizes 110120 nm into a larger three-dimensional (3D) matrix was developed for drug delivery scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (RITC-Dx) or fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-Dx)-loaded POEO300MA nanogels with pendant hydroxyl groups were prepared by activators generated electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP) in cyclohexane inverse miniemulsion. Hydroxyl-containing nanogels were functionalized with methacrylated groups to generate photoreactive nanospheres. 1H NMR spectroscopy confirmed that polymerizable nanogels were successfully incorporated covalently into 3D hyaluronic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (HAGM) hydrogels after free radical photo-polymerization (FRP). The introduction of disulfide moieties into the polymerizable groups resulted in a controlled release of nanogels from cross-linked HAGM hydrogels under a reducing environment. The effect of gel hybridization on the macroscopic properties (swelling and mechanics) was studied. It is shown that swelling and nanogel content are independent of scaffold mechanics. In-vitro assays showed the nanostructured hybrid hydrogels were cytocompatible and the GRGDS (GlyArgGlyAspSer) contained in the nanogel structure promoted cellsubstrate interactions within 4 days of incubation. These nanostructured hydrogels have potential as an artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) impermeable to low molecular weight biomolecules and with controlled pharmaceutical release capability. Moreover, the nanogels can control drug or biomolecule delivery, while hyaluronic acid based-hydrogels can act as a macroscopic scaffold for tissue regeneration and regulator for nanogel release. PMID:19592087

  3. Kinetic behaviour of DPPH radical scavenging activity of tomato waste extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ćetković Gordana S.; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna M.; Đilas Sonja M.; Savatović Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic behaviour of tomato waste extracts (obtained from six genotypes) and standard antioxidant compounds (ascorbic and caffeic acid) were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical test. Based on the time needed for the reaction to reach steady state, the investigated extracts show very slow (steady state ≥ 180 min) antiradical behaviour, ascorbic acid act as rapid antioxidant (steady state < 5min) while caffeic acid is rapidintermediate antioxidant (5 min < s...

  4. Nitroxide radical biostability in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J; Freisleben, H J; Podda, M; Zimmer, G; Milbradt, R; Packer, L

    1993-10-01

    Nitroxide radicals are important chemical tools in dermatologic research (e.g., for studying biophysical properties of skin lipids and epidermal membranes with the method of electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, spectroscopy). However, nitroxides may loose their paramagnetic properties in biological tissues, which could limit their usefulness in biomedical applications. We analyzed the biostability of various chemical types of nitroxide radicals in keratinocytes, epidermis homogenate, and intact skin. EPR signal loss of imidazoline, pyrrolidine, piperidine, and oxazolidine nitroxides is attributed to their reduction to the corresponding hydroxylamine. The rate of nitroxide reduction in skin varies considerably with nitroxide ring structure and substitution. The order of nitroxide stability in isolated human keratinocytes, mouse epidermis homogenate, and intact mouse and human skin is imidazoline > pyrrolidine > di-t-butylnitroxide (DTBN) > piperidine > oxazolidine. Cationic nitroxides are reduced much faster than neutral or anionic probes, presumably due to transmembrane electron shuttle or internalization. The results indicate that imidazoline- and pyrrolidine-type nitroxides should be used when high biostability of nitroxides is needed. Piperidine-type nitroxides are versatile probes for studying one-electron transfer reactions in skin. PMID:8225023

  5. ESR and spin-trapping study of room-temperature radicals in γ-irradiated polycrystalline pyrimidine nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free radicals produced in γ-irradiated polycrystalline 5'-dCMP (free acid and 2Na), 3'-CMP (free acid and Li), and 5'-UMP (2Na) were studied by ESR and spin-trapping. The results were compared with those of previous single-crystal studies. Furthermore, attempts to identify free radicals in γ-irradiated 5'-dUMP (2Na), 5'-CMP (free acid and 2Na), and 3'-UMP (Na), which have not been the subject of single-crystal studies to date, were made. After γ-irradiation at room temperature to a dose of 100 kGy, the polycrystalline samples were dissolved in aqueous solutions of t-nitrosobutane in the presence or absence of oxygen. The presence or absence of oxygen was helpful in analyzing the presence of more than one radical species. Thus two types of radicals could be established for all samples. Radical -C5H-C6H2-, formed by H addition to the double bond of the base, was observed in the presence of oxygen, and radical -C/sub 5'/H2, formed by the transformation of the radical due to loss of an H atom at the C/sub 5'/ position of the sugar moiety, was observed in the absence of oxygen. In some cases, radicals located at the C/sub 1'/, C/sub 4'/, and C/sub 5'/ of the sugar moiety were tentatively identified. For the ESR spectrum associated with radical at C/sub 1'/ the possibility of another explanation was also discussed in relation to the spectrum due to radical at C5 of the base. Radical -C5H2-C6H-, formed by H addition to the double bond of the base, was not identified

  6. 213 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation on Peptide Anions: Radical-Directed Fragmentation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A; Girod, Marion; MacAleese, Luke; Lemoine, Jrme; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of acidic peptides and proteins is greatly hindered due to lack of suitable analytical techniques. Here we present the implementation of 213 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) in high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer in negative polarity for peptide anions. Radical-driven backbone fragmentation provides 22 distinctive fragment ion types, achieving the complete sequence coverage for all reported peptides. Hydrogen-deficient radical anion not only promotes the cleavage of C?-C bond but also stimulates the breaking of N-C? and C-N bonds. Radical-directed loss of small molecules and specific side chain of amino acids are detected in these experiments. Radical containing side chain of amino acids (Tyr, Ser, Thr, and Asp) may possibly support the N-C? backbone fragmentation. Proline comprising peptides exhibit the unusual fragment ions similar to reported earlier. Interestingly, basic amino acids such as Arg and Lys also stimulated the formation of abundant b and y ions of the related peptide anions. Loss of hydrogen atom from the charge-reduced radical anion and fragment ions are rationalized by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation, locating the potential energy surface (PES) of ??* and repulsive ??* excited states of a model amide system. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26545767

  7. 213 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation on Peptide Anions: Radical-Directed Fragmentation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Mohammad A.; Girod, Marion; MacAleese, Luke; Lemoine, Jérôme; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of acidic peptides and proteins is greatly hindered due to lack of suitable analytical techniques. Here we present the implementation of 213 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) in high-resolution quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer in negative polarity for peptide anions. Radical-driven backbone fragmentation provides 22 distinctive fragment ion types, achieving the complete sequence coverage for all reported peptides. Hydrogen-deficient radical anion not only promotes the cleavage of Cα-C bond but also stimulates the breaking of N-Cα and C-N bonds. Radical-directed loss of small molecules and specific side chain of amino acids are detected in these experiments. Radical containing side chain of amino acids (Tyr, Ser, Thr, and Asp) may possibly support the N-Cα backbone fragmentation. Proline comprising peptides exhibit the unusual fragment ions similar to reported earlier. Interestingly, basic amino acids such as Arg and Lys also stimulated the formation of abundant b and y ions of the related peptide anions. Loss of hydrogen atom from the charge-reduced radical anion and fragment ions are rationalized by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation, locating the potential energy surface (PES) of ππ* and repulsive πσ* excited states of a model amide system.

  8. Sensitization of microorganisms and enzymes by radiation-induced selective inorganic radical anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial survival and enzymatic inactivation were examined following exposure to radiolytically-generated radical anions, X-2, where X=Cl, Br, I or CNS-. Depending on pH, radical anions react selectively or specifically with cysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine. Consequently, when one or more of these amino acids is crucial for enzymatic activity or bacterial survival and is attacked by a radical anion, a high degree or radiosensitization may be realized. Halide radical anions can form free chlorine, bromine or iodine. However, these bactericidal halogens are destroyed by reaction with the hydrated electron, e-sub(aq), or at pHs>9, as occurs, for example, when a medium saturated with nitrous oxide, N2O, and e-sub(aq) scavenger, is replaced by nitrogen or oxygen. Increasing concentration of other e-sub(aq) scavengers, such as phosphate buffer, promotes formation of halogen from halides. The conditions producing formation and elimination of halogens in irradiated media must be appreciated to avoid confusing radiosensitization by X2 to X-2. Radiosensitization by radical anions of several microorganisms: S. faecalis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, and M. radiodurens is described. A crucial amino acid for survival of S. faecalis appears to be tyrosine, while both tyrosine and tryptophan seem essential for recovery of S. typhimurium from effects of ionizing radiation. It is postulated that the radiosensitizing action of radical anions involves inhibition of DNA repair of strand-breaks by depriving the cells of energy. In view of the high OH scavenging power of foods, it is concluded that the radiosensitization of bacteria and enzymes in foods by radical anions, except for special cases, is not practical. Rather, radical anions serve to identify crucial amino acids to radiosensitization mechanisms in model systems, and possibly in radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Sensitization of Microorganisms and Enzymes by Radiation-Induced Selective Inorganic Radical Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial survival and enzymatic inactivation were examined following exposure to radiolytically-generated radical anions, X-2 , where X = Cl, Br, I, or CNS. Depending on pH, radical anions react selectively or specifically with cysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine. Consequently, when one or more of these amino acids is crucial for enzymatic activity or bacterial survival and is attacked by a radical anion, a high degree or radiosensitization may be realized. Halide radical anions can form free chlorine, bromine or iodine. However, these bactericidal halogens are destroyed by reaction with the hydrated electron, e-aq, or at pHs > 9, as occurs, for example, when a medium saturated with nitrous oxide, N2O , and e-aq scavenger, is replaced by nitrogen or oxygen. Increasing concentration of other e-aq scavengers, such as phosphate buffer, promotes formation of halogen from halides. The conditions producing formation and élimination o f halogens in irradiated media m ust be appreciated to avoid confusing radiosensitization by X2 to X-2. Radiosensitization by radical anions o f several microorganisms: S. faecalis, S. typhimurium, E. coli, and M. radiodurens is described. A crucial amino acid for survival of S. faecalis appears to be tyrosine, while both tyrosine and tryptophan seem essential for recovery of S. typhimurium from effects of ionizing radiation. It is postulated that the radiosensitizing action o f radical anions involves inhibition of DNA repair of strand-breaks by depriving the cells of energy. In view of the high OH scavenging power of foods, it is concluded that the radiosensitization of bacteria and enzymes in foods by radical anions, except for special cases, is not practical. Rather, radical anions serve to identify crucial amino acids to radiosensitization mechanisms in model systems, and possibly in radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Prostatectoma radical laparoscpica versus robtica / Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy versus robotic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Cceres; Carlos, Snchez; Luis, Martnez-Pieiro; Angel, Tabernero; Sergio, Alonso; Jess, Cisneros; Pedro Manuel, Cabrera Castillo; Mario, lvarez Maestro; Mario, Martn Hernndez; Manolo, Prez-Utrilla Prez; Jess J. de la, Pea.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La ciruga laparoscpica ha demostrado ser una buena alternativa a la ciruga abierta para el tratamiento del cncer de prstata localizado. La ciruga robtica podra ser una opcin teraputica. Pretendemos hacer una evaluacin de ambas tcnicas, analizando una serie de parmetros que nos [...] permitan describir las ventajas e inconvenientes de ambas tcnicas. Mtodos: Hemos realizado una bsqueda en MED-LINE, revisando las mayores series de Prostatectoma Radical Laparoscpica (PRL) y Prostatectoma Radical Robtica (PRR)y hemos analizado los siguientes parmetros de cada tcnica: resultados oncolgicos, resultados funcionales, prdida sangunea, tasa de transfusin, tiempo quirrgico, tasa de complicaciones, curva de aprendizaje y coste. Resultados: Ambas tcnicas tienen la ventaja de ser mnimamente invasivas, con ventajas en la recuperacin del paciente y en los resultados estticos. La curva de aprendizaje es menor para la prostatectoma robtica, siendo de 10 a 20 casos para sta y de 50 a 60 casos para la PRL. El anlisis de los costes econmicos es ms favorable para la PRL que tiene un gasto en fungibles por paciente de 533 dlares, siendo ste de 1.705 dlares para la robtica. El precio del robot es de 1.200.000 dlares ms un gasto anual de mantenimiento de 100.000 dlares (1). El tiempo operatorio es de 182 min. [141-250] para la robtica y de 234 min. [151-453] para la PRL. Dentro de una misma institucin, como ocurre en Montsouris, los tiempos son muy parecidos tardando 155 min. para la robtica y 181 min. para la PRL (tabla 3). El sangrado medio operatorio es de 234 ml. [75-500] para la robtica y de 482 ml. [185-859] para la PRL, dependiendo de la tcnica utilizada y de las distintas instituciones. El porcentaje de complicaciones es similar con ambas tcnicas. El porcentaje de mrgenes quirrgicos positivos es de 20.6% para la PRL y del 19.24% para la robtica. No se pueden dar todava resultados a largo plazo sobre recurrencia bioqumica del PSA debido a la corta existencia de ambas tcnicas. La tasa de continencia para la PRL es de 56-100% y para la robtica del 70-98%. La tasa de potencia para la PRL es del 25-82% y para la robtica del 79-100%. No existen datos lo suficientemente claros para decir que existan diferencias significativas en cuanto a resultados funcionales. Es difcil evaluar la estancia postoperatoria ya que muchas veces depende de la poltica de la instituciones mdicas, aunque en conjunto no parece que existan diferencias significativas entre ambas tcnicas. Conclusiones: La ventajas intraoperatorias y postoperatorias son comparables con las dos tcnicas. La prostatectoma robtica tiene una curva de aprendizaje ms corta. Son necesarios estudios prospectivos con mayor seguimiento para poder comparar los resultados oncolgicos y funcionales. El coste de la PRL es menor que el de la robtica. Abstract in english Objectives: Laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated that it is a good alternative to conventional surgery for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Robotic surgery could be a therapeutic option. We try to evaluate both techniques, analyzing a series of parameters that allow us to describe the ad [...] vantages and disadvantages of both techniques. Methods: We performed a MEDLINE search and reviewed the main series of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP). The parameters analyzed for each techniques were: oncological results, functional results, blood loss, transfusion rates, surgical times, complications rates, learning curve and cost. Results: Both techniques have the advantage of being minimally invasive, which results in better recovery and aesthetic results. The learning curve of the robotic prostatectomy is shorter, 10 to 20 cases in comparison with 50 to 60 for the LRP. Cost analysis is more favourable for LRP, with a single-use instrument expenditure of 533 dollars per patient in comparison with 1.705 dollars with the robot.

  11. Towards radical improvement in production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gåsvaer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As the speed of change is increasing, it’s of great importance that manufacturing companies strive to achieve not only incremental improvements, but also radical improvements within their production systems. Thus, more research has to be focused on how to realize radical improvement. In accordance, the objective of the licentiate thesis is to, through theoretical and empirical work, increase the understanding about radical improvement in production and identify what elements need to be consid...

  12. A Radically Configurable Six-State Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jonathan C.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Cao, Dennis; Dyar, Scott M.; Frasconi, Marco; Giesener, Marc A.; Benítez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Chernyashevskyy, Oleksandr; Shin, Weon Ho; Li, Hao; Sampath, Srinivasan; Stern, Charlotte L.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Hartlieb, Karel J.

    2013-01-01

    Most organic radicals possess short lifetimes and quickly undergo dimerization or oxidation. Here, we report on the synthesis by radical templation of a class of air- and water-stable organic radicals, trapped within a homo[2]catenane composed of two rigid and fixed cyclobis (paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. The highly energetic octacationic homo[2]catenane, which is capable of accepting up to eight electrons, can be configured reversibly, both chemically and electrochemically, bet...

  13. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Stephen R.; Lloyd, Judith; Zheng, Jun

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  14. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Murshed, Syed Mansoob; Pavan, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West's foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the role of group identity based individual behaviour in organising collective action within radicalized Muslim groups. Inasmuch as culture plays any role at all in radicalization, it is because individuals feel a...

  15. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Murshed, Syed; Pavan, Sara

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the role of group identity based individual behaviour in organising collective action within radicalized Muslim groups. Inasmuch as culture plays any role at all in radicalization, it is because indivi...

  16. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO+BF4-) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB+*). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB+* and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  17. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2009-01-01

      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy se...

  18. Reactions of radical cations of acetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and photochemical reactions of the methylal radical cation in freon matrices were studied using selective deuteration for elucidating the structure of the resulting species. The methylal radical cation was shown to decay by unimolecular reaction upon heating to 140 K as well as upon photolysis in CFCl3 matrix and the product of decay is assumed to be the complex of formaldehyde radical cation with CFCl3. Such decay reaction was demonstrated for 1,3-dioxolan radical cation as well. (author) 15 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Radical ions studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of a pulse radiolysis technique for the study of electron-transfer processes and chemical reactions of the radical ions formed, which have been recently developed by the authors, are reviewed. So far such studies served mainly the purpose of elucidating the details of the following reaction mechanism: i) Inter- and intramolecular reaction of aromatic radical anions with halides, ii) Cycloreversion of arylcyclobutanes via the radical-ion intermediates, iii) Reactions of styrene radical anions with carbon dioxide. The fundamental information on the reactivities of the transient active species is essential for the utilization of these active species for organic synthesis and also for chemical storage of solar energy. (author)

  20. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare L

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress......, slowly tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews...

  1. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    evidence to develop an optimal pain management protocol in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Most studies assessed unimodal analgesic approaches rather than a multimodal technique. There is a need for more procedure-specific studies comparing pain and analgesic requirements for open and minimally...... invasive surgical procedures. Finally, while we wait for appropriate procedure specific evidence from publication of adequate studies assessing optimal pain management after radical prostatectomy, we propose a basic analgesic guideline.......BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains...

  2. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  3. The radiation chemistry of connective tissue; hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous solutions of hyaluronic acid have been irradiated under various conditions and the amount of strand scission was determined viscometrically. OH radicals were found to be some 1.5 times more potent than H atoms at inducing breaks, methanol, propan-2-ol and t-butanol radicals produced relatively little breakage (potency less than 3% that of .OH). Tetranitromethane (TNM) has been used to measure the yield of reducing radicals produced on OH radical attack on hyaluronic acid, around 80% of the hyaluronic acid radicals reacted with TNM (i.e. are reducing radicals) with a rate constant of 4.5x108 mol-1 dm3 s-1. In contrast similar measurements on the polysaccharide model, β-cyclodextrin, indicated that all the radicals formed were reducing. The presence of TNM or oxygen during radiolysis caused a 30% fall in chain breakage. The majority of radicals produced in both hyaluronic acid and β-cyclodextrin are either 1,2 dihydroxy or 1-hydroxy 2-alkoxy type radicals, both of which form β-carbonyl radicals by the acid (and base) catalysed elimination of water or alcohol. These β-carbonyl radicals are considerably less reducing than their parent α-hydroxy radicals and are not expected to react with TNM. By determining the extent of reaction with TNM as a function of TNM concentration, the first order rate constant for the formation of the β-carbonyl radicals can be calculated on applying simple competition kinetics. The rate constant at pH 4 was found to be about 4x103 s-1 in the case of hyaluronic acid radicals, with the β-cyclodextrin system even at pH 2.8 the rate constant was less than 2x103 s-1. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Reaction of the 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radical with acrylate type molecules in aqueous solution: Radical addition or electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnarovits, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary)], E-mail: wojn@iki.kfki.hu; Takacs, Erzsebet [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary)], E-mail: takacs@iki.kfki.hu; Emmi, Salvatore S. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita (ISOF), CNR, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2006-09-11

    The reaction of 2-hydroxy-2-propyl (IP) radical with 12 acrylate type monomers in aqueous solutions was investigated by means of pulse radiolysis: the molecular structure effects and the mechanisms were evaluated. Radicals were generated either in the reaction of hydrated electron with acetone and subsequent protonation or in the H abstraction reaction by OH radicals from i-propanol. IP radical reacts with acrylamides and acrylic acid esters in radical addition reaction of the type: (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH)C {sup {center_dot}} + CH{sub 2} =CH-C(O)R {sup {yields}} (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH)C-CH{sub 2}-C {sup {center_dot}}H-C(O)R with rate coefficients between 3.2 x 10{sup 7} and 1.9 x 10{sup 8} mol{sup -1} dm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. Rate coefficients of the reaction with maleic acid (neutral), dimethyl- and diethyl maleate are between 1.3 x 10{sup 8} and 4.7 x 10{sup 8} mol{sup -1} dm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. The values for dimethyl- and diethyl fumarate are ca. one order of magnitude higher. However with maleates and fumarates there is also a few percent contribution from the electron transfer reaction of the type (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH)C {sup {center_dot}} + ROOC-CH=CH-COOR + H{sub 2}O {sup {yields}} ROOC-CH=CH-C {sup {center_dot}}O{sup -}OR + (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO + H{sub 3}O{sup +}. In neutral solutions and at pH {approx}3 and {approx}9, the same rate coefficients were measured. However, in dialkyl maleate and -fumarate solutions between pH 9.5 and 10.5, a base catalyzed decomposition of the IP radical adduct was observed forming electron adduct: ROOC-C((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH)C)H-C {sup {center_dot}}H-COOR + OH{sup -} {sup {yields}} ROOC-CH=CH-C {sup {center_dot}}O{sup -}OR + (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO + H{sub 2}O. Molecular structure effects were evaluated using log k-{sigma} {sub p} and log k-LUMO plots.

  5. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.

    1987-04-01

    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    analysis of the web debate examines how viewers reacted to this interpretation. The web debate functioned as a participatory forum, where collective and national memories and postcolonial history were intensely discussed, and the debate made room for some degree of reconciliation between viewers of Dutch......This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt......, as well as in user-generated comments in an online discussion. The television film represented an inclusive memory culture that made room for the difficult memories of all parties involved, including the radicalised, young hijackers. Based on a multidimensional model of mass media reception, the...

  8. Supporting radical front end innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Gertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    An organization benefits substantially by improving front end innovation (FEI) actively and may thereby enhance the chances of developing innovations, as emphasized by several authors e.g. Reinertsen (1999), Dahl & Moreau (2002), Boeddrich (2004), Williams et al. (2007) and Vernorn et al. (2008......). Pharmaceutical innovation is unique, as it opposed to most other industries’ product development is science-driven and not customer-driven. In addition, the pharmaceutical FEI, as represented by research, lasts up to 5 years and the entire R&D process constitutes a period of 10-12 years, which is highly...... of FEI, pharmaceutical FEI and radical innovation. Based on this understanding, empirical research through exploratory and inductive case studies is analyzed. The value added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI literature is in the study of the theoretical fields of research in...

  9. Polymerization of ethylene : from free radical homopolymerization to hybrid radical / catalytic copolymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to study ethylene polymerization from the free radical polymerization process to the copolymerization by a hybrid radical/catalytic mechanism. PE is synthesized by free radical polymerization under milder experimental conditions than industrial ones (P>1000 bar and T>100°C). Indeed free radical polymerization of ethylene is efficient even down to pressure of 5 bar and temperature of 10°C. Several unexpected behaviors are observed such as a high solvent activation effect. Beside...

  10. Study by ESR of free radicals created by irradiation in some organic substances. Application for dosimetry of the measure of free radicals produced in alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report complete the results obtained with free radicals created in glycine. The nature and number of these radicals produced by irradiation in cysteine and glutathion have been investigated free radicals generated in alanine have specially been studied. A linear law exists in a large scale of doses between the number of radicals and the absorbed dose. This property in connection with the high stability of these radicals is very interesting for an use of this amino-acid in dosimetry field. The background of non irradiated alanine is a limit for the best sensibility. With 1 g of alanine in powder, it is possible to make ? measurements between 5 rads and 5. 106 rads. For neutrons, the radicals production yield is lower than for ?. By adding paraffin, it is possible to get a larger yield and to realize compacts dosimeters easier for use than alanine in powder. By adjunction of a higher Z constituent (Ca or Ba for example), it would be possible to improve the yield of the dosimeter for ? energy less than 70 keV. (authors)

  11. Efficient production of enol ether radical cations by heterolytic cleavage of beta-mesylate radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxil, Elsa; Bagnol, Laurent; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2003-03-20

    [reaction: see text] alpha-Methoxy-beta-mesyloxy radicals were produced in laser flash photolysis reactions, and yields of enol ether radical cations formed by heterolytic fragmentation of the mesylate group were determined. The mesylate heterolysis reaction is faster than heterolyses of phosphate and bromide groups in analogous radicals and highly efficient in medium-polarity solvents. PMID:12633082

  12. Component Analysis and Free Radicals Scavenging Activity of Cicer arietinum L. Husk Pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso A. Gardea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A pectin (CAP was extracted from the husk of Cicer arietinum L.. Monosaccharide analysis of CAP revealed the dominance of galacturonic acid and smaller amounts of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, xylose and mannose. Viscosimetric analysis showed that the intrinsic viscosity ([η] and the molecular weight (MW of CAP were 296 mL/g and 105 kDa, respectively. The degree of esterification (DE = 10% was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. CAP exhibited a dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity, as shown by its DPPH radical inhibition. At 1.0 mg/mL CAP exhibited a scavenging rate of 29% on DPPH radicals. The evaluation of antioxidant activity suggested that CAP had good potential for DPPH radical scavenging activity and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  13. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of wild edible mushroom, Pleurotus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jaita; Ganguly, Sourav; Tahsin, Khandakar Saifa; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2010-12-01

    Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases and hence antioxidants have significant importance in human health. Cold water, hot water and methanolic extract of Pleurotus squarrosulus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical, DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, superoxide radical, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and beta-carotenellinoleic acid assay. Total phenol, flavonoid, beta-carotene and lycopene content were also determined. Hot water extract showed significant antioxidant activity in all the test systems. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of all the extracts has been significant compared to positive control. Hot water extract has been found to have higher phenolic, total flavonoid, beta-carotene and lycopene content than cold water and methanolic extract of the mushroom. Results of this study showed that, hot water extract has maximum antioxidant property and may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics. PMID:21250603

  14. Free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activities of phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Stanley, Roger A; Adaim, Aselle; Melton, Laurence D; Skinner, Margot A

    2006-11-01

    The free radical scavenging activities of three flavonoids (quercetin, rutin and catechin) and four hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, and chlorogenic acids) were evaluated using both oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) assays. The cytoprotective effects of these compounds were also measured by the degree of protection against H(2)O(2)-induced damage of human Jurkat cells. All compounds exhibited protection against H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations required to result in a 50% reduction in cell death (EC(50) value) were calculated from their dose-response curves. These ranged from 0.15-2.65 microM. Overall, the four hydroxycinnamic acids tested were less effective than the three flavonoids, and of all compounds tested, quercetin offered the strongest protection against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death. A comparison of the results showed that the ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids in a liposomal system (LPIC) correlated well with the cytoprotective activities (EC(50)), but not with the ability to protect an aqueous fluorescent substrate in the ORAC assays. The results suggest that the behavior of antioxidants in a liposomal membrane is to some extent similar to the mechanism involved in the protection of living cells from oxidative damage. PMID:17039459

  15. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Nripendranath

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Spondias pinnata stem bark extract. Methods A 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark was studied in vitro for total antioxidant activity, for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid, and for iron chelating capacity, reducing power, and phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results The extract showed total antioxidant activity with a trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC value of 0.78 0.02. The IC50 values for scavenging of free radicals were 112.18 3.27 ?g/ml, 13.46 0.66 ?g/ml and 24.48 2.31 ?g/ml for hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide, respectively. The IC50 for hydrogen peroxide scavenging was 44.74 25.61 mg/ml. For the peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous acid scavenging activities the IC50 values were 716.32 32.25 ?g/ml, 58.07 5.36 ?g/ml and 127.99 6.26 ?g/ml, respectively. The extract was found to be a potent iron chelator with IC50 = 66.54 0.84 ?g/ml. The reducing power was increased with increasing amounts of extract. The plant extract (100 mg yielded 91.47 0.004 mg/ml gallic acid-equivalent phenolic content and 350.5 0.004 mg/ml quercetin-equivalent flavonoid content. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that a 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata stem bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Identification of the water amidogen radical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Courtney P; Lane, Joseph R; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; McKinley, Allan J

    2009-01-01

    The water amidogen radical complex (H(2)O-NH(2)) is a reactive intermediate in the atmospheric oxidation of ammonia by a hydroxyl radical. In the present study, we identify for the first time the H(2)O-NH(2) complex using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. We corroborate our experimental...

  17. Radical Constructivism: Between Realism and Solipsism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Delgado, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. Suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism, and briefly advances an alternative

  18. Radical chemistry and radiation-processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhancement in free radical concentration by gamma radiation was comparable to other treatments such as heating or microwave. These studies suggested that free radicals are part of the daily diet, radiation or no radiation, and there is nothing to fear from them or from the radiation processed foods

  19. Ideals Adrift: An Educational Approach to Radicalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van San, Marion; Sieckelinck, Stijn; de Winter, Micha

    2013-01-01

    These days, the radicalization of young people is above all viewed as a security risk. Almost all research into this phenomenon has been carried out from a legal, criminological or socio-psychological perspective with a focus on detecting and containing the risks posed by radicalization. In the light of the political developments since September

  20. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare L

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...

  1. Radical Feminism, Humanism and Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibles, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Feminists now characterize radical feminism as involving sexism, views of the superiority of women over men, and the goal to establish a separate world without men, a gynocracy is discussed. Radical feminism is contrasted with humanism and seen to be antihumanistic. (Author/MLW)

  2. [Study of scavenging activity of sorghum pigment to hydroxyl free radicals by fluorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-rong; Wang, Wen-yan

    2007-03-01

    A natural product, sorghum pigment, consists of a number of important flavonoid derivatives, occurrs on the seed capsules or in the stems of many sorghums, and is widely applied in different fields of food, cosmetic and dyeing industries, It is important for scavenging hydroxyl free radicals and protection of human healthiness. Scavenging capacities of hydroxyl free radicals with sodium nitrite, quercetin and sorghum pigment were comparatively researched by fluorimetry, and the model of hydroxyl free radicals produced is based on the reaction of Cu2+ -catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The hydroxyl radicals react with benzoic acid, forming a fluorescent product, and the fluorescence intensity was determined by the concentration of hydroxybenzoic acid. The experimental results show that the sodium nitrite, quercetin and sorghum pigment have a quantity-effect relationship for scavenging hydroxyl free radicals, and sodium nitrite and quercetin in comparison with sorghum pigment have high antioxidant capacity. Finally, the quenching mechanisms were explored with sodium nitrite, sorghum pigment, and quercetin respectively. The sorghum pigment and sodium nitrite feature a dynamic quenching processes, while quercetin shows a static quenching processes. A reference method was provided for reasonable exploitation and utilization of sorghum pigment. PMID:17554919

  3. Physicochemical aspects of isomerisation of free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2004-11-30

    Kinetic data on intramolecular abstraction of hydrogen atoms in alkyl, alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals are generalised and analysed. It is shown that the activation energies of these reactions are affected by ring strain. The kinetic parameters of mono- and bimolecular elimination reactions are compared. The difference between the activation energies of these reactions is interpreted using the model of intersecting parabolas. The same model is used to discuss the results of analysis of cyclisation of alkyl radicals; the ring strain energy is shown to play an important role in the activation of these reactions. It is noted that the difference between the electron affinities of the C, N and O atoms is clearly manifested in the cyclisation of aminyl and {omega}-formylalkyl radicals. The kinetic parameters of cyclisation and bimolecular radical addition reactions are compared. The experimental data on the transfer of the vinyl and aryl groups in alkyl radicals are analysed.

  4. Spin Manipulation by Creation of Single-Molecule Radical Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Sujoy; Li, Na; Zhang, Yajie; He, Yang; Hong, I.-Po; Song, Huanjun; L, Jing-Tao; Wang, Yongfeng; Peng, Lianmao; Wu, Kai; Michelitsch, Georg S.; Maurer, Reinhard J.; Diller, Katharina; Reuter, Karsten; Weismann, Alexander; Berndt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ReA), a closed-shell organic molecule comprising only C, H, and O atoms, is investigated on a Au(111) substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In dense arrays single ReA molecules are switched to a number of states, three of which carry a localized spin as evidenced by conductance spectroscopy in high magnetic fields. The spin of a single molecule may be reversibly switched on and off without affecting its neighbors. We suggest that ReA on Au is readily converted to a radical by the abstraction of an electron.

  5. Polymers based on stable phenoxyl radicals for the use in organic radical batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhnert, Thomas; Hupler, Bernhard; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-05-01

    Polymers with pendant phenoxyl radicals are synthesized and the electrochemical properties are investigated in detail. The monomers are polymerized using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) or free-radical polymerization methods. The monomers and polymers, respectively, are oxidized to the radical either before or after the polymerization. These phenoxyl radicals containing polymers reveal a reversible redox behavior at a potential of -0.6 V (vs Ag/AgCl). Such materials can be used as anode-active material in organic radical batteries (ORBs). PMID:24652613

  6. Real-time probing of radical events with sulfide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauduel, Yann A.; Glinec, Yannick; Malka, Victor

    2007-02-01

    The physio-pathological roles of sulfide biomolecules in cellular environments involves redox processes and radical reactions that alter or protect the functional properties of enzymatic systems, proteins and nucleic acids repair. We focus on micromolar monitoring of sulfur-centered radical anions produced by direct electron attachment, using sulfide molecules (a thioether and a disulfide biomolecule) and two complementary spectroscopic approaches: low energy radiation femtochemistry (1-8 eV) and high energy radiation femtochemistry (2.5-15 MeV). The early step of a disulfide bond making RS?SR from thiol molecules involves a very-short lived odd-electron bonded intermediate for which an excess electron is transiently localized by a preexisting two sulfide monomers complex. The reactive center of oxidized glutathione (cystamine), a major cytoplasmic disulfide biomolecule, is also used as sensor for the real-time IR investigation of effective reaction radius r eff in homogenous aqueous environments and interfacial water of biomimetic systems. Femtosecond high-energy electrons beams, typically in the 2.5 - 15 MeV range, may conjecture the picosecond observation of primary radical events in nanometric radiation spurs. The real-time investigation of sulfide and disulfide molecules opens exciting opportunities for sensitisation of confined environments (aqueous groove of DNA, protein pockets, sub-cellular systems) to ionizing radiation. Low and high-energy femtoradical probing foreshadow the development of new applications in radiobiology (low dose effect at the nanometric scale) and anticancer radiotherapy (pro-drogue activation).

  7. Free radical reactions of monochloramine and hydroxylamine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Advanced Oxidation Technologies to destroy organic contaminants in drinking water may be impacted by the presence of disinfection chemicals such as monochloramine (NH2Cl). To allow a quantitative evaluation of the effect of NH2Cl on the destruction of organics in water rate constants for its reaction with the hydrated electron, the hydroxyl radical and the hydrogen atom were determined in this study. The corresponding values of (2.2±0.2)x1010, (2.8±0.2)x109, and (1.2±0.1)x109 M-1 s-1, respectively, were incorporated into a kinetic computer model whose predictions were in good agreement with experimental chloramine removal under large scale, steady-state electron-beam irradiation conditions. Rate constants were also determined for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical and hydrogen atom with the chloramine hydration product hydroxylamine to supplement established literature data. Hydroxyl radical rate constants for the basic (NH2OH) and acidic (NH3OH+) forms were determined as (8.5±0.4)x109 and ≤5x107 M-1 s-1, respectively, while for hydrogen atom reaction, corresponding rate constants of (4.5±0.1)x107 and (3.6±1.5)x105 M-1 s-1 were found

  8. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of cyclic dipeptides: Reactions of free peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this study investigations were carried out into the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with cyclic dipeptides as well as the subsequent reactions of peptide radicals and their peroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. The radiolysis products formed in the absence and presence of oxygen or transient metal complexes were characterized and determined on a quantitative basis. The linking of information from product analyses to the kinetic data for transient species obtained by time-resolving UV/VIS and conductivity measurements (pulse radiolysis) as well as computer-assisted simulations of individual events during the reaction permitted an evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the various processes and an identification of interim products with short life-times, which did or did not belong to the group of radicals. Through the characterization of key reactions of radicals and peroxyl radicals of this substance class a major advance has been made towards a better understanding of the role of radicals in the peptide compound and the mechanisms involved in indirect radiation effects on long-chain peptides and proteins. (orig.)

  9. Metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization and radical polyaddition for precision polymer synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal-catalyzed radical addition reaction can be evolved into two different polymerization mechanisms, i.e.; chain- and step-growth polymerizations, while both the polymerizations are based on the same metal-catalyzed radical formation reaction. The former is a widely employed metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization or atom transfer radical polymerization of common vinyl monomers, and the latter is a novel metal-catalyzed radical polyaddition of designed monomer with an unconjugated C=C double bond and a reactive C-Cl bond in one molecule. The simultaneous ruthenium-catalyzed living radical polymerization of methyl acrylate and radical polyaddition of 3-butenyl 2-chloropropionate was achieved with Ru(Cp*)Cl(PPh3)2 to afford the controlled polymers, in which the homopolymer segments with the controlled chain length were connected by the ester linkage.

  10. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini Goswami; Sreemoyee Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare...

  11. A potential role for sinapyl p-coumarate as a radical transfer mechanism in grass lignin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Ronald; Ralph, John; Grabber, John H

    2008-11-01

    Grass lignins are differentiated from other lignin types by containing relatively large amounts of p-coumaric acid (pCA) acylating the C-9 position of lignin subunits. In the case of a mature corn (Zea mays L.) stems, pCA constitutes 15-18% of a dioxane soluble enzyme lignin. The major portion of the pCA is specifically attached to syringyl residues. Studies with isolated corn wall peroxidases show that pCA readily undergoes radical coupling in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas sinapyl alcohol radical coupling proceeds more slowly. Analysis of corn wall peroxidases did not reveal specific enzymes that would lead to the preferred incorporation of sinapyl alcohol as seen in other plants. The addition of ethyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, or sinapyl p-coumarate conjugates to a reaction mixture containing peroxidase, sinapyl alcohol, and hydrogen peroxide stimulated the rate of sinapyl alcohol radical coupling by 10-20-fold. Based on spectral analysis it appears that pCA and ferulate radicals form rapidly, but the radical is readily transferred to sinapyl alcohol. The newly formed sinapyl alcohol radicals undergo coupling and cross-coupling reactions. However, sinapyl alcohol radicals do not cross-couple with pCA radicals. As long as hydrogen peroxide is limiting pCA remains uncoupled. Ferulates have similar reaction patterns in terms of radical transfer though they appear to cross-couple in the reaction mixture more readily then pCA. The role of pCA may be to internally provide a radical transfer mechanism for optimizing radical coupling of sinapyl alcohol into the growing lignin polymer. Attachment of some pCA to sinapyl alcohol ensures localization of the radical transfer mechanism in areas where sinapyl alcohol is being incorporated into lignin. PMID:18654797

  12. Minimization of free radical damage by metal catalysis of multivitamin/multimineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivie Jeremy S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multivitamin/multimineral complexes are the most common dietary supplements. Unlike minerals in foods that are incorporated in bioorganic structures, minerals in dietary supplements are typically in an inorganic form. These minerals can catalyze the generation of free radicals, thereby oxidizing antioxidants during digestion. Here we examine the ability of a matrix consisting of an amino acid and non-digestible oligosaccharide (AAOS to blunt metal-catalyzed oxidations. Monitoring of ascorbate radical generated by copper shows that ascorbate is oxidized more slowly with the AAOS matrix than with copper sulfate. Measurement of the rate of oxidation of ascorbic acid and Trolox by catalytic metals confirmed the ability of AAOS to slow these oxidations. Similar results were observed with iron-catalyzed formation of hydroxyl radicals. When compared to traditional forms of minerals used in supplements, we conclude that the oxidative loss of antioxidants in solution at physiological pH is much slower when AAOS is present.

  13. Radical Chain Polymerization Catalyzed by Graphene Oxide and Cooperative Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongcheng; Shi, Shengjie; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is effective in catalyzing a wide variety of organic reactions and a few types of polymerization reactions. No radical chain polymerizations catalyzed by GO have been reported. In this article, we probe the catalytic role and acceleration effect of GO for self-initiated radical chain polymerizations of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of GO and a pre-existing polymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), from a calorimetric perspective. Gelation experiments and DSC studies show that GO can function as a catalyst to accelerate the radical chain polymerization of AA. Isothermal polymerization kinetic data shows that the addition of GO diminishes the induction periods and increases the polymerization rates, as indicated by the much enhanced overall kinetic rate constants and lowered activation energies. The catalytic effect of GO for the polymerization of AA is attributed to the acidity of GO and the hydrogen bonding interactions between GO and monomer molecules and/or polymers. PMID:26775874

  14. Oxidative capacity of the Mexico City atmosphere – Part 1: A radical source perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Volkamer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of OH, HO2 and RO2 radical sources is presented for the near field photochemical regime inside the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. During spring of 2003 (MCMA-2003 field campaign an extensive set of measurements was collected to quantify time-resolved ROx (sum of OH, HO2, RO2 radical production rates from day- and nighttime radical sources. The Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1 was constrained by measurements of (1 concentration time-profiles of photosensitive radical precursors, i.e., nitrous acid (HONO, formaldehyde (HCHO, ozone (O3, glyoxal (CHOCHO, and other oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs; (2 respective photolysis-frequencies (J-values; (3 concentration time-profiles of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic VOCs (103 compound are treated and oxidants, i.e., OH- and NO3 radicals, O3; and (4 NO, NO2, meteorological and other parameters. The ROx production rate was calculated directly from these observations; the MCM was used to estimate further ROx production from unconstrained sources, and express overall ROx production as OH-equivalents (i.e., taking into account the propagation efficiencies of RO2 and HO2 radicals into OH radicals.

    Daytime radical production is found to be about 10–25 times higher than at night; it does not track the abundance of sunlight. 12-h average daytime contributions of individual sources are: Oxygenated VOC other than HCHO about 33%; HCHO and O3 photolysis each about 20%; O3/alkene reactions and HONO photolysis each about 12%, other sources <3%. Nitryl chloride photolysis could potentially contribute ~15% additional radicals, while NO2* + water makes – if any – a very small contribution (~2%. The peak radical production of ~7.5 107 molec cm−3 s−1 is found already at 10:00 a.m., i.e., more than 2.5 h before solar noon. O3/alkene reactions are indirectly responsible for ~33% of these radicals. Our measurements and analysis comprise a database that enables testing of the representation of radical sources and radical chain reactions in photochemical models.

    Since the photochemical processing of pollutants in the MCMA is radical limited, our analysis identifies the drivers for ozone and SOA formation. We conclude that reductions in VOC emissions provide an efficient opportunity to reduce peak concentrations of these secondary pollutants, because (1 about 70% of radical production is linked to VOC precursors; (2 lowering the VOC/NOx ratio has the further benefit of reducing the radical re-cycling efficiency from radical chain reactions (chemical amplification of radical sources; (3 a positive feedback is identified: lowering the rate of radical production from organic precursors also reduces that from inorganic precursors, like ozone, as pollution export from the MCMA caps the amount of ozone that accumulates at a lower rate inside the MCMA. Continued VOC reductions will in the future result in decreasing peak concentrations of ozone and SOA in the MCMA.

  15. Radical Testing of Firewall Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagolu Vanaja1 , Sandhya2 , Betam Suresh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Firewall is an application software that plays a major role in securing the private networks, so that is the reason why this firewalls are becoming as a popular applications in enterprise security as the quality of protection provided by a firewall directly depends on the quality of its policy (i.e., configuration, ensuring the correctness of firewall policies is important and yet difficult. To help ensure the correctness, we propose a radical testing approach for firewall policies. Here in this paper we are proposing a test that can successfully test the firewall policy which will check for two things one is Authentication and one more is malware if the node is not in the list of authenticated and also if it found any packet having malware automatically it blocks that particular IP from the next time onwards.We have conducted a test on a set of firewall policies and a set of faulty policies to detect malicious packets with default packets. Generally, our experimental results state that a higher structural coverage packet has the higher fault detection capability. Coming to the reduced Structural coverage maintains the same fault detection level with the original set.

  16. Kinetics of Propargyl Radical Dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippenstein, Stephen J; Miller, James A; Jasper, Ahren W

    2015-07-16

    Due to the prominent role of the propargyl radical for hydrocarbon growth within combustion environments, it is important to understand the kinetics of its formation and loss. The ab initio transition state theory-based master equation method is used to obtain theoretical kinetic predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the thermal decomposition of propargyl, which may be its primary loss channel under some conditions. The potential energy surface for the decomposition of propargyl is first mapped at a high level of theory with a combination of coupled cluster and multireference perturbation calculations. Variational transition state theory is then used to predict the microcanonical rate coefficients, which are subsequently implemented within the multiple-well multiple-channel master equation. A variety of energy transfer parameters are considered, and the sensitivity of the thermal rate predictions to these parameters is explored. The predictions for the thermal decomposition rate coefficient are found to be in good agreement with the limited experimental data. Modified Arrhenius representations of the rate constants are reported for utility in combustion modeling. PMID:25871530

  17. ORGASMIC FUNCTION AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study orgasmic function (OF in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPE.Subjects and methods. Seventy-nine patients who had undergone RPE for locally advanced prostate cancer without hormone and radiation therapies were examined. The patients’ mean age was 59.3 years. The mean EF-IIEF domain score was 24.4. OF was estimated by IIEF question 10 and the authors’ questionnaire. The Spearman rank correction coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon tests were used.Results. After RPE, there was a reduction in the mean IIEF question 10 score from 3.9 (confidence interval 3.7–4.1 to 3.3 (3–3.5 (p = 0.000. The following changes were found in orgasm intensity: no changes in 43 %, mild worsening in 42 %, severe worsening in 8 %, and enhancement in 4 %; orgasm could not be achieved in 4 % of the patients. Pain usually of low intensity was reported by 8.8 %. The poor factors for preserving OF were its low baseline level, elderly age, or severe post-RPE erectile dysfunction.Conclusion. There were significant OF changes after RPE, which should be kept in mind while treating this category of patients.

  18. Screening of Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Murenje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the total phenolics content and the antioxidant activities from methanolic extracts of Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were studied using DPPH and reducing power assays, a?-carotene linoleic acid model system and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Phenolic compounds were also quantified using HPLC. Total phenolic compounds for Vigna ungiculata, Bidens pilosa and Cleome gynandra were 1136.6033.869 g g-1, 1102.7972.239 mg g-1 and 1327.3331.658 mg g-1 dry mass, respectively. All three vegetable extracts contained vanillin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. There was an increase in the reducing power effects and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in all samples. All samples showed a time dependent decrease in radical scavenging of DPPH and?-carotene.

  19. Excited states of guanine cation radicals in DNA result in the formation of DNA sugar radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an investigation of sugar radical formation in irradiated DNA, we report the conversion of one-electron-oxidized guanine (G+ ) to the C1' and C3' sugar radicals via visible and UV-photolysis. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopic investigations were performed on salmon testes DNA, 5'-dGMP and 3'-dGMP as model systems. DNA samples (100 mg/mL D 2 O) were prepared with Tl3+ or Fe(CN)63- as electron scavengers. Upon gamma-irradiation, the electron-gain path in the DNA is strongly suppressed; at low temperatures, a mix of G+ and sugar radicals are found. Some thymine allyl-type radical (UCH2) may also be present at this point. After UV-photolysis, the percentage of sugar radicals, specifically the C1' radical, increases with a concomitant decrease in the percentage G+ . In hydrated DNA samples, the conversion of the G+ to the C1' radical increased as the level of hydration increased. Similar effects are observed in DNA samples using visible photolysis; however, the conversion of G+ to sugar radical is less efficient than with UV light. For deoxynucleotide phosphate samples (2 mg/mL D 2 O/8 M LiCl), dGMP+ is produced by attack of Cl2-. Subsequent visible photolysis of the 3'-dGMP+ (77 K) results in formation of the sugar C1' radical; for photolysis of 5'-dGMP+, the C3' radical is preferentially formed. For DNA, the C1'-H bond is the weakest in the sugar moiety; thus, the C1' radical is formed from the electronically excited base-cation radical in preference to other sugar radicals. The formation of the C3' radical in 5'-dGMP and the C1' radical in 3'-dGMP is explained by the extra stability afforded by an OH group at C3' radical site vs. a phosphate group. In agreement, earlier ab initio calculations showed that replacing the OH group at the C3' position with a phosphate group destabilizes the C3' radical relative to the C1' radical

  20. Study of free-radical centers in lignin with 2-mm band ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of paramagnetic centers in pristine lignin and lignin, treated with molecular chlorine, aqueous solutions of acids and alkalis, and γ- and UV-irradiated, was studied with 2-mm band ESR spectroscopy. Most of the observed singlet ESR lines are accounted for by radicals with conjugated bonds. High reactivity of double bonds of polyconjugated systems was in the processes studied