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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  2. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  3. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity for Achillea talagonica and A.Tenuifolia

    Saeidnia, S.; A.R Gohari; M.R Gohari; Moradi, F.; F. Lodfi Maldar; A. Haji Akhondi

    2006-01-01

    AbstractBackground and purpose: Achillea (Asteraceae) comprises 115 species, which are mainly distributed in Europe, Asia, and North Africa and as introduced plant in the New World. The genus Achillea, generally named Bumadaran in Persian, is well known for medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects. Achillea has long been used in traditional medicine for treatment of neuralgia and rheumatic pain. Achillea talagonica and Achillea tenuifolia are two...

  4. In Vitro Anti-rotaviral Activity of Achillea kellalensis

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Background Achillea kellalensis, which is frequently used by Chaharmahal va Bakhtiarians residing in, Southwest of Iran, as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of acute diarrhea, has been selected to examine its antiviral activities against bovine rotavirus and cell toxicity activity in MA-104 cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic and anti-rotavirus properties of crude extracts of A. kellalensis. Materials and Methods The dried and powdered...

  5. Phytotoxic and Insecticidal Properties of Essential Oils and Extracts of Four Achillea Species

    Ahmet Çakır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils and hexane extracts of four Achillea species were analyzed by GC/MS. Achillea biserrata Bieb., Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Achillea biebersteinii Afan oils contained mainly 1,8-cineole (38.1-14.4%, camphor (46.6-23.6% and borneol (11.7-2.9%, . Achillea coarctata Poir. oil had more different composition, with its main components being viridiflorol (37.7%, α-cadinol (8.9% and cubenol (6.1%. The hexane extracts of A. wilhelmsii, A. coarctata and A. biebersteinii had high percentages of camphor (44.7%, 16.2% and 18.0%, respectively and 1,8-cineole (19.5%, 30.8% and 165.1%, respectively, whereas the most abundant components in A. biserrata extract were ethyl oleate (13.1%, n-nonadecane (11.3%, and n-eicosane (11.3%. Herbicidal activities of the oils and hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of four Achillea species were assessed against six weed species and germinations, root and shoot growths of weed species were significantly inhibited by both the oils and extracts. In the pest toxicity assay on Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the oils showed toxic effect against the pest. According to the present results, Achillea species could be used as alternative bio-insecticides and bio-herbicides.

  6. Secondary Metabolites in Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium (L. Growing Wild in East Part of Kosova

    Arben I. Haziri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Chemical composition of essential oil of Achillea millefolium (L., originated from east part of Kosova, was investigated. Approach: The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. Results: Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 33 peaks, representing 81.4% of the oil. The main compounds of Achillea millefolium (L. from east region of Kosova, were 1,8-cineole (22%, camphor (21%, borneol (7,6% and β-pinene (5.3%. Conclusion: After comparison of our date with those reported in literature we can conclude that various chemotypes of Achillea millefolium (L. occur in nature.

  7. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  8. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Elshan Shamilov; Asim Abdullayev; Ibragim Azizov; Sitara Mustafaeva; Sevil Zeynalova

    2013-01-01

    The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL.) and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL.) which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  9. Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima

    Rindner Miriam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO. In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af, which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA, MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS

  10. Achillea millefolium inflorescence aqueous extract ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in rat testis: stereological evidences%Achillea millefolium inflorescence aqueous extract ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in rat testis:stereological evidences

    Ali Shalizar Jalali; Shapour Hasanzadeh; Hassan Malekinejad

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is extensively used for the treatment of various cancers,as well as an immunosuppressive agent.However,CP is known to cause several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity.Achillea millefolium,a widely distributed medicinal plant,is highly regarded for its medicinal activities,including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.The present study was conducted to assess whether Achillea millefolium inflorescences aqueous extract with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during CP treatment.Male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups.Two groups of rats were administered CP at a dose of 5mg·kg-1·d-1 for 28 d by oral gavages.One of these groups received Achillea aqueous extract at a dose of 1.2 g·kg-1·d-1 orally 4 h after cyclophosphamide administration.A vehicle treated control group and an Achillea control group were also included.Thc CP-trcatcd group showed significant decreases in the body,testes and epididymides weights as well as many histological alterations.Stereological parameters,spermatogenic activities and testicular antioxidant capacity along with epididymal sperm count and serum testosterone concentration were also significantly decreased by CP treatment.Notably,Achillea co-administration caused a partial recovery in above-mentioned parameters.These findings indicate that Achillea millefolium inflorescence aqueous extract may be partially protective against CP-induced testicular toxicity.

  11. Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Two Romanian Subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.

    Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu; Daniela Hanganu; Grigore Damian; Ilioara Oniga; Daniela Benedec; Augustin C. Mot; Laurian Vlase; Mihaela Duma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching m...

  12. Composition of the volatile oil of Achillea conferta DC. from Iran

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Top flowered aerial parts of Achillea conferta DC. (Compositae, which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Taleghan area and the volatile oil was isolateds by hydrodistillation. The oil (0.2 % V/W was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. Forty-eight components, representing 91.4% of the oil were identified. The main components were camphor (22.1% and 1,8-cineole (10.0%. The percentage of oxygenated compounds was 79.0% of the total oil. The oil o was rich in monoterpenes with two typical major components of Achillea species, camphor (22.1% and 1, 8- cineole (10.0%.

  13. Wild and commercial samples of Achillea millefolium L.: proximate composition and individual compounds obtained by chromatography

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Alves, Rita C.; M.B.P.P. Oliveira; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used since ancient times and emerge nowadays as alternative to synthetic products, due to their richness in bioactive compounds. In a society that requires new and safer products, due to the growing concern with health and nutrition, medicinal plants are now being used not only in traditional medicine but also in a number of food and pharmaceutical products [1]. Achillea millefolium L., belongs to Asteraceae family and it is commonly known as yarrow, ...

  14. Phenolic profile of wild Achillea millefolium L. obtained by HPLC-DADESI/MS.

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L., commonly known as yarrow, belongs to Asteraceae family and it is very common in mountain meadows, pathways, crop fields and homegardens. It is widely used in Europe as an herbal remedy to treat digestive problems, diabetes, hepato-biliary diseases and amenorrhea, being also consumed for its antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [1,2]. Some studies related A. millefolium medicinal properties to the presence of phenolic compo...

  15. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

    Gamal A. Soliman; Hasan Yusufoglu; Irem Tatli-Çankaya; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Serap Aarabaci Anul; Galip Akaydn

    2016-01-01

    Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES), as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and strychnine nitrate (STN)- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, e...

  16. Hypoglycemic Effects of Achillea Wilhelmsii in Normal and Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    H Sadeghi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome, initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis resulting from defects in Insulin secretion, insulin action both is resulting in impaired metabolism of glucose and other energy yielding fuels as lipids and protein. Several medicinal herbs have been described with hypoglycemic effects. These include: Allium Sativum, Trigonella Foenum, Marus nigra, Ocimum Sanctum, and Astragalus Ovinus. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats induced by stereptozotocine (STZ. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research, forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-diabetic (normal and STZ-induced diabetic mice. Each group was further divided into four groups: control (induced by normal saline and treatment received 100, 200.and 300 mg/kg aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch daily for one month. The blood glucose level was measured and Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: At the end of first month, significant decrease was observed in blood glucose level in diabetic rats which received 100 mg/kg (p<0/001, 200mg/kg(p<0/01, 300mg/kg (p<0/001 of aqueous alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch in comparison with control groups. The extract had not have any significant effects on the blood glucose level of normal groups except in those which received 300mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch have a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose level of diabetic rats.

  17. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  18. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

    Masoumeh Pirmohammadi; Mansoureh Shayeghi; Hassan Vatandoost; Mohammad Reza Abaei; Ali Mohammadi; Akbar Bagheri; Mehdi Khoobdel; Hasan Bakhshi; Maryam Pirmohammadi; Maryam Tavassoli

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mos­quito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection.Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition....

  19. Presence of phthalate derivatives in the essential oils of a medicinal plant Achillea tenuifolia

    Manayi, Azadeh; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Ajani, Yousef; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Phthalate, esters of phthalic acid, are mainly applied as plasticizers and cause several human health and environment hazards. The essential oils of Achillea species have attracted a great concern, since several biological activities have been reported from varieties of these medicinal species. On the other side, due to the problems regarding the waste disposal in developing countries, phthalate derivatives can easily release from waste disposal to the water and soil resulting in p...

  20. Secondary Metabolites in Essential Oil of Achillea millefolium (L.) Growing Wild in East Part of Kosova

    Arben I. Haziri; Nevzat Aliaga; Murtezan Ismaili; Sevdije Govori-Odai; Osman Leci; Fatmir Faiku; Valentina Arapi; Imer Haziri

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Chemical composition of essential oil of Achillea millefolium (L.), originated from east part of Kosova, was investigated. Approach: The chemical profile of the essential oil was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. Results: Analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 33 peaks, representing 81.4% of the oil. The main compounds of Achillea millefolium (L.) from east region of Kosova, were 1,8-cineole (22%), camphor (21%), borneol (7,6%) and β-pinene (5.3%). Conclusion: ...

  1. Differential Growth Inhibitory Effects of Highly Oxygenated Guaianolides Isolated from the Middle Eastern Indigenous Plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Nadine Darwiche; Najat A. Saliba; Lamis Al Aaraj; Tarek Ghaddar; Hala Gali-Muhtasib; Rita Tohme

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fract...

  2. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC). PMID:26541161

  3. Extraction of antioxidative principles of Achillea biserrata M. Bieb. and chromatographic analyses

    Gönül SERDAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hexane, chloroform and water extracts were prepared by making consecutive extraction of Achillea  biserrata from the family Asteraceae. Volatile oil of the same types was obtained by water distillation that was continued 4 hours in the Clevenger fixture and dried by adding anhydrous sodium sulfate. After GS/MS analysis, volatile oil of the same types was kept at 4 ºC in the refrigerator and dark until the work activity was performed. Volatile oil yield that was obtained from mixture of all dried flower and plant leaves were determined for Achillea biserrata 0.4%(v/w The antioxidant activities of extracts, total phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin amounts were determined. Two different tests were performed for measurements of antioxidant activities.1 Especially, for the purpose of meeting the general properties of good additives’ free radical cleaning activity was done by DPPH method and the inhibition of oxidation activity was done by with β-carotene method. The 50% inhibition (IC50 values of the water, methanol:water and chloroform extracts were 19.6, 37.9 and 114 μg /mL, respectively ın DPPH test. Besıdes, the nonpolar extracts were active in β-carotene/linoleic acid test system. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were highest in the water extract possessing 3.39% and 1.12%, respectively. Methanolic extract showed the presence of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as protocatecuic acid (177.83 g/g and chlorogenic acid (164.78 g/g ın HPLC analsıs. Automated extraction system obtained better separation of the active principles from plant tissues than conventional extraction procedures.

  4. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  5. The Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Achillea Millefolium on β-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    H Koushyar; M M Koushyar; Byrami, G.; Feizpour, A.; Golamnezhad, Z.; Boskabady, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Different pharmacological effects of Achillea millefolium including its relaxant effect on smooth muscle have been shown previously. In the present study the stimulatory effect of the plant extract on β-adrenoceptor of tracheal muscle was examined in order to investigate one possible mechanism for its observed relaxant effect. Effect of three concentrations of hydroethanol extract, 10 nM propranolol, and saline on β-adrenoceptor was tested in two experimental groups including; nonincubated tr...

  6. Polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for two Romanian subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.

    Benedec, Daniela; Vlase, Laurian; Oniga, Ilioara; Mot, Augustin C; Damian, Grigore; Hanganu, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania). The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species. PMID:23887715

  7. Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Two Romanian Subspecies of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd.

    Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. distans and Achillea distans Waldst. et Kit. subsp. alpina Rochel, from the Rodna Mountains (Romania. The identification and quantification of major phenolic compounds was performed by a HPLC-MS method. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH bleaching method, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX assay, and an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopy method. A data indicated that A. distans subsp. alpina extract has more antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. Luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present in the two extracts of A. distans, but in different amounts. Three flavonoids were detected only in A. distans subsp. alpina. The polyphenol-richer A. distans subsp. alpina extract showed a higher antioxidant activity than A. distans subsp. distans extract. A. distans subsp. distans extract showed inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, as evaluated with four species. The quantitative and qualitative differences between the two subspecies of Achillea distans could be used as a potential taxonomic marker in order to distinguish the species.

  8. Investigating the Neuroprotective Effect of Alcholic Extracts of Achillea Biebersteinii Leave on α Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

    M Alikhanzade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of injuries in peripheral nervous system returns to the cell body of neurons in central nervous system in a retrograde manner which leads to brain and spinal degeneration. It is probable that Achillea biebersteinii might prevent the injury progress. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of alcholic extract of Achillea biebersteinii leaves on spinal α motoneurons degenarion after sciatic nerve compression in rats. Methods: 30 male wistar rats were divided randomly into groups of control, compression, compression with treatment of 50, 75, 100 mg/kg doses. Sciatic nerve was exposed to compression for 60 s using locker pincers. Extract injection was done intraperitoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression under perfusion method, the lumber spinal cord was sampled. After cutting and coloring, the density of motoneurons was measured using dissector methods. Results: The study results demonstrated a meaningful difference between compression and control groups in regard with neuronal density (P=0.000. Neuronal density showed also a significant meaningful increase (P<0.01 in alcoholic extract treatment groups of 50,75,100 mg/kg compared to the compression group. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that Alcohlic extracts of Achillea biebersteinii leaves, containing growth and regeneration factors, has neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. The extract with 75mg/kg dose was reported as the most effective one.

  9. Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae, aqueous extracts

    Saulo M. Sousa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The yarrow, Achillea millefoilum L. is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in folk medicine of many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from yarrow leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies, since studies of this nature do not exist for the yarrow extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72 h with different concentrations of yarrow aqueous extracts (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index (MI, the seed germination and the root development of L. sativa. More yet, the extracts also induced chromosome aberrations (CA and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa indicating precaution in the therapeutic use of A. millefolium and reinforcing the utilization of L. sativa in the screening of cytogenotoxic substances once that this species showed a good sensibility to the extract application.

  10. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps

    Sara Vitalini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8–24 mm.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. (Asteraceae).

    Sökmen, Atalay; Vardar-Unlü, Gülhan; Polissiou, Moschos; Daferera, Dimitra; Sökmen, Münevver; Dönmez, Erol

    2003-11-01

    The essential oil, obtained by Clevenger distillation, and water-soluble and water-insoluble parts of the methanol extracts of Achillea sintenisii Hub. Mor. were individually assayed for their antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria and two yeasts, Candida albicans and C. krusei. No activity was exhibited by the water-soluble subfraction, whereas both the water-insoluble subfraction of the methanol extracts and the essential oil were found to be active against some test microorganisms studied. Since the essential oil possessed stronger activity than the other extracts tested, it was further fractionated and the fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, followed by GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of 32 compounds which constituted 90.2% of the total oil. The GC-MS analysis of the oil and its fractions revealed that the main components of the oil, e.g. camphor and eucalyptol, possessed appreciable activity against C. albicans and Clostridium perfringens. The fi ndings presented here also suggest that the other constituents of the oil, e.g. borneol and piperitone can also be taken into account for the activity observed. PMID:14595577

  12. Composition at different development stages of the essential oil of four Achillea species grown in Iran.

    Azizi, Majid; Chizzola, Remigius; Ghani, Askar; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2010-02-01

    Four Achillea species, A. millefolium, A. nobilis, A. eriophora and A. biebersteinii, were grown in small field plots in Iran and harvested at four developmental stages: vegetative, at the appearance of the first flower heads, at full flowering, and at late flowering. The composition of the main volatile compounds in dichloromethane extracts and the essential oil obtained by microdistillation was established by GC/MS and GC. 1,8-Cineole (27-41%) was the main compound in the oils from A. millefolium and A. biebersteinii. These two species reached the highest amount of volatile compounds at the full blooming stage. alpha-Thujone was the main compound in A. nobilis oil (25-64%). Fully blooming plants of this species also had a high proportion of artemisia ketone (up to 40%) in the oil. The main oil compounds of A. eriophora were camphor (about 35%) and 1,8-cineol (about 30%). This species produces only a small number of flower heads and the composition of the essential oil did not change during development. PMID:20334145

  13. Morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. floral nectaries

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies focused on the morphological and anatomical features as well as those related to the ultrastructure of nectary cells Achillea millefolium Asteraceae family. The nectary presence was confirmed only in the disk flowers at the pistil style base. The micromorphology of nectaries was investigated in SEM, and structure was observed in a light and transmission electron microscopes. A number of layers composing a gland, the size and shape of epidermal and glandular cells were determined. The secretory cell ultrastructure was analyzed. The discoidal nectary gland observed from above had a pentagonal shape, 181.5 µm height and 299.4 µm diameter. It was built of the monolayer epidermis and 6 layers of the secretory cells on average. The glandular cells appeared to be bigger (27 µm than the epidermal cells (22 µm, a cell shape in both tissues differed as well. The nectar secretion occured through the modified stomata. The stomata cells were at distinguishable greater size and raised above the surface of epidermis. The nectaries were supplied by the vascular bundles running from the pistil style up to the nectary base, not getting into the gland. In the cells of the nectary epidermis observed in TEM the big cell nuclei, numerous plastids, mitochondria and vacuoles with fibrous secretion deposits and vesicular structures were found. In the cells of the nectary secretory tissue there were dense cytoplasm, many plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and the extensive network of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  14. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  15. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

    Gamal A. Soliman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES, as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- and strychnine nitrate (STN- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, eight groups of 21-day-old male Albino rats were used. The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg; 3rd – 5th treated with A. nobilis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; and 6th – 8th administered M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After 30 min, rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, via ear electrodes for 2 s (in MES test or sc injection of PTZ (85 mg/kg or STN (2.5 mg/kg. Results: A. nobilis and M. charantia extracts (200 and 300 mg/kg demonstrated dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect against MES-induced seizures. In the PTZ induced convulsion, A. nobilis and M. charantia (200 and 300 mg/kg significantly slowed the commencement of convulsions and minimized the duration of seizures. A. nobilis (300 mg/kg showed 60% protection in rats against STN induced seizures. In contrast, A. nobilis (100 and 200 mg/kg and M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed no significant protection against STN-induced seizures in rats. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that both extracts exhibited marked anticonvulsant activities.

  16. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Ali Niaz; Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Method...

  17. Toxic essential oils: anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles.

    Radulović, Niko S; Dekić, Milan S; Ranđelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z

    2012-06-01

    Many plant species are used for medicinal purposes without the knowledge of their possible toxic effect. The ethnopharmacologically renowned genus Achillea L. (Asteraceae) is even more troublesome in this respect since different taxa are believed to have the same beneficial properties as A. millefolium. According to the median lethal i.p. dose (LD(50)=853 mg/kg, mice), the volatiles of Achillea umbellata Sibth. et Sm. are more toxic than the thujone-containing essential oils (LD(50)>960 mg/kg). A GC-MS analysis of A. umbellata oil revealed the presence of a series of fragranyl esters (six new natural products). The major constituents of this oil, the rare monoterpene alcohol fragranol and fragranyl acetate, and one more ester (benzoate), as well as the oil itself, showed antianxiety, analgesic and, in some instances, paralyzing properties at 50-150 mg/kg but these are very likely sign of intoxication and not of possible beneficial effects of the plant volatiles. Testing of antimicrobial activity demonstrated that the oil possesses moderate activity against pathogenic microorganisms, but the effect of the oil differs in pro- and eukaryotic cells. According to the results obtained, fragranol may be considered as the main active principle responsible for the observed activity/toxicity. PMID:22449535

  18. Geometric and Histopathologic Assessment of Yarrow Extracts (Achillea millefolium) and on Healing of Experimental Skin Wounds and its Comparison with Zinc Oxide on Rats

    Ali Rezaie; Daryoush Mohajeri; Mohammadreza Valilou; Ghafour Mousavi; Mehrdad Nazeri; Babak Mohammadi; Solmaz Zakhireh

    2012-01-01

    Skin wound healing especially when it occurs on the face or somewhere important for cosmetic reasons, is very significant physiological procedure. It is quite obvious that promoting this healing is important too. In this study we tried to compare the effects of Achillea millefolium and Zinc oxide on secondary intentioned open-wound healing in rats. Zinc oxide is being used worldwide as an absorbent and protective compound. Its pharmacological properties are wide and its non-toxic material all...

  19. Antioxidant Activity and Ethno pharmacological Survey of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhoea in Traditional Medicine of Golestan Province, Iran

    Masoumeh Mazandarani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Achillea biebersteinii Afan. has been used as antispasmodic and sedative agent to treat dysmenorrhoea in traditional medicine of Golestan province. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity. It is also an ethno pharmacological survey of Achillea biebersteinii Afan., as antispasmodic and sedative agent in treating dysmenorrhoea in traditional medicine of Golestan province. Materials and Methods: Ethno pharmacological data was obtained as field observation among well-known indigenous rural healers (68-82 ages in southwest of Golestan province in August 2011. The data gathered evaluated the potential of Achillea biebersteinii in preventing or treating dysmenorrhoea. Flowers of the plant were collected in July 2012 at an altitude of 2600 meters, ethanol extract was obtained by Maceration and antioxidant capacity was obtained by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH. Results: Results showed that in traditional medicine of Golestan province, the flowers of Achillea biebersteinii has been used in combination with Peganum harmala, Mentha aquatica, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare and Nigella sativa as antispasmodic, anti-inflammation and sedative agent to treat stomach ache, dysmenorrhoea, facial flushing, cramps and menopause. Also the ethanol extract of the plant is a very good free radical scavenging with the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 1.27±0.1 μg/ml in dry weight. Conclusion: These finding not only confirm the use of the plant in the traditional medicine of Golestan province, but also can serve as a basis for phytochemical and pharmaceutical researches to identify and produce effective herbal drugs in prevention or treatment of common dysmenorrhoea.

  20. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  1. Differential Growth Inhibitory Effects of Highly Oxygenated Guaianolides Isolated from the Middle Eastern Indigenous Plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Nadine Darwiche

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy- isosecotanapartholide (1, isosecotanapartholide (2, tanaphallin (3, and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4. Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5, chrysartemin B (6, and 1β, 2β-epoxy- 3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian- 6α,12-olide (7. These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule.

  2. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae = Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae

    Simone de Jesus Dematei Gregio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  3. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  4. Composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Achillea collina Becker growing wild in Western Romania

    Jianu Călin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Achillea collina Becker growing wild in western Romania was the aim of this study. The chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were chamazulene (38.89%, germacrene D (12.90%, beta-caryophyllene (11.52% and beta-pinene (10.66%. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by the diffusimetric method against seven common food-related bacteria. No effects were observed against Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH test, the essential oil (IC50 = 25.03 ± 0.12 μg/ml demonstrated a stronger scavenging effect than BHA and lower than that of ascorbic acid and propyl gallate. The results reveal strong antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil tested and contribute to future research to find new sources of natural antiseptics and antioxidants: a viable and safe alternative to reduce the use of synthetic additives.

  5. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4β,10α-dihydroxy-5β,7β,8βH-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8α-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect. PMID:25567761

  6. Biochemical and pathological study of hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium l. on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in laboratory rats

    Hassan Hassani Bafrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nephrolithiasis is of the most prevalent urinary tract disease. It seems worthwhile to replace the conventional treatments with more beneficial and safer agents, particularly herbal medicines which are receiving an increasing interest nowadays. Aims: In this study, we investigated the protective and curative effects of Achillea millefolium L. on ethylene glycol (EG-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of A. millefolium was prepared by soxhlet method. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8 as follows. The negative control (group A received tap drinking water. Rats in sham (positive control group B, curative (group C and D, and preventive (group E groups all received 1% EG in drinking water according to the experimental protocol for 30 days. In the curative groups, dosages of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW of A. millefolium extract were administered orally from day 15 to the end of the experiment, group C and D, respectively. Group E received 200 mg/kg A. millefolium extract from the 1 st day throughout the experiment. Urinary oxalate and citrate concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer on the first and 30 th days. On day 31, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically for counting the calcium oxalate (CaOx deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In the curative and preventive groups, administration of A. millefolium extract showed significant reduction in urinary oxalate concentration (P < 0.05. Also, urinary citrate concentration was significantly increased in group C, D, and E. The CaOx deposits significantly decreased in group C to E compared with the group B. Conclusions: According to our results, A. millefolium extract had preventive and curative effects on EG-induced renal calculi.

  7. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  8. Geometric and Histopathologic Assessment of Yarrow Extracts (Achillea millefolium and on Healing of Experimental Skin Wounds and its Comparison with Zinc Oxide on Rats

    Ali Rezaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin wound healing especially when it occurs on the face or somewhere important for cosmetic reasons, is very significant physiological procedure. It is quite obvious that promoting this healing is important too. In this study we tried to compare the effects of Achillea millefolium and Zinc oxide on secondary intentioned open-wound healing in rats. Zinc oxide is being used worldwide as an absorbent and protective compound. Its pharmacological properties are wide and its non-toxic material allows it to be used as a routine skin care substance. In current study, 70 female wistar rats where included in 5 groups. Full thickness Incisional wound with 23 mm diameter was made with surgical scissors and scalpel. The whole operation was taking place under general Anesthesia and analgesia circumstances. After making surgical wounds, rats are treated as mentioned in the text. Rats are observed for 28 days for wound closure process and inflammatory conditions taking place in wound. Biopsy intervals are 0 (the day of surgery, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day after surgery. In these certain days rats were euthanized and biopsies of wound sites were obtained. Wounds areas are also measured by Scion Image ™ software daily. At last, all data were analyzed using SPSS statistics ver.17. As a result, Achillea millefolium at the dose of 10% has significant healing properties compared to Zinc oxide. These data were validating under confidence surface of 95 % (p<0.01.

  9. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract and Its Anti-Angiogenic Properties in the Rat Aortic Ring Model

    Javad Baharara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12 ± 2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 μg/mL lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis.

  10. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  11. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  12. Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre.

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a highly porous fibre coated with polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite (PT/SBA-15) was prepared and used for extraction of essential oils with microwave-assisted distillation headspace solid phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) method. The prepared nanomaterials were immobilised on a stainless steel wire for fabrication of the SPME fibre. Using MA-HS-SPME followed by GC-MS, 24 compounds were separated and identified in Achillea tenuifolia, which mainly included limonene (28.6%), α-cadinol (12.7%), borneol (6.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.2%), bornyl acetate (4.3%), camphene (3.2%) and para-cymene (2.3%). The experimental results showed that the polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite fibres were suitable for the semi-quantitative study of the composition of essential oils in plant materials and for monitoring the variations in the volatile components of the plants. PMID:25613724

  13. A study of biodiversity using DSS method and seed storage protein comparison of populations in two species of Achillea L. in the west of Iran

    Hajar Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intarspecific and interspecific variations are the main reserves of biodiversity and both are important sources of speciation. On this basis, identifing and recognizing the intra and interspecific variations is important in order to recognition of biodiversity. This research was done to study biodiversity and electrophoresis comparison of seed storage proteins in the populations of the two species of the genus Achillea in Hamadan and Kurdistan provinces using of the method of determination of special station (DSS. For this purpose, 12 and 9 special stations were selected for the species A. tenuifolia and A. biebresteinii using the data published in the related flora. Seed storage proteins were extracted and then studied using electrophoresis techniques (SDS-PAGE. In survey of all special stations, 120 plant species were distinguished as associated species. The results of the floristic data for the both species determined six distinctive groups that indicated the existence of intraspecific diversity in this species. The result of analysis of ecological data and seed storage proteins for the two species was in accordance with the floristic data and showed six distinctive groups. The existence of the bands of no. 4, 5, 8, 12 and 13 in the special stations of A. tenuifolia and the bands of 14, 15 and 16 in the special stations of A. biebresteinii o separated the populations of the species in two quite different and distinctive groups.

  14. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Said, Mansour S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M.; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O.; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C.

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. PMID:27293452

  15. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO (0.2 mL/kg in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH, and total protein (TP contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0% of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  16. A polysaccharide fraction from Achillea millefolium increases cytokine secretion and reduces activation of Akt, ERK and NF-κB in THP-1 monocytes.

    Freysdottir, Jona; Logadottir, Oddny T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja S; Vikingsson, Arnor; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2016-06-01

    Achillea millefolium has been used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments, including skin inflammation and wounds. A polysaccharide fraction (Am-25-d) isolated from aqueous extract from A. millefolium had an average molecular weight of 270kDa and a monosaccharide composition of GalA, Gal, Ara, Xyl, Rha in molar ratio of 28:26:23:9:7. THP-1 cells primed with IFN-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Am-25-d secreted more IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-23 and TNF-α than THP-1 cells stimulated in the absence of Am-25-d. However, when added to unstimulated cells Am-25-d did not increase secretion of the cytokines examined. Stimulating THP-1 monocytes in the presence of Am-25-d led to decreased nuclear concentrations of NF-κB and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases compared with that when the cells were stimulated without Am-25-d. These findings indicate that Am-25-d isolated from A. millefolium has immunoenhancing properties that may be mediated via the Akt pathway. PMID:27083352

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  18. Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Ying Shih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%, camphor (11.64%, linalyl acetate (11.51% and 1,8-cineole (10.15%. AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.

  19. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease.

    Khazneh, Elian; Hřibová, Petra; Hošek, Jan; Suchý, Pavel; Kollár, Peter; Pražanová, Gabriela; Muselík, Jan; Hanaková, Zuzana; Václavík, Jiří; Miłek, Michał; Legáth, Jaroslav; Šmejkal, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE)-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL). The chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1) and leucodin (CP2) showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results. PMID:27023504

  20. Chemometric analysis of the secondary metabolite profile of Yarrow (Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. affected by phloem feeding Myzus persicae Sulzer aphids

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Yarrow (Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has a high content of secondary metabolites including phenolic acids. Among them, hydroxycinnamic acid such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives were found to be the most abundant ones. The phloem feeding Myzus persicae Sulzer was hypothesized to affect the contents of secondary metabolites and change the metabolite profile. A high-performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC was used to evaluate whether there is a difference in the phenolic profile between aphid infested and non-infested yarrow leaves. M. persicae colonies composed of between 20 and 30 individuals were allowed to feed for 10 and 20 days. Preprocessing was carried out to standardize the procedures in order to obtain optimal separation of analytes, good chromatographic peak shape and robustness of the results. The methanol extracts of leaves were analyzed by means of HPLC, and the time series of peak areas obtained from each extract were evaluated through chemometric analyses. Results of the phenolic fingerprints showed a specific chromatographic profile with 58 peaks. An autoregression analysis demonstrated the absence of correlation. The discriminant analysis carried out with the data satisfying the assumption of the absence of collinearity showed a significant effect of phloem feeding on soluble phenolic compounds and identified two peaks that separate aphid infested from non-infested plants. The hydroxycinnamic acids widely found in A. collina leaves were not affected by M. persicae feeding. The results are the basis for the current studies aiming at the identification of chemical compounds that correspond to the peaks.

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression

    Javad Baharara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of Melissa officinalis and combination of Achillea millefolium and Crataegus oxyacantha on broiler growth performance, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of chicken meat

    Dana Marcinčáková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. and combination of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. on growth performance of chicken, meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability. Ninety one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (C with standard diet without antioxidants supplementation; second group (L with standard diet supplemented with ground lemon balm (2% and third group (HY with standard diet supplemented with ground hawthorn (1% and yarrow (1%. Final body weight and total feed intake were not influenced by plant supplementation. However, feed conversion ratio was the lowest (P0.05 by plants supplementation, but the proportions of various carcass parts (breast and leg were higher in L and HY groups. Feeding of plants had no effect on the chemical composition of thigh meat. However, in breast meat fed by HY diet higher content of dry matter and crude protein (P<0.05 was found. In breast (L the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids was decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA proportion was increased compared with control group (P<0.05. In thigh HY the proportion of saturated fatty acids was increased and PUFA was decreased compared with control. Results of thiobarbituric value method showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of hawthorn and yarrow in the diet significantly influenced reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh during chilling storage (4°C, 11 days.

  3. Modulation of pancreatic MIN6 insulin secretion and proliferation and extrapancreatic glucose absorption with Achillea santolina, Eryngium creticum and Pistacia atlantica extracts: in vitro evaluation

    Lara Majdalawi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present in vitro studies aimed to investigate the pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects of crude aqueous extracts (AE of Achillea santolina L, Eryngium creticum Lam, and Pistacia atlantica Desf utilized in Jordan diabetes ethnomedicine. Methods: Bioassays of β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion as possible modes of action were recruited. Results: Similar to L-alanine insulinotropic efficacy in MIN6 β-cell, glucose-stimulated Ca2+ regulated- insulin secretion was potentiated by AEs of E.creticum (0.01 mg/ml and P.atlantica (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. A.santolina AE, however, was found ineffective. Comparable to glucagon-like peptid-1-enhanced β-cell proliferation in 2-day treatment wells, a dose dependent augmentation of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was obtained with the A.santolina AE (0.05-1 mg/ml, and E.creticum AE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml. P.atlantica concentrations lacked pancreatic proliferative capacity. While A.santolina and E.creticum AEs proved inactive, P.atlantica inhibited dose dependently overnight glucose movement in vitro, as effectively as guar gum diffusional hindrance in a simple glucose dialysis model. Conclusion: Current findings signify the in vitro diverse therapeutic antidiabetes properties of the selected medicinal plants. Future directives may assess the use of A.santolina, E.creticum and P.atlantica as new potential sources of functional foods or nutraceuticals or active leads into diabetes type 2 pharmacotherapy. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 245-254

  4. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  5. Fitodefensivos em plantas medicinais: macromoléculas hidrofílicas de folhas de mil folhas (Achillea millefolium L. inibem o crescimento in vitro de bactérias fitopatogênicas Agrochemicals in medicinal plants: hydrophilic macromolecules from leaves of "mil folhas" (Achillea millefolium L. inhibit in vitro growth of phytopathogenic bacteria

    N.G. Tessarollo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos da planta medicinal Achillea millefolium contêm macromoléculas de interesse para desenvolver fitodefensivos para a agricultura. Duas frações de mil folhas foram obtidas por ultrafiltração, E1 (contendo moléculas maiores que 30 kDa, e E3 (peptídeos entre 1 e 10 kDa que inibiram o crescimento das bactérias fitopatogênicas Ralstonia solanacearum, gram-negativa, e Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, gram-positiva, com dependência de concentração. Os valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM para ambos os extratos e bactérias foram baixos, entre 20 e 80µM. A CIM relativa à proteína total evidenciou a presença de macromoléculas muito ativas em E3, embora com baixa concentração proteica. E3 se aplica à prospecção de peptídeos antimicrobianos. Estimar a CIM relativa à quantidade de amostra vegetal valorizou o potencial antimicrobiano natural de E1, que contém alta concentração proteica. E1e E3 se aplicam ao desenvolvimento de fitodefensivos para uso biotecnológico. A ultrafiltração fracionou as amostras de forma nativa, rápida, e com baixo custo; além de dessalinizar, clarificar, purificar, e concentrar E1 e E3. Esse estudo inédito sobre a separômica e a ação antimicrobiana de extratos macromoleculares aquosos de mil folhas sugere que plantas cicatrizantes podem apresentar grande potencial para desenvolver fitodefensivos agrícolas naturais não danosos, à semelhança de medicamentos fitoterápicos.Aqueous extracts from the medicinal plant Achillea millefolium contain macromolecules of interest to develop agrochemicals for agriculture. Two fractions of "mil folhas" were obtained by ultrafiltration, E1 (containing molecules larger than 30 kDa and E3 (peptides between 1 and 10 kDa, which inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum, gram-negative, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, gram-positive, concentration-dependent. The values of

  6. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  7. Comparison of GC Profiles of Achillea crithmifolia and Origanum heracleoticum Essential Oils and Headspace Volatiles

    Stojanovi?, Gordana; Jovanovi?, Olga; Petrovi?, Goran; Miti?, Violeta; Jovanovi?, Vesna Stankov

    2014-01-01

    In the analysis of the secondary metabolites of plants it would be preferable if the applied method is fast and  the  generation  of  artifacts  is  minimal. Obtaining  essential  oils  (EO)  by hydrodistillation  or  steam distillation is time-consuming (the duration of the distillation is usually two to three hours) and possibility of the formation of artifacts is more probable due relatively high temperature in aqueous solution. Also, the most volatile components could be lost during disti...

  8. Intraspecific variability of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l. in respect of developmental and chemical traits

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant, number of shoots per m2 (64–243 and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm. Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1, while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1, while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.

  9. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea biebersteini Afan. (Asteraceae).

    Sökmen, Atalay; Sökmen, Münevver; Daferera, Dimitra; Polissiou, Moschos; Candan, Ferda; Unlü, Mehmet; Akpulat, H Aşkin

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and methanol extracts from A. biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. The oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Their antioxidant features were also evaluated using diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibition of the lipid peroxidation assays. Particularly, polar subfraction of the methanol extract showed antioxidant activity. The GC-MS analysis of the oil has resulted in the identification of 23 components; piperitone, eucalyptol, camphor, chrysanthenone and borneol were the main components. Antimicrobial activity tests carried out with the fractions of the oil showed that the activity was mainly observed in those containing eucalyptol and camphor, in particular, followed by borneol and piperitone. PMID:15287068

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    Reza Vazirinejad

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-βwere increased in EAE-induced mice.

  11. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an ar...

  12. Three floral volatiles contribute to differential pollinator attraction in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Bradshaw, H D; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2014-02-15

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract the attention of pollinators. In this study we investigated the role of floral scent in mediating differential attraction between two species of monkeyflowers (Mimulus) reproductively isolated by pollinator preference. The emission rate and chemical identity of floral volatiles differ between the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated M. cardinalis. Mimulus lewisii flowers produce an array of volatiles dominated by d-limonene, β-myrcene and E-β-ocimene. Of these three monoterpenes, M. cardinalis flowers produce only d-limonene, released at just 0.9% the rate of M. lewisii flowers. Using the Bombus vosnesenskii bumblebee, an important pollinator of M. lewisii, we conducted simultaneous gas chromatography with extracellular recordings in the bumblebee antennal lobe. Results from these experiments revealed that these three monoterpenes evoke significant neural responses, and that a synthetic mixture of the three volatiles evokes the same responses as the natural scent. Furthermore, the neural population shows enhanced responses to the M. lewisii scent over the scent of M. cardinalis. This neural response is reflected in behavior; in two-choice assays, bumblebees investigate artificial flowers scented with M. lewisii more frequently than ones scented with M. cardinalis, and in synthetic mixtures the three monoterpenes are necessary and sufficient to recapitulate responses to the natural scent of M. lewisii. In this system, floral scent alone is sufficient to elicit differential visitation by bumblebees, implying a strong role of scent in the maintenance of reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. PMID:24198269

  13. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was successful with a regeneration percentage of 100%. Ex vitro rooting in a modified Hoagland nutrient solution was successful (83%, but the percentage of in vitro rooting on half-strength MS medium without hormones was higher (95%. However, bearing in mind that mass production of A. millefolium is more efficient when the phase of in vitro rooting is excluded, this method could be recommended for commercial propagation of this medicinal plant. It is necessary to conduct additional research in order to optimize the composition, EC and pH value of the hydroponic nutrient solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  14. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Marković Marija; Skočajić Dragana; Grbić Mihailo; Đukić Matilda; Obratov-Petković Dragica; Đunisijević-Bojović Danijela; Borovica Milica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was...

  15. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Vela, James P.; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bradshaw, H D

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii ...

  16. Floral volatile alleles can contribute to pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    Byers, Kelsey J R P; Vela, James P; Peng, Foen; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2014-12-01

    Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation is a major factor in driving the diversification of flowering plants. Studies of floral traits involved in reproductive isolation have focused nearly exclusively on visual signals, such as flower color. The role of less obvious signals, such as floral scent, has been studied only recently. In particular, the genetics of floral volatiles involved in mediating differential pollinator visitation remains unknown. The bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis are a model system for studying reproductive isolation via pollinator preference. We have shown that these two species differ in three floral terpenoid volatiles - d-limonene, β-myrcene, and E-β-ocimene - that are attractive to bumblebee pollinators. By genetic mapping and in vitro analysis of enzyme activity we demonstrate that these interspecific differences are consistent with allelic variation at two loci, LIMONENE-MYRCENE SYNTHASE (LMS) and OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS). Mimulus lewisii LMS (MlLMS) and OS (MlOS) are expressed most strongly in floral tissue in the last stages of floral development. Mimulus cardinalis LMS (McLMS) is weakly expressed and has a nonsense mutation in exon 3. Mimulus cardinalis OS (McOS) is expressed similarly to MlOS, but the encoded McOS enzyme produces no E-β-ocimene. Recapitulating the M. cardinalis phenotype by reducing the expression of MlLMS by RNA interference in transgenic M. lewisii produces no behavioral difference in pollinating bumblebees; however, reducing MlOS expression produces a 6% decrease in visitation. Allelic variation at the OCIMENE SYNTHASE locus is likely to contribute to differential pollinator visitation, and thus promote reproductive isolation between M. lewisii and M. cardinalis. OCIMENE SYNTHASE joins a growing list of 'speciation genes' ('barrier genes') in flowering plants. PMID:25319242

  17. Transcriptional control of floral anthocyanin pigmentation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus)

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Sagawa, Janelle M.; Frost, Laura; Vela, James P.; Bradshaw, Harvey D.

    2014-01-01

    A molecular description of the control of floral pigmentation in a multi-species group displaying various flower color patterns is of great interest for understanding the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification and pollinator-mediated speciation.Through transcriptome profiling, mutant analyses, and transgenic experiments, we aim to establish a ‘baseline’ floral anthocyanin regulation model in Mimulus lewisii and to examine the different ways of tinkering with this model in generating th...

  18. Competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis produces spatial pattern variation of floral pigments between Mimulus species.

    Yuan, Yao-Wu; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Harvey D

    2016-03-01

    Flower color patterns have long served as a model for developmental genetics because pigment phenotypes are visually striking, yet generally not required for plant viability, facilitating the genetic analysis of color and pattern mutants. The evolution of novel flower colors and patterns has played a key role in the adaptive radiation of flowering plants via their specialized interactions with different pollinator guilds (e.g., bees, butterflies, birds), motivating the search for allelic differences affecting flower color pattern in closely related plant species with different pollinators. We have identified LIGHT AREAS1 (LAR1), encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, as the causal gene underlying the spatial pattern variation of floral anthocyanin pigmentation between two sister species of monkeyflower: the bumblebee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii and the hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis. We demonstrated that LAR1 positively regulates FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS), essentially eliminating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the white region (i.e., light areas) around the corolla throat of M. lewisii flowers by diverting dihydroflavonol into flavonol biosynthesis from the anthocyanin pigment pathway. FLS is preferentially expressed in the light areas of the M. lewisii flower, thus prepatterning the corolla. LAR1 expression in M. cardinalis flowers is much lower than in M. lewisii, explaining the unpatterned phenotype and recessive inheritance of the M. cardinalis allele. Furthermore, our gene-expression analysis and genetic mapping results suggest that cis-regulatory change at the LAR1 gene played a critical role in the evolution of different pigmentation patterns between the two species. PMID:26884205

  19. Environ: E00824 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00824 Yarrow Milfoil Medicinal herb Achillicin, Achilleine, Apigenin [CPD:C01477],... Luteolin [CPD:C01514], Cumarins, Tannin Achillea millefolium [TAX:13329] Asteraceae Yarrow aerial part Medicina

  20. Antioxidační účinky vybraného sortimentu léčivých rostlin

    Sedláčková, Klára

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to characterize the antioxidant effects of selected species of genus Achillea L., Glycyrrhiza L. and Rheum L. concentrated in the gene pool of medicinal plants and perennial vegetables of Horticulture faculty MENDELU in Lednice. The purpose of this work was to characterize antioxidant and to describe briefly important species of Achillea L, Glycyrrhiza L. and Rheum L. terms of phytotherapy and focus on new literary informations of substances with antioxidan...

  1. Фармакогностическое изучение видов рода Achillea L.

    Trzhetsinsky, S. D.; Mosul, V. I.; Gernova, G. A.; Fursa, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Методом хромато-масс-спектрометрии установлено, что в эфирном масле тысячелистника пойменного преобладают сесквитерпеноиды: хамазулен (23,23%), кариофилленоксид (15,83%), β-кариофиллен (6,03%). В эфирном масле тысячелистника обыкновенного в наибольших количествах идентифицированы монотерпеноиды: β-пинен (25,35%), сабинен (13,63%). В результате фармакологических исследований отмечено выраженное ранозаживляющее действие мази, содержащей эфирное масло тысячелистника пойменного. Наблюдали также д...

  2. In vitro Anti-epimastigote Activity of some Iranian Medicinal Plants

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some medicinal plants are a potential source of new drugs, in order to improve the treatment of Chagas disease whose treatment is still a challenge. In this study, the in vitro anti-epimastigote activity of certain fractions of Achillea biebersteinii, A. millefolium, Satureja mutica and S. macrantha was evaluated. Diethyl ether fractions of Achillea species and acetone fractions of Satureja species were the most active fractions (MLC=12.5 μg/ml against theepimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the ethiological agent causing Chagas disease. The trypanocidal activity seems to be decreased by fractionation, using MeOH and water as the solvents. The results obtained from biological assay revealed that Achillea and Satureja species could be a source of active trypanocidal compounds.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05714-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available ............done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( C94441 ) Dictyostelium dis...) 198663 Tomato MboI BAC Library Solanum lycopersic... 40 0.44 3 ( CU929219 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from cl...ers) Database: CSM 6905 sequences; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significa...... 44 0.001 2 ( GR201856 ) CBPI5021.b1 CBPI Mimulus lewisii floral buds (L) ... 48 0.001 2 ( CR974456 ) Zebrafis...11-39L24 in ... 42 0.005 2 ( AC216417 ) Populus trichocarpa clone POP051-F19, complete se... 42 0.005 2 ( CR762418 ) Zebrafis

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06541-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available cyclase... 44 7.5 1 ( EF152287 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus BRCA1 (brca1) mRNA,... 44 7.5 1 ( AC131169 ) ...1 ( CW927554 ) EDCBM45TF A. castellanii, 6-8 kb library from tot... 44 7.5 1 ( CL534328 ) trib011xa13.g1 T. reesei HindIII BAC libr...us lewisii genomic, ge... 44 7.5 1 ( CW927722 ) EDCBN39TR A. castellanii, 6-8 kb library from tot... 44 7.5 ...ce (All Frames) Frame A: t*idtnkkmkllfilliltitiknclsinindnnnqiinlkindtsysmvpyqdeaca...E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Contig-U06541-1 (Conti

  5. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy,...

  6. Beiträge zur Fortschreibung der Florenliste Deutschlands (Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta)

    Buttler, Karl Peter; Hand, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Vorarbeiten für eine neue Florenliste Deutschlands werden Nomenklaturaspekte bei Achillea collina, Anthriscus, Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica, Camelina microcarpa, Hordelymus, Populus nigra subsp. betulifolia, Silene baccifera sowie bei einigen von Cesati publizierten Unterart- Kombinationen diskutiert. Bei Urtica wird ein alternatives taxonomisches Konzept vorgeschlagen. Die beiden folgenden bisher nicht verfügbaren Kombinationen wurden notwendig: Populus nigra subsp. betuli...

  7. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  8. Evaluation of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants of Asteraceae and Solanaceae Families of Bulgarian Origin

    M. Docheva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian specimens of Asteraceae and Solanaceae families are very scarce studied concerning the polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this investigation was to obtain fingerprint chromatographic profiles and to quantify the main polyphenols. HPLC–PDA on Kromasil and Purospher columns was employed for the separation of the components by applying two methods (TFA and AcAc. Better separation and reliable quantification of the polyphenols in Achillea species were obtained by the TFA method on Kromasil column. Chromatographic profiling and quantification of polyphenols in A. campestris was successful by using the TFA method on both columns. The polyphenols of A. vulgaris were better separated by AcAc method on Purospher column. Caffeoylquinic acids and rutin were present in higher quantities in Achillea asplenifolia and tobacco (Djebel. Fingerprint chromatographic profiles and reliable quantification of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved by considering the differences in the polyphenol complex and the specificity of the plant matrix.

  9. Aqueous Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants are as Toxic as Lmidacloprid to the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Ateyyat, Mazen A.; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (A...

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from indigenous Middle Eastern plants inhibit tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 cells

    Saikali Melody; Ghantous Akram; Halawi Racha; Talhouk Salma N; Saliba Najat A; Darwiche Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (β-tan) isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A) isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal ...

  11. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros; Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior; Adalci Leite Torres

    2005-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum L. (folhas), Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos), Poth...

  12. Seasonal Dynamics of Stress Proteins in Leaves of Medicinal Plants in a Natural Environment of Irkutsk and on the Shores of the Lake Baikal

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study leafs of five plant species, growing in Irkutsk city and on the southeastern shore of Lake Baikal. These species are Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L., Veronica chamaedrys L. and Alchemilla subcrenata Buser. In its leafs we identify some types of stress-induced proteins. In autumn, the accumulation of stress proteins in leafs of plants both from shores of Lake Baikal and from Irkutsk have been registered.

  13. Application of micronucleus assay in plants to monitor environmental pollution in situ

    Kośmider, Beata; Osiecka, Regina; Jan T. Siciński

    2008-01-01

    Samples of 5 vascular plant species: Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Festuca gigantea (L.) VILL., Ranunculus acris L. s. str. and Vicia angustifolia L. were collected near Fuel Storage Station, Chemical Fibre Factory “Wistom” in Tomaszów Mazowiecki and Sewage Treatment Plant in Sulejów. Genotoxicity of environmental pollution was analysed using micronucleus assays in pollen mother and root tip cells in comparison with plant material collected in the Tatra and Babia...

  14. Single sternal metastasis due to malignant melanoma with unexpected long-term survival: a case report

    Gogakos AS; Paliouras D; Asteriou C; Rallis T; Lazopoulos A; Chatzinikolaou F; Zissimopoulos A; Tsavlis D; Tsirgogianni K; Zarogoulidis K; Porpodis K; Tsakiridis K; Pitsiou G; Kioumis I; Karapantzos I

    2016-01-01

    Apostolos S Gogakos,1 Dimitrios Paliouras,1 Christos Asteriou,1 Thomas Rallis,1 Achilleas Lazopoulos,1 Fotios Chatzinikolaou,2 Athanassios Zissimopoulos,3 Drosos Tsavlis,4 Katerina Tsirgogianni,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,4 Kosmas Tsakiridis,5 Georgia Pitsiou,4 Ioannis Kioumis,4 Ilias Karapantzos,6 Chrysanthi Karapantzou,6 Nikos Sachpekidis,5 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Nikolaos Barbetakis1 1Thoracic Surgery Department, 2Department of Pathology, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thes...

  15. Video-assisted thoracic surgery reduces early postoperative stress. A single-institutional prospective randomized study

    Asteriou C; Lazopoulos A; Rallis T; Gogakos AS; Paliouras D; Tsakiridis K; Zissimopoulos A; Tsavlis D; Porpodis K; Hohenforst-Schmidt W; Kioumis I; Organtzis J; Zarogoulidis K; Zarogoulidis P; Barbetakis N

    2016-01-01

    Christos Asteriou,1 Achilleas Lazopoulos,1 Thomas Rallis,1 Apostolos S Gogakos,1 Dimitrios Paliouras,1 Kosmas Tsakiridis,2 Athanasios Zissimopoulos,3 Drosos Tsavlis,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Ioannis Kioumis,4 John Organtzis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Nikolaos Barbetakis1 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Saint Luke Private Hospital, Panorama, Thessaloniki, ...

  16. Novedades florísticas en los montes de Torozos (Valladolid, España)

    Lázaro Bello, Jesús Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Se aportan datos corológicos de quince plantas vasculares presentes en los Montes de Torozos (España). De entre ellas destacan las siguientes, por ser primeras citas para la provincia de Valladolid: Campanula rotundifolia L., Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Minuartia hybrida subsp. vaillantiana (Ser.) Friedrich, Odontitella virgata (Link) Rothm.; y, para la de Palencia, Achillea filipendulina Lam. Palabras clave: Plantas vasculares, corología, Valladolid, Montes de ...

  17. Flora survey on extensive meadows of selected area near Kobilje

    Lainšček, Tadej

    2016-01-01

    Between the years 2009 and 2013, we mapped 273 different taxons on 70 polygones in extensively used grasslands near Kobilje village in Prekmurje. Amongs those taxons, there are 43 nature conservation important species: Achillea ptarmica, Alnus glutinosa, Alopecurus aequalis, Alopecurus pratensis, Carex acutiformis, C. appropinquata, C. canescens, C. tomentosa, C. umbrosa, C. vesicaria, Cerastium glutinosum, Clematis recta, Convallaria majalis, Dianthus carthusianorum, D. deltoides, D. superbu...

  18. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l-1 O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l-1 O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term

  19. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  20. TÜRKİYE'DE BAZI TIBBİ BİTKİLERİN ANTİMİKROBİYAL AKTİVİTELERİ

    Murat KURSAT; Erecevit, Pinar; Kirbag, Sevda

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Türkiye de doğal olarak yetişen Achillea teretifolia Wild., Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Letswaart, Nepata italica L., Stachys lavandifolia Vahl, var. lavandifolia, Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata'nın antimikrobiyal aktiviteleri belirlendi. Metanol ile hazırlanan bu bitki ekstraktlarının antimikrobiyal aktiviteleri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DMS 50071 SCOTTA, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 5, Staphylococcus aureus COWAN 1, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Candida albicans FMC 17, Candid...

  1. Determinação do rendimento e atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf em função de sazonalidade e consorciamento Assessment of the yield and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf essential oil in relation to the seasonality and cultivation in consortium

    Adriana Santos; Rafael Henrique Paduan; Zilda Cristiani Gazin; Ezilda Jacomassi; Pérsio Sandir D' Oliveira; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Lúcia Elaine Ranieri Cortez

    2009-01-01

    O óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus cultivado em canteiro único e consorciado com Achillea millefolium, foi obtido por arraste a vapor e o rendimento de óleo em observação sazonal, tendo como parâmetros a temperatura, índices pluviométricos e período de coleta. Os melhores rendimentos foram observados para período matutino em dias com altas temperaturas e altos índices pluviométricos. A análise microbiana do óleo essencial de C. citratus foi determinada pela técnica de microdiluição em ca...

  2. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.

    Murnigsih, Tri; Subeki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Katakura, Ken; Suzuki, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Sumiko; Chairul; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four kinds of water extracts derived from 22 plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria on Java Island, Indonesia, were screened for their antibabesial and antimalarial activities. Among the extracts, 8 extracts displayed strong antimalarial activity, with an inhibition range from 89.6 to 100%, and 15 showed strong antibabesial activity, with an inhibition range from 84.2 to 98.1%. The extracts of Achillea millefolium, Baeckea frutenscens, Brucea javanica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Strychnos lucida and Swietenia macrophylla showed both strong antibabesial and antimalarial activities. The antimalarial activities paralleled the antibabesial activities, but the converse was not true. PMID:16141673

  3. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  4. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus).

    Schemske, D W; Bradshaw, H D

    1999-10-12

    A paradigm of evolutionary biology is that adaptation and reproductive isolation are caused by a nearly infinite number of mutations of individually small effect. Here, we test this hypothesis by investigating the genetic basis of pollinator discrimination in two closely related species of monkeyflowers that differ in their major pollinators. This system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the genetic architecture of adaptation and speciation because floral traits that confer pollinator specificity also contribute to premating reproductive isolation. We asked: (i) What floral traits cause pollinator discrimination among plant species? and (ii) What is the genetic basis of these traits? We examined these questions by using data obtained from a large-scale field experiment where genetic markers were employed to determine the genetic basis of pollinator visitation. Observations of F2 hybrids produced by crossing bee-pollinated Mimulus lewisii with hummingbird-pollinated Mimulus cardinalis revealed that bees preferred large flowers low in anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments, whereas hummingbirds favored nectar-rich flowers high in anthocyanins. An allele that increases petal carotenoid concentration reduced bee visitation by 80%, whereas an allele that increases nectar production doubled hummingbird visitation. These results suggest that genes of large effect on pollinator preference have contributed to floral evolution and premating reproductive isolation in these monkeyflowers. This work contributes to growing evidence that adaptation and reproductive isolation may often involve major genes. PMID:10518550

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ACILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND SAUSSUREA LAPPA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Nagar Ashish

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of alcoholic extract of anti-inflammatory plants viz. Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa for spasmolytic activity in rat model using radnoti organ bath. The relaxant effect of all extracts on pre-contracted rat tracheal chain by carbachol (30 µM had been screened. Isometric contractions of isolated rat tracheas were recorded at 1.4 g resting tension and carbachol dose-response curves were performed. EC50 values (27.12, 13.13 and 7.32 µM, respectively were identified by plotting cumulative concentration response curve and pD2 values (4.48 ± 0.99, 6.06 ± 1.03 and 7.41 ± 0.97, respectively were calculated for individual alcoholic extract of plant. All extracts were able to relax carbachol pre-contracted tracheas significantly in a concentration dependent manner. Our results suggested potential role of Achillea millefolium, Rubia cordifolia and Saussurea lappa in asthma for further potential therapeutic and clinical uses.

  6. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  7. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  9. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    Razić, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavković, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  10. Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  11. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  12. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  13. Coping With Hypertension Using Safer Herbal Medicine ? A Therapeutic Review

    Lakshmi.T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and if treated can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser cost. our article reviews the efficacy of some of valuable herbs like Allium sativum, Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Crataegus oxycantha, Crataegus monogyna, Passiflora Edulis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Elaeocarpus ganitrus, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium. They have a history of human use and their Anti hypertensive properties have been evaluated preclinically and clinically. The present literature emphasizes on causes for hypertension, its signs, symptoms, preventive measures as well as its safer options of treatments. Available data suggests that the extracts of most of these herbs or compounds derived from them may provide a safe and effective adjunctive therapeutic approach for the treatment of hypertension

  14. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis, in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  16. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models.

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, Palloma; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; Andreatini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis), in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed. PMID:26473822

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Slovak medicinal plants against different strains of bacteria

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment in human medicine.  The antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of four plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Agrimonia eupatoria, Melissa officinalis and Tilia platyphyllos applied in the traditional medicine in Slovakia were tested. Extracts of certain parts of these plants were tested in vitro against six bacterial species (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Serratia rubidea strains using the disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the extracts against all the microorganisms were determined by serial dilutions. All the extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and partially against Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

    Rada Đurović-Pejčev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six essential oils (EOs extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. and walnut [Juglans regia (F] oils was also recorded. Oils extracted from yarrow (Achillea millepholium L. and juniper (Juniperus communis L. exhibited the lowest activity. Peppermint oil showed fungicidal effect on the pathogen, having a minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.64 μl ml-1. The main components of peppermint essential oil were menthone (37.02%, menthol (29.57% and isomenthone (9.06%.

  19. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    S.L. MACIEL; L.C.C.B. Ferraz

    1996-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (barda...

  20. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  1. 新疆十种野生药用植物核型分析%Karyotype Analysis of 10 Species Wild Medicinal Plants in Xinjiang

    牛凯; 许正; 丘佳丽; 张力鹏; 陈成彬

    2016-01-01

    以新疆伊犁新源县的4科10种药用植物为试材,采用植物染色体标本制备的去壁低渗方法,研究了染色体数目并进行了核型分析.结果表明:大麻(Cannabis sativa L.)2n=20=12m+8sm、苦豆子(Sophora alopecuroides L.)2n=36=26m+ 8sm+ 2st、毛牛蒡(Arctium tomentosum Mill.)2n=36=6m+28sm+ 2st、牛蒡(Arctium lappa L.)2n=36=8m+ 26sm+ 2st、千叶蓍(Achillea millefolium L.)2n=36=26m+10sm、牛至(Origanum valgare)2n=30=12m+ 18sm、菊苣(Cichorium intybus L.)2n=18=12m+ 6sm、新疆鼠尾草(Salvia deserta Sehang) 2n=14=4m+ 10sm、草原糙苏(Phomis protensis Kar)2n=22=12m+ 6sm+4st、乌拉尔甘草(Gtycyrrhiza uralensis Fish)2n=16=6m+10sm,其染色体数目与前人报道一致.千叶蓍(Achillea mille olium L.)、牛至(Origanum valgate)、新疆鼠尾草(Salvia deserta Schang)3种植物为首次报道.

  2. Experimental evaluation of seed limitation in alpine snowbed plants.

    Stefan Dullinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The distribution and abundance of plants is controlled by the availability of seeds and of sites suitable for establishment. The relative importance of these two constraints is still contentious and possibly varies among species and ecosystems. In alpine landscapes, the role of seed limitation has traditionally been neglected, and the role of abiotic gradients emphasized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the importance of seed limitation for the incidence of four alpine snowbed species (Achillea atrata L., Achillea clusiana Tausch, Arabis caerulea L., Gnaphalium hoppeanum W. D. J. Koch in local plant communities by comparing seedling emergence, seedling, juvenile and adult survival, juvenile and adult growth, flowering frequency as well as population growth rates λ of experimental plants transplanted into snowbed patches which were either occupied or unoccupied by the focal species. In addition, we accounted for possible effects of competition or facilitation on these rates by including a measure of neighbourhood biomass into the analysis. We found that only A. caerulea had significantly lower seedling and adult survival as well as a lower population growth rate in unoccupied sites whereas the vital rates of the other three species did not differ among occupied and unoccupied sites. By contrast, all species were sensitive to competitive effects of the surrounding vegetation in terms of at least one of the studied rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that seed and site limitation jointly determine the species composition of these snowbed plant communities and that constraining site factors include both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions. The traditional focus on abiotic gradients for explaining alpine plant distribution hence appears lopsided. The influence of seed limitation on the current distribution of these plants casts doubt on their ability to readily track shifting habitats under climate change

  3. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  4. Fungitoxidade in vitro de extratos vegetais sobre Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs In vitro fungitoxicity of plant extracts on Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs

    C.R Scapin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A helmintosporiose, causada pelo fungo Exserohilum turcicum, é uma das principais doenças do milho-pipoca cultivado no Brasil. Devido às características da cultura, como porte da planta, extensão da área de plantio e rentabilidade econômica, o emprego de resistência genética e controle químico têm sido as principais formas de controle da doença. O emprego de agrotóxicos na agricultura tem levado riscos à saúde humana e freqüentes danos ao meio ambiente. Assim, na busca de métodos alternativos para o controle da helmintosporiose foi avaliado o efeito fungitóxico dos extratos vegetais das plantas Achillea milefollium (mil-folhas, Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão, Artemisia camphorata (cânfora e Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim no crescimento micelial de E. turcicum, em dois meios de cultura (BDA - batata-dextrose-ágar; e LCH - lactose caseína hidrolisada. Os extratos de alecrim e cânfora foram os que apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento micelial nos dois meios de cultura, enquanto que os extratos de mil-folhas e capim limão estimularam o crescimento micelial em meio LCH.Helminthosporiose is caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum and represents one of the main diseases in popcorn grown in Brazil. Due to its characteristics, such as plant size, planting area extension and economic profitability, the use of genetic resistance and chemical control has constituted the main procedure against such disease. The use of pesticides in agriculture has resulted in risks to the human health and frequent damages to the environment. Thus, the fungitoxic effect of plant extracts of Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass, Artemisia camphorata (camphor and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary on the mycelial growth of E. turcicum was evaluated by using two culture media (PDA - potato dextrose agar, and LCH - lactose-casein hydrolysate in order to set alternative methods for controlling helminthosporiose. Rosemary

  5. Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido

    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, and Sambucus Canadensis stimulated H. samuelpessoai growth. Only L. alba and S. acmella stimulated cell differentiation in this flagellate. These results indicate that medicinal plants possess active compounds against H. samuelpessoai. Thus, this protozoan seems to be a suitable model for screening plants containing trypanocidal drugsNeste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa

  6. Selected medicinal plants used in herbal industries; their toxicity against pathogenic microorganisms

    Multi-drug resistant strains of fungi and bacteria are imposing the need for new drugs. Reliable natural sources with minor side effects are needed to control anti-human pathogenic invaders specially bacteria. Given the demands for natural products that are inherently safe and environmentally compatible, the advancement in antimicrobial potential has provided a better alternative to synthetic resistance antibiotics. In the present investigation such types of medicinal plants were selected for analyses that are used by local herbal practioners for multiple diseases. Thirty three extracts of Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina and Vetiveria zizanioides in chloroform, ethanol and hexane were investigated for their antimicrobial potential. These extracts were tested against eight microorganisms including four gram negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, three gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus and a fungal strain viz., Candida albicans. Majority of the extracts showed marked antimicrobial potential against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  7. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes. PMID:18756913

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  9. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  10. TLC-Direct Bioautography and LC/MS as Complementary Methods in Identification of Antibacterial Agents in Plant Tinctures from the Asteraceae Family.

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Kocsis, Béla; Horváth, Györgyi; Choma, Irena M

    2015-01-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) are very common herbs growing in meadows, pathways, crop fields, and home gardens. Preparations from these plants, e.g., infusions or alcohol extracts, are widely used as remedies. Both chamomile and yarrow have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Most microbiological assays used today give information only on activity of whole extracts and do not provide information on the composition and activity of individual components. This problem can be solved by using TLC with direct microbiological detection, i.e., TLC-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), followed by LC/MS of active fractions. The aim of our study was chemical and microbiological screening of plant components of chamomile and yarrow tinctures using derivatization reagents and TLC-DB against eight bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Xanthomonas campestis pv. vesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, and Bacillus subtilis. The identity of compounds exhibiting the widest range of activity (apigenin and α-linolenic acid) was confirmed by LC/MS. PMID:26268962

  11. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  12. Single sternal metastasis due to malignant melanoma with unexpected long-term survival: a case report

    Gogakos AS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apostolos S Gogakos,1 Dimitrios Paliouras,1 Christos Asteriou,1 Thomas Rallis,1 Achilleas Lazopoulos,1 Fotios Chatzinikolaou,2 Athanassios Zissimopoulos,3 Drosos Tsavlis,4 Katerina Tsirgogianni,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,4 Kosmas Tsakiridis,5 Georgia Pitsiou,4 Ioannis Kioumis,4 Ilias Karapantzos,6 Chrysanthi Karapantzou,6 Nikos Sachpekidis,5 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Nikolaos Barbetakis1 1Thoracic Surgery Department, 2Department of Pathology, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, Thessaloniki, 3Nuclear Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 4Pulmonary Department – Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 5Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, 6Ear, Nose and Throat Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Panorama, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Metastases from melanoma have a very poor prognosis for the patient. Single metastatic lesions in the sternum due to melanoma are extremely rare. A rare case of a presternal mass in a 56-year-old patient who had undergone excision for malignant melanoma is presented. Review of the patient’s history and surgical resection of a single metastatic soft tissue lesion offer the best chance of long-term survival. Keywords: melanoma, metastasis, chest wall, sternum

  13. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  14. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption. PMID:21883071

  15. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  16. Standardization of phytopharmaceuticals: qualitative evaluation and quantification of carbohydrates in medicinal plants using tlc, matrix free meldi-tof-ms and gc-ms

    Pharmaceutical industry requires reliable and less time consuming procedures for the quality control analysis of raw materials and finished products. The study was focused on thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and matrix free material enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study. The presence of mono- (fructose and glucose) and disaccharide (sucrose) in all the plants under study was proved through the TLC analysis. These results were confirmed by the Mf-MELDI-MS experiments. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the data obtained via TLC and mf-MELDI-MS, delivering additionally quantified values, but needed a long time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerization degree could not be found. Among the six plants, glucose was found in highest concentration in Taraxacum officinale. Fructose is present in appreciable quantity in Matricaria chamomella while Althaea officinalis has the highest amount of sucrose among the plants under study. (author)

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  18. Survival and Reduction of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in a Fresh Cold-Pressed Juice Treated with Antimicrobial Plant Extracts.

    Hatab, Shaimaa; Athanasio, Renata; Holley, Richard; Rodas-Gonzalez, Argenis; Narvaez-Bravo, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the survival of 7 Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in fresh cold-pressed juice and the antimicrobial efficacy of 4 essential oils (EO: achillea, rosemary, sage, and thyme). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of each EO was determined using microdilution assays evaluated at pH levels 4 and 7; as well as at 4 and 25 °C; daily for up to 5 d. Results indicated that 5 of 7 serotypes survived well in cold-pressed raw juice for at least 4 d at 4 °C and pH 3.5 with no significant (P > 0.05) reduction in viability. The EO showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against the 7 STEC. The MIC and MBCs were lowest for thyme (2 μg/L) and highest for sage (15 to 25 μg/L). The antimicrobial activity was enhanced at low pH and temperature. Data showed that although the top 7 STEC could survive low pH and temperature in vitro and in cold-pressed juices, EO, especially from thyme and rosemary, reduced STEC to an undetectable level at 4 °C, suggesting that they could be used as natural antimicrobials in juice. PMID:27399584

  19. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  20. Synergistic anticancer activities of the plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones salograviolide A and iso-seco-tanapartholide.

    Salla, Mohamed; Fakhoury, Isabelle; Saliba, Najat; Darwiche, Nadine; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2013-07-01

    We have previously shown that the two sesquiterpene lactones, salograviolide A (Sal A) and iso-seco-tanapartholide (TNP), isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plants Centaurea ainetensis and Achillea falcata, respectively, possess selective antitumor properties. Here, we aimed to assess the anticancer effects of the separate compounds and their combination, study their potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and investigate their underlying antitumor mechanisms in human colon cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with Sal A and TNP alone or in combination, and cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis, ROS generation and changes in protein expression were monitored. Sal A and TNP in combination caused 80% decrease in HCT-116 and DLD-1 cell viability versus only 25% reduction when the drugs were used separately. The antitumor mechanism involved triggering ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies showed that apoptosis by the Sal A and TNP combination was caspase-independent and that ERK, JNK and p38 of the serine/threonine MAPKs signaling pathway were involved in the cell death mechanism. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of Sal A and TNP may be of therapeutic interest against colon cancer. PMID:22976170

  1. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Corinna Wallinger

    Full Text Available Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae, the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  2. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHILLED CHICKEN MEAT AFTER FEEDING OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Mária Martonová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  The effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L and combination of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L and hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L on oxidative stability and sensory properties of produced poultry meat was investigated. Sixty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were used in our experiment, divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (K was fed with standard diet without supplementation of plants; second group (M was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded lemon balm in concentration 2 % per 1 kg; and third group was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded yarrow (2 % and hawthorn (1 %. Results showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of yarrow and hawthorn in the diet significantly caused reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh meat during chilling storage of samples. In addition, supplementation of plants in the diet had positive effect on sensory quality of meat of broiler chickens.    doi:10.5219/38 

  3. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  4. Getting the smell of it--odour cues structure pollinator networks.

    Hambäck, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. Creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. Manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. Image credit: Robert Junker and Anna-Amelie Larue. In Focus: Larue, A.-A.C., Raguso, R.A. & Junker, R.R. (2015) Experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures flower-visitor interactions in the field. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85, 396-408. Pollinators use multiple cues to locate suitable flowers, and recent studies argue that flower volatiles are more important than previously believed. However, the role of volatiles is seldom separated from other cues. Larue, Raguso & Junker (2015) manipulated the volatile profile of two plants that are normally visited by different pollinators. Achillea millefolium is normally not visited by honeybees and bumblebees, but these pollinator groups did visit plants that were sprayed with volatiles from Cirsium arvense. Cirsium arvense, on the other hand, was less visited by honeybees and bumblebees when sprayed with volatiles from A. millefolium. These findings highlight the potential role of volatiles in structuring pollinator communities on plants. PMID:26899420

  5. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  6. Effect of some essential oils on in vitro methane emission.

    Sallam, Sobhy Mohamed Abdallah; Abdelgaleil, Samir Abdelazim Mohamed; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Nasser, Mohamed Emad Abdelwahab; Araujo, Rafael Canonenco; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterise four essential oils (EO) chemically and to evaluate their effect on ruminal fermentation and methane emission in vitro. The investigated EO were isolated from Achillea santolina, Artemisia judaica, Schinus terebinthifolius and Mentha microphylla, and supplemented at four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 microl) to 75 ml of buffered rumen fluid plus 0.5 g of substrate. The main components of the EO were piperitone (49.1%) and camphor (34.5%) in A. judaica, 16-dimethyl 15-cyclooactdaiene (60.5%) in A. santolina, piperitone oxide (46.7%) and cis-piperitone oxide (28%) in M. microphylla, and gamma-muurolene (45.3%) and alpha-thujene (16.0%) in S. terebinthifolius. The EO from A. santolina (at 25 and 50 j1), and all levels of A. judaica increased the gas production significantly, but S. terebinthifolius (at 50 and 75 microl), A. santolina (at 75 microl) and all levels of M. microphylla decreased the gas production significantly in comparison with the control. The highest levels of A. santolina and A. judaica, and all doses from M. microphylla EO inhibited the methane production along with a significant reduction in true degradation of dry matter and organic matter, protozoa count and NH3-N concentration. It is concluded that the evaluated EO have the potential to affect ruminal fermentation efficiency and the EO from M. microphylla could be a promising methane mitigating agent. PMID:21776837

  7. Chemical composition of selected Saudi medicinal plants

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important in traditional medicine and modern pharmaceutical drugs; therefore, the interest in the analysis of their chemical composition is increasing. In this study, selected medicinal plants including Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk Sch., Amaranthus viridis L., Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., Chenopodium album L., and Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist were collected from the rangeland of western regions (Bahra and Hada areas of Saudi Arabia to study their chemical composition. Eight minerals (Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, and free-radical scavenging ability were examined in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of these plants. All the plants were found to be rich sources of minerals and antioxidants, although there were significant differences (p < 0.05 in their chemical composition, which may provide a rationale for generating custom extracts from specific plants depending on the application. The findings of this study will thus facilitate herbalists in their efforts to incorporate these plants into various formulations based on their chemical composition.

  8. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  10. Investigation of contribution of individual constituents to antioxidant activity in herbal drugs using postcolumn HPLC method.

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Jakstas, Valdas; Burdulis, Deividas; Benetis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2009-01-01

    The most important attention is paid to the search of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in medicinal and food raw materials of plant origin. A number of plants, their extracts, food products, and medicinal preparations appear to be the objects of scientific research. Effectiveness and informative character of research, undoubtedly, depend on relevance, sensitivity, and efficiency of the methods chosen. The aim of this work was to develop and validate the postcolumn high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DPPH method as well as its application in the evaluation of antioxidant activity of known and unknown compounds scavenging free radicals and existing in medicinal plant raw materials. HPLC-separated compounds were identified at the wavelength of 275 nm, and then the mobile phase with analytes flowed through a mixing tee to the reaction coil, where DPPH reagent solution was supplied. The solution flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The reaction coil was connected with UV/VIS type detector, which measured absorption of flowing solution at the wavelength of 520 nm. It was determined that vitexin rhamnoside, the dominant compound in the leaves of Crataegus monogyna, was not a significant radical scavenger. The most active antioxidant in the leaves and flowers of Crataegus monogyna was chlorogenic acid. The most active antioxidant in Origanum vulgare raw material was rosmarinic acid. Identified analytes in the extracts of Achillea millefolium that possessed radical-scavenging properties were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin. PMID:19535885

  11. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  12. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards. PMID:17849850

  13. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  14. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  15. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants. PMID:27252685

  16. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    MACIEL S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.

  17. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  18. Effect of some plant extracts on the Culex pipiens molestus

    A. Al-Khazraji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of eight plant species collected from Ninavah governorate on the second instar of larval stage of Culex pipiens molestus Forskal. Three out of the eight plant extracts Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Cleome glaucescens Dc. and Quercus infectoria DL. caused 100% mortality of larvae at a concentration of 200 µg/mL after 3days of treatment. The LC50 values were less than 150µg/mL (62.5µg/mL-140µg/mL. The A. excelsa leave extract showed mortality on larval and pupal at low concentrations 40µg/mL-10µg/mL also affected in delaying larval development. The extracts of Achillea santolina L., Ammi majus L. and Ricinus communis L. caused high mortality to the larvae after 7 days of treatment, but the Datura stramonium L. and Carum petroselinum Benth extracts did not cause any mortality to the larvae at the same date.

  19. Prognoses of plant community changes in the territories not used for agriculture after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Science-research in the zones of eviction in the Bragin district of the Gomel region confirms interdependence between development of plants' communities and such factors as type of soil, kind of agricultural field, the term of nonuse. The study of vegetation change on the former fields, represented by turf-podsol soil, indicates that plant community has by now been formed on it, in which out of 100% projection cover prevail Artemisia absinthium L., - 40%, Artemisia campestris L. -20%, Artemisia vulgaris L. -5%, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski - 30%. On lower lots, represented by turf-podsol swampy soil, prevail Elytrigia repens - 60%, Artemisia absinthium -20%, Erigeron canadensis - 10%. So, on the unused arable land the tendency to form communities of Elytrigia repens is observed. In 10-15 years there may be a community here, consisting of bunch-grasses an densely turfed grasses. On the haymaking and pasture meadows, sowing plants are replaced by rhizome bunch-grasses (Poa pratensis L.) rhizome (Elytrigia repens) and diverse grasses (Artemisia absinthium, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron canadensis and others). On sowing meadows, situated on peat-swamp soil, Urtica dioica L. took root. It formed powerful herbage with 80-90% projection cover, which prevents the renewing of grasses. Only after gradual decrease of Urtica dioica there will appear different grasses, as well as rhisome grasses. In future this land can be used for haymaking. It is impossible to use this kind of soil without herbicides in large quantity, which may create additional problems of ecological character

  20. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O3) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O3 (elevated O3). Biomass production was not affected by O3, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O3 exposure. - Early-season O3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  1. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  3. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D' Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All

  4. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  5. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  6. Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcević, M; Juretić, D; Petrik, J

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect. PMID:12722130

  7. Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice.

    Petlevski, R; Hadzija, M; Slijepcevic, M; Juretic, D

    2001-05-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45 degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment 1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6 +/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of active principles of the extracts. PMID:11297848

  8. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  10. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  11. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  12. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  13. An ecological approach to the assessment of vegetation cover on inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    Vascular plants have been collected from abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in three mining areas in Canada. The collection was evaluated to determine some characteristics of vegetation development and to identify the plants which will persist on the sites. A total of 170 species were identified. Many of the species are widely distributed in North America, none has been reported as rare in any of the locations from which they were collected. Species richness was highest on Bancroft sites and lowest on Uranium City sites, though values were variable between sites. Forty-four per cent of the total number of species were found on only a single site. Only seven species occurred on more than half of the tailings sites and in all three mining areas. There was no difference between amended and unamended sites in terms of either species richness or species composition. There was no apparent relationship between species richness and either site size, site age or amendment history. The results of this survey suggest that the uranium mill tailings sites are at an early stage of colonization where the seed input from surrounding areas and the heterogeneity of the sites are factors determining species composition and species richness. The fate of an individual once it has reached the site will be determined by its ability to establish on the sites. A perennial growth habit and the ability to expand clonally are important characteristics of the species on the tailings. The species on the tailings are commonly found in a variety of habitats. Consistent with the observation that the tailings sites are at a stage of early colonization, we find that the few species widely distributed across sites are all characteristic pioneering species with wide environmental tolerances. These species included Populus tremuloides, P. balsamifera, Scirpus cyperinus, Equisetum arvense, Betula papyrifera, Achillea millefolium and Typha spp. The vegetation on the tailings is likely to be

  14. SCREENING THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ESCHERICHIA COLI TYPE (1

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM, FRDOOS MOHAMMAD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of Escherichia coli causing mastitis and of bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics has become aserious problem in recent years. So the search for new antibiotics and alternative products to solve this problem is the question ofthe age. This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of the following plants:Olea europea Linn (Oleaceae ، Myrtus communis Linn (Liliaceae، Majorana syriacus Linn (Laminaceae، Zingiber officinaleLinn (Zingiberaceae، Achillea falcata Linn (Asteraceae against resistant Escherichia coli Type (1. Investigation began forE.coli bacteria in 667 milk samples. The bacteria were identified culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibioticsusceptibility testing against E.coli by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were conducted. Then using the blood agar,MacConkey agar, salmonella - shigella agar, and biochemical testing method [API 20 E testing Enterobacteriaceae] were made totype E.coli. Plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether using a soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuumevaporator. Then extracts susceptibility testing against antibiotic resistant E.coli Type (1 were studied. E. coli was defined asoxidase negative, indole positive, catalase positive. The studied antibiotics did not show any antibacterial effect against E.coli .By the results of the biochemical analysis (API20e on resistant E.coli , E.coli type (1 was 33.35% of the total number ofsamples. The anti-bacterial effectiveness against E.coli type (1 of ethanol extracts prepared from different parts of the studiedplants were variant, whereas the Myrtus communis extract effectively has the most powerful antibacterial effect for these bacteria,while the Zingiber officinale extract has the lowest influence.

  15. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    Oduor, Ayub M O; Stift, Marc; van Kleunen, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium). Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America. PMID:26517125

  16. The Interaction between Root Herbivory and Competitive Ability of Native and Invasive-Range Populations of Brassica nigra.

    Ayub M O Oduor

    Full Text Available The evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA hypothesis predicts that escape from intense herbivore damage may enable invasive plants to evolve higher competitive ability in the invasive range. Below-ground root herbivory can have a strong impact on plant performance, and invasive plants often compete with multiple species simultaneously, but experimental approaches in which EICA predictions are tested with root herbivores and in a community setting are rare. Here, we used Brassica nigra plants from eight invasive- and seven native-range populations to test whether the invasive-range plants have evolved increased competitive ability when competing with Achillea millefolium and with a community (both with and without A. millefolium. Further, we tested whether competitive interactions depend on root herbivory on B. nigra by the specialist Delia radicum. Without the community, competition with A. millefolium reduced biomass of invasive- but not of native-range B. nigra. With the community, invasive-range B. nigra suffered less than native-range B. nigra. Although the overall effect of root herbivory was not significant, it reduced the negative effect of the presence of the community. The community produced significantly less biomass when competing with B. nigra, irrespective of the range of origin, and independent of the presence of A. millefolium. Taken together, these results offer no clear support for the EICA hypothesis. While native-range B. nigra plants appear to be better in dealing with a single competitor, the invasive-range plants appear to be better in dealing with a more realistic multi-species community. Possibly, this ability of tolerating multiple competitors simultaneously has contributed to the invasion success of B. nigra in North America.

  17. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  18. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  19. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  20. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    Gerlinde B De Deyn

    Full Text Available Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C- translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13C-CO(2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts of the recently assimilated (13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13C in the respired CO(2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased

  1. The role of mass spectrometry in medicinal plant research.

    Héthelyi, E; Tétényi, P; Dabi, E; Dános, B

    1987-11-01

    In phytochemical and chemotaxonomic research work mass spectrometry plays an outstandingly important role. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) we established the chemotaxa of Tanacetum vulgare L. Chemotypes with essential oils containing 60-90% of artemisia ketone, carveol, dihydrocarvone, myrtenol, umbellulone, terpinen-4-ol, davanone, and Tagetes species containing various essential oils can be clearly distinguished by their spectra; we examined many variations of Tagetes erecta, T. lucida, T. minuta, T. patula and T. tenuifolia. We have identified alpha-beta-pinene-, 1,8-cineol-, linalool-, camphor-, nerol-, geraniol- and gamma-gurjonene as components of Achillea distans L. Injecting the essential oil direct from the oil-secreting organs of T. minuta plants we identified using GC/MS 6-10 and 16% eugenol from the involucral bract and hypsophyll, respectively, as well as beta-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, Z- and E-ocimenones. In the course of studies on essential fatty acids Borago officinalis and Lappula squarrosa were selected from 70 species of the family Boraginaceae to obtain seed oil as a source of gamma-linolenic acid, and for the PG synthesis we isolated several grams of gamma-linolenic acid, as well as C18:4, i.e. octadecatetraenic acid, from L. squarrosa on the basis of the mass spectra. From the seed oil of Aquilegia vulgaris C18:3 (5) from the oil of Limnanthes dougloasii C20:1 (5) and from the seed oils of Delphinium consolida and of Tropaeolum species (T. majus, T. minus, T. peregrinum) C20:1 (11) fatty acids were identified on the basis of spectra. PMID:2962668

  2. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  4. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  6. Research on the effects of the ‘Dance of the Spiral’ methodology upon the physiological parameters of plants and the essential oil content

    Doncho Krastev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available “The Dance of the Spiral” is the original methodology consisting of physical exercises that based on ancient health and longevity practices. A research has been done in which this methodology has been applied to plants. Eight plants were chosen including common yarrow, wood violet, dandelion, common chicory, shepherd’s purse, cranesbill, broadleaf plantain and snowdrop, each of them grows the best in one of the eight directions. The planting was performed in eight directions, since each exercise supposedly has an effect on the state of health. Two circles were empirically defined – the Spiral and the Antispiral. Further clinical trials with 20 volunteers suffered from neurological, gastro-intestinal, cardio-vascular, and articular conditions and diseases, who stayed consecutively in the Antispiral and Spiral plant circles for 6 min in each circle were performed based on their subjective assessment of their state of health and their experience after their being stayed in the Antispiral and Spiral circles as a relaxing effect (the Antispiral circle and a stimulating effect (the Spiral circle. The research involves the composition of essential oil extracts by 1H NMR, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as the spectral analysis by the methods of NES and DNES of water extracts from the common plant (Achillea millefolium from the control group growing in its natural habitat and from the plants grown correspondingly in the Spiral and Antispiral circles. The result in the sample of common yarrow from the Spiral circle is an increase of the average energy of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules. The result in the sample of common yarrow from the Antispiral circle is a decrease of the average energy of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules. The essential oil composition of the samples planted in the Spiral and Antispiral circles is not identical in the quantitative and qualitative composition regarding the 83

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from indigenous Middle Eastern plants inhibit tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 cells

    Saikali Melody

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones (SL are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (β-tan isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal JB6P + cells as a model for tumor promotion and cellular transformation. Key players that are involved in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis are the AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors; therefore, we assessed how β-tan and Sal A modulate their signaling pathways in JB6P + cells. Methods The effects of β-tan and Sal A on the growth of normal and neoplastic keratinocytes and on the tumor promotion-responsive JB6P + cells were determined using the MTT assay. Anchorage-independent cell growth transformation assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor promoting properties of these SL molecules in JB6P + cells and dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate their effects on tumor promoter-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activities and protein levels of key AP-1 and NF-кB target genes. Results β-tan and Sal A selectively inhibited tumor promoter-induced cell growth and transformation of JB6P + cells at concentrations that do not affect JB6P + and primary keratinocytes basal cell growth. In addition, both molecules reduced basal and tumor promoter-induced NF-κB transcriptional activities, differentially regulated basal and tumor promoter-induced AP-1 transcriptional activities, and modulated key players of the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions These results highlight the anti-tumor promoting properties of β-tan and Sal A. These SL molecules isolated from two plant species native to

  8. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  9. Accumulation of Cs 137 and Sr 90 by herbs of Chechersk region of the Gomel area in the postchernobyl period

    Full text: In 2005 the authors performed the studying of the herbs growing in territories with various density of radioactive soil contamination by Cs 137 to define the opportunities of their using by local population. There were analyzed 52 kinds of herbs including 7 kinds of trees, 3 kinds of bushes, by one kind of subshrubs and small subshrubs and 39 kinds of herbs. The results of the research proved the proportional dependence of plants contamination by Cs 137 from soil contamination density. The herbs have shown specificity of contamination by radionuclide Cs 137 and transition coefficient. The territories with soil contamination density higher than 5 Ci/rm2 are unsuitable for collecting herbs. The list of the herbs adequate to the requirements of the Republican Permissible Levels /Medicinal-Technical Raw Materials TC-2004 on specific activity, equal to 370 Bq/kg is resulted below: Leucanthemum vulgare - 340,5; Nettle diclinous (Urtica dioica) - 283,5; Lime-tree (Tilia cordata) - 253; Perforated St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) - 247; Cornflower (Centaurea jacea) - 233,7; Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) - 223; Oenothera biennis - 176,9; Sagebrush (Artemisia vulgaris) - 144; March woundwort (Stachys palustris) - 138,8; Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria) - 138,1; Narrow-leaved willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) - 132,3. The kinds of the herbs are listed on decrease of accumulation of Cs 137 radionuclide in their overground part. They can be prepared and used. The results of studying of Sr 90 accumulation by herbs have shown that the wild strawberry wood (Fragaria vesca) possessed the greatest specific activity and transition coefficient - 995.2 Bq/kg, the least sizes belong to a dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale) - 92.5 Bq/kg . The kinds including a burdock big (Arctium lappa), Solomon's seal fragrant (Poligonatum odoratum), a blackberry grey (Rubus caesius), May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), and meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria

  10. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the

  11. Assessment of the water exchange between soil and groundwater in an Alpine valley

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2013-04-01

    The soil-water balance in temperate climates can be sensitively characterised by the water exchange between soil and groundwater. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the water table depth are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen, but these latter extimate is still a major challenge for hydrological applications. Aiming at contributing to better characterise the soil-water balance and the water exchange between soil and groundwater, at the local scale in an Alpine valley, a micrometeorological station was installed during summer 2012 at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex orography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The soil upper layers, lying on an anthropised loose rock, are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). The station is equipped with longwave and shortwave radiometers, a thermo-hygrometer, two rain-gauges, eddy correlation devices (Gill WindMaster sonic anemometer and Licor Li7500 gas analyser, sampling at 20Hz), a TDR with multiplexer apparatus and four probes at different depths, three soil-thermometers and a heat exchanger plate. Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the main soil hydraulic properties (i.e. hydraulic conductivity at saturation by means of infiltration tests and falling head permeameter, porosity, residual water content and water content at saturation, soil-water retention relationships, organic matter content and grain size distribution curve). Three different hypothesis to model the water exchange between soil-water and groundwater were introduced. They are (i) a null exchange rate which accounts for a shortage of precipitation and for representing the underlying soil as a capillary barrier, (ii) a pure percolation with unitary gradient of the total hydraulic potential and (iii) a percolation or

  12. Технология получения порошков, муки и инулина из дикорастущего сырья

    СТРУПАН Е.А.; СТРУПАН О.А.; ПОЛОНСКИЙ В.И.; ДЕМИДЕНКО Г.А.

    2016-01-01

    Целью исследования является обоснование применения в пищевых отраслях продуктов переработки многолетних травянистых растений семейств Asteraceaе (Compositae): Arstium lappa L. лопух большой, Taraxacum officinale Wigg одуванчик лекарственный, Achillea millefollium L. тысячелистник обыкновенный, а также семейства Rosaceaе Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Sanguisorba glanduloza Kom.) кровохлебка лекарственная, и разработка технологии мучных, кондитерских изделий, обогащенных биологически активными ве...

  13. Acaricidal and Insecticidal Activities of Essential Oils against a Stored-Food Mite and Stored-Grain Insects.

    Song, Ja-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Moon; Lee, Na-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Twenty plant-derived oils were evaluated for their acaricidal and insecticidal activities against Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae, Sitophilus zeamais, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae adults, by using the fumigant and filter paper diffusion methods. Responses varied with bioassay systems, insect or mite species, plant oils, and exposure time. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay, Anethum graveolens oil (4.12 and 1.12 μg/cm(3), respectively) induced the highest mortality, followed by Achillea millefolium (21.92 and 14.91 μg/cm(3)) and Eucalyptus dives (28.02 and 24.02 μg/cm(3)) oils, respectively. The most toxic oil based on the 50% lethal concentration values against T. putrescentiae was E. dives (3.13 μg/cm(3)), followed by Melaleuca leucadendron (3.93 μg/cm(3)) and Leptospermum pertersonii (4.41 μg/cm(3)). Neroli birgard oil (1.70 μg/cm(3)) was the most toxic based on the LD50 values against S. cerealella, followed by Citrus aurantium (1.80 μg/cm(3)) and Artemisia vulgaris (1.81 μg/cm(3)). The insecticidal and acaricidal activities of the plant oils in the filter paper diffusion bioassay were similar to those in the fumigant bioassay. In comparison, A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils were more effective against S. oryzae and S. zeamais in the fumigant bioassay than in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that the insecticidal activity of the three plant oils against S. oryzae and S. zeamais may be due to their fumigant action. Acaricidal activities of the A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils against T. putrescentiae were 2.62, 1.11, and 122 times higher than that of benzyl benzoate in the contact bioassay. These results indicate that A. millefolium, A. graveolens, and E. dives oils have potential for development as agents to control stored-grain insects and mites. PMID:26735047

  14. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  15. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  16. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    Gislene G. F. Nascimento

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove, Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm, Ocimun basilucum (basil, Psidium guajava (guava, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Salvia officinalis (sage, Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan and Thymus vulgaris (thyme. The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%. Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos frente a microrganismos sensíveis e resistentes a antibióticos, bem como observado o possível efeito sinérgico da associação entre antibióticos e extratos vegetais. Foram utilizados os extratos de plantas cujo nomes populares são: tomilho, alecrim, cravo-da-Índia, jambolão, erva cidreira, romã, goiaba, sálvia, manjericão e mil-folhas, e ainda os fitofármacos, ácido benzóico, ácido cinâmico, eugenol e farnesol. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana através do m

  17. MR imaging in the diagnosis of the os trigonum syndrome; Il ruolo della Risonanza Magnetica nella diagnosi della sindrome dell'os trigonum

    Tamburrini, O.; Porpiglia, H.; Barresi, D.; Bertucci, B.; Console, D. [Catanzaro Univ. Magna Grecia, Catanzaro (Italy). Radiologia, Dipt. di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica

    1999-12-01

    RM nell'ambito delle malattie dolorose del retropiede e piu' in particolare nella sindrome dell'os trigonum, in considerazione della notevole difficolta' clinica per la corretta diagnosi. Lo studio e' stato condotto su sette pazienti che lamentavano dolore al retropiede da piu' di quattro mesi (maschi/femmine=1/6), con eta' compresa tra 16 e 22 anni (eta' media 18,6 anni); 3/7 praticavano attivita' agonistica sportiva, 4/7 danza classica. In 2/7 pazienti l'os trigonum presentava margini irregolari con sclerosi subcondrale e ampliamento della sincondrosi. In 3/7 pazienti e' stata documentata tenosinovite del tendine flessore lungo dell'alluce causata verosimilmente dalla sua compressione e spostamento all'interno della propria guaina, senza ne' alterazione dell'intensita' di segnale dell'os trigonum, ne' ampliamento della sincondrosi. In 1/7 pazienti sono stati rilevati ipertrofia dell'os trigonum, modico ampliamento della sincondrosi e segni importanti di edema midollare nell'os trigonum e nel processo posteriore dell'astragalo. In 1/7 pazienti, pur in presenza di os trigonum rilevato all'esame radiologico tradizionale, l'esame RM non ha documentato alcuno dei segni da riferire a sindrome dell'os trigonum: la diagnosi definitiva e' stata tendinite achillea. La RM e' l'unica metodica che fornisce importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento dei tessuti molli, della superficie condro-ossea e sulle reazioni sinoviali riuscendo percio' a dimostrare chiaramente l'eventuale coesistente tenosinovite del tendine flessore lungo dell'alluce ed inoltre provvedendo a fornire informazioni dettagliate per il corretto approccio terapeutico. In conclusione, nell'ambito delle malattie dolorose del retropiede da cause ossee, laddove si sospetti clinicamente la sindrome dell'os trigonum, la non invasivita' della RM

  18. Atlas of the Baltic languages: plant names of Slavonic origin

    Ilga Jansone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atlas of the Baltic Languages: Plant Names of Slavonic OriginThe article investigates Slavonic-derived plant names in dialects of the two surviving Baltic languages – Latvian and Lithuanian. Historically, these Slavonisms were originally adopted by small-scale regional dialects, which are now disappearing. In 2009, a pilot study for the Atlas of the Baltic Languages was published. It comprised 12 geo-linguistic maps with Latvian, Lithuanian and English commentaries. 2012 saw the publication, in CD format, of the Atlas’s first volume: Lexis 1: Flora. The material analysed concerns names for: (1 wild plants, e.g., cornflower, nettle, waybread, milfoil, dandelion, plantain; (2 cultivated plants, e.g., onion, potatoe, garlic, cucumber, Swedish turnip, [winter] wheat; (3 trees (juniper, hazel-tree, pear-tree, plum-tree, cherry-tree, etc. and words related to a tree (top of the tree, cone, etc..Borrowed plant names can generally be grouped as follows: 1. Common borrowings located in a wide area in Lithuania and used all over Eastern part of Latvia – the region of Latgale. These usually denote fruits and vegetables, e.g. the potatoe (Solanum tuberosum – Latv. buļve and its variants, buļba and variants, uļbiks / Lith. bulvė and variants, bulbė and variants; or garlic – casnags, casnāgs and variants / Lith. česnākas, šešnākas and variants. 2. Common borrowings located in wide area in Lithuania and used in some subdialects in Latgale, e.g. Lith. vosilka / Lat. Vasilka ‘cornflower (Centaurea cyanus’; Lith. kriváunykas and variants / Lat. kravavņiks and variants ‘yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.’. 3. Slavonisms whose origin differs in Latvian and in Lithuanian, e.g. Lat. klevers (< Russ. клевер, Bel. dialectal клéвер, клевiр / Lith. kaniušina < Bel. канюшына, Pol. koniczyna for ‘clover (Trifolium’.The Atlas of the Baltic Languages, reflecting the language contacts, could be an important source