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Sample records for achieving industrial safety

  1. Industrial Education Safety Guide.

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…

  2. Study of industry safety management

    This book deals with general remarks, industrial accidents, statistics of industrial accidents, unsafe actions, making machinery and facilities safe, safe activities, having working environment safe, survey of industrial accidents and analysis of causes, system of safety management and operations, safety management planning, safety education, human engineering such as human-machines system, system safety, and costs of disaster losses. It lastly adds individual protective equipment and working clothes including protect equipment for eyes, face, hands, arms and feet.

  3. Leadership for safety: industrial experience

    Flin, R; Yule, S

    2004-01-01

    The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership research with possible application in health care was undertaken. Emerging findings show the importance of participative, transformational ...

  4. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  5. Leadership for safety: industrial experience.

    Flin, R; Yule, S

    2004-12-01

    The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership research with possible application in health care was undertaken. Emerging findings show the importance of participative, transformational styles for safety performance at all levels of management. Transactional styles with attention to monitoring and reinforcement of workers' safety behaviours have been shown to be effective at the supervisory level. Middle managers need to be involved in safety and foster open communication, while ensuring compliance with safety systems. They should allow supervisors a degree of autonomy for safety initiatives. Senior managers have a prime influence on the organisation's safety culture. They need to continuously demonstrate a visible commitment to safety, best indicated by the time they devote to safety matters. PMID:15576692

  6. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  7. FOOD SAFETY IN CATERING INDUSTRY

    P. Cattaneo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Catering industry plays a very important role in public health management, because about 30% of total daily meals are consumed in catering industry (restaurants, bar. In this work food safety was evaluated in 20 catering centres throughout microbiological analyses of different categories of meals. Results demonstrate that there was an important decrease of microbial contamination between 2006 and 2007, no pathogens were found in 217 samples examined: this was obtained by improving voluntary controls.

  8. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    Peter McDermotti; Malik Khalfan

    2012-01-01

    The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM) philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has respo...

  9. Safety Management Analysis In Construction Industry

    T. Subramani; R. Lordsonmillar

    2014-01-01

    The Indian society and economy have suffered human and financial losses as a result of the poor safety record in the construction industry. The purpose of this study is to examine safety management in the construction industry. The study will collects data from general contractors, who are involved in major types of construction. Collected data include information regarding organizational safety policy, safety training, safety meetings, safety equipment, safety inspections, sa...

  10. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    400 μSv average for industrial radiographers in a developed country such as the United Kingdom (NRPB 2005), it is less than that reported for a developing country such as Iran (AEOI 2004), which is 1650 μSv. Industrial radiography accidents most frequently occur with radiation devices using sealed sources such as iridium 192 and cobalt 60, and not with x-ray generators. In comparison to other countries, the safety record of industrial radiographers as judged by accident data and dose records, places Australia somewhere between that of an advanced country and a developing one. Many of the investigations into accidents in industrial radiography have revealed that their frequency and severity would have been reduced or even eliminated if the persons involved had been better prepared to use the equipment, and better prepared to deal with accident and incident situations. In Australia, there appears to be scope for improvement and standardisation of training in the use of industrial radiography equipment, and more importantly, in the training for response to possible accidents and incidents. A national standard for radiation safety training and assessment should be developed by a competent organisation such as the Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing. It should be incorporated into the Code of Practice or Safety Guide for industrial radiography and adopted by all jurisdictions. The use of a code of safe practice for industrial radiography should continue. The present NH and MRC code is in need of review. Such a review must result in a code and a guideline document which are readily useable by the industry, standardise training in radiation safety, ensure a high level of operational radiation safety and are available for adoption by the various Australian jurisdictions with minimal supplementary local requirements. Copyright (2006) The Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing

  11. Nuclear industry and radioecological safety

    The beginning of XXI century is marked with increasing public concern over impact of man-made activity, including nuclear technologies, on the environment. Currently, the anthropocentric principle is applied in the course of the radioecological safety guaranteeing for the environment, which postulates that human protectability serves as guarantee of the environmental one. However, this principle correctness is called in question recently. The ecocentric principle is proposed as an alternative doctrine, defining balance between human importance and that of any other elements of biota. The system recommended isn't intended for the regulatory standards development yet, because of substantial gaps in scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, renunciation of the anthropocentric principle can result in unwarranted tightened regulatory basis, decreasing of nuclear industry evolution rates, and, consequently, breaching of societal and economical priorities. It is obvious that for the safety guaranteeing, nuclear industry shouldn't stand out against a background of other fields of human activity involved hazard factors. Therefore, new conceptions applying within the regulatory system is to be weighted and exclude formal using of discussion theses. More than semi-centennial experience of the anthropocentric approach applying serves as an evidence of safe protection of ecosystems against radiation exposure that ensures safe ecological development of nuclear power industry and other fields of nuclear technologies application. (author)

  12. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  13. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Second Edition.

    Graham, Charles D., Ed.

    Intended to alert industrial arts teachers, teacher educators, school administrators, and industrial arts supervisors to the importance of a strong safety program, this guide provides the instructional resources for instituting safety instruction in the public schools, for the inservice training of industrial arts teachers, and for the education…

  14. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety I

    Mital, A. (ed.) (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ergonomics Research Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    125 papers are presented under the session headings: industrial ergonomics - programs and applications; applied work physiology; occupational biomechanics; engineering anthropometry; work and protective clothing; hand tools; human-computer interface; theory and practice of industrial safety; human perception and performance; human strengths; industrial noise and vibration; machine guarding and industrial machine safety; manual materials handling; modelling for safety and health; occupational injuries and health problems; policies and standards; quality control and inspection; rehabilitation and designing for the disabled; work duration and fatigue; and work and work place design. Includes papers on static and dynamic back strength of underground coal miners, and slip and fall accidents during equipment maintenance in the surface mining industry.

  15. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  16. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography.

  17. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations for ensuring radiation safety in industrial radiography used in non-destructive testing. This includes industrial radiography work that utilizes X ray and gamma sources, both in shielded facilities that have effective engineering controls and in outside shielded facilities using mobile sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Duties and responsibilities; 3. Safety assessment; 4. Radiation protection programme; 5. Training and qualification; 6. Individual monitoring of workers; 7. Workplace monitoring; 8. Control of radioactive sources; 9. Safety of industrial radiography sources and exposure devices; 10. Radiography in shielded enclosures; 11. Site radiography; 12. Transport of radioactive sources; 13. Emergency preparedness and response; Appendix: IAEA categorization of radioactive sources; Annex I: Example safety assessment; Annex II: Overview of industrial radiography sources and equipment; Annex III: Examples of accidents in industrial radiography

  18. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  19. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Safety.

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended to draw attention to the necessity for safety education in every aspect of industrial arts and to provide resources for upgrading and improving safety instruction in the classroom. It also can be used for inservice training of industrial art teachers and for undergraduate teacher education in Connecticut. Introductory…

  20. Safety Behaviour in the Construction Industry

    MacDonald, Nick; Hrymak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The influences on safety standards and employee safety behaviour was analysed on 18 large construction sites on the island of Ireland. The safety management and documentation of these sites was also analysed. The results are discussed at length together with comprehensive recommendations for the industry.

  1. Safety culture in nuclear industry

    This paper after defining the term safety culture outlines the requirements at various levels of the plant management to ensure that safety culture pervades all activities related to the plant. Techniques are also indicated which can be used to assess the effectiveness of safety culture

  2. Achievable safety of driverless ground vehicles

    Benenson, Rodrigo; Fraichard, Thierry; Parent, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience Safety is an important issue of driverless car. Yet, most current approaches fail to ensure safety even in a fully informed situation. In this paper we discuss how the safety criteria apply when the robot uses its on board sensors to evolve in a environment populated with static and moving obstacles. The sensors can only provide a partial and uncertain knowledge of the surroundings. We show that the usual safety notion does not apply for this relevant case and discus...

  3. Road safety and trade and industry.

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...

  4. Safety applications of computer based systems for the process industry

    Computer based systems, generally referred to as Programmable Electronic Systems (PESs) are being increasingly used in the process industry, also to perform safety functions. The process industry as they intend in this document includes, but is not limited to, chemicals, oil and gas production, oil refining and power generation. Starting in the early 1970's the wide application possibilities and the related development problems of such systems were recognized. Since then, many guidelines and standards have been developed to direct and regulate the application of computers to perform safety functions (EWICS-TC7, IEC, ISA). Lessons learnt in the last twenty years can be summarised as follows: safety is a cultural issue; safety is a management issue; safety is an engineering issue. In particular, safety systems can only be properly addressed in the overall system context. No single method can be considered sufficient to achieve the safety features required in many safety applications. Good safety engineering approach has to address not only hardware and software problems in isolation but also their interfaces and man-machine interface problems. Finally, the economic and industrial aspects of the safety applications and development of PESs in process plants are evidenced throughout all the Report. Scope of the Report is to contribute to the development of an adequate awareness of these problems and to illustrate technical solutions applied or being developed

  5. New Jersey Industrial Arts Education Safety Guide.

    Kobylarz, Joseph D.; Olender, Francis B.

    This guide was developed to assist the teacher in planning, implementing, revising, or improving safety instruction in industrial arts classes in New Jersey, and has as its theme, "Safety Is Everyone's Responsibility." The guide is organized in seven major sections. The first section explains the purpose of the guide, outlines the contents of a…

  6. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  7. Achieving reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analyses

    In the absence of methods that explicitly account for uncertainties, seeking reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analyses can quickly lead to extreme conservatism. The rate of divergence to extreme conservatism is often beyond the expert analysts’ intuitive feeling, but can be demonstrated mathematically. Too much conservatism in addressing the safety of nuclear facilities is not beneficial to society. Using certain properties of lognormal distributions for representation of input parameter uncertainties, example calculations for the risk and consequence of a fictitious facility accident scenario are presented. Results show that there are large differences between the calculated 95th percentiles and the extreme bounding values derived from using all input variables at their upper-bound estimates. Showing the relationship of the mean values to the key parameters of the output distributions, the paper concludes that the mean is the ideal candidate for representation of the value of an uncertain parameter. The mean value is proposed as the metric that is consistent with the concept of reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analysis, because its value increases towards higher percentiles of the underlying positively skewed distribution with increasing levels of uncertainty. Insensitivity of the results to the actual underlying distributions is briefly demonstrated. - Highlights: • Multiple conservative assumptions can quickly diverge into extreme conservatism. • Mathematics and attractive properties provide basis for wide use of lognormal distribution. • Mean values are ideal candidates for representation of parameter uncertainties. • Mean values are proposed as reasonably conservative estimates of parameter uncertainties

  8. Radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

    The use of ionizing radiation, particularly in medicine and industry, is growing throughout the world, with further expansion likely as technical developments result from research. One of the longest established applications of ionizing radiation is industrial radiography, which uses both X radiation and gamma radiation to investigate the integrity of equipment and structures. Industrial radiography is widespread in almost all Member States. It is indispensable to the quality assurance required in modern engineering practice and features in the work of multinational companies and small businesses alike. Industrial radiography is extremely versatile. The equipment required is relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. It may be highly portable and capable of being operated by a single worker in a wide range of different conditions, such as at remote construction sites, offshore locations and cross-country pipelines as well as in complex fabrication facilities. The associated hazards demand that safe working practices be developed in order to minimize the potential exposure of radiographers and other persons who may be in the vicinity of the work. The use of shielded enclosures (fixed facilities), with effective safety devices, significantly reduces any radiation exposures arising from the work. This Safety Report summarizes good and current state of the art practices in industrial radiography and provides technical advice on radiation protection and safety. It contains information for Regulatory Authorities, operating organizations, workers, equipment manufacturers and client organizations, with the intention of explaining their responsibilities and means to enhance radiation protection and safety in industrial radiography

  9. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety II

    Das, B. (ed.) (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.

  10. A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    Since the end of the 50's, research has been ongoing in France to immobilize High Level Waste into a stable and durable waste form. Very early, borosilicate glass was selected as the best compromise between technological feasibility and long term performance. In parallel, the first developments were initiated to design a robust technology able to produce this waste form in the very demanding environment of High Level Waste industrial facilities. These developments led to the start-up of the first industrial HLW vitrification facility based on a calciner and a hot, induction-heated, metallic crucible, at Marcoule (AVM) in 1978. Based on the lessons learned from operating this facility, the technology was further improved to be compatible with a large commercial facility. The R7 facility came into active operation at La Hague, France, in 1989, followed very closely by the WVP facility in Sellafield, UK, which uses the same core technology, and then by the sister facility of R7, T7, which was started in 1992 at La Hague. Since then, these facilities have been operated continuously, while implementing improvements all along their operation life. In parallel, and in order to deal with new waste streams and new industrial requirements, a technology based on cold crucible induction melter was developed and finally implemented in one of the R7 lines in 2010. In parallel with the development of the technology, a specific waste form, the R7T7 glass, was designed, tested, and qualified for this application. The resulting product is a good compromise between industrial feasibility in the technology, flexibility towards waste composition and fuel burn-up evolutions, long term behavior in geological disposal conditions, and waste volume optimization to minimize the burden on the overall glass product management chain, from interim storage to transportation and geological disposal. The paper will describe the technology and logic of these developments, the lessons learned from

  11. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  12. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  13. A REVIEW ON INDUSTRIAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

    Patel Govind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Progress of the industrial safety and occupational health movements in the United States toward their common goal of protecting the physical welfare of workers is discussed in this article. When these activities and workmen's compensation began, about a half century ago, it was anticipated that they would be "complementary and mutually sustaining." Besides presenting historical accounts of the safety and health movements, the authors evaluate the current problems and relationships among safety, health, and compensation activities. This article constitutes part of a broader study by the authors to be published under the title "Workmen's Compensation and Occupational Disability." (Author's abstract courtesy EBSCO. This Article will examine that historical perspective, covering both state and federal law, and will comprehensively detail the current law relating to occupational safety and health in the State of Washington.

  14. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  15. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  16. Improving labor safety in the petroleum industry

    Khobot' ko, V.I.; Nugayev, R.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    A principal problem when creating new techniques and technology is development of optimal interaction in the man-machine-environment interface to eliminate accidents. In the oil and gas industry, this is solved by development of a single management document for ergonomic norms and standard level requirements, as well as establishing a standard safety system. To give production manager greater responsibility for safety, implementation of a ''Single operating system for creation of safe working conditions'' has been initiated.

  17. High safety in the mining industry

    1987-08-01

    Presents an interview in question and answer format with the deputy chairman of Gosgortekhnadzor (Committee for Supervision of Industrial Work Safety and Mining Supervision) in which he discusses two recent fatal accidents in the Yasinovskaya-Glubokaya and Chaikino coal mines and identifies areas where safety needs to be improved (more automation, protective devices, ventilation etc.). Discusses the particular problems involved with deep mining (20% of mines are now deeper than 700 m and 27 mines are deeper than 1000 m), such as fires, dust, methane, rock falls, insufficient maintenance and strata control and poor ventilation. Confirms that a large number of accidents is due to poor organization and stresses the fact the coal industry must be subjected to perestroika (restructuring) as much as other areas of society.

  18. Managing knowledge to improve industrial safety

    Debray, Bruno; Abou Assali, Amjad; Lenne, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to manage risks and maintain industrial safety is largely based on the capacity of various actors to acquire, maintain and share knowledge on a large variety of subjects. The actors are, of course, the plant operator but also the employees, the competent authorities, the external maintenance teams or internal or external experts in charge of risk assessment and design of risk management. The knowledge ranges from the regulatory framework to the details of a machine or a process b...

  19. A simple approach to industrial laser safety.

    Lewandowski, Michael A; Hinz, Michael W

    2005-02-01

    Industrial applications of lasers include marking, welding, cutting, and other material processing. Lasers used in these ways have significant power output but are generally designed to limit operator exposure to direct or scattered laser radiation to harmless levels in order to meet the Federal Laser Product Performance Standard (21CFR1040) for Class 1 laser products. Interesting challenges occur when companies integrate high power lasers into manufacturing or process control equipment. A significant part of the integration process is developing engineering and administrative controls to produce an acceptable level of laser safety while balancing production, maintenance, and service requirements. 3M Company uses a large number of high power lasers in numerous manufacturing processes. Whether the laser is purchased as a Class 1 laser product or whether it is purchased as a Class 4 laser and then integrated into a manufacturing application, 3M Company has developed an industrial laser safety program that maintains a high degree of laser safety while facilitating the rapid and economical integration of laser technology into the manufacturing workplace. This laser safety program is based on the requirements and recommendations contained in the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1. The fundamental components of the 3M program include hazard evaluation, engineering, administrative, and procedural controls, protective equipment, signs and labels, training, and re-evaluation upon change. This program is implemented in manufacturing facilities and has resulted in an excellent history of laser safety and an effective and efficient use of laser safety resources. PMID:15654241

  20. Safety and performance achievement of Indian nuclear power plant

    Full text: The Nuclear power programme in India at present is based mainly on series of pressurized heavy water reactor(PHWR). Starting from Rajesthan atomic power station comprising two unit of 200 MWe in 1973, the programme has come a long way with 17 units in operation includes two unit of 540 MWe at Turapur 3 and 4. Narora atomic power station commissioned in 1991 marked major indigenization and standardization of PHWR design. Which includes, double containment of reactor building, two diverse reactor protection system and emergency core cooling system. Further in 540 MWe at Tarapur, the safety systems have been divided into two groups to the extent possible. These groups are physically separated so that any common mode incident either inside or outside the reactor building would nor disabled more than one of these groups. Each group of safety system should meet the requirements of shutdown the reactor , remove decay heat from the fuel subsequent to shutdown, prevent any subsequent escalation of failures, minimize the escape of radioactivity, supply necessary information to the operators for assesment of the state of the plant. Group-1 is first line of defense safety systems i.e. Shut Down System-1 (SDS-1), Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and all process water systems including shutdown cooling. Group-2 is the second safety systems i.e. Shut Down System-2 (SDS-2), containment isolation, Moderator cooling, Emergency water supply (fire fighting water with diesel driven pump) through Steam Generator. Status of the plant is monitored and controlled from Main Control Room (MCR) and it is done from supplementary control room in case of emergency. Each safety system is designed to achieve unavailability of 10-3 year/year or less. Indian nuclear power plant progressively attained excellent operation performance comparable to international benchmark with sustained efforts in operation and maintenance, development and nurturing of qualified human resources at

  1. Trends in Area of Safety Communications within Industrial Networks

    Maria Franekova; Ales Janota; Karol Rastocny

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems of safety communication in industrial networks for purpose of assurance of functional safety. It is intents on analysis of treats on industry networks and there is described recommended safety protections and their location into layer communication protocol applicable in fieldbus network, which they are used within safety critical processes control.

  2. Achievements and challenges of Space Station Freedom's safety review process

    Robinson, David W.

    1993-01-01

    The most complex space vehicle in history, Space Station Freedom, is well underway to completion, and System Safety is a vital part of the program. The purpose is to summarize and illustrate the progress that over one-hundred System Safety engineers have made in identifying, documenting, and controlling the hazards inherent in the space station. To date, Space Station Freedom has been reviewed by NASA's safety panels through the first six assembly flights, when Freedom achieves a configuration known as Man Tended Capability. During the eight weeks of safety reviews spread out over a year and a half, over 200 preliminary hazard reports were presented. Along the way NASA and its contractors faced many challenges, made much progress, and even learned a few lessons.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Slobodan Radosavljević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Global dynamics of the technological changes creates a need for modern approaches while evaluating and analysing the risk in the mining industry. Analysing and managing technical systems in the mining industry is a key factor concerning the quality of their functioning. Dependability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can contribute substantially to the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the mining technological systems. Besides applying adequate technology, organizing and harmonizing the system links among various structures and standardization is of the great importance in achieving business goals. The choice and use of the optimal solutions in the analysis ought to recognize, anticipate, forestall, reduce, and minimize the risk and possible destructive applications. The mining industry production practice recognizes the need for the strategy of organizational and process redesigning as well as raising this issue to the level of the other managing functions of the company. A realistic view of the present state in the risk analysis shows the need for the rapid transformation in the mining industry. The study puts forward a proposal for the possible approaches and improvement relating to the following and implementing modern, standardized world trends, (models and methods concerning the analysis of the technical and occupational safety risk in some of the basic processes in the mining industry.

  4. Safety Management Practices in the Bhutanese Construction Industry

    Kin Dorji; Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

    2006-01-01

    The construction industry is considered as one of the most hazardous industrial sectors wherein the construction workers are more prone to accidents. In developed countries such as United Kingdom and United States of America, there is strict legal enforcement of safety in the construction industry and also in the implementation of safety management systems which are designed to minimize or eliminate accidents at work places. However, occupational safety in construction industry is very poor i...

  5. Days on safety of industrial radiographic controls

    This program is divided in three parts: the context and the regulations, the preparation and the implementation, the tools of prevention and the initiatives and the perspectives.In the first part devoted to the context and regulation are: the context by the Authority of nuclear safety (A.S.N.), the regulation referential, the transport of gamma-graphs; in the second part are the distribution of liabilities, materials and associated requirements, the feedback of incidents and exploitation of it, training and base requirements, works of S.F.R.P./C.O.F.R.E.N.D. and the A.S.N. position; the third part includes help to evaluation of risks at working places of industry radiologists, dosimetry study of a working place, guide to evaluate oneself; the fourth part devoted to the initiatives and the perspectives are: regional experiences charters of good practices in industry radiography, integration of works and deployment by the members of the C.O.F.R.E.N.D., perspectives in matter of prevention of occupational risks in the area of industry radiography. (N.C.)

  6. Heuristics and ontologies as keys to enter complex organisational systems : virtual reality (VR) applications to improve industrial safety

    Affeltranger, Bastien; Plot, Emmanuel; Debray, Bruno; Le Cardinal, Gilles; Camus, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience A major issue in industrial safety is that different stakeholders, namely those involved in the generation, mitigation and monitoring of industrial risks (both occupational and of major accidents), develop different perceptions of what industrial safety is, or how it should be achieved. Because they differ, these representations generate likewise different analyses and assessments of industrial safety features and levels. When diverging, such risk perceptions can be ...

  7. Efforts and achievements of nuclear safety operation in ROC

    This paper depicts the efforts and achievements of nuclear safety operation in ROC in the areas of raising nuclear power plant safety, stability, operation convenience and personnel qualifications. First of all, a brief explanation is given on the promotion of nuclear safety through the experience of operating the three nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Secondly, a description about the improvement of power plant operating stability is presented. Thirdly, efforts are mentioned for the promotion of operating convenience in the following three aspects: optimized regulation rules, dedication for the commercial grade items, and the establishment of good practice cases. Finally, the presentation is targeted on the technical skill promotion for all the personnel engaged in the nuclear power plant operation. Solid evidences in this area are: establishing the training center for the NPP maintenance, revising the specification for the operator license renewal, strengthening the audits and regulations on personnel training, and conducting various nuclear safety symposiums. No significant incident or safety violation has ever been occurred from the six operating units in Taiwan that have accumulated nearly 80 reactor years of operating experience so far. Certainly, small number of mild incidents, such as reactor scrams have occurred in the past. Take 1995 operating records for example, each unit has reached the capacity of at least 80%, yearly scram rate has been averaged to 1.3 times, which is less than the target number of 1.5 times, reliability of the fuel rod has been 100%, the number of the reportable events record has been reduced constantly. All these achievements explain the above efforts and solid acts have resulted in good measures. Many operating and maintenance systems have been established step by step at each nuclear power plant. These efforts really form a good environment to ensure the nuclear safety and raise the operation targets. (J.P.N.)

  8. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  9. Quality and safety in the palestinian construction industry

    Enshassi, Adnan; Choudhry, Rafiq; Abualqumboz, Moheeb

    2009-01-01

    Construction industry is one of the largest and most important industries in Palestine. Quality and safety in the industry still suffers from ignorance and lack of supervision and accident rate on construction projects is very high. The objective of this paper is to identify the quality and safety factors that relate to safety, and determine their relative importance as perceived by contractors to help reduction of accidents. A survey was conducted by using a 55 item questionnaire which was g...

  10. Safety engineering achievements in handling casks at La Hague

    Interest is focused on safety aspects of some new trends in commercial fuel reprocessing plants at La Hague. The first is the dry cask unloading, unique in size, avoiding several meters height handling and associated risks. Moreover, improvements were introduced about contamination retention, effluent decrease and contact work time, resulting in lower operators' doses. Extensive use of standard equipment, whose replacement using a special cask is foreseen as a common maintenance operation, is another major improvement for an industrial process, increasing plant availability with low personal doses compared to contact intervention. Associated crane use led to systematic studies of falling accidents and, where necessary, improved reliability crane design. It has been shown that the design and quality of corresponding elements is such that the prevention of risk is sufficient to reach a high level of safety. 1 fig

  11. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Industries and Occupations

    ... Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH Industries & Occupations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Agriculture Aircrew Safety & Health Body Art Center for Workers Compensation Studies (CWCS) Cleaning and ...

  12. Safety in Rubber Industry Workplaces European Experiences

    Claudio Celeta

    2011-01-01

    In Europe,since many years,safety in workplaces has been one of the main priorities for authorities and enterprises.European authorities have arranged a set of standards and rules,so that this target is achieved and maintained as far as possible.In particular,the so-called Machinery Directive has a considerable importance.Its first edition was published in the Official Journal of the European Community in 1989 and has been continuously updated up to the edition actually in force,published in 2006. The Machinery Directive provides that different risks shall be considered when designing and manufacturing a machine,such as sources of energy,static electricity,high temperature,explosive materials and chemical reactions,noise,vibrations,powders and gases,assembling errors etc.

  13. The achievement and assessment of safety in systems containing software

    In order to establish confidence in the safe operation of a reactor protection system, there is a need to establish, as far as it is possible, that: (i) the algorithms used are correct; (ii) the system is a correct implementation of the algorithms; and (iii) the hardware is sufficiently reliable. This paper concentrates principally on the second of these, as it applies to the software aspect of the more accurate and complex trip functions to be performed by modern reactor protection systems. In order to engineer safety into software, there is a need to use a development strategy which will stand a high chance of achieving a correct implementation of the trip algorithms. This paper describes three broad methodologies by which it is possible to enhance the integrity of software: fault avoidance, fault tolerance and fault removal. Fault avoidance is concerned with making the software as fault free as possible by appropriate choice of specification, design and implementation methods. A fault tolerant strategy may be advisable in many safety critical applications, in order to guard against residual faults present in the software of the installed system. Fault detection and removal techniques are used to remove as many faults as possible of those introduced during software development. The paper also discusses safety and reliability assessment as it applies to software, outlining the various approaches available. Finally, there is an outline of a research project underway in the UKAEA which is intended to assess methods for developing and testing safety and protection systems involving software. (author)

  14. Safety analyse of cryptography protocol used within safety-related control systems in industry

    Franeková, Mária; Fedor KÁLLAY; Kurytnik, Igor Piotr

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the possibilities of solution safety communication within area of safety-related control industry system are summarised with using cryptography techniques. Requirements to safety are based on generic standard for functional safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic (E/E/PE) systems IEC 61508 and standards, which define safety and security profiles in industrial network used in measurement and control systems. In mainly part of paper the model of safe...

  15. Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks

    Reniers, Genserik

    2013-01-01

    Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park.   By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations.   Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...

  16. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  17. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  18. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Mária FRANEKOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the number of safety – related products is increasing, e. g. safety Fieldbus, safety PLC, safety curtains, safety laser scanners, safety buttons, safety relays and other. According to world survey the safety Fieldbus denoted the highest growth from all manufactured safety products.The main part of this paper is the description of the safety-related Fieldbus communication system, which has to guaranty Safety Integrity Level.

  19. Safety approaches in hazardous non-nuclear industries and their relation to nuclear safety

    Several industries present major accident hazards: nuclear, chemical, explosive, natural gas, and the various forms of transportation of their product and waste. Natural events present similar or greater potential for disaster. When the sizes and likelihoods of the accidents in question are compared there is often found to be a large gap between the public perception and political acceptability of the hazards in question, and their relative real significance or probability. A variety of regulatory agencies have developed, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, to control such hazards. The UK chemical industry uses a variety of techniques including simple hazard identification, engineering codes and standards, HAZOP, event and fault-tree analysis, consequence or risk quantification. The multistage safety acceptance procedures used by a few chemical companies are similar in concept to the stages of the licensing procedure used in the UK for nuclear power stations. UK regulatory regimes for the nuclear and chemical industry are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are discussed. The need for sample inspection is noted. The question of performance targets is considered. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is currently under scrutiny. PSA is a useful tool, which enables comparisons to be made between levels of safety achievable by different means or in different situations. It assumes assurance of reasonable standards of operation and care. It may seem attractive as a basis for regulatory control, but it should be applied only as an aid to judgement. An example is given of the use by the Health and Safety Executive of quantitative risk criteria for advice on the siting of buildings near chemical major hazards. The presentation of risk information to the public is discussed. The Health and Safety Commission's general policy on access to information is described. 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended

  1. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed.

  2. Preliminary study on improving safety culture in Malaysian nuclear industries

    This paper presents preliminary study on safety culture and its implementation in Malaysian nuclear industries by realizing the importance of safety culture; identification of important safety culture attributes; safety culture assessment and the practices to incorporate the identified safety culture attributes in organization. The first section of this paper explains the terms and definitions related to safety culture. Second, for the realization of importance of safety culture in organization, the international operational experiences emphasizing the importance of safety culture are described. Third, important safety culture attributes which are frequently cited in literature are provided. Fourth, methods to assess safety culture in operating organization are described. Finally, the practices to enhance the safety culture in an organization are discussed

  3. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1977

    Progress is reported on the following: radiation monitoring with regard to personnel monitoring and health physics instrumentation; environs surveillance with regard to atmospheric monitoring, water monitoring, radiation background measurements, and soil and grass samples; radiation and safety surveys with regard to laboratory operations monitoring, radiation incidents, and laundry monitoring; industrial safety and special projects with regard to accident analysis, disabling injuries, and safety awards

  4. Behavioral Safety in the Food Services Industry: Challenges and Outcomes

    Lebbon, Angela; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; Austin, John

    2012-01-01

    During the course of a 6-year behavioral safety consult at a food and drink industry site, data were collected on the number of Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordable incidents, number of lost and restricted days, and number of peer safety observations. Employees were trained to identify safe and unsafe behavior, conduct peer…

  5. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES IN VICTORIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, AUSTRALIA

    M. Asad, Abdurrahman

    2010-01-01

    The construction industry has one of the highest injury ratios of all Australian industries. Individuals employed on the construction industries find themselves confronted with dangerous and life-threatening work conditions. However, it appears that the trend in Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) performance of construction industry has improved consistently compared with the other industries. The enforcement of OHS law and regulation, and the outcome of authority function to assist and pro...

  6. Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: a dominance analysis.

    Morrow, Stephanie L; McGonagle, Alyssa K; Dove-Steinkamp, Megan L; Walker, Curtis T; Marmet, Matthew; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2010-09-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to confirm a relationship between employee perceptions of psychological safety climate and safety behavior for a sample of workers in the rail industry and (2) to explore the relative strengths of relationships between specific facets of safety climate and safety behavior. Non-management rail maintenance workers employed by a large North American railroad completed a survey (n=421) regarding workplace safety perceptions and behaviors. Three facets of safety climate (management safety, coworker safety, and work-safety tension) were assessed as relating to individual workers' reported safety behavior. All three facets were significantly associated with safety behavior. Dominance analysis was used to assess the relative importance of each facet as related to the outcome, and work-safety tension evidenced the strongest relationship with safety behavior. PMID:20538102

  7. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  8. Evaluation Indicator System for China’s Agricultural Industrial Safety

    Qingpeng; GAO; Bin; CHEN; Qinyang; LI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of new characteristics and trend of China’s agricultural development in the post-WTO period,combining analysis of factors influencing agricultural industrial safety,this paper builds an evaluation indicator system for China’s agricultural industrial safety by scientific indicator system design method.This indicator system includes risk factor indicators(showing risk degree)and capacity factor indicators(showing guaranteeing ability),and consists of 7 subsystems:consumption safety,production safety,industrial controlling capacity,industrial development capacity,industrial development environment,government functions and industrial foundation condition.Risk factor is divided into 5 levels:higher risk,high risk,medium risk,low risk and lower risk;guarantee risk is also divided into five levels:strong,healthy,normal,weak and disabled.According to the overall evaluation score obtained from weighting sum,the agricultural industrial safety includes 5 types:very safe,safe,basically safe,not safe and hazardous.This evaluation indicator system is expected to providing theoretical reference for evaluating China’s agricultural industrial safety.

  9. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view

  10. Safety of Nanotechnology in Food Industries

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Gilaki, Marzieh; Karchani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of nanotechnology in various industries has been so rapid and widespread because of its wide-ranging applications in our daily lives. Nutrition and food service is one of the biggest industries to be affected by nanotechnology in all areas, changing even the nature of food itself. Whether it’s farming, food packaging, or the prevention of microbial contamination the major food industries have seen dramatic changes because of nanotechnology. Different nanomaterials such as nanopowd...

  11. Health and safety record of the nuclear industry

    This paper examines the claim of the nuclear industry to have an excellent safety record, in terms of health and accident records of workers in the industry. It does not consider accidents which have not resulted in harm to the workers' health. The nuclear industry is considered to include all work with ionising radiations and radioactive materials, in education, research, medicine and industry. Since 'safety' is not an absolute concept, comparisons are made with the published records of other industries, and a study is made of the performance of the nuclear industry in relation to its own safety criteria. Data are presented on the radiation exposure of nuclear workers in Europe, America, India and Australia, in relation to the internationally recommended limits, and there is some discussion of the risks involved in these limits. The death rate in parts of the nuclear industry in America, the United Kingdom, and Australia is presented and compared with the death rate for other industries in those countries, and a listing is made of deaths caused by radiation in the period 1945 to 1968. Injury rates for the US and Australian nuclear industries are also compared with the injury rates for other industries in these countries. Consideration is given to the safety record of individual components of the nuclear industry (using the wide definition of this industry given above), special attention being given to health records of uranium miners, plutonium workers and radiologists. Although there are difficulties in obtaining sufficiently detailed information of this kind it is considered that the data presented, relative to any reasonable standard, demonstrate that the nuclear industry has a safety record to be proud of. (author)

  12. Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry

    Grill, Martin; Grytnes, Regine; Törner, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent high accident rates in the construction industry motivate research to improve the understanding of underlying factors affecting safety behaviour and safety outcomes. The Scandinavian countries of Sweden and Denmark are culturally similar but with a considerable difference in...... accidents rates, especially in construction, and as such offer an opportunity to explore organizational and managerial issues related to safety outcomes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with five construction managers and four construction workers in Danish and Swedish construction...... industry. The transcripts were analysed using semantic thematic analysis. Results: Seven safety related themes were distinguished, conveying safety culture differences between Swedish and Danish construction industry concerning: participatory or directive management; challenge or obey; compliance or non...

  13. Principles and methods of securing industrial ecological safety

    П. Г. Белов; Ю. Ф. Запорожченко

    1999-01-01

    Proposed is classification of risks, determined is regularity and factors of technogenic acci­dents, proposed is energoentropic concept of technogenic risks, considered are the principles and methods of securing industrial and ecologic safety

  14. Belarus: Achieving safety at radon type waste disposal facilities

    (spent seal radioactive sources) storage. The experience of Belarus outlined above has demonstrated that improving the safety of existing facilities may prove to be a much more complex task than had initially been expected. Remaining issues are public perception of the presence of extra fractions of a emitters in near surface repositories, technical procedures for safe retrieval and sorting of waste, selection of a solution to achieve safety of the existing design wells and long term safety considerations (existing facilities should be upgraded so as not to create future problems)

  15. Safety culture and safety management within the Norwegian-controlled shipping industry ; State of art, interrelationships, and influencing factors

    Oltedal, Helle Asgjerd

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses attention on safety challenges within the Norwegian shipping industry. A status picture of the shipboard safety culture and the interrelationships with safety management and organizational factors is given. Three research questions are explored: (1) What characterizes safety culture and safety management within the shipping industry? (2) What is the relationship between safety culture and safety performance within the shipping industry? (3) What charact...

  16. Safety and Health Division achievements during 40 years

    During her speech, presenter outlined several issues regarding on establishment of Safety and Health Division since 40 years. This division contain of 3 sub unit; Physical Safety Group, Medical Physic Group and Non-ionizing Radiation group (NIR). The objectives of this division to implement R and D activities and services regarding safety and radiological health also non-radiological to ensure public safety, environment and asset suit with obligations established by authorities, IAEA standards and regulations.(author)

  17. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1977

    Auxier, J.A.; Davis, D.M.

    1978-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following: radiation monitoring with regard to personnel monitoring and health physics instrumentation; environs surveillance with regard to atmospheric monitoring, water monitoring, radiation background measurements, and soil and grass samples; radiation and safety surveys with regard to laboratory operations monitoring, radiation incidents, and laundry monitoring; industrial safety and special projects with regard to accident analysis, disabling injuries, and safety awards. (HLW)

  18. Role of industry in the environmental health and safety aspects of the developing Plowshare industry

    lt is first pointed out that no person or organization has a more vital interest in the early establishment of an effective health and safety program within which commercial operations based on Plowshare technology can be carried on with assurance than does that facet of industry which is directly involved in the attempt to prove out these Plowshare applications. The formulation of such a code must be a matter of the highest priority to all concerned. To accomplish this task successfully, however, requires the exercise of a truly hard-nosed objectivity both on the part of the Governmental agencies who bear statutory responsibility for ensuring the public health and safety and also on that of the industrial groups who are trying to realize the significant economic potentials inherent in the Plowshare technology. While it is abundantly clear that achievement of a sound and reliable public health and safety code is imperative for both regulatory agencies and operating industry, it must also be recognized that both groups serve the inescapable additional responsibility of acting as the public's trustees to assure the healthy development of a new technology which may well prove to be of vital importance to the Nation. The basic nature of the joint operating procedure required in order to provide an effective way of fulfilling these common obligations is then examined. The discussion then turns to the present stage of the developmental progress of the potential Plowshare industry. Scientific breakthrough has long since been accomplished and scientific feasibility has been quite generally proven. For a number of important possible applications even technological feasibility has been established. In these cases the demonstration of economic feasibility and the attainment of public acceptance are the two factors that still remain to be achieved before a full-fledged if still infant industry becomes a reality. Industry alone is capable of determining economic feasibility. It

  19. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Franeková, Mária

    2008-01-01

    The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the n...

  20. Biosensor: an emerging safety tool for meat industry.

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jairath, Gauri; Ahlawat, Satyavir Singh; Pathera, Ashok; Singh, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    The meat industry associated with the health hazards like deadly pathogens, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, toxins and heavy metals is in need of a tool to tackle the awful situation and ensure safer product to consumer. The growth in the industry, global trade scenario, stringent laws and consumer awareness has placed an extra onus on the meat industry to meet out the expectations and demands. Biosensors are the latest tool of detection in the fast growing industries including the food industry. Hence an attempt is envisaged here to review the possibility of harnessing biosensors as tool of safety to safe guard the consumer health and address safety issues in reference to the common threats of concern in the meat industry. PMID:27413204

  1. Radiation safety in industrial radiography in the Philippines

    The article presents the application of radiography in almost all sectors of the industry from construction stage of plants, in oil and gas, petrochemical and power industry which are the biggest users of radiography. Industrial radiography is being conducted using a set of operational procedures developed by the level 3 radiographer and approved by the Radiological Health and Safety Officer (RHSO) to ensure safe and successful completion of the activity

  2. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  3. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Green, L. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  4. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety.

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients' stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm.If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines-both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  5. A review of crane safety in the construction industry.

    Neitzel, R L; Seixas, N S; Ren, K K

    2001-12-01

    The complex, dynamic, and continually changing nature of construction work has been recognized as an important contributor to the high rates of injuries and fatalities in the industry. Cranes are a central component of many construction operations and are associated with a large fraction of construction deaths; in fact, estimates suggest that cranes are involved in up to one-third of all construction and maintenance fatalities. Safety and health professionals serving the construction industry need adequate training and knowledge regarding available crane safety devices and procedures so that they may insure these techniques are effectively utilized during construction operations. This paper reviews available information on crane-related injuries, currently available safety devices, and commonly used crane safety procedures. Recommendations for improved crane injury prevention and future crane safety research are given. PMID:11783872

  6. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?

  7. Nuclear safety research: responsive industry results

    EPRI's nuclear safety research program made a number of technical advances this past year. EPRI has completed a study of common cause failure, developed software for plant reliability and safety, studied reliability-centered maintenance, studied the consequences of steam generator tube rupture, completed the study of eastern seismic activity, looked at piping design improvements, qualified RETRAN for simulator applications, conducted intermediate-scale molten corium-concrete interaction tests and completed a mechanistic code to calculate core melt. A major owner's group experimental effort on hydrogen combustion has been completed, characterizing hydrogen combustion behavior in BWR6 Mark III containments. Within the US, EPRI is involved in many national and international collaborative efforts such as the TREAT STEP and the MIST B and W tests, the OECD LOFT program and the LACE, ACE, and Marviken aerosol-behavior experimental programs. Also, EPRI is participating the NRC's important Severe Fuel Damage Program. This paper reviews EPRI's nuclear safety research program in the context of this new transitional phase and how it is meeting the everyday challenges of commercial nuclear power. 158 references

  8. Achieving excellence in human performance through leadership, education, and training in nuclear power industry

    Full text: In order to achieve and maintain high levels of safety and productivity, nuclear power plants are required to be staffed with an adequate number of highly qualified and experienced personnel who are duly aware of the technical and administrative requirements for safety and are motivated to adopt a positive attitude to safety, as an element of safety culture. To establish and maintain a high level of human performance, appropriate education and training programmes should be in place and kept under constant review to ensure their relevance. As the nuclear power industry continues to be challenged by increasing safety requirements, a high level of competition and decreasing budgets, it becomes more important than ever to maintain excellence in human performance and ensure that NPP personnel training provides a value to the organization. Nuclear industry managers and supervisors bear the primary responsibility to assure that people perform their jobs safely and effectively. Training personnel must be responsive to the needs of the organization, working hand-in-hand with line managers and supervisors to ensure that human performance improvement needs are properly analyzed, and that training as well as other appropriate interventions are developed and implemented in the most effective and efficient way possible. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with its Member States has provided for coordinated information exchange and developed guidance on methods and practices to identify and improve the effectiveness NPP personnel training. This has resulted in: plant performance improvements, improved human performance, meeting goals and objectives of the business (quality, safety, productivity), and more effective training programs. This article describes the IAEA activities and achievements in the subject area for systematically understanding and improving human performance in nuclear power industry. The article also describes cooperation programmes

  9. Infrastructures for radiation safety in Portugal: Progress achieved and remaining gaps

    Radiation safety in Portugal is ensured through a set of laws establishing the competencies of several government bodies. The central licensing and inspecting body, is currently the Ministry of Health. An independent regulatory authority does not exist. Technical services, expertise and laboratories do exist in the Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (DPRSN), of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN). The spread of competencies over several bodies and the concentration of technical activities at DPRSN prevent an efficient dealing of Radiation Protection matters. Progress in the radiation safety infrastructure was recently achieved with the creation by law at DPRSN of a National Register of Doses, a National Inventory of Radioactive Sources, and a Database for Environmental Radioactivity measurements. However, understaffing of DPRSN is currently a major drawback in safety. Although DPRSN has been able to train a large number of fellows under a national training programme in radiation protection, and with additional support of the IAEA Regional Model Project, most of these trainees are now working as health physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals. National short-term training courses were also organised by DPRSN for professionals in industrial radiography, medical and interventional radiology and basic radiological protection, sometimes with external lecturers supported by the IAEA Regional Model Project. Other courses are planned to ensure education and training in radiation protection and certification of the metrology laboratory, dosimetry and analytical services of DPRSN are underway. (author)

  10. Community Road Safety Initiatives for the Minerals Industry

    Tim Horberry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major companies in the minerals industry are increasingly recognizing that their operations have an impact in the wider community. Regarding transportation issues, this impact extends beyond purely the safety of company vehicle fleets to consideration of Community Road Safety (CRS concerns, which address the driving, walking, and riding practices of community members in a locale with increased heavy vehicle traffic. Our assessment here of national and international trends in approaches to road safety awareness and associated road safety strategies is meant to inform companies in the minerals industry of developments that can influence the design of their road safety initiatives. The review begins by considering the overall road safety context and the dominant “safe systems” framework employed internationally. Thereafter, it considers what is typically included in CRS initiatives for the minerals industry. Three case studies are then presented to highlight approaches that feature exemplary collaboration, design, implementation, or impact. Thereafter, we analyze lessons learnt by key researchers and practitioners in the CRS field. Finally, we conclude that best CRS practices for the minerals industry rely on eleven factors, including for example collaboration with local entities and stepwise implementation.

  11. Promoting safety culture in radiation industry through radiation audit

    This paper illustrates the Malaysian experience in implementing and promoting effective radiation safety program. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. This program is known as radiation safety audit and is able to reveal where and when action is needed to make improvements to the systems of controls. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as the sole requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. As a result safety culture, which has been a vital element on safety in many industries can be improved and promote changes, leading to good safety performance and excellence. (author)

  12. Further activities of safety culture toward nuclear transportation industry

    On September 30, 1999, a criticality accident occurred at the uranium processing facility of the JCO Co. Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as ''JCO'') Tokai plant, located in Tokaimura, Ibaraki Prefecture. This was an unprecedented accident in Japan's history of peaceful use of nuclear power, resulting in three workers exposed to severe radiation, two of whom died, and the evacuation and enforced indoor confinement of local residents. Nuclear power suppliers must take personal responsibility for ensuring safety. In this connection, the electric power industry, heavy electric machinery manufacturers, fuel fabricators, and nuclear power research organizations gathered together to establish the Nuclear Safety Network (NSnet) in December 1999, based on the resolve to share and improve the level of the safety culture across the entire nuclear power industry and to assure that such an accident never occurs again. NSnet serves as a link between nuclear power enterprises, research organizations, and other bodies, based on the principles of equality and reciprocity. A variety of activities are pursued, such as diffusing a safety culture, implementing mutual evaluation among members, and exchanging safety-related information. Aiming to share and improve the safety culture throughout the entire nuclear power industry, NSnet thoroughly implements the principle of safety first, while at the same time making efforts to restore trust in nuclear power

  13. Nuclear safety research: Responsive industry results

    EPRI's nuclear safety research program made a number of technical advances this past year. EPRI has completed a study of common cause failure, developed software for plant reliability and safety, studied reliability-centered maintenance, studied the consequences of steam generator tube rupture, completed the study of eastern United States seismic activity, looked at piping design improvements, qualified RETRAN for simulator applications, conducted intermediate scale molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests, and completed a mechanistic code to calculate core melt. A major owner's group experimental effort on hydrogen combustion has been completed, characterizing hydrogen combustion behavior in BWR6 Mark III containments. Within the United States, EPRI is involved in many national and international collaborative efforts, such as the TREAT STEP and MIST B and W tests, the OECD LOFT program, and the LACE, ACE, and Marviken aerosol behavior experimental programs. The LACE program successfully completed its experiments and is well on its way to completing all associated work shedding important light on aerosol behavior in containment and release from containment. Also, EPRI is participating in NRC's important Severe Fuel Damage Program. (orig./GL)

  14. The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. An instrument to achieve a global safety

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention) is the first legally binding international treaty in the area of radioactive material management. It was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference in September 1997 and opened for signature on 29 September 1997. The Convention entered into force on 18 June 1998, and to date (May 2006) has been ratified by 41 countries. The Joint Convention applies to spent fuel and radioactive waste resulting from civilian application. Its principal aim is to achieve and maintain a high degree of safety in their management worldwide. The Convention is an incentive instrument, not designed to ensure fulfilment of obligations through control and sanction, but by a volunteer peer review mechanism. The obligations of the Contracting Parties are mainly based on the international safety standards developed by the IAEA in past decades. The Convention is of interest of all countries generating radioactive waste. Therefore it is relevant not only for those using nuclear power, but for any country where application of nuclear energy in education, agriculture, medicine and industry is currently used. Obligations of Contracting Parties include attending a Review Meeting held every three years and prepare National Reports for review by the other Contracting Parties. In the National Reports basic information on inventory and facilities for management of radioactive materials has to be provided. Countries with small nuclear power and/or research programs or countries having radioactive materials only from nuclear application on medicine, agriculture or conventional industry, can benefit from the exchange of information and the technical knowledge gained by the reporting procedure set up by the Convention. The second Review Meeting is to be held at IAEA headquarters from 15 to 26 May 2006. This paper presents the objectives and the implementation status of the Convention, the

  15. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42... SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42 Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. The RSO shall ensure that radiation safety...

  16. Probabilistic safety targets in different industrial applications and their comparability

    A survey is given of quantified safety objectives that have developed - for various purposes - in different industry and high-technology sectors (e.g. process and petrochemical industries; nuclear industry, aeronautics; structural applications such as off-shore structures and dams; pharmaceutics and toxic substances) over the past two-decades. In certain cases such objectives are to be regarded as design and operational objectives; in others they are aimed at determining acceptability/tolerability of risks to which individuals or groups of the population are exposed in modern society. Associated to the demonstration of quantified safety objectives are Probabilistic safety/risk analyses at various levels, which implies the resolution of problems related to their validity and uncertainty-bands. Considerations are put forward with regard to the comparability or non-comparability) of several of the objectives that are examined. (author)

  17. Performance indicators for monitoring safety management systems in chemical industry

    M. Jovašević-Stojanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Safety Management System (SMS in chemical industry appears as one of the important requirements introduced by the EU "Seveso II" Directive on the control of major-accident hazards. This paper aims to provide a contribution regarding the SMS structure and the definition of the tools for assessing the effectiveness of this system by means of safety performance indicators. The performance indicators are linked to a reference values or policy targets, illustrating how far the SMS is from the desired level. We developed a system of performance indicators for SMS in chemical industry by using the concept of environmental performance indicators defined in standard ISO 14031. A set of three types of safety system performance indicators was proposed: management performance indicators, operational performance indicators and safety status indicators. These indicators represent the most important factors in the linkage between a possible cause of an accident and its effects.

  18. Safety, reliability and efficiency in the nuclear industry

    This paper reviews the factors which must be taken into consideration if the management of safety in the nuclear industry is to be put on a rational basis. The wealth available in a society depends directly on the man-hour efficiency of its industry. Safety and good living depend on the availability of wealth. Second-order technology requires man-hour input, but the safety component does not add to output and so tends to reduce man-hour efficiency. An optimum combination of net impacts on society-wide safety and good living implies some limit on man-hour expenditure and loss of production arising from attempts to reduce the direct risk

  19. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes. PMID:25269101

  20. Regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning

    A review of regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning is given. It contains licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning; Status and methodology of Mochovce safety analysis report; Mochovce NPP safety enhancement program; Regulatory body policy towards Mochovce NPP safety enhancement; Recent development in Mochovce pre-operational safety enhancement program review and assessment process; Licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning

  1. Implementation of the safety components base on industrial networks

    Michalski, P.; Hetmańczyk, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    Capabilities of modern automation systems, especially in the field of industrial networks applications, encouraging them to favor during the process of developing the automation project [2,3,5]. Extensive network topologies and simplicity and clear structure causing displacement of the classic wiring. The article presents: project workflow for creating laboratory stand based on industrial network and base on it implementing the safety system. The individual steps of the process are described. In addition, the paper presents the main concept for controlling the safety functions of the system.

  2. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  3. Managing for safety and safety culture within the UK nuclear industry. A regulator's perspective

    This paper outlines the basis of the legal system for the regulation of health and safety at work within the United Kingdom (UK), and in particular, the regulation of the nuclear industry. The framework, formulated by the regulator, which has been published as a practical guide for directors, managers, health and safety professionals and employee representatives for the successful management of health and safety is explained. This guidance, however, concentrates, to a large extent, on management systems and only addresses in part the types of issues, such as behaviours, values, attitudes and beliefs which contribute to the safety culture of an organization. The regulator of the UK nuclear industry has considered research, and other work, carried out by several organizations in this area, notably the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and produced its own framework for managing for safety at nuclear installations. As a regulator, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and its inspectorate responsible for regulation of the nuclear industry, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (HMNII), are not the appropriate organization to assess the safety culture of an organization, but positively encourage organizations to both carry out this assessment themselves and to monitor their performance. To this end, HSE has developed, and made available, the Health and Safety Climate Tool which is aimed at providing organizations with information which can be used as part of a continuous improvement process. (author)

  4. Management of health, safety and environment in process industry

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Fiévez, C.; Gerbec, M.;

    2008-01-01

    The present status of industrial HSE management in a number of EU member states is reviewed, with a focus on the integration of health, safety and environment in single management systems. The review provides insight into the standards and paradigms adopted by industry, and it identifies trends and...... needs for improvement. It appears that most industries consider goal-based HSE management programs to be a success and believe them to contribute to the profitability of the industry. We conclude that HSE management would benefit greatly from guidance on how to use existing management systems...... efficiently and also from the further development of meaningful safety performance indicators that identify the conditions prior to accidents and incidents. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Teamwork and Safety in the Maritime Industry: A SWOT Approach

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The past few decades the use of teams has increased, also in complex sociotechnical systems such as the maritime industry. Safety issues involve a wide range of elements, including human factors, and pose a number of challenges to organisations in the shipping industry. The primary aim of this study was to examine the Big Five of teamwork model and its ability to capture teamwork aspects of all kinds of teams, independent of team type, organisational level and domain. The collect...

  6. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Slobodan Radosavljević

    2008-01-01

    Global dynamics of the technological changes creates a need for modern approaches while evaluating and analysing the risk in the mining industry. Analysing and managing technical systems in the mining industry is a key factor concerning the quality of their functioning. Dependability, safety, and maintenance management based on the risk analysis can contribute substantially to the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the mining technological systems. Besides applying adequate technology, o...

  7. Pipe rules: regulators, industry work together to maintain safety

    Budd, G.

    2002-10-01

    Two tragic pipeline explosions in the United States in recent years focused attention on pipeline regulations both in the United States as well as in Canada. In the United States regulations tend to be highly prescriptive, especially in the aftermath of the two explosions. In Canada, there appears to be a sharper focus on the goal of pipeline safety, with regulators encouraging companies to come up with their own set of specifics for achieving it. The Canadian National Energy Board, the regulatory body, places the emphasis on integrity management, encouraging the industry to be more systematic in its approach to the problem. Industry response to the NEB initiative has been positive as shown by the responses of various pipeline and pipeline service companies. For example, NeoCorr Engineering Ltd., produced its web-enabled proprietary software program called OCELOT (online corrosion evaluation tool). The firm has been providing corrosion evaluation, flow modelling and related services for some time; as of this year, the service is also available online. NeoCorr's services are directed to address the technical needs of pipeline operators concerned about quality maintenance in the current non-prescriptive integrity management climate. The system captures all operating data, physical location, shape and terrain of line; these provide the basis for a flow model and a digital pipeline elevation profile. On the basis of this, the process provides information on the likelihood of corrosion and any other integrity issues, which then triggers the maintenance plan that is tailored to the profile. Because the cost of state-of-the-art detection technology is high, small and new companies are often reluctant to avail themselves of these services, but pipelines companies with thousands of flow lines and collectors in service have all the incentive needed to perform maintenance. Improvements in internal logging and crack detection tools also helped to improve attention to

  8. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear power plants. Results achieved

    Three main factors are discussed which affect the safety of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovak conditions. In order to assure the quality of components important for nuclear safety and to maintain it throughout their service life, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission issued a Decree in 1979 whose essence was in that already the safety report should identity components with a view to nuclear safety. Individual programmes of quality assurance are then drawn up for these components. At present, an amendment is being prepared for the Decree. The second factor is the quality of operating personnel of all categories, and especially of the so-called selected categories. In 1979 a unified system was introduced of nuclear power plant personnel training. Since 1984 the training institution has been provided with a full-size simulator. The third factor is the quality of the operation management of the facility, especially as concerns the observance of limits and conditions of safe operation. The respective document has been available for V-213 reactors since 1982, for V-230 units of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice since 1988. A system has been introduced of data collection, evaluation and distribution relating to failures in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants, based on IAEA recommendations. It has a very low threshold for reporting failures so that on average some 80 failures are reported for every operating unit. (Z.M.)

  9. Assessing safety culture and safety performance in a high hazard industry

    Jones, Ceri

    2014-01-01

    In the UK 27 million working days are lost due to work-related illness or injury; at an estimate of £13.4 billion to the economy. Over the last 30 years researchers have examined safety culture and its relationship to poor safety performance. An organisation in the high hazard construction industry wanted to understand the factors that shaped and influenced safety performance and safety culture. This thesis details a research project which addresses that aim. A multi-method, triangulated appr...

  10. Post-Fukushima Probabilistic Safety Enhancements of Industry

    Na, Janghwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hyun-Gyo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nuclear concerned society as well as regulatory agency of Korea also asked several safety measures be included to the existing safety principles. These measures include the post-Fukushima near action items, several mid-long term obligations for severe accidents and rare external hazards which were disregarded due to unlikely event probabilities. This paper illustrates some activities being done or planned in view of probabilistic assessment boundaries; 1) Items currently performed by industry, 2) Regulatory measures which will impact to the industry activities, 3) Activities planned by mid-long bases. After the Fukushima accident, the significance of severe accidents and PSA came to the public as well as the industry itself. Among fifty safety-related plans, in this paper, we showed the implementation strategies and interim insights from LPSD PSA. The plans or activities now underway are further enhancing the safety for operating by introducing PSR and construction plants by inclusion of PSA insights into SAR. The main focus for safety improvement is targeted by not only the hardware improvement, but also systematic structure and effective operational improvement. The results of LPSD PSA implementation strategy will contribute to conforming of regulatory requirement and legislation of PSA which requests the application of extended scope of analysis, new methodology, PSA quality, living PSA through technically sound and application- specific PSA models.

  11. Structural modeling of safety performance in construction industry.

    Yahya Khosravi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid economic development and industrialization, the construction industry continues to rank among the most hazardous industries in the world. Therefore, construction safety is always a significant concern for both practitioners and researchers. The objective of this study was to create a structural modeling of components that influence the safety performance in construction projects.We followed a two-stage Structural Equation Model based on a questionnaire study (n=230. In the first stage, we applied the Structural Equation Model to the proposed model to test the validity of the observed variables of each latent variable. In the next stage, we modified the proposed model. The LISREL 8.8 software was used to conduct the analysis of the structural model.A good-fit structural model (Goodness of Fit Index=0.92; Root Mean Square Residual=0.04; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.04; Comparative Fit Index=0.98; Normalized Fit Index=0.96 indicated that social and organizational constructs influence safety performance via the general component of the safety climate.The new structural model can be used to provide better understanding of the links between safety performance indicators and contributing components, and make stronger recommendations for effective intervention in construction projects.

  12. Post-Fukushima Probabilistic Safety Enhancements of Industry

    Nuclear concerned society as well as regulatory agency of Korea also asked several safety measures be included to the existing safety principles. These measures include the post-Fukushima near action items, several mid-long term obligations for severe accidents and rare external hazards which were disregarded due to unlikely event probabilities. This paper illustrates some activities being done or planned in view of probabilistic assessment boundaries; 1) Items currently performed by industry, 2) Regulatory measures which will impact to the industry activities, 3) Activities planned by mid-long bases. After the Fukushima accident, the significance of severe accidents and PSA came to the public as well as the industry itself. Among fifty safety-related plans, in this paper, we showed the implementation strategies and interim insights from LPSD PSA. The plans or activities now underway are further enhancing the safety for operating by introducing PSR and construction plants by inclusion of PSA insights into SAR. The main focus for safety improvement is targeted by not only the hardware improvement, but also systematic structure and effective operational improvement. The results of LPSD PSA implementation strategy will contribute to conforming of regulatory requirement and legislation of PSA which requests the application of extended scope of analysis, new methodology, PSA quality, living PSA through technically sound and application- specific PSA models

  13. Safety in Trade and Industrial and Technical Education.

    Thomas, John C.

    Intended to serve as a resource guide to assist trade, industrial, and technical teachers in maintaining an effective and efficient safety program, the document does not contain information concerning the many specific operations of the various trades. The materials serve as a background for teachers as they develop their own units of instruction…

  14. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products. When Lundbeck was established in 1915 several Danish medicinal companies, not only the well-known such as Alfred Benzon and Løvens kemiske Fabrik (LEO Pharma), but also Skelskør Frugtplantage, Ferrin and Ferraton, had emerged due to the respective enterprising pharmacy owners who had expanded their traditional pharmacy business and even with commercial success. Other medicinal companies, such as C.R. Evers & Co., Leerbeck & Holms kemiske Fabriker, Chr. F. Petri, Erslevs kemiske Laboratorium, Edward Jacobsen, Th. Fallesen-Schmidt, and yet other companies which were named after the founder had all been established by pharmacists with the primary intention to manufacture and sell medicinal products. Also for the limited companies Medicinalco, Ferrosan, Pharmacia, and GEA the primary task was to manufacture and sell medicinal products, and also in these companies pharmacists were involved in the foundation. Not until 1924, fully 9 years after the foundation, Lundbeck started to be interested in medicinal products and initiated import and sale of foreign medicinal products manufactured by a.o. German and French companies which had not established their own sales companies in Denmark. Almost all contemporary Danish manufacturers of

  15. Achieving excellence in 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation programs

    This paper addresses approaches to upgrading 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation programs. Specific advantages to different approaches and industry trends are identified based on surveys of industry practices conducted by the author and the author's experience in reviewing and upgrading safety evaluation programs. Topics discussed include: identification of need and assignment of responsibility; establishment of policy, including screening proposed changes for applicability, definitions of increased probability, increased consequences, and reduced margin of safety, and responsibility assignment for writing and reviewing safety evaluations; personnel training; and program implementation and monitoring

  16. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  17. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  18. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Adnan Enshassi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and their workers if new workers are trained well in the work site and they are informed about dangerous places, and if a workable safety plan is well preplanned. The results also showed that reported accident rates increased among subcontractors when using old, unsafe equipment and due to the complexity or difficulty in the construction sites features. Owners and general contractors need to stipulate strict clauses for safety in the contract for improving safety record of subcontractors. Construction workers must receive proper job related safety and health training with a safety logbook. It is recommended that the subcontractors and workers should attend continuing safety programs on regular basis as part of their perquisite to work in construction sites.

  19. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    None

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  20. Safety as high and as harmonized as reasonably achievable: Nuclear regulators facing globalization

    The use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation is being extensively scrutinized once again in light of the present debate on its role in sustainable development and on global security problems. Nuclear power is an important feature of today's energy supply. Commercial nuclear generation is a mature, established technology, having accumulated over 40 years of successful operation. Yet nuclear power raises passions as do few other energy issues. Within countries and among them, both support and opposition are strong. Loyola de Palacio, the European Union Commissioner responsible for energy and transport, summed up the dilemma very succinctly: Either we shut down the nuclear sector and give up on Kyoto, or we do not shut down the nuclear sector and we respect Kyoto. It is as simple as that: sometimes you have to put it crudely so that people understand. What is the role of nuclear regulators in this environment? The primary objective of government intervention into nuclear business is to allow humankind to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks emanating from nuclear sciences and their applications. Because both the nuclear power industry and the societal context within which it is regulated are dynamic, regulators must continuously assess their approaches to regulation to best achieve their regulatory mandate. This includes adjusting the boundaries of activity between the plant and the regulator. That is, working out the practical approaches that allow the power reactor operator/owner to achieve and maintain safety while allowing the regulatory body to assure itself and the public that appropriate levels of safety are achieved and maintained

  1. Inter-institutional Cooperation for Achieving Public Order and Safety

    Cristian Gisca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the area governed by the authority of the Romanian state, the public order is part both of the national security and of the European public order. The actions of defining and making clear theconcept of public order drew the attention of many specialists and researchers in the field; therefore, there are countless ways of defining this concept. The spheres of this concept connect continuously to the spheres of other concepts: the state, the executive power, the state of legality, the national dimension of the public order etc. Essentially the public order represents a minimum of important conditions for a convenient social life. Its content varies with the stage of social trust and mirrors the state of legality, equilibrium and social peace, being omnipresent when, according to the Constitution, the order forces ensure the public peace, the safety of person, collectivities and goods, the publichealth and moral principles.

  2. Should healthcare providers do safety cases? Lessons from a cross-industry review of safety case practices

    Sujan, Mark A.; Habli, Ibrahim; Kelly, Tim P.; Pozzi, Simone; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Healthcare organisations are often encouraged to learn from other industries in order to develop proactive and rigorous safety management practices. In the UK safety–critical industries safety cases have been used to provide justification that systems are acceptably safe. There has been growing interest in healthcare in the application of safety cases for medical devices and health information technology. However, the introduction of safety cases into general safety management and re...

  3. Human factor in the problem of Russian nuclear industry safety

    The approach to human factor definition, considered in the paper, consists of recognition of as many as possible factors for developing a complete list of factors, which have influence on mistakes or successful work of NPP personnel. Safety culture is considered as the main factor. The enhancement in nuclear power industry includes an optimization of organizational structures and development of personnel safety attitudes. The organizational factors, as possible root causes for human errors, need to be identified, assessed and improved. The organizational activities taken in Russia are presented

  4. Achieving demand side management through eco-industrial networks

    This Power Point presentation describes the progress made by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) in achieving sustainable development. The GVRD provides regional level infrastructure for drinking water, liquid waste treatment and solid waste management. Member municipalities provide the complementary services to businesses and residents of the communities. Particular emphasis has been given to protecting the green zone, building complete communities, achieving a compact Metropolitain region, and increasing transportation choices. The GVRD has also adopted a Livable Region Strategic Plan (LRSP) which encompasses economic, social and environmental issues. All member municipalities of the GVRD have prepared statements that indicate how their local policies will help achieve the LRSP goals. This presentation also includes a review of the region's air quality in order to emphasize the link between air quality and the pattern of urban development and transportation choices. The GVRD air quality management is unique in Canada. tabs., figs

  5. The role of knowledge management in achieving harmonized high level of nuclear safety

    imply the exercise of authority in the case a utility fails to live up to the requirements. However, the member states of EU have much to be gained from harmonization of national approaches. The objective of WENRA harmonization work is to achieve step by step the level of convergence warranting that 'there are no substantial differences between the countries from the safety point of view in generic formally issued national safety requirements, and in the resulting implementation on the nuclear power plants'. Harmonization means neither uniformity nor loss of responsibility. It means, for instance, that a improvement that has been discovered in one place can be more easily made universal. Harmonization is a prerequisite for sharing a certain number of tasks, rather than reinventing them in every institution involved. Harmonization would thus enable all actors to more easily achieve the standards of those with the best ones. The goals for the interface between regulatory and industry oversight activities also need to be considered. Perhaps an ideal world would rely on nuclear industry self-regulation with regulatory oversight to assure itself and the public that the self-regulation is working. This requires also a better understanding of how the social environment influences both nuclear industry safety performance and regulatory oversight activities. Knowledge management is important for enhancing an organization's ability and capacity to deal with its mission, its ability to deliver the results and to be able to cope with change. The value of knowledge management relates directly to the effectiveness with which the managed knowledge enables the members of the organization to deal with today's situations and effectively envision and create their future. Without access to managed knowledge, every situation is addressed based on what the individual or group brings to the situation with them. With access to managed knowledge, every situation is addressed with the sum total

  6. Labeled Multi-Bernoulli Tracking for Industrial Mobile Platform Safety

    Rathnayake, Tharindu; Hoseinnezhad, Reza; Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a track-before-detect labeled multi-Bernoulli filter tailored for industrial mobile platform safety applications. We derive two application specific separable likelihood functions that capture the geometric shape and colour information of the human targets who are wearing a high visible vest. These likelihoods are then used in a labeled multi-Bernoulli filter with a novel two step Bayesian update. Preliminary simulation results show that the proposed solution can successfu...

  7. Wearable sensors networks for safety applications in industrial scenarios

    Musu, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Industrial contexts, and in particular the port areas, are very complex systems to be monitored and controlled due to the combined presence of vehicles and people. The port areas are the gateway between navigation and terrestrial transportation and are of great importance in transport logistics. Unfortunately, the management of port areas is quite complex because the safety of the workers must be always assured. Therefore, in such a context, a centralized control system for the ...

  8. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Igor Tomašević; Nada Šmigić; Ilija Đekić; Vlade Zarić; Nikola Tomić; Jelena Miocinovic; Andreja Rajković

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 %) claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in ...

  9. SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF SUBCONTRACTORS IN THE PALESTINIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Adnan Enshassi; Rafiq M. Choudhry; Peter E. Mayer; Younis Shoman

    2008-01-01

    Subcontractors perform most of the construction works and their effect on industry are apparent in different activities of construction. Therefore, subcontractors need more attention from government and contractors union. The aim of this paper is to identify, evaluate, and rank factors that influence safety performance of subcontractors in the Gaza Strip (Palestine) according to their relative importance. The study concluded that reported accident rates will decrease among subcontractors and ...

  10. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Igor Tomašević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  11. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  12. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  13. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  14. Application of fuzzy integrated evaluation in the safety of coal industry of China

    LIU Wei; TAO Shu-ren

    2005-01-01

    Based on fuzzy integrated evaluation theory, the safety of coal industry was analyzed, the factors affecting the safety of coal industry was considered, and its fuzzy integrated estimating theory and results were given. Finally this paper proposed a new method of industry safety estimation. According to this method, we can integrate the factors affecting coal industry and deal with the parameters and targets of evaluating factors by quantitative analysis, thus give a scientific and reasonable safety degree analyzing evaluation.

  15. How to achieve greater acceptance of nuclear industry

    Full text: In the 90's, the acceptance of nuclear energy in France has decreased, as in other nuclear countries amongst the developed nations. All the surveys indicated that two main anxieties progressed - the fright of another 'Chernobyl' accident, and the questionings about the high-level long life waste management (the responsibility towards future generations). Moreover, a large majority of people - more than 70% - thought that nuclear industry had a lack of transparency. There was in these years a vicious circle between the leaders' point of view (politicians, but also nuclear industry managers) which was that they had no interest to speak on nuclear matters because there was a bad acceptance of nuclear energy in the large public, and the feeling, in the large public, that nuclear was an energy in decline, which was shown by the silence of governments on the future of nuclear. The trust in nuclear energy declined, slowly but regularly. This trend has began to change in France with some foreign countries' announcements of interest for nuclear energy (USA, Finland, China). But a decisive change arose in 2003 with the Government's decision to launch a 'national debate on the energies', to enhance the democratic foundation of the future energy choices, regarding the next 30 years, including the replacement of a part of the nuclear fleet. This decision was due to the consciousness that such choices had to be explained and discussed, not only at the Parliament to produce an outline law, but also with the large public, to give a more participative framework to the decisions. Anyway, this 'national debate' had not the purpose to result in a referendum: the political decision stays in Parliament's hands, but the debate had to guarantee a high level of public information and to allow questions to experts and politicians. This debate has led to give to some people a better knowledge of each primary energy's advantages and drawbacks and of the fact that that all the

  16. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  17. Achieving safety through the design process for the heavy water new product reactor

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is presently completing the Conceptual Design Phase (CDP) for a heavy water new production reactor (NPR). In undertaking the development of requirements for the heavy water NPR, the DOE defined as a principal requirement that the reactor would be designed such that it would meet or exceed the level of safety and safety assurance achieved by modern commercial nuclear power plants. This paper discusses the strategy and methodology of implementing the line responsibilities for achieving safety in the design of the heavy water NPR

  18. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety

  19. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety - it is

  20. Achieving flying colours in surgical safety: audit of World Health Organization 'Surgical Safety Checklist' compliance

    Sheena, Y; Fishman, J. M.; Nortcliff, C.; Mawby, T.; Jefferis, A F; Bleach, N R

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The World Health Organization 'Surgical Safety Checklist' has been adopted by UK surgical units following National Patient Safety Agency guidance. Our aim was to assess compliance with our local version of this Checklist. Methods: Otolaryngology trainee doctors prospectively assessed compliance with the local Checklist over a six-week period. A staff educational intervention was implemented and the audit was repeated 12 months later. Results: A total of 72 cases were assessed. The ...

  1. Radiological safety in petroleum industry. Towards prevention culture

    Within the frame of regulatory control of industrial applications the audit of sealed and open radioactive sources in oil uses is one of the most relevant. The handling of radioactive sources, the requirement of procedures and training are just a few examples among all those that make up the radiological safety culture. A number of requirements divided into three main groups: operational safety at the storage area of radioactive sources, during transportation and during the applications (Cementation, well logging and use of radiotracers) are highlighted. Due to the great number of aspects that have to be taken in account as well as the interrelation of all control processes it is highly recommended that aspects of safety culture and quality should be considered and improvements regarding prevention, should be introduced so as to correct deviations that could arise in order to avoid radiological risk situations, emphasizing risk perception situations, attitude training, implementation of audit and level of safety in the facilities and control of duties, involving radiological material handling, described in the present work. (author)

  2. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  3. Procurement in the Nuclear Industry, Quality, Safety and Decision Making

    The major purpose of the present study is partly to map and partly to make an analysis of the decision processes in the procurement routines in the nuclear industry in order to provide a basis for: 1. further development of safety inspections about procurements for Swedish Radiation Safety Authority 2. improvements of safety management in connection with procurement within a nuclear-power plant, 3 improvements of procurement routines in general in a nuclear power plant. The procurement processes at a nuclear power plant were analyzed from a decision theoretic perspective. Key staff at the plant was interviewed and written instructions as well as digitalized processes were used in the analysis. The results illustrate the most important moments during the procurement process with descriptions from interviews and documents. The staff at the nuclear power plant used a multi-attribute utility decision theory MAUT-inspired model in evaluation of alternatives and both compensatory (in which negative aspects can be compensated by positive aspects) and non-compensatory (in which certain 'pass' levels of attributes have to be exceeded for a choice) decision rules were used in the procurement process. Not surprising, nuclear safety was evaluated in a non-compensatory manner following regulatory criteria while costs were evaluated in trade-off compensatory rules, which means that a weakness in one consideration might be compensated by strength in another consideration. Thus, nuclear safety above the regulator's and law requirements are not integrated in a compensatory manner when procurement alternatives are evaluated. The nuclear plant assessed an organization's safety culture at an early stage of the purchasing process. A successful and a less successful procurement case were reported with the lessons learned from them. We find that the existing written instructions for purchase were well elaborated and adequate. There is a lack of personal resources when procurement teams

  4. Probabilistic analysis of safety in industrial irradiation plants

    The Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority is carrying out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the two industrial irradiation plants existent in the country. The objective of this presentation is to show from the regulatory point of view, the advantages of applying this tool, as well as the appeared difficulties; for it will be made a brief description of the facilities, of the method and of the normative one. Both plants are multipurpose facilities classified as 'industrial irradiator category IV' (panoramic irradiator with source deposited in pool). Basically, the execution of an APS consists of the following stages: 1. Identification of initiating events. 2. Modeling of Accidental Sequences (Event Trees). 3. Analysis of Systems (Fault trees). 4. Quantification of Accidental Sequences. The argentine normative doesn't demand to these facilities the realization of an APS, however the basic standard of Radiological Safety establishes that in the design of this type of facilities in the cases that is justified, should make sure that the annual probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence and the resulting dose in a person gives as result an radiological risk inferior to the risk limit adopted as acceptance criteria. On the other hand the design standard specifies for these irradiators it demands a maximum fault rate of 10-2 for the related components with the systems of radiological safety. In our case, the possible initiating events have been identified that carried out to not wanted situations (about people exposure, radioactive contamination). Then, for each one of the significant initiating events, the corresponding accidental sequences were modeled and the safety systems that intervene in this sequences by means of fault trees were analyzed, for then to determine the fault probabilities of the same ones. At the moment they are completing these fault trees, but the difficulty resides in the impossibility of obtaining real data of the reliability

  5. A Nuclear Safety System based on Industrial Computer

    The Plant Protection System(PPS), a nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), generates reactor trip on abnormal reactor condition. The Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is a safety system that generates and transmits the channel trip signal to the PPS on an abnormal condition. Currently, these systems are designed on the Programmable Logic Controller(PLC) based system and it is necessary to consider a new system platform to adapt simpler system configuration and improved software development process. The CPCS was the first implementation using a micro computer in a nuclear power plant safety protection system in 1980 which have been deployed in Ulchin units 3,4,5,6 and Younggwang units 3,4,5,6. The CPCS software was developed in the Concurrent Micro5 minicomputer using assembly language and embedded into the Concurrent 3205 computer. Following the micro computer based CPCS, PLC based Common-Q platform has been used for the ShinKori/ShinWolsong units 1,2 PPS and CPCS, and the POSAFE-Q PLC platform is used for the ShinUlchin units 1,2 PPS and CPCS. In developing the next generation safety system platform, several factors (e.g., hardware/software reliability, flexibility, licensibility and industrial support) can be considered. This paper suggests an Industrial Computer(IC) based protection system that can be developed with improved flexibility without losing system reliability. The IC based system has the advantage of a simple system configuration with optimized processor boards because of improved processor performance and unlimited interoperability between the target system and development system that use commercial CASE tools. This paper presents the background to selecting the IC based system with a case study design of the CPCS. Eventually, this kind of platform can be used for nuclear power plant safety systems like the PPS, CPCS, Qualified Indication and Alarm . Pami(QIAS-P), and Engineering Safety

  6. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children.

    Aj, Milam; Cdm, Furr-Holden; Pj, Leaf

    2010-12-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3(rd)-5(th) grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student's perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3(rd)-8(th) graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students' self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children's academic performance. PMID:21197388

  7. Research study about the establishment of safety culture. Effects of organizational factors in construction industry's safety indices

    To find the relationships between safety related activities (such as safety patrol' or '4s/5s activities') and accidents rate in the workplace, questionnaires were sent to 965 construction companies and 120 answers were returned. In this questionnaire, safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies were asked and organizational climates, company policies, philosophies and the number of accidents in workplace were also asked. There seems some relationships between accidents rate and safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies in the companies, but the deviations between estimate values and observed values are so great that it seems impossible to estimate the accidents rate in the working place from the safety activities, safety regulations and safety policies of the companies. On the other hand, some characteristics of safety activities and organizational climates in the construction industry were identified using multi variants analysis. More detailed researches using sophisticated questionnaire will be conducted in the construction industry and petrochemical industry and relationships between the accidents rate and the safety activities will be compared between different industries. (author)

  8. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    Full text: Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. No sector of transport is regulated more stringently than the nuclear transport industry. The nuclear transport industry is subject to a comprehensive, inter-connected regime of international, modal and national regulations and standards. The IAEA transport safety regulations, the so-called TS-R-1, are at the heart of that international regulatory regime. Appropriate provisions of TS-R-1 are incorporated in the regulations and standards of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for marine transport, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for air transport, the ADR, RID and ADN for road, rail and inland waterways in Europe, and the regulatory regimes of the IAEA Member States themselves. The IAEA transport safety regulations are reviewed every two years and amended or revised as appropriate to ensure they are up-to-date. There is a widespread recognition today that maintaining transport options in the interest of bringing the benefits of nuclear energy where they are wanted the world over requires open and sustained dialogue between regulator and the regulated. There is a clear determination on the part of the nuclear transport industry and the key international organisations to dialogue, and the World Nuclear Transport Institute provides a vehicle for taking part in this dialogue. Equally, industry must take the opportunities afforded it to inform the regulators, the IAEA and others of the context in which

  9. Assessing safety from the point of view of the human factor in the nuclear industry

    The scope of safety in the nuclear industry in France places safety in an institutional context marked by the tripartite relations between the operating of a complex, high-risk process, regulatory authorities and ergonomists providing technical support to these authorities. This is the particular context in which the ergonomists responsible for the human factor safety assessment have been led to develop intervention methods which incorporate, among other things, the fact that the request for an assessment is issued by the safety authorities and not by the utility, which remains the actual subject of the assessment. An illustration is given of the approach fo1lowed by the ergonomists, based on the particular case of a safety assessment of plans to reorganise operations teams in nuclear facilities in France. The authors go on to show that it is important for the human factor safety assessment not to take place at the 'back-end' of the process, but to respond to a dynamic process of shadowing intended to encourage the utility's project. This approach, based on an attempt to negotiate a compromise between the various partners involved in the assessment has led to a shift of attention from the final result to the stages and the resources needed to achieve it. (author)

  10. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  11. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city...

  12. The Industry Standard Tool-set (IST) of Codes for CANDU Safety Analysis

    , verification, validation, qualification and maintenance of these codes represents a large commitment of resources from organizations within the industry. Furthermore, there was the definite likelihood of redundant work being executed at the different organizations. Compounding these considerations was the fact that the timeliness and effectiveness of review by the regulator of licensing submissions based upon results obtained with these codes could be detrimentally affected by the number and diversity of codes. Therefore, in order to achieve benefits from more efficient resource utilization and reduced licensing risk, an initiative has been undertaken to establish a consolidated common set of computer codes for safety analysis, referred to as the Industry Standard Toolset (IST) initiative. (authors)

  13. Implementation of the safety assessment in the practice of industrial radiography

    The CNSN as regulatory authority has regulatory control processes based on regulations, permits, inspections and limitation to ensure the supervision and control of the practice of industrial radiography. On the other hand in the light of the new regulations approved and being implemented such as: Resolution 334/2011 CITMA 'Regulation on Notification and authorization of practices and activities associated with the use of ionizing radiation sources' and Resolution 17 / 2012, Security Guide: Security Assessment Practices and Activities associated with the use of ionizing radiation (recommendatory), it is necessary for compliance with regulatory requirements concerning the safety assessment. Since 2009 it has been applied this experience in different medical practices and industry, providing a systematic and consistent basis, to the safety assessment of all facilities and activities, which has helped increase the confidence that has been achieved an adequate level of security. The work was able to identify that there is a group of barriers operating in the risk reduction in various accident sequences and therefore have a relative importance in risk reduction, recommendations in this regard to improve the program management of safety in the practice of industrial radiography.

  14. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  15. 78 FR 10064 - Safety Zone; Vigor Industrial Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    2013-02-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vigor Industrial Roll-Out, West Duwamish... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... at Vigor Industrial. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public...

  16. Radiation protection, safety and associated problems in industrial radiography

    Industrial radiography is an indispensable tool for non-destructive testing. Its use entails potential radiation exposure to the operator as well as to the public. Since such radiation has the potential to be harmful, there is a need to limit radiation exposure to a level at which the risk is believed to be acceptable to the individual and to society. The Radiation Protection Society and the Department of National Health believe that the level of protection provided for radiation workers should be comparable with that in other 'safe' industries. The total risk for radiation workers includes the risk of non-radiation related accidents in the various occupations, as well as the special risks of radiation exposure. Industrial radiographers have one of the poorest safety records of all non-medical radiation workers. Operator errors and management errors seem to be the primary contributors to most accidental high exposures. It is necessary to remember that industrial radiography has to be carried out in a wide variety of work places under many different working conditions, both by day and by night. High energy end emissivity (X-ray output or source activity) is required for the radiation to be transmitted through specimens, because these are normally constructed of thick and dense materials such as steel. Additionally, most radiographic sources must be portable to permit use in field locations. On the negative side it must be mentioned that studies undertaken abroad conclude that the most important factors contributing to unsafe operations are human related. Careful planning of the method of work is essential if unnecessary risks are to be avoided. The most effective way of reducing accidents would seem to be to train employees to adhere to established and well documented procedures, to exercise common sense and sound judgement, and to use the protective equipment and devices provided in the manner specified. 2 tabs., 3 refs

  17. A Guidebook for Evaluating Organizations in the Nuclear Industry - an example of safety culture evaluation

    Organizations in the nuclear industry need to maintain an overview on their vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to safety. Systematic periodical self assessments are necessary to achieve this overview. This guidebook provides suggestions and examples to assist power companies but also external evaluators and regulators in carrying out organizational evaluations. Organizational evaluation process is divided into five main steps. These are: 1) planning the evaluation framework and the practicalities of the evaluation process, 2) selecting data collection methods and conducting the data acquisition, 3) structuring and analysing the data, 4) interpreting the findings and 5) reporting the evaluation results with possible recommendations. The guidebook emphasises the importance of a solid background framework when dealing with multifaceted phenomena like organisational activities and system safety. The validity and credibility of the evaluation stem largely from the evaluation team's ability to crystallize what they mean by organization and safety when they conduct organisational safety evaluations - and thus, what are the criteria for the evaluation. Another important and often under-considered phase in organizational evaluation is interpretation of the findings. In this guidebook a safety culture evaluation in a Nordic nuclear power plant is presented as an example of organizational evaluation. With the help of the example, challenges of each step in the organizational evaluation process are described. Suggestions for dealing with them are presented. In the case example, the DISC (Design for Integrated Safety culture) model is used as the evaluation framework. The DISC model describes the criteria for a good safety culture and the organizational functions necessary to develop a good safety culture in the organization

  18. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population…

  19. 25 Years of Community Activities towards Harmonization of Nuclear Safety Criteria and Requirements - Achievements and Prospects

    The main objective was to advise the EC on future challenges and opportunities in terms of enhanced co-operation in the area of nuclear safety and harmonization of safety requirements and practices in an enlarged European Union. The activities were divided into 3 sub-tasks as follows: part A, to prepare an analysis, synthesis and assessment of the main achievements from Community activities related to the Resolutions on the technological problems of nuclear safety of 1975 and 1992, with due consideration for related research activities; part B, to prepare an overview of safety philosophies and practices in EU Member States, taking account of their specific national practices in terms of legal framework, type and age of operating nuclear reactors; part C, to provide elements of a strategy for future activities in the frame of the Council Resolutions, with particular attention to the context of enlargement of the EU. (author)

  20. Role of human factor in safety assurance in the nuclear industry

    The authors discuss the issues of human resource activities in the Rosatom Corporation that aim to achieve and maintain the required levels of safety culture and qualification of personnel involved in the operations of nuclear energy sites. These activities are supported by the appropriate resources, organisational management structure and quality control system, legislation, regulations and methodological support. It is emphasized that systematic and versatile HR-related activities in the nuclear industry represent one of the key areas of production operations that assure safety and reliability of nuclear sites at all stages of their life cycle. Especially important is the assurance of high professional level of nuclear regulators. They believe that it would appear sensible, in addition to the existing system of training, to engage the mechanisms of rotation of personnel from utility organisations to regulatory authorities

  1. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  2. Industrial Deregulation Policy of New Government and Improvement Strategy of Nuclear Safety Regulation

    New Government launched in Feb. 2008 pledged the 'economic revival through alleviating the enterprise regulation.' Based on this commitment, the government established a strategic goal, that is, 'zero-base regulation innovation' and now is performing nine governmental projects. Although the industrial safety deregulations including the nuclear safety deregulation are not comprised in the projects, 43 regulation issues, among 267 issues suggested by 5 economic and industrial organizations at the beginning of this year, correspond to the industry safety. Therefore, the demand for reform of the safety regulation is unavoidable. Accordingly, we will investigate the direction to cope with the need for the nuclear safety deregulation in this paper

  3. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  4. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.2. Achievements in construction and operation

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Austria Centre Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 28 September to 2 October 1987. The objective of the Conference was to promote an exchange of worldwide information on the current trends in the performance and safety of nuclear power and its fuel cycle, and to take a forward look at the expectations and objectives for the 1990s. This objective was accomplished through presentation and discussion of about 200 papers at the Conference. This is volume 2 of the Conference proceedings. The presentations in this volume were divided into the following sections: plant construction achievements (8 papers); plant availability achievements (12 papers); controlling and financing nuclear power cost (6 papers); achievements in technology transfer and infrastructure development (5 papers); advanced systems (9 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Industry safety and policy proposal on China’s vehicle and parts sectors

    CATARC

    2008-01-01

    <正>I. Importance of the vehicle industry safety China has become a big vehicle production country, but not yet a strong one. Therefore people of the industry need to strengthen their awareness on the situation.

  6. Lean Principles: An Innovative Approach for Achieving Sustainability in the Egyptian Construction Industry

    Othman, Ayman A. E.; Ghaly, Mayar A.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the economic and social contributions of the Construction Industry (CI) in terms of achieving national and international development plans, offering employment opportunities, increasing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as providing community members with buildings and infrastructure projects that meet their needs and fulfil their requirements, it has a major impact on the environment. The construction industry is a very large consumer of non-renewable resources. In addition, i...

  7. The Role Of Industrial Safety Measures In Combating Occupational Hazards And Accidents In India

    Sharmistha Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    The presence of occupational hazards and industrial accidents de-motivates the worker to contribute their best to the organization. The participation of workers in the workplace which promises safety and security fosters teamwork, quality of product high productivity and a good communication between management and the industrial workers. For combating occupational hazards and accidents in an industrial site, safety is necessary and a challenging issue in an industrial environment. S...

  8. Non-Technical Skills (NTS) for enhancing patient safety: achievements and future directions

    Kodate, Naonori; Ross, Anthony; Anderson, Janet E.; Flin, R

    2012-01-01

    Problems in team communication and decision making have been implicated in accidents in high risk industries such as aviation, off shore oil processing, nuclear power generation. Recognition of the role that breakdowns in communication and teamwork play in patient safety incidents has led to a plethora of studies in the area of what has come to be widely known as non-technical skills (NTS); a term initially used in European aviation (1). This has led to increasing interest in i...

  9. Safety Benchmarking of Industrial Construction Projects Based on Zero Accidents Techniques

    Rogers, Jennifer Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a continually significant issue in the construction industry. The Occupation Safety and Health Administration as well as individual construction companies are constantly working on verifying that their selected safety plans have a positive effect on reduction of workplace injuries. Worker safety is a large concern for both the workers and employers in construction and the government also attempts to impose effective regulations concerning minimum safety requirements. There are ...

  10. Factors Contribute to Safety Culture in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia

    Ong Choon Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of safety culture in the manufacturing industry in Malaysia and identify factors contribute to safety culture. It is suggested in this study that leadership support, management commitment and safety management system are important factors that contribute to safety culture. This study also provides theoretical implications to guide future research and offers practical implications to the managers in the development of safety culture. Given that ...

  11. Occupational Health, Safety and Risk Analysis in Large Scale Industry of Lahore

    Muhammad Qasim; Aroj Bashir; Malik Muhammad Anees; Muhammad Usman Ghani; Moeen Khalid; Faisal Hanan; Jahanzaib Malik

    2014-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) it is concerned with guarding the safety, health and welfare of people who are engaged in work or employment. The aim of paper is discussed Occupational Health, Safety and Risk Analysis In large scale industry of Lahore. The paper has completed after study various articles and research paper related to Occupational safety and health so it concluded that Promotion of Health is an important part of occupational health professionals. Health educators, safety ...

  12. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    Luke Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership h...

  13. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1980

    Information is reported in sections entitled: radiation monitoring; Environmental Management Program; radiation and safety surveys; industrial safety and special projects; Office of Operational Safety; and training, lectures, publications, and professional activities. There were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 35 employees received whole body dose equivalents of 10 mSv (1 rem) or greater. There were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. The quantity of those radionuclides of primary concern in the Clinch River, based on the concentration measured at White Oak Dam and the dilution afforded by the Clinch River, averaged 0.16 percent of the concentration guide. The average background level at the Perimeter Air Monitoring (PAM) stations during 1980 was 9.0 μrad/h (0.090 μGy/h). Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 1.5 Bq/kg (0.04 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.7 Bq/kg (0.02 pCi/g) to 16 Bq/kg (0.43 pCi/g). Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.04 Bq/kg (0.001 pCi/g) to 0.07 Bq/kg (0.002 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 12 Bq/kg

  14. Strengthening Safety Culture as an Overriding Priority, in Achieving Global Nuclear Security Approach

    In the IAEA glossary safety culture is defined as the assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals, which establishes that, as an overriding priority, protection and safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. It has been observed that a safety culture, as a part of both security and safety, possesses a few obstacles that should be noticed: safety culture cannot be directly regulated; variation in national cultures means that what constitutes as a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. Three stages have been identified in developing and strengthening safety culture: 1 A technical issue (rules and regulations)/ first stage 2 Good safety performance (primarily in terms of safety targets or goals)/ second stage 3 A continuing process of improvement to which everyone can contribute/ third stage There are several key issues in safety culture, such as: a commitment, use of procedures, a conservative decision making (STAR) a reporting culture. Organizations and individuals should have attention on these. Overall common goals are to achieve and maintain a high level of safety and security of radioactive sources as well as facilities. Measures that are concerned on safeguards restrict access to the radioactive sources, conditioning and/or recycling of sources, and systems for detection the passage of the radioactive sources at strategic points, have gained main support. The main partners in implementation these measures are: IAEA, USA, Russian Federation, G8- Global Partnership, and European Union The member states of the IAEA have at their disposal internationally agreed standards. Current differences in applying standards in the IAEA member states are mainly related to state preparedness to cope with demands. Developing and less developed countries with small and medium nuclear programmes have difficulties to accept rules and regulations, to establish

  15. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. PMID:26503696

  16. Industrial gamma radiography: recent developments towards improved quality and safety

    Gamma radiography has been one of the most important NDT techniques for more than 40 years. The success has been based on the wide range of applications, unambiguous results, as well as easy to operate and unexpensive equipment, which can be used under almost all environmental conditions. Most recently improved levels of quality and safety have been reached by new equipment designs as well as from the availability of a new isotope -Se-75. Various national and international standards define requirements of gammagraphic apparatus to ensure safe and reliable operation and minimize potential hazards for the operator and the environment by faulty operation. This especially includes self-controlling safety functions as well as monitoring and clear display of safe/unsafe conditions. Lately, the ISO DIS 3999 (1998) has successfully passed voting of the international community involved in the evaluation of this ISO standard. The gammagraphic apparatus' GAMMAMAT TSI for Ir-192 and GAMMA-MAT SE for Se-75 are in full compliance to the latest versions of the national standards and also the ISO DIS 3999 (1998). In addition to their unparalleled reliability and longest operational life the equipment design includes low level of leakage radiation, real source position control, safe/unsafe display and automatic source locking. The isotope Se-75 is offering low radiation energies, which result in high radiographic contrast and resolution for improved flaw detectability. Sources of activity up to 3 TBq/80 Ci are available and most commonly used. The physical parameters of the isotope offer many other practical advantages. The half-life of 120 days results in 60% more useful lifetime over an Ir-192 source. The low radiation energies allow a special designed container of incredibly low 7 kg total weight. Radiation protection during NDT work can be achieved much more easily and radiation controlled areas can be much smaller. (Author)

  17. DRUGS EFFICIENCY AND SAFETY: THE ROLE OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    F. I. Belyalov

    2015-01-01

    Relationships of pharmaceutical industry with medical science and practice are analyzed. The influence of pharmaceutical industry on clinical trials, journal publications, governmental organizations, physicians and researchers is discussed.

  18. Developing an industry-oriented safety curriculum using the Delphi technique.

    Chen, Der-Fa; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Chang, Shu-Hsuan; Yao, Kai-Chao; Liao, Chin-Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined the development of industry-oriented safety degree curricula at a college level. Based on a review of literature on the practices and study of the development of safety curricula, we classified occupational safety and health curricula into the following three domains: safety engineering, health engineering, and safety and health management. We invited 44 safety professionals to complete a four-round survey that was designed using a modified Delphi technique. We used Chi-square statistics to test the panel experts' consensus on the significance of the items in the three domains and employed descriptive statistics to rank the participants' rating of each item. The results showed that the top three items for each of the three domains were Risk Assessment, Dangerous Machinery and Equipment, and Fire and Explosion Prevention for safety engineering; Ergonomics, Industrial Toxicology, and Health Risk Assessment for health engineering; and Industrial Safety and Health Regulations, Accident Investigation and Analysis, and Emergency Response for safety and health management. Only graduates from safety programmes who possess practical industry-oriented abilities can satisfy industry demands and provide value to the existence of college safety programmes. PMID:26104789

  19. A Comparative Study on Safety and Security Management Systems in Industries

    Palanisamy Sivaprakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To understand and appreciate the safety and security management systems in industries with a view to find out critical areas requiring attention so as to enhance the effectiveness of safety management systems and security management systems in large, medium and small scale industries. Approach: The study was restricted to Large, Medium and Small scale industries located in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Pondycherry, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states of India. The data have been randomly collected from 45 samples each from Large, Medium and Small scale industries. This study has taken into the account of 6 major elements namely management commitment, documentation, facilities, promotion, procedure and training and each major elements having 6 sub elements thus consisting of 36 sub elements of safety management systems and 36 sub elements of security management systems. The sub-elements are prepared such as to reflect the availability of the safety and security management system in industries. Results: Major accident hazard industries require more attention towards safety and security management systems. The safety management system has gained more prevalence than security management system in large scale industries than the medium and small scale industries. The safety management system has considerable prevalence than security management system in medium scale industries than the small scale industries. The safety and security management system have more or less the same prevalence in the small scale industries. Conclusion: All the industries should devise systems for the adoption and implementation of safety and security management system. Security failures can lead to safety failures and hence they must be given equal importance. The major accident hazard industries should adopt all the safety and security management elements. All the elements of safety and security management systems should be given equal importance for effective and

  20. Safety in a changing environment: Can we draw lessons from other industrial sectors?

    Many industries confront vital economic and political changes at key times of their development, which may have an impact on their level of safety. As an example, the safety records of the air transport industry in the USA and the rail transport sector in the UK are contrasted through the two major changes these sectors underwent in recent history: deregulation under President Carter in the late 1970s and privatization of British Rail under Mrs. Thatcher. While deregulation did not seem to adversely affect the safety of air travel in the USA, safety in the rail sector in the UK has apparently dropped markedly. Using parallels involving mergers or splitting up scenarios from industrial sectors, some lessons are drawn for all safety critical industrial systems, in particular for the nuclear industry, and the concept of cyndinics, a methodical and scientific approach to danger and risk, is introduced. (author)

  1. Social-psychological peculiarities of specialists of nuclear industry in Russia and safety culture

    Safety culture is a field of culture, which is formed in the human society with fixed norms, rules and standards. This field is rather conservative just because it is concerned with human basic grounds and goals. Successful solutions of the safety problem are possible only in the case of existence of areas of stability - traditional general standards and security rules - on the professional consciousness of specialists for nuclear industry. The analysis of numerous problems of ensuring the safety of installations in the nuclear industry determines the importance and necessity of social regulation of specialists' activity in the nuclear branch. In this case the predominant meaning have questions of ensuring effective mechanisms of communication. This deals with, first, specificity of the object itself. Just because physical dimensions of radiation are inaccessible for direct man's perception, and, accordingly, direct reaction to them, so people can react only on secondary information. Therefore, particular importance is gained by the mechanisms of communication, with their help it may be possible to form an adequate idea about latent consequences of actions (for example, in case of radiation danger) and cause-effect relationship, exceeding the potentialities of direct human perception. The structure of awards and punishments in the branch is concerned, in the first place, with 'inner' professional motives and reasons. In this case the degree of reaction on expected appearance awarded events, connected with tactical purposes (fulfillment of a plan, achievement of a concrete scientific result and etc., extremely excluded the reactions on events, the results of which were drawbacks during the time from the specialist's actions readiness to accident, ensuring of safety). (author)

  2. A survey of approaches combining safety and security for industrial control systems

    The migration towards digital control systems creates new security threats that can endanger the safety of industrial infrastructures. Addressing the convergence of safety and security concerns in this context, we provide a comprehensive survey of existing approaches to industrial facility design and risk assessment that consider both safety and security. We also provide a comparative analysis of the different approaches identified in the literature. - Highlights: • We raise awareness of safety and security convergence in numerical control systems. • We highlight safety and security interdependencies for modern industrial systems. • We give a survey of approaches combining safety and security engineering. • We discuss the potential of the approaches to model safety and security interactions

  3. Safety Reviews of Technical System Modifications in the Nuclear Industry

    Falk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The function of safety reviews (here understood as expert judgements on proposals for design modifications and redesign of technical systems in commercial Nuclear Power Plants, supported by formalised safety review processes) plays a fundamental role for safety in nuclear installations. The primary aims of the presented case studies includes: critically examining and identifying the main areas for improvement of the existing technical safety review process as it is conducted at a Swedish nucl...

  4. An overview of application and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  5. Control of radiation sources through regulatory inspections of radiation safety in Brazilian industries

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on industrial radioactive installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  6. An overview of applications and radiation safety aspects of linear accelerators in Brazilian industry

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority about safety control on Industrial Linear Accelerators Installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying the radiation protection officer. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also showed in this work. (author)

  7. Control of radiation sources through regulatory inspections of radiation safety in Brazilian industries

    This work presents a brief description of the situation of Brazilian Regulatory Authority with regard to safety control of industrial radioactive installations. It shows the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety inspections, the regulation infrastructure, the national inventory of industrial installations, the national system of inspection and enforcement and the national system for qualifying radiation protection officers. Some results of regulatory safety inspections are also shown. (author)

  8. Lessons learned from exchanges between safety authorities in France and the Federal Republic of Germany: Comparison of the reactor safety levels achieved

    The first two sections of the paper give a historical survey of the bilateral co-operation between France and the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasize the exceptional extent of the exchanges and illustrate the substance of these exchanges with a description of the technical areas treated for 15 years by the working group in charge of PWR safety. The overview given in the third section deals with three main results gained from this co-operation. The results of this work are largely positive as is confirmed by the 1981 agreement of information exchange in the event of an accident, the installation of dedicated data links between the public authorities, installed in the towns of Colmar, Freiburg, Metz, Trier, and Saarbruecken, the measures taken to ensure consistency between emergency plans in both countries and the monitoring of the level of liquid effluents and the level's compliance with regulations in both countries. The results of this work are mainly positive regarding mutual understanding of the approaches utilized in each country (taking account of national particularities, particularly population density and industrial environment) as well as the assessment of the advantages and disadvantages, on a technical and economic level, of the options selected in each of the two countries. After achieving the first two of these results gained from the bilateral co-operation, the third was also achieved, but further data were provided by a certain number of fruitful comparisons. The Cattenom-Philippsburg qustionnaire enabled verification of the fact that beyond the particularities of national regulations, the safety objectives and methods were formulated with a comparable level of stringency in each country. Currently, a series of particularly significant assessments are being performed by joint French and Federal German teams. These include a reassessment of plant safety at Fessenheim and Neckarwestheim and an analysis of the capability of containments to fulfil

  9. Testing frequencies of safety related pumps and valves: Probabilistic safety assessment versus United States industry codes

    PSA provides a mechanism for identifying key risk significant components and estimating the effects of test frequency changes. If it is possible to optimize the testing frequencies of these components, component failure probabilities can be minimized. This reduces overall system unavailability and the probability of core damage. In cases where test frequencies cannot be adjusted directly into an optimal range, it is at least useful to know where the existing test frequency lies relative to the optimal value. From this, one can determine whether a component is being undertested or overtested. Test intervals have been historically established on the basis of deterministic industry standards such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Section XI, Subsections IWP and IWV, of this code, respectively, set recommended test intervals for safety related pumps and valves. Since optimal test intervals have not been established on the basis of actual experience data, it has not been possible for testing program developers to judge whether increases in test intervals will have a positive or negative effect on component unavailability. The paper reviews the basic theory of optimal test intervals for periodically tested components, discusses recent work which addresses the effects of operational data uncertainties and demonstrates that, on the basis of actual operational reliability data, safety related pumps and motor operated valves are not being overtested. 11 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Achieving the economic potential for industrial cogeneration in Ontario: A financial perspective on electric utility policy

    The impact of private vs public ownership regimes on the magnitude of achievable industrial cogeneration capacity in Ontario is assessed. Estimates of technical and economic potential are presented for several industrial subsectors and heat demand categories, showing that nearly all of the technically feasible 7,600 MW is also economically efficient given a value of power of at least 4 cents/kWh in 1991 dollars. Using financial data and investment criteria specific to the two forms of ownership, the project evaluation model points to a significantly larger quantum of financial (achievable) potential with public rather than private development of industrial cogeneration. At avoided costs and associated buyback rates of 4 and 5 cents/kWh, the achievable cogeneration capacities are ca 2,400 and 7,600 MW under public ownership and 132 and 3,000 MW under private ownership. Ratepayer savings are significant: the full economic potential can be achieved through public ownership at a buyback rate of 5 cents/kWh; under private ownership, a comparable capacity requires a 6 cents buyback rate, reflecting additional ratepayer costs of nearly $600 million annually. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Achieving shift work excellence: maximizing health, safety and operating efficiency in round-the-clock operations

    Sirois, W. G. (circadian Technologies Ltd., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1999-01-01

    Alertness Assurance techniques, Lifestyle Training and Shift Scheduling practices are described as weapons in the fight against the consequences of sleep deprivation and fatigue, higher operating risks , the adverse health, safety and quality of life effects on workers. Fatigue is a fundamental problem for all round-the-clock industries. The central message of this paper is that by making appropriate interventions and taking counter-measures to fatigue, the risks and liabilities of human error can be dramatically minimized through increased employee alertness, vigilance and cognitive reasoning skills around-the-clock. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The importance of safety in achieving the widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel

    Edeskuty, F.J.

    1997-09-01

    The advantages of hydrogen fuel have been adequately demonstrated on numerous occasions. However, two major disadvantages have prevented any significant amount of corresponding development. These disadvantages have been in the economics of producing sufficient quantities of hydrogen and in the safety (both real and perceived) of its use. To date work has mostly been properly centered on solving the economic problems. However, a greater effort on the safety of new hydrogen systems now being proposed also deserves consideration. To achieve the greatest safety in the expansion of the use of hydrogen into its wide-spread use as a fuel, attention must be given to four considerations. These are, obtaining knowledge of all the physical principles involved in the new uses, having in place the regulations that allow the safe interfacing of the new systems, designing and constructing the new systems with safety in mind, and the training of the large number of people that will become the handlers of the hydrogen. Existing organizations that produce, transport, or use hydrogen on a large scale have an excellent safety record. This safety record comes as a consequence of dedicated attention to the above-mentioned principles. However, where these principles were not closely followed, accidents have resulted. Some examples can be cited. As the use of hydrogen becomes more widespread, there must be a mechanism for assuring the universal application of these principles. Larger and more numerous fleet operations with hydrogen fuel may be the best way to begin the indoctrination of the general public to the more general use of hydrogen fuel. Demonstrated safe operation with hydrogen is vital to its final acceptance as the fuel of choice.

  13. Safety Climates in Construction Industry: Understanding the Role of Construction Sites and Workgroups

    Sílvia Silva; Adriana Araújo; Dário Costa; J. L. Meliá

    2013-01-01

    Studies of safety climate in construction revealed a significant positive association between safety climate and various aspects of occupational health and safety. The mechanisms through which this impact operates are still unclear and safety climate is usually studied without considering the complexity of this industry (companies, worksites and groups). The aim of this research is to analyze to what extend there are differences between construction sites and to explore...

  14. Industrial Sanitation and Personal Facilities. Module SH-13. Safety and Health.

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on industrial sanitation and personal facilities is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module deals wth many facets of industrial sanitation and the facilities industries should provide so that proper health procedures may be followed. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in…

  15. Safety in industrial applications: From fixed fences to direct interaction

    Oberer-Treitz, Susanne; Dietz, Thomas; Verl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Human-Robot-Cooperation will allow leveraging the capabilities of human and robot better through direct interaction, but requires new methods to ensure the safety of the worker. The article introduces a new methodology for the safety assessment in robotics by analyzing the collision risk of a robot. The concept for passive safety assessment, i.e. the approach to consider the collision potential of a robot system for analyzing its danger potential is presented. A test-setup to parameterize and...

  16. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  17. Safety Leadership Defined within the Australian Construction Industry

    Luke Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the tenets of safety leadership within the Australian construction environment. The scope of this research aims to establish a universal definition of safety leadership and how it differs from other leadership disciplines. The literature review into this topic was governed by the parent disciplines of Safety and Leadership.  Gaps were identified in the literature that indicated safety leadership is not a well-defined concept and much of the work into safety leadership has been borrowed from other schools of leadership. An exploratory research methodology was utilised which rooted the research into the post-positivist methodology. There were twenty interviews conducted for this research, with participants coming from various leadership positions across multiple construction projects around Australia. Findings detailed a saturation of data that allowed for an empirical definition towards safety leadership to be established. As a person’s scope of responsibility increases, their view of safety leadership becomes synonymous with leadership; although differences do exist. These differences were attributed to the importance of demonstrating safety and working within the legal framework of Australian construction projects. It is proposed that this research offers a substantial contribution to knowledge, based upon a well-defined definition into safety leadership.

  18. Achieving professional success in US government, academia, and industry: an EMGS commentary.

    Poirier, Miriam C; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Aardema, Marilyn J

    2014-08-01

    One of the goals of the EMGS is to help members achieve professional success in the fields they have trained in. Today, there is greater competition for jobs in genetic toxicology, genomics, and basic research than ever before. In addition, job security and the ability to advance in one's career is challenging, regardless of whether one works in a regulatory, academic, or industry environment. At the EMGS Annual Meeting in Monterey, CA (September, 2013), the Women in EMGS Special Interest Group held a workshop to discuss strategies for achieving professional success. Presentations were given by three speakers, each representing a different employment environment: Government (Miriam C. Poirier), Academia (Jeffrey L. Schwartz), and Industry (Marilyn J. Aardema). Although some differences in factors or traits affecting success in the three employment sectors were noted by each of the speakers, common factors considered important for advancement included networking, seeking out mentors, and developing exceptional communication skills. PMID:24788591

  19. The Evaluation of Factors Influencing Safety Performance : A Case in an Industrial Gas Manufacturing Company (Ghana

    Evelyn Enchill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety has become a very important element in firms and organisations especially in Ghana. The impact of safety factors on a firm’s 3E’s (Employee, Environment and Equipment can improve or deteriorate firm’s public image. This paper identified the key safety indicators and also provided a set of core factors that contribute meaningful in promoting safety performance in an Industrial Gas producer in Ghana using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Organisational, Human, Technical and Environmental factors were identified as the safety indicators in relation to the study area. The studies revealed that organisational factor is the most important factor or criterion that could facilitate a better safety performance of the Industrial Gas Company. In addition, employees was identified the best safety alternative, whilst environment and equipment followed sequentially

  20. Responsibility for managing and legal consequences in the field of industrial safety

    The object of industrial safety is to protect the aspirations, the life and the health of the employee from injury and by accident prevention in the field to combat dangers to life and health. The necessity for industrial safety is just as uncontentious as the objectives pursued by it. There is also a humanitarian connotation here since the health and welfare of employees are of central importance. In addition, economic aspects have to be taken into consideration, for industrial accidents mean unnecessary industrial costs which can have not insignificant economic consequences. Boards of directors, heads of various departments in the hierarchy, also the members of those departments must be absolutely clear as to what are the requirements for industrial safety in detail, what consequences arise for the introduction and organization of industrial processes right through the organization of the enterprise itself and how in this respect responsibilities are to be allocated to those affected. (orig.)

  1. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the indus...

  2. Trends and achievements in nuclear safety and security in the Republic of Azerbaijan

    the field of the use of nuclear energy in force in the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is the law on the Radiation Safety of the Population of December 30, 1997. This law stipulated the State Committee for Industrial Safety and Mining Supervision (GOSGORTEHNADZOR), presently State Agency on Nuclear and Radiation Activities Regulation (SANRAR) of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources as the regulatory and control bodies for all nuclear and radiation related activities in Azerbaijan. Specific cases are regulated under the Criminal Code of 2000, the Administrative Code, the Health Safety Law of 1999, the Technical Safety Law of 1999, the Civil Code Law of 1998, by the Presidential decree No. 758 of 1998 and by acts of the Government. The standards and regulations were elaborated in the Former Soviet Union and Russia, and are still used in Azerbaijan. These are Radiation Safety Standards 96, Health Regulations for Radioactive Waste Management (SPORO), General Safety Regulations (OPB) and others. Presently, the Standards and Regulations for radiation Protection as foreseen by the Law 'On Radiation Safety of Population' is being developed following to the IAEA recommendations, namely Basic Safety Standards as well as the international practice and experience. (authors)

  3. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... industry entitled ``Evaluating the Safety of Flood-affected Food Crops for Human Consumption''...

  4. The strengthening of the nuclear safety regulatory system in restructuring of electric power industry sector

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries which ever restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes for maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power

  5. Deliberations on nuclear safety regulatory system in a changing industrial environment

    Nuclear safety concern, which may accompany such external environmental factors as privatization and restructuring of the electric power industry, is emerging as an international issue. In order to cope with the concern about nuclear safety, it is important to feedback valuable experiences of advanced countries that restructured their electric power industries earlier and further to reflect the current safety issues, which are raised internationally, fully into the nuclear safety regulatory system. This paper is to review the safety issues that might take place in the process of increasing competition in the nuclear power industry, and further to present a basic direction and effective measures for ensuring nuclear safety in response thereto from the viewpoint of safety regulation. It includes a political direction for a regulatory body's efforts to rationalize and enforce efficiently its regulation. It proposes to ensure that regulatory specialty and regulatory cost are stably secured. Also, this paper proposes maintaining a sound nuclear safety regulatory system to monitor thoroughly the safety management activities of the industry, which might be neglected as a result of focusing on reduction of the cost for producing electric power. (author)

  6. Safety of technical facilities in the nuclear power industry

    Five papers were submitted on the activities of the Czech Labor Safety Office dealing with the results of surveillance in 1988, draft measures aimed at improving nuclear power installation safety, problems of the construction, start-up and operation of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, production of regulations and technical safety during the construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant, qualifications of organizations, responsibilities of authorized organizations, requirements for enclosed and primary technical documentation in producing equipment for nuclear power, and obligations of authorized organizations in nuclear power unit operations, maintenance of nuclear power installations and education of nuclear power plant personnel. (J.B.)

  7. Regulatory and industry co-operation on nuclear safety research. Challenges and opportunities

    Regulator-industry co-operation in nuclear safety research has potential advantages as well as disadvantages. This report provides research managers in industry, regulatory organisations and research centres with information on current practices in collaborative safety research in OECD member countries. It identifies means of establishing effective industry-regulator collaboration and provides indications on how to overcome difficulties that can arise. It also advises on possible areas of concern. The report addresses in particular the issue of regulator independence, means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry. (author)

  8. Regulatory program for radiation safety in Cuba: Achievements and future challenges

    From the beginning of the Cuban nuclear program there was established the basis for a gradual building of a national infrastructure to cover all the new responsibilities acquired in the area of nuclear and radiation safety. One of the essential parts of this national infrastructure was the creation of the Cuban Regulatory Authority in charge with the regulation and control of the use of nuclear energy in the country. Other important issues were developed successively, for example: the establishment of the legal and regulatory framework, the formation of human resources, the introduction and authorization of new practices and the establishment of technical services in the area of radiation safety. For more than 20 years the country has been making efforts for strengthening the national infrastructure for the use of nuclear energy achieving significant advances. As a result of the application of performance evaluations to determine the effectiveness of this program this paper summarizes some of the achievements and some of the main challenges that the Cuban regulatory authority has to face in the near future. (author)

  9. Managing change in the nuclear industry: The effects on safety. INSAG-18. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (Russian Edition)

    The nuclear industry is going through a period of unprecedented change. The changes arise from the political and business environment in which the industry must operate, and from within the industry itself as it strives to become more competitive. These pressures have already led to significant changes in how nuclear enterprises are organized. The changes can be expected to continue. It is absolutely essential that throughout the period of time that organizational changes are taking place, and after the changes have occurred, very high standards of safety are maintained by all the elements that make up the industry. Changes can be made effectively and safely, and gains in efficiency and competitiveness, as well as safety, can be realized if changes are introduced carefully and managed well. Experience has shown that this is not a simple matter to achieve. Nuclear installations are complex, and it is inherently demanding to foresee all the implications that a change may have on safety. However, experience has shown very clearly that many changes have a strong potential to affect both the safety that has been built into a design and in the safety culture of an organization. Hence failure to manage change well can significantly affect the likelihood of an accident, the degree to which the assets of the company are put at risk and the company's reputation. This INSAG report is directed at members of boards of directors and senior executives who are responsible for the overall safety of an installation, who make decisions for change and who implement these decisions. It is also written for senior regulators who, on behalf of the public, ensure that boards of directors and executives meet their responsibilities for safety. This report discusses how and why change can challenge the maintenance of a high level of safety, and what can be done to control that challenge and hence reap all the benefits of change. It draws an analogy between the well established principles

  10. Managing change in the nuclear industry: The effects on safety. INSAG-18. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    The nuclear industry is going through a period of unprecedented change. The changes arise from the political and business environment in which the industry must operate, and from within the industry itself as it strives to become more competitive. These pressures have already led to significant changes in how nuclear enterprises are organized. The changes can be expected to continue. It is absolutely essential that throughout the period of time that organizational changes are taking place, and after the changes have occurred, very high standards of safety are maintained by all the elements that make up the industry. Changes can be made effectively and safely, and gains in efficiency and competitiveness, as well as safety, can be realized if changes are introduced carefully and managed well. Experience has shown that this is not a simple matter to achieve. Nuclear installations are complex, and it is inherently demanding to foresee all the implications that a change may have on safety. However, experience has shown very clearly that many changes have a strong potential to affect both the safety that has been built into a design and in the safety culture of an organization. Hence failure to manage change well can significantly affect the likelihood of an accident, the degree to which the assets of the company are put at risk and the company's reputation. This INSAG report is directed at members of boards of directors and senior executives who are responsible for the overall safety of an installation, who make decisions for change and who implement these decisions. It is also written for senior regulators who, on behalf of the public, ensure that boards of directors and executives meet their responsibilities for safety. This report discusses how and why change can challenge the maintenance of a high level of safety, and what can be done to control that challenge and hence reap all the benefits of change. It draws an analogy between the well established principles for

  11. Initiatives of Japanese nuclear industry to improve nuclear safety after the Fukushima Daiichi accident

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident provided strong lessons to the nuclear industry in Japan from the aspect that the industry must not be just satisfied with meeting the national regulatory requirement but that they should pursue further efforts towards higher performance without complacency. The Japan Nuclear Safety Institute (JANSI) was established in November 2012, as an independent organization from the nuclear industrial organizations in Japan, to lead them in making continuous efforts to realize the highest level of safety in the world. The current activity initiated by JANSI has been the reformation of organizational management in the nuclear industry to recognize safety culture with more commitment from top leaders to enhancing nuclear safety and the related human resource development than before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. (author)

  12. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    Butlewski, M.; A. Misztal; Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Janik, S.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  13. Safety in the East: a political and industrial challenge

    Nuclear power is still an issue in the East, and there is a long way to go before the situation will become satisfactory. The most complicated part is the transfer of safety culture, which will be a much longer and trickier task than modernizing the facilities. This transfer calls for long-term cooperation among entities playing the same roles in the East and West. Europe has clearly understood this situation, and has organized its assistance program in such a way as to promote this cooperation on concrete issues. One good example of what a global assistance strategy should be is the Moshouse project, involving electricians, builders, and safety organization in intimate long-term cooperation, while facilitating early shutdown of the riskier reactors. For the IPSN, cooperation with the other TSO's (Technical Safety Organizations) is the main strategy line for all action taken in the East. Starting from situations where the IPSN and its partners in the West enjoy almost direct support from the local authorities, the purpose is to spawn and foster competence within the country by cooperative safety research and by developing analytical tools for accident situations. When the moment comes, if the local political determination and the economic situation so permit, the safety authorities will then be able to ensure the development of the safety culture on their own, in their own country. (author)

  14. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  15. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry

    The Seminar on Environmental and Radiation Safety Aspect at Non-nuclear Industry held on March 2003 in Jakarta. The purpose of this Seminar be able to information exchange among research workers in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Seminar discussed about Science and Technology of Radiation Safety and Environment. There are 17 papers which have separated index. (PPIN)

  16. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  17. Issues of Safety and Security: New Challenging to Malaysia Tourism Industry

    Mohd Ayob Norizawati; Masron Tarmiji

    2014-01-01

    The safety and security issues nowadays become one of the forces causing changes in tourism industry in era of millennium. The main concern of this issues more focus on crime rates, terrorism, food safety, health issues and natural disaster. This topic gained the popularity in tourism research after 9/11 tragedy and since then the academicians and practitioners started seeking the best solution in ways to mitigate these negative impacts. For Malaysia, the image as safety and secure destinatio...

  18. Integrated occupational safety and health management solutions and industrial cases

    Häkkinen, Kari; Niskanen, Toivo

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into a new movement toward leadership approaches that are collaborated and shared,  and which views Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) and performance excellence within the wider examination of leadership relationships and practices, this book argues that these relationships and processes are so central to the establishment of OSH functioning that studying them warrants a broad, cross-disciplinary, multiple method analysis. Exploring the complexity of leadership by the impact that contexts (e.g., national and organizational culture) may have on leaders, this book discusses the related literature, then moves forward to show how a more comprehensive practical approach to Occupational Safety and Health and performance excellence can function on levels pertaining to events, individuals, groups, and organizations. This book proposes that greater clarity in understanding leadership in Occupational Safety and Health and performance excellence can be developed from addressing two fundame...

  19. Industry Initiated Core Safety Attributes for Human Spaceflight for the 7th IAASS Conference

    Mango, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Now that the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is beginning its full certification contract for crew transportation to the International Space Station (ISS), is it time for industry to embrace a minimum set of core safety attributes? Those attributes can then be evolved into an industry-led set of basic safety standards and requirements. After 50 years of human space travel sponsored by governments, there are two basic conditions that now exist within the international space industry. The first, there is enough of a space-faring history to encourage the space industry to design, develop and operate human spaceflight systems without government contracts for anything other than services. Second, industry is capable of defining and enforcing a set of industry-based safety attributes and standards for human spaceflight to low-Earth orbit (LEO). This paper will explore both of these basic conditions with a focus on the safety attributes and standards. In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is now starting to dialogue with industry about the basic safety principles and attributes needed for potential future regulatory oversight. This process is not yet formalized and will take a number of years once approval is given to move forward. Therefore, throughout the next few years, it is an excellent time and opportunity for industry to collaborate together and develop the core set of attributes and standards. As industry engages and embraces a common set of safety attributes, then government agencies, like the FAA and NASA can use that industry-based product to strengthen their efforts on a safe commercial spaceflight foundation for the future. As the commercial space industry takes the lead role in establishing core safety attributes, and then enforcing those attributes, the entire planet can move away from governmental control of design and development and let industry expand safe and successful space operations in LEO. At that point the

  20. Impacts of electricity industry restructure on nuclear safety and corresponding strategies to respond

    Restructuring and privatization of the electricity power industry has raised new concerns that such process could affect nuclear safety. Since electricity industry of Korea is also being restructured, regulatory body should make pro-active and precautionary efforts to remove negative impacts on nuclear safety and to make positive effects maximized. This paper examines the international efforts of nuclear regulator cope with electricity restructuring, analyzes the impacts of relevant issues raised by other countries on domestic nuclear safety, and proposes policy directions to resolve such issues

  1. Safety and Security in Industrial Applications of Radioactive Sources: Two Principles, Only One Commitment

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina applies the basic principles of radiation protection and the necessary requirements to ensure radiation safety and physical security of radioactive sources, established in its Regulatory Standards. The criteria used by Regulatory Standards aim to reinforce and strengthen the measures of safety and security of radioactive material applying the concepts of safety culture and defence in depth. The paper refers to the criteria currently applied to mobile radioactive sources that are used in industrial applications with measurement purposes, studies of well logging and industrial radiography. (author)

  2. Radiation protection and nuclear safety - achievements and the way ahead for ARPANSA

    Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), a fully independent legislative and regulatory agency, was announced in 1997, but formally came into existence in 1999. The first stage of its development as a regulator was guiding Commonwealth users of radiation sources and nuclear facilities through making licence applications. Assessing licences was complex, including because of the need to work with the public submission process for nuclear facilities. This presentation will briefly outline the legislative framework and the regulatory arrangements that were instrumental in the creation of ARPANSA and discusses at length the implementation phase and achievements to date. The Commonwealth jurisdiction differs from the States - ARPANSA's challenge is now to learn how to move to the surveillance and audit stage of licensing

  3. Radiation Safety Regulatory Policy and Rule for NORM Industries in China

    Background information and the basic status concerning NORM industries in China is briefly introduced in the paper, including current natural radiation levels and the main results of a general survey related to NORM industries implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Protection. An introduction to the radiation safety regulatory policy and rule for NORM industries in China is also briefly presented. Finally, some considerations concerning NORM regulatory issues are discussed. (author)

  4. Health, Safety and Environment Culture in the Petroleum Industry in Norway

    Høivik, Dordi

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is based on four studies of aspects of health, safety and environment (HSE) culture in the petroleum industry in Norway. Oil and gas production is currently Norway’s largest industry, with both offshore and onshore operations. HSE issues, focusing on reducing risks to people, facilities and the environment, are important in this industry. The main objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about factors that affect the HSE in the Norwegian petroleum indus...

  5. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2011

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2012-07-15

    In this eighteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2011 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 34 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 96% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last eighteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the third year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  6. European downstream oil industry safety performance. Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2012

    Burton, A. [Awaken Consulting, Shropshire, Herefordshire (United Kingdom); Den Haan, K.H.

    2013-08-15

    In this nineteenth annual report on European downstream oil industry safety performance, 2012 statistics are presented on work-related personal injuries for the industry's own employees and contractors. Data were received from 38 CONCAWE Member Companies representing approximately 98% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last nineteen years are also highlighted and the data are compared to similar statistics from related industries. This report also presents the fourth year of results for Process Safety Performance Indicators from CONCAWE members.

  7. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  8. Promoting nuclear power, achieving sustainable development of nuclear industry in China

    The past 5 decades witnessed the rapid growth of China's nuclear industry. The sustained and rapid economic growth and continuous improvement of people's living standards have placed higher requirements for energy and power supplies. As a safe and clean energy source, nuclear energy has been gradually and widely accepted by the Chinese government and the public. The Chinese government has adopted the policy actively pushing forward the nuclear power development, set up the target to reach 40GWe of nuclear power installed capacity by 2020, accounting for about 4% of the total installed capacity in China. In this regard, this paper presents the China's nuclear program to illustrate how China is going to achieve the target. The paper is composed of 3 parts. The first part gives a review of the achievements in nuclear power in the last 20 years. The second part presents China's ''three approach'' strategy for furthering the nuclear power development: carrying out duplication projects at the existing plant sites; introducing GUI technology via international bidding; developing the brand CNP1000, i.e. Chinese Nuclear Power lOOOMwe class, with China's own intellectual property. This part also explores the ways of securing the fuel supply for nuclear power development. The third part concludes with CNNC's ''3221'' strategy which aims at building a world class conglomerate, and expresses its sincere wish to work with the nuclear community to push the nuclear industry worldwide by strengthening international cooperation

  9. Health protection and industrial safety. Nuclear power plants

    The standard applies to components of the primary circuit including its auxiliary facilities, and of the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors; to lifting gear and load take-ups for the transport of nuclear fuel and primary circuit components; to elevators within the containment, electrical installations, and piping and valves of radiation protection monitoring equipment. Part 1 defines the terms and specifies engineered safety requirements

  10. Efficient Safety Culture as Sustainable Development in Construction Industry

    Otti. V. I; Nwolum F. C

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on precaution necessary to prevent avoidable accidents in the construction industries, important water development, building and roads construction in Nigeria. Moreover, appreciate the need for a safe working environment but also precaution necessary for hitch-free operation.

  11. Safety regulations of radiation sources in industry in the Philippines

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission established in 1958. This report aims to share the experiences of the PNRI on licensing and regulating the safe use of radioactive materials in industry, particularly in industrial gamma radiography, nuclear gauges and radioactive tracers. It enumerates the licensing and enforcement procedures. Some common problems encountered in the licensing and enforcement activities and comments of future plans to resolve the problems were also discussed. (Author)

  12. Radiation safety needs for the resurgent uranium mining industry

    Full text: After many years in the economic doldrums the world's uranium industry is undergoing a renaissance. The recent rapid price increase for the product and the anticipated market shortfalls in supply of yellowcake have are responsible for this. There is now a rush of new activity: abandoned mines from a previous era are being re-examined for their potential to be re-opened; planning for exploitation of known but undeveloped uranium deposits is proceeding at a rapid pace in many countries new to uranium mining; and finally worldwide exploration activity for uranium is expanding at a great rate with more than 400 companies now claiming to be involved in the uranium mining market. All of there activities have significant implications the radiation protection profession. At every stage of the uranium production cycle, from exploration to mining and processing through to remediation there are requirements for proper radiation protection procedures and regulation. The long period of reduced activity in uranium mining has meant that few young people have been joining the industry over the past 20 years. There is now a shortage of trained and experienced radiation protection professionals associated with the mining industry that cannot be overcome overnight. The paper discusses the development of this situation and the various strategies that are being put in place around the world to improve the situation. In particular the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working with radiation protection authorities and uranium mining industry representatives from around the world to address the issue. The latest developments in this project will be described and the future plans described. (author)

  13. Safety and reliability in industrial organizations - The key factors

    A survey-based technique has been developed that measures and generates comparative data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. This paper describes the results of an analysis of data from more than 2,700 employees in the chemical, oil, construction, and wood products industries. These analyses indicate that several key variables are significantly related to accidents in the workplace

  14. Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division, annual report for 1982

    1983-12-01

    Activities during the past year are summarized for the Health Physics Department, the Environmental Management Department, and the Safety Department. The Health Physics Department conducts radiation and safety surveys, provides personnel monitoring services for both external and internal radiation, and procures, services, and calibrates appropriate portable and stationary health physics instruments. The Environmental Management Department insures that the activities of the various organizations within ORNL are carried out in a responsible and safe manner. This responsibility involves the measurement, field monitoring, and evaluation of the amounts of radionuclides and hazardous materials released to the environment and the control of hazardous materials used within ORNL. The department also collaborates in the design of ORNL Facilities to help reduce the level of materials released to the environment. The Safety Department is responsible for maintaining a high level of staff safety. This includes aspects of both operational and industrial safety and also coordinates the activities of the Director's Safety Review Committee. (ACR)

  15. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. PMID:22405247

  16. Systematic impact of institutional pressures on safety climate in the construction industry.

    He, Qinghua; Dong, Shuang; Rose, Timothy; Li, Heng; Yin, Qin; Cao, Dongping

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores how three types of institutional pressure (i.e., coercive, mimetic and normative pressures) systematically impact on the safety climate of construction projects. These impacts are empirically tested by survey data collected from 186 questionnaires of construction companies operating in Shanghai, China. The results, obtained by partial least squares analysis, show that organizational management commitment to safety and employee involvement is positively related to all three institutional pressures, while the perception of responsibility for safety and health is significantly influenced by coercive and mimetic pressure. However, coercive and normative pressures have no significant effect on the applicability of safety rules and work practices, revealing the importance of external organizational pressures in improving project safety climate from a systematic view. The findings also provide insights into the use of institutional forces to facilitate the improvement of safety climate in the construction industry. PMID:26706434

  17. Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division, annual report for 1982

    Activities during the past year are summarized for the Health Physics Department, the Environmental Management Department, and the Safety Department. The Health Physics Department conducts radiation and safety surveys, provides personnel monitoring services for both external and internal radiation, and procures, services, and calibrates appropriate portable and stationary health physics instruments. The Environmental Management Department insures that the activities of the various organizations within ORNL are carried out in a responsible and safe manner. This responsibility involves the measurement, field monitoring, and evaluation of the amounts of radionuclides and hazardous materials released to the environment and the control of hazardous materials used within ORNL. The department also collaborates in the design of ORNL Facilities to help reduce the level of materials released to the environment. The Safety Department is responsible for maintaining a high level of staff safety. This includes aspects of both operational and industrial safety and also coordinates the activities of the Director's Safety Review Committee

  18. Application of rupture disc safety device in nuclear industry

    Conventional disc devices are used to protect pressure vessels against excess pressure. However, there are several limitations for conventional discs: they are prone to premature fatigue failure; on bursting, disc material is released into to discharge piping; the difference between the design burst pressure and the design work pressure of the protected vessel is too large, etc. These limitations have been avoided by the new reverse buckling disc devices, in which the compressive strength of the disc material is used to determine its bursting pressure. The new type reverse buckling discs have been used successfully in nuclear industry

  19. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  20. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    In the present study the societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce the radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities. It is also shown that the incremental safety investments needed to further reduce the radiation doses in the environment during normal and continuous operation of nuclear plants are extravagantly high as compared to safety investments in other human activities and in other facets of human life. Considering that there is a limit to the economic means available, societal expenditures for reducing risks should by spread, as much as possible, over all human activities to get the maximum return from investments. (B.G.)

  1. Excellent Silicon Surface Passivation Achieved by Industrial Inductively Coupled Plasma Deposited Hydrogenated Intrinsic Amorphous Silicon Suboxide

    Jia Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative method of depositing a high-quality passivation film for heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells, in this paper. The deposition of hydrogenated intrinsic amorphous silicon suboxide is accomplished by decomposing hydrogen, silane, and carbon dioxide in an industrial remote inductively coupled plasma platform. Through the investigation on CO2 partial pressure and process temperature, excellent surface passivation quality and optical properties are achieved. It is found that the hydrogen content in the film is much higher than what is commonly reported in intrinsic amorphous silicon due to oxygen incorporation. The observed slow depletion of hydrogen with increasing temperature greatly enhances its process window as well. The effective lifetime of symmetrically passivated samples under the optimal condition exceeds 4.7 ms on planar n-type Czochralski silicon wafers with a resistivity of 1 Ωcm, which is equivalent to an effective surface recombination velocity of less than 1.7 cms−1 and an implied open-circuit voltage (Voc of 741 mV. A comparison with several high quality passivation schemes for solar cells reveals that the developed inductively coupled plasma deposited films show excellent passivation quality. The excellent optical property and resistance to degradation make it an excellent substitute for industrial heterojunction silicon solar cell production.

  2. What Do Companies in the Processing Industry do in Order to Achieve Success?

    Peter BONA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Borders of countries and continents have become more and more blurred by now, while distances have turned out to be less important. Markets of continents or countries are not separated anymore therefore competition between companies has gotten fiercer and much faster than earlier. What kind of instruments may companies in the processing industry use to maintain their existence and to remain competitive in the fragile system following the economic crisis in 2008? This research aims at finding out how the effects of components belonging to the concept of strategic management system influence outstanding achievement and success. It primarily analyses, in what ways instruments considered being the most determinative, i.e. strategic a structural success factors affect the processing industry. In order to do that the research defines the factors having an influence. Thereafter it explains successful operation of companies with factors emerging via the use of regression models. It uses the balance scorecard as a tool for success criteria describing success. The research tackles the issue of sustainability with a high priority in this system as a success component: the fifth perspective among the other four classic ones. Thus the results of the research will show how strategic and structural success factors can make a company successful and the satisfaction of which groups of interest they affect the most.

  3. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    time, they are requested to use the safety life cycle model in IEC 61508 as basis for their product development. This thesis links the safety life cycle model in IEC 61508 to a more general product development model, where IEC 61508 requirements are discussed in light of other RAMS requirements. SIS manufacturers who develop products for more than one industry sector must often adhere to IEC 61508 as well as sector specific standards. Some of the sector specific standards build directly on IEC 61508, while others have been developed prior to IEC 61508 and may use different concepts and approaches. This work describes an approach for qualification of a software development platform in light of these challenges. SIS designers have to balance the SIS reliability with the practicality of performing functional tests. Functional tests are important means to reveal SIS failures, but the tests often require process shutdowns. Partial stroke testing is a valve test that does not require full valve closure, but the test efficiency is highly influenced by the test coverage. This thesis suggests a way to determine the test coverage, taking into account application specific considerations and generic data for valve failures. The oil and gas industry has aimed at keeping the SIS as simple as possible, and here, reliability block diagrams have been well suited for reliability analysis. However, technology development challenges the principle of simplicity, and then fault tree analysis may be better suited to achieve complete reliability models and for involving design engineers in the model construction and verification. Many software tools for fault tree analysis make non conservative estimates for the reliability of periodically tested SISs, which may not be acceptable when the estimates are used as basis for selecting hardware architecture. This thesis proposes a conservative calculation approach for fault tree analysis that builds on calculation methods familiar to the oil and

  4. The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Safety Climate on Voluntary Turnover in the Transportation Industry

    J. Kirk Ring

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A model investigating the relationship between safety climate, perceivedorganizational support, and voluntary turnover is developed and tested with datacollected from the trucking industry. Perceived organizational support is shownto mediate the relationship between safety climate and voluntary turnover, butthis effect occurs only with tenured employees who are not at the beginning orend of their careers. This implicates a curvilinear relationship of the variablesand offers statistical support for a temporal nature of perceived organizationalsupport which has not been found in previous studies.

  5. The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Safety Climate on Voluntary Turnover in the Transportation Industry

    J. Kirk Ring

    2011-01-01

    A model investigating the relationship between safety climate, perceivedorganizational support, and voluntary turnover is developed and tested with datacollected from the trucking industry. Perceived organizational support is shownto mediate the relationship between safety climate and voluntary turnover, butthis effect occurs only with tenured employees who are not at the beginning orend of their careers. This implicates a curvilinear relationship of the variablesand offers statistical suppor...

  6. Industrial safety in a nuclear decommissioning environment observations and lessons learned

    Decommissioning activities present unusual and unexpected workplace safety challenges that go far beyond the traditional experience of nuclear power plant managers. A blend of state-of-the-art safety program management tools along with new and practical applications are required to ensure high industrial safety performance. The demanding and rigorously applied nuclear safety engineering standards that are accepted as normal and routine in the operation of a nuclear power facility, should transform as an industrial safety standard during the non-operating period of decommissioning. In addition, historical measures of non-nuclear industrial safety injury rates would or should not be acceptable safety behaviors during a nuclear decommissioning project. When complex projects, such as the decommissioning of a nuclear generating facility are undertaken, the workforce brings experience, qualifications, and assumptions to the project. The overall multi-year general schedule is developed, with more schedule details, for example, for the nearest rolling 12-18 months. Methods are established for the selection of contractors to assist in areas that are not normal tasks for the facility workforce, whose normal activity is managing and operating a nuclear generating station. However, it is critical to manage those contractors to the agreed work scope to ensure success is maintained by both parties, e.g. the job gets done, on schedule, on budget, all parties are financially whole when the work is complete, and safely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective of nuclear plant personal safety in the ever changing industrial environment created by the demolition of robust and often radiologically contaminated structures in a nuclear facility decommissioning project. (author)

  7. Benchmarking of process safety management elements in the South African process industry / M.O. Popoola

    Popoola, Musiliu Olayide

    2007-01-01

    This study is a benchmarking exercise aimed at identifying the variation in the practice - within the South African process industry - of three process safety management (PSM) elements, namely: Management of Change (MOC), Emergency Preparedness Program (EPP), and Process Safety Incident Investigation (PSII) programs. Structured questionnaires were developed for each of the three PSM elements, and sent to over 180 process plants. Typically, the study experienced a low response rate. Howeve...

  8. Work health and safety in cotton ginning industry: a survey of practices in australia

    This survey focuses on the WH and S (Work Health and Safety) practices in Australia and relates them with those in Pakistan. It also highlights the planned areas of work required on WH and S in cotton ginning industry of Pakistan. This article is one a series of research studies that will inform a broader approach development. The aim of the survey was to design a standardized health and safety Act for cotton ginning industry of Pakistan and to help ginners meet their due industry obligations under the model WH and S Act. The first component of the research study survey was to review the relevant Australian work and safety model as this provides a framework to protect the health, safety and welfare of all employees at work and of other people who might be affected by the job. The second aspect of the research study survey concerned site visits to cotton gins with the support of Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety, Moree, NSW. During these visits the existing ginning process in terms of WH and S were reviewed. Informal interviews were also conducted with Gin Managers and Ginning Experts regarding WH and S in the Australian cotton ginning industry. (author)

  9. Nanotechnology: a future tool to improve quality and safety in meat industry.

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jairath, Gauri; Ahlawat, Satyavir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the new aspect of science modifies its physical, chemical and biological properties leading to new applications or enhanced utility. Keeping the pace with other industries, the meat industry has adopted the new technology in a range of applications to improve the quality and safety of products. The potential applications include the improvement in the tastes, texture, flavor, production of low fat and salt products, enhanced nutrient absorption, improved packaging techniques and better pathogen detection system. However some safety issues need to be addressed before taking a ride on the technology at the full throttle. PMID:27413202

  10. Organizational factors and the safety of nuclear power plants: a challenge to the nuclear industry and regulatory authorities

    Safety has been, and it is, an outstanding characteristic of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world. In more than twenty-five years of NPP operation in Latin America safety performance is remarkable which is again a noteworthy achievement, the more so as technology needed to be transferred, learned and adapted to national idiosyncrasies. The operation of NPPs at worldwide level reached maturity but we are facing changes. The generation of nuclear pioneers is leaving and a new generation is taking over but expertise and corporate memory need to be preserved. In the context of deregulated markets, organizational factors became a challenge to the nuclear industry and regulatory authorities. As the potentiality of adverse effects related to such factors becomes crucial for excellence in the safe operation of NPPs, the Committee considers that it is opportune to issue this Position Paper. (author)

  11. Safety culture in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear industries - history and present

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The report presents results from an interview study that examined the characteristics of the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The study also tested the theoretical model of safety culture developed by the authors. The interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16). Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). The study gave insight into the nature of safety culture in the nuclear industry. It provided an overview on the variety of factors that people in the industry consider important for safety. The respondents rather coherently saw such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and safety and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Some of the respondents described a certain Nordic orientation towards safety. One characteristic was a sense of personal responsibility for safety. However, there was no clear agreement on the existence of a shared Nordic nuclear safety culture. Sweden and Finland were seen different for example in the way the co-operation between plants and nuclear safety authorities was arranged and re-search activities organized. There were also perceived differences in the way everyday activities like decision making were carried out in the organizations. There are multiple explanations for the differences. The industry in Sweden has been driven by the strong supplier. In Finland the regulator's role in shaping the culture has been more active. Other factors creating differences are e.g. national culture and company culture and the type of the power plant. Co-operation between Nordic nuclear power organizations was viewed valuable yet challenging from safety point of view. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide under-standing of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as

  12. Safety culture in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear industries - history and present

    The report presents results from an interview study that examined the characteristics of the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The study also tested the theoretical model of safety culture developed by the authors. The interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16). Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). The study gave insight into the nature of safety culture in the nuclear industry. It provided an overview on the variety of factors that people in the industry consider important for safety. The respondents rather coherently saw such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and safety and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Some of the respondents described a certain Nordic orientation towards safety. One characteristic was a sense of personal responsibility for safety. However, there was no clear agreement on the existence of a shared Nordic nuclear safety culture. Sweden and Finland were seen different for example in the way the co-operation between plants and nuclear safety authorities was arranged and re-search activities organized. There were also perceived differences in the way everyday activities like decision making were carried out in the organizations. There are multiple explanations for the differences. The industry in Sweden has been driven by the strong supplier. In Finland the regulator's role in shaping the culture has been more active. Other factors creating differences are e.g. national culture and company culture and the type of the power plant. Co-operation between Nordic nuclear power organizations was viewed valuable yet challenging from safety point of view. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide under-standing of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a

  13. Evaluation of the safety engineering of the industries which use the natural gas (PB e PE

    Francisco S. Másculo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas in Industries is a field of studies that has recently been object of concern andresearch in universities and research centers. This analysis has become more evident dueto several factors as the increasing use in industries of the natural gas replacing thecombustible oil (BPF in your energetic matrix. The aim of this article is introducing someconsiderations about ergonomics and safety of work of the Industries which use the NaturalGas, analyzing the changes occurred with after your introduction. The industrial consumerswere stratified in several variables, such as: Kinds of the Industrial Production; Geographicallocation; Gas consumption in the industry, among others. Although the geographical locationof the studied companies was in the eastern Northeast (PB and PE, the results can begeneralized in the measure in which they were boarded global characteristics big sizecompanies, almost all owning or trying to obtain quality certifications, environmental andsafety engineering.

  14. On the state of the radiation safety in the atomic energy and nuclear industry of Russia

    The general aspects of the activity of organs of government in the field of human radiation protection and some other problems of nuclear industry connecting with the new economic and politic situation in Russia have been discussed. There are present information about the organs of government relating to the questions of radiation safety and the major directions of governmental policy in this fields. Some problems of the elimination of the consequences of the accidents in NPPs (Chernobyl, Chelyabinsk), the programs of the radiation safety improvement of population and the information about new normative nuclear safety documents have also been written in this report. (author)

  15. Use of reactor plants of enhanced safety for sea water desalination, industrial and district heating

    Russian designers have developed and can deliver nuclear complexes to provide sea water desalination, industrial and district heating. This paper provides an overview of these designs utilizing the ABV, KLT-40 and ATETS-80 reactor plants of enhanced safety. The most advanced nuclear powered water desalination project is the APVS-80. This design consists of a special ship equipped with the distillation desalination plant powered at a level of 160 MW(th) utilizing the type KLT-40 reactor plant. More than 20 years of experience with water desalination and reactor plants has been achieved in Aktau and Russian nuclear ships without radioactive contamination of desalinated water. Design is also proceeding on a two structure complex consisting of a floating nuclear power station and a reverse osmosis desalination plant. This new technology for sea water desalination provides the opportunity to considerably reduce the specific consumption of power for the desalination of sea water. The ABV reactor is utilized in the ''Volnolom'' type floating nuclear power stations. This design also features a desalinator ship which provides sea water desalination by the reverse osmosis process. The ATETS-80 is a nuclear two-reactor cogeneration complex which incorporates the integral vessel-type PWR which can be used in the production of electricity, steam, hot and desalinated water. (author). 9 figs

  16. HACCP as a Regulatory Innovation to Improve Food Safety in the Meat Industry

    Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Jensen, Helen H.

    1996-01-01

    Industrial engineers in the food-processing industry have developed the Halyard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system as a preventive approach to ensuring the safety of meat and poultry products. This paper discusses both the origins of HACCP as an engineering concept and the economics of HACCP as a regulatory tool. The authors contend that the economics literature has not adequately explored the benefits from prevention, particularly when the costs of hazard detection are high and t...

  17. Licenses for industrial radiography and radiation safety requirements for radiographic operation: CPR part 11

    This part describes the requirements for issuing of licenses for the use of sealed sources containing radioactive material in industrial radiography and radiation safety requirements for persons using such sealed sources in industrial radiography. The provisions and requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution, for other applicable requirements of CPR (Code of PNRI Regulations) Part 2 and other parts of the code. (Author)

  18. Exploring factors associated with workers' safety rule violations in the Chinese construction industry: a multimethod investigation

    Wang, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese construction industry is China's third biggest industrial killer. Accidents causation analysis revealed that more than 80% of accidents are caused by unsafe human behaviour. The current research was focused on exploring and examining the factors affecting safety rule violations among Chinese construction workers through four main studies in which a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used. In the first study, on-site observation and organisational docume...

  19. Radiological safety assessment of gas mantle industries in India

    Thorium, a radioactive element of actinide family was discovered by Berzelius in 1828 and named by him in honor of the Scandinavian God open-quote Thor close-quote. Following its discovery the earliest known use of thorium was in the making of gas mantles. The other use as an X-ray contrast medium open-quote Thorotrast close-quote has since long been discontinued, where as even today its use in gas mantles is continued. Gas lights have been used as a source of light since 1800's. In India, although electric bulbs have replaced most of the gas lights, even today in villages and in urban areas where there is no continuous power supply and in outdoor lightings gas lamps are used. The mantle which is used in these lamps is called the Welsbach mantle and is a netted hose that is impregnated with thorium nitrate and other metals. The function of a gas mantle is to produce a bright light during operation of the lighting device (gas or kerosene lamp) in which the mantle is placed. When placed in a lighting device and heated to 1300-1800 degree Celcius thorium in the mantle incandesces and gives off bright light. In India presently there are about 70 manufacturing units handling 150 metric tons of thorium nitrate annually. There are about four hundred persons involved in manufacturing 200 million mantles per year. Thorium is chosen because of its property of incadescence, however since it is radioactive, radiation safety of the workplace, handling personnel and safe environmental condition for members of public have to be maintained

  20. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1978

    There were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 39 employees received whole body dose equivalents of one rem or greater. The highest whole body dose equivalent to an employee was 3.3 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than 25% of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1978, 23 portable instruments were added to the inventory and 228 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 1023. There were no releases of gaseous waste or liquid radioactive waste from the laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. The average background level at the PAM stations during 1978 was 9.3 μR/hr, or 81 mR/yr. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Grass samples were collected and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. During 1978, the Radiation and Safety Surveys personnel continued to assist the operating groups in keeping contamination, air concentrations, and personnel exposure levels below the established maximum permissible levels. Fourteen radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1978. Of the 582,000 articles of wearing apparel and 192,000 articles, such as mops, laundry bags, towels, etc., monitored during 1978 about four percent were found to be contaminated. Three lost workday cases occurred at ORNL in 1978, a frequency rate of 0.07. The Serious Injury frequency rate for 1978 was 1.40, as based on the new OSHA system for recording injuries and illness (RII). A total of 55 days were lost or charged for the three lost workday cases in 1978

  1. OECD/NEA WGFCS Workshop: Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives

    Nuclear fuel is produced, processed, and stored mainly in industrial-scale facilities. Uranium ores are processed and refined to produce a pure uranium salt stream, Uranium is converted and enriched, nuclear fuel is fabricated (U fuel and U/Pu fuel for the closed cycle option); and spent fuel is stored and reprocessed in some countries (close cycle option). Facilities dedicated to the research and development of new fuel or new processes are also considered as Fuel Cycle Facilities. The safety assessment of nuclear facilities has often been led by the methodology and techniques initially developed for Nuclear Power Plants. As FCFs cover a wide diversity of installations the various approaches of national regulators, and their technical support organizations, for the Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities are also diverse, as are the approaches by their industries in providing safety justifications for their facilities. The objective of the Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety is to advance the understanding for both regulators and operators of relevant aspects of nuclear fuel cycle safety in member countries. A large amount of experience is available in safety assessment of FCFs, which should be shared to develop ideas in this field. To contribute to this task, the Workshop on 'Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives' was held in Toronto, on 27 - 29 September 2011. The workshop was hosted by Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The current proceedings provide summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  2. Achievements and future directions in the reactors physics and nuclear safety research

    A historical overlook is presented with respect to inception and development of reactor physics research and on the job training in Romania. First these activities were carried out at the Institute for Atomic Physics and Institute for Power Reactors (IRNE) in Bucharest and afterward at the Institute for Nuclear Technologies, later on transformed in the Institute of Nuclear Research at Pitesti. CYBER Computer installed at Pitesti allowed formation in as early as 1971 reactor specialists who worked out computer programs for neutron physics calculations. These specialists were able to assimilate the characteristic of CANDU 6 type reactor as well as the AECL methodology of simulating processes of CANDU reactor physics. At present four programs are under way. These are: 1. The nuclear reactor physics; 2. The nuclear facility safety; 3. Safety analyses for the transport and radioactive waste disposal; 4. Analyses for radiation shielding and biological protection. There are presented results of the work associated to the CANDU type reactor: 1. Adapting and improving the code system for neutron and thermohydraulic calculation for CANDU type reactor, as supplied by AECL; 2. The IRNE manual for CANDU reactor neutron designing; 3. Final sizing of shim rods of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2; 4. Tests and measurements of reactor physics at the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 commissioning; 5. Simulation and independent analysis of thermosiphoning carried out at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 commissioning; 6. Static and dynamical response of the detectors in the CANDU reactor core and their time evolution following the burnup in the neutron flux and their ageing effects; 7. PSA studies at Unit 1; 8. Safety analyses for the radioactive waste disposal at Saligny repository. Also, reported are the results of the work associated to the TRIGA reactor, as follows: 1. Flux measurements and neutron computations necessary in the reactor commissioning; 2. Cleaning up controversial issues relating to neutron flux

  3. Veterinary education on fostering food safety and governance achieving a healthy nation in Bangladesh

    M. Mufizur Rahman; Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring a nation's food safety, therefore the present status of our food safety, where large numbers of consumers in Bangladesh have become victims of consuming adulterated foods, needs to be enhanced and governed by the guideline of veterinary and public health educators. This article highlights the need of an integrated collaborative approach between academicians and government officials for the creation and dissemination of food-safety ...

  4. Safety- and risk analysis activities in other areas than the nuclear industry

    The report gives an overview of the legislation within the European Union in the field of major industrial hazards and gives examples of decision criteria applied in a number of European countries when judging the acceptability of an activity. Furthermore, the report mentions a few methods used in the analysis of the safety of chemical installations. (au)

  5. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative fuel

  6. Toward a sustainable cement industry in 2020 : improvement of the environmental, health & safety performance

    2001-01-01

    This background document concentrates on technical and managerial aspects of Environmental, Health & Safety Performance (EHS) control in the cement industry. It gives an overview of options for improvement toward a sustainable cement production in 2020. Energy consumption and use of alternative fuels and raw materials are included in this substudy.

  7. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  8. Competency Based Education Curriculum for the Orientation and Safety Program of the Oil and Gas Industry.

    United Career Center, Clarksburg, WV.

    This competency-based education curriculum for teaching the orientation and safety program for the oil and gas industry in West Virginia is organized into seven units. These units cover the following topics: introduction to oil and gas, first aid, site preparation, drilling operations, equipment familiarity, well completion, and preparation for…

  9. Safety- and risk analysis activities in other areas than the nuclear industry

    Kozine, I.; Duijm, N.J.; Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2000-12-01

    The report gives an overview of the legislation within the European Union in the field of major industrial hazards and gives examples of decision criteria applied in a number of European countries when judging the acceptability of an activity. Furthermore, the report mentions a few methods used in the analysis of the safety of chemical installations. (au)

  10. Looking ahead to significant improvements in mining safety and health through innovative research and effective diffusion into the industry

    Jeffery L. Kohler

    2015-01-01

    Mining safety and health improvements over the past decades are remarkable by many metrics, and yet the expectation of society, and the goal of the mining industry, is zero harm. If we examine the underlying enablers for the significant gains that have been achieved, the key role that research to help understand the causes of problems and to develop lasting solutions is clear. Many of the remaining challenges have been resistant to solutions by various approaches. Some, such as fatalities and injuries from ground con-trol or powered haulage are prominent year after year. Different approaches are indicated and new solu-tions will be required if we are to achieve a goal of zero harm. These will originate with research, but into which topics, and what are some of these different approaches? This paper examines the current state of mine safety in the United States and highlights areas of significant opportunity for research that will lead to solutions. The likely direction of research that will enable realization of the ‘zero harm’ goal is described in terms of evolutionary and revolutionary approaches. Both are important, but the author’s view is that some of the largest gains will be made with trans-disciplinary approaches that break from the past. Topical areas of research are suggested and several research questions are given to illustrate the direction of future research in mining safety and health.

  11. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  12. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  13. The Role Of Industrial Safety Measures In Combating Occupational Hazards And Accidents In India

    Sharmistha Bhattacharjee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of occupational hazards and industrial accidents de-motivates the worker to contribute their best to the organization. The participation of workers in the workplace which promises safety and security fosters teamwork, quality of product high productivity and a good communication between management and the industrial workers. For combating occupational hazards and accidents in an industrial site, safety is necessary and a challenging issue in an industrial environment. Serious technological accidents happens everyday somewhere in the world, causing deaths, injuries and damages to the environment and to the employees Most accidents are caused by people. People are not aware of how to use protective equipments nor are they aware of industrial hygiene and security measures. This paper provides an overview from the secondary sources of data on occupational hazards and accidents, and focuses on the safety and security services and measures provided by the institutions and government to combat the problems to provide an understanding of the situation in Indian context

  14. Emissions trading for business and industry. A new instrument to achieve environmental goals

    Key components of the Kyoto Protocol are the flexible instruments or mechanisms: namely trading emissions, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. These mechanisms make it possible to trade in CO2 emissions or emission permits, thereby enabling the Kyoto Protocol targets that have been imposed on all states, to be attained in the most cost-effective way. Although the Kyoto targets are binding only on states, it is likely that governments will pass responsibility for meeting them on to specific target groups and impose absolute or relative (energy efficiency or CO2 per unit) targets on them. Flexible instruments, especially Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), can also be used by companies to achieve their emission targets. Until now, the VNO-NCW Confederation of Netherlands Industry has generally been positive about the use of flexible instruments. However, various developments have persuaded the VNO-NCW that it is a good idea to examine more specific questions with regard to flexible instruments. First, the CO2 trade committee (the Vogtlaender Committee) has been asked to issue recommendations concerning the possibilities inherent in a national system for emissions trading. A basic variant will be explored, in which protected sectors (households, the service industry, small industrial enterprises) will be assigned absolute ceilings and internationally operating companies will be assigned with relative targets. Second, in March 2000 the European Commission published a Green Paper on trade in greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union in order to launch an European Union (EU)-wide debate on the introduction of an EU system for trade in emissions in 2005. In common with the Netherlands, various EU member states are studying the possibilities for phasing in a system of trade in CO2 emissions; only in Denmark has such a system actually been introduced. In industry, too, many initiatives have been taken in

  15. Assessment of safety culture from the INB organization: A case study for nuclear fuel cycle industry

    The present article describes strategies, methodologies and first results on the Safety Culture Self-assessment Project under way at INB since August 2001. As a Brazilian Government company in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle activities,. the main purposes of the Project is to evaluate the present status of its safety culture and to propose actions to ensure continuous safety improvement at management level of its industrial processes. The proposed safety culture assessment describes INB's various production sites taking into account the different aspects of their activities, such as regional, social and technical issues. The survey was performed in March/2002 very good attendance (about 80%) the employees. The first global survey results are presented in item 4. (author)

  16. Reliability-based approaches for safety margin assessment in the French nuclear industry

    The prevention of the fast fracture damage of the mechanical equipment important for the safety of nuclear islands of the French PWR relies on deterministic rules. These rules include flaw acceptance criteria involving safety factors applied to characteristic values (implicit margins) of the physical variables. The sets of safety factors that are currently under application in the industrial analyses with the agreement of the Safety Authority, are distributed across the two main physical parameters and have partly been based on a semi-probabilistic approach. After presenting the generic probabilistic pro-codification approach this paper shows its application to the evaluation of the performances of the existing regulatory flaw acceptance criteria. This application can be carried out in a realistic manner or in a more simplified one. These two approaches are applied to representative mechanical components. Their results are consistent. (author)

  17. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in P...

  18. Employee Health and Safety Practices: An Exploratory and Comparative Study of the Shipping and Manufacturing Industries in Ghana

    Samuel Howard Quartey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of employee health and safety in the shipping and the manufacturing industries in most developingeconomies remains largely unexamined. The purpose of this study was to examine employee health and safetypractices in the shipping and manufacturing industries. The results from the quantitative analysis indicated thatemployees in the shipping and the manufacturing industries are prone to employee health and safety hazards. Thefindings suggest that management and employees demonstrated negative attitudes towards employee health andsafety practices in the industries. Results also showed that the shipping industry had more employee health andsafety initiatives than the manufacturing industry. The results further revealed that the age, gender and levels ofeducation of employees do not influence employees’ attitudes toward health and safety practices. The qualitativeanalysis also revealed that low productivity and high medical and insurance bills were associated with ineffectiveemployee health and safety practices while effective health and safety practices led to high profitability and highproductivity. Further, inadequate health and safety education and promotion as well as ineffective regulatorybodies were the major national challenges to health and safety practices. Moreover, non-compliance behaviours ofemployees as well as inadequate managerial support remained the industrial challenges to health and safetypractices. In conclusion, industries must consider employee health and safety as their internal corporate socialresponsibility (CSR investment.

  19. 76 FR 62073 - Guidance for Industry on Implementation of the Fee Provisions of the FDA Food Safety...

    2011-10-06

    ... Provisions of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food Safety... guidance for industry entitled ``Implementation of the Fee Provisions of Section 107 of the FDA Food...

  20. Veterinary education on fostering food safety and governance achieving a healthy nation in Bangladesh

    M. Mufizur Rahman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since veterinary medicine plays an important role in assuring a nation's food safety, therefore the present status of our food safety, where large numbers of consumers in Bangladesh have become victims of consuming adulterated foods, needs to be enhanced and governed by the guideline of veterinary and public health educators. This article highlights the need of an integrated collaborative approach between academicians and government officials for the creation and dissemination of food-safety teaching driving force to mitigate food borne diseases, ensure food safety, control mischievous and fraudulent adulteration – all destined to a harmonious national health strategic action plan. Veterinary education is very effective for cor- rect implementation of the stable to table concept and best serves the public when it is updated on current market needs of food products and measures protecting animal health. Universities in Europe and USA have adjusted their veterinary medicine curricula during the past few years. Experts predicted determinant changes by 2020 that would influence the work of the veterinarians. All of them are in favor of placing food quality and food safety and public health as the highest priorities in future veterinary education. In Bangladesh, Universities and Veterinary Colleges are producing qualified Veterinary Food Hygienists to deal with matters of health and demands for consumers’ food protection. The veterinary education blends veterinarians with strong capacity to advocate the assurance of food quality and safety from farm to fork. Government in collaboration with veterinary food hygienist should advocate academic and field covered sciencebased food safety system. It is hoped that in the near future Bangladesh will come forward with veterinary public health responsibilities incorporated in national food safety program. The concerned authorities in collaboration with international public health authority like WHO should

  1. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the industry level as the country moves towards the ultimate safety management strategy of self-regulation. The findings also indicate that the challenge of making worksites safe should not be placed solely on the contractors but should be shared by all parties affecting the value chain of construction, including the developers, the consultants and the government. The factors identified through factor analysis may inform legislators and industry practitioners in terms of the sources of problems and help develop effective strategies for improvement. Some of the experiences mentioned in the paper could also be relevant to other countries facing similar circumstances.

  2. Links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety

    Since 1992, the bureau for analysis of industrial risks and pollutions (BARPI) collects, analyzes and publishes information on industrial accidents. The ARIA database lists over 40.000 accidents or incidents, most of which occurred in French classified facilities (ICPE). Events occurring in nuclear facilities are rarely reported in ARIA because they are reported in other databases. This paper describes the process of selection, characterization and review of these accidents, as well as the following consultation with industry trade groups. It is essential to publicize widely the lessons learned from analyzing industrial accidents. To this end, a web site (www.aria.developpement-durable.gouv.fr) gives free access to the accidents summaries, detailed sheets, studies, etc. to professionals and the general public. In addition, the accidents descriptions and characteristics serve as inputs to new regulation projects or risk analyses. Finally, the question of the links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety is explored: if the rigorous and well-documented methods of experience feedback in the nuclear field certainly set an example for other activities, nuclear safety can also benefit from inputs coming from the vast diversity of accidents arisen into industrial facilities because of common grounds. Among these common grounds we can find: -) the fuel cycle facilities use many chemicals and chemical processes that are also used by chemical industries; -) the problems resulting from the ageing of equipment affect both heavy and nuclear industries; -) the risk of hydrogen explosion; -) the risk of ammonia, ammonia is a gas used by nuclear power plants as an ingredient in the onsite production of mono-chloramine and ammonia is involved in numerous accidents in the industry: at least 900 entries can be found in the ARIA database. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  3. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  4. Wireless Sensing Based on RFID and Capacitive Technologies for Safety in Marble Industry Process Control

    Fabrizio Iacopetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wireless sensing systems to increase safety and robustness in industrial process control, particularly in industrial machines for marble slab working. The process is performed by abrasive or cutting heads activated independently by the machine controller when the slab, transported on a conveyer belt, is under them. Current slab detection systems are based on electromechanical or optical devices at the machine entrance stage, suffering from deterioration and from the harsh environment. Slab displacement or break inside the machine due to the working stress may result in safety issues and damages to the conveyer belt due to incorrect driving of the working tools. The experimented contactless sensing techniques are based on four RFID and two capacitive sensing technologies and on customized hardware/software. The proposed solutions aim at overcoming some limitations of current state-of-the-art detection systems, allowing for reliable slab detection, outside and/or inside the machine, while maintaining low complexity and at the same time robustness to industrial harsh conditions. The proposed sensing devices may implement a wireless or wired sensor network feeding detection data to the machine controller. Data integrity check and process control algorithms have to be implemented for the safety and reliability of the overall industrial process.

  5. Quality and safety in Spain; La calidad y seguridad industrial en Espana

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  6. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD; K.P.REGHUNATH

    2010-01-01

    Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safe...

  7. Resolution 12/2004 Guideline for implementation of safety regulations in the practice of industrial radiography

    1. This guide is intended to clarify, in relation to its application in practice Industrial Radiography, the provisions of: a) Joint Resolution CITMA-MINSAP, of December 15, 2002, Regulation: Basic Radiation Safety Standards, hereinafter Regulation NBS; b) Resolution No. 25/98 of CITMA Regulation. Authorization Practices Associated with the use of ionizing radiation , hereinafter Resolution 25/98; c) Resolution 121/2000 CITMA Regulation: For the Safe Transport of Radioactive materials , hereinafter Resolution 121/2000; and in d) Joint Resolution CITMA-MINSAP, Regulation: Selection, Training and Authorization of personnel performing Employment Practices Associated Radiation Ionizing . 2. For the purposes of applying this Guide considers the practice of Industrial Radiography includes the following techniques: a) Industrial Radiography with use of gamma radiation sources; b) crawler radiography equipment; and c) Industrial Radiography with X-rays

  8. A Customized Vision System for Tracking Humans Wearing Reflective Safety Clothing from Industrial Vehicles and Machinery

    Rafael Mosberger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel approach for vision-based detection and tracking of humans wearing high-visibility clothing with retro-reflective markers. Addressing industrial applications where heavy vehicles operate in the vicinity of humans, we deploy a customized stereo camera setup with active illumination that allows for efficient detection of the reflective patterns created by the worker’s safety garments. After segmenting reflective objects from the image background, the interest regions are described with local image feature descriptors and classified in order to discriminate safety garments from other reflective objects in the scene. In a final step, the trajectories of the detected humans are estimated in 3D space relative to the camera. We evaluate our tracking system in two industrial real-world work environments on several challenging video sequences. The experimental results indicate accurate tracking performance and good robustness towards partial occlusions, body pose variation, and a wide range of different illumination conditions.

  9. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  10. Ergonomics support for local initiative in improving safety and health at work: International Labour Organization experiences in industrially developing countries.

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2005-04-15

    Ergonomics has played essential roles in the technical cooperation activities of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in occupational safety and health in industrially developing countries. Ergonomics support focusing on practical day-to-day needs at the grass-root workplace has strengthened the local initiative in improving safety and health. Practical action-tools such as ergonomics checklists, local good example photos and group discussions have assisted workers and employers in identifying feasible solutions using locally available resources. Direct participation of workers and employers has been promoted in ergonomics training aimed at immediate solutions. ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems have played increasingly important roles in the systematic planning of local improvement actions. Policy-level programmes to develop network support mechanisms to the grass-root workplace were essential for following up and sustaining local achievements. Practical ergonomics support tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, should be developed and widely applied so as to reach grass-root levels and help local people create safer and healthier workplaces. PMID:16040528

  11. Adaptation of CRM training for the railway industry: Operational safety benefits

    Tsang, M.T.S.; Hörmann, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In aviation, Crew Resource Management (CRM) was developed to address safety issues derived from accident and incident investigations. As CRM has proven its effectiveness by improving teamwork, communication and staff responses to operational hazards, there have been many attempts to expand this concept into other high-risk sectors such as medical, nuclear, or military. Although some work was also conducted to modify CRM for the railway industry, no such experiences yet existed in China or Hon...

  12. Knowledge management for industrial safety, generic resource platform combined with an ontology based approach

    Debray, Bruno; Abou Assali, Amjad; Pradaud, Isabelle; Vaudelin, Jacques; Lenne, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    International audience The capacity to manage risks and maintain industrial safety is largely based on the capacity of various actors to acquire, maintain and share knowledge on a large variety of subjects. The actors are, of course, the plant operator but also the employees, the competent authorities, the external maintenance teams or internal or external experts in charge of risk assessment and design of risk management. The knowledge ranges from the regulatory framework to the details o...

  13. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India) textile industries

    Rahul B. Hiremath; Ruth Kattumuri; Bimlesh Kumar; Gurudevi R Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster) in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eye...

  14. Nuclear Safety at the Ignalina NPP. Achievements and challenges. Proceedings of the international conference

    The International Conference was held on 8-9 April, 1999 in Vilnius. The aim of this conference - to offers specialists an excellent chance to get acquainted with Lithuania's experience and the work it has done in the area of nuclear safety. Also this conference will help to depoliticize the discussion of nuclear power plants

  15. Issues of Safety and Security: New Challenging to Malaysia Tourism Industry

    Mohd Ayob Norizawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety and security issues nowadays become one of the forces causing changes in tourism industry in era of millennium. The main concern of this issues more focus on crime rates, terrorism, food safety, health issues and natural disaster. This topic gained the popularity in tourism research after 9/11 tragedy and since then the academicians and practitioners started seeking the best solution in ways to mitigate these negative impacts. For Malaysia, the image as safety and secure destination was tarnished a few years lately and new unfortunates incident in this year bring more damage to Malaysia image. Healthy issues, terrorism, Lahad Datu intrusion, repeated kidnapping and shooting in Sabah, twin airlines incident, riot and illegal demonstration and false reporting by international media brings new challenging to Malaysia. Although some incident may be had short-term impact to Malaysia tourism industry, but it’s still gave the big impact to Malaysia branding process. Many travellers and Malaysian itself still believe that Malaysia is a one of safer destination and country to visit and stayed in, but more outstanding efforts was require to make sure Malaysia tourism industry was capable to recover from this negative impact as soon as possible.

  16. Regulation for the radiological safety in the design and operation of industrial Gamma irradiators in Egypt

    Large gamma irradiators present a high potential irradiation hazard since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of P Bq and a very high dose rate are produced during irradiation. Nevertheless, individuals may accidentally receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds, due to failure of radiation control and safety systems. The competent authority (NCNSRC) is concerned with the impact of all radiation activities on workers as well as public health and safety. Radiation control of such large irradiation facilities can be achieved by means of strict regulatory procedures during construction, licensing, operation, inspection, maintenance and decommissioning

  17. Curriculum Development for the Achievement of Multiple Goals in the Agri-Food Industry.

    Stonehouse, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The agri-food industry is concerned with maximizing global food output while preventing environmental damage. Agricultural education focuses on multidisciplinary, holistic, and integrative approaches that enhance student capabilities to address this complex issue. (SK)

  18. TSO assistance towards the improvement of nuclear safety in Lithuania: achievements and perspectives

    Butcher, P. [Serco Assurance, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Bystedt, P. [Swedish International Project, Nuclear Safety (SIP), Stockholm (Sweden); Chouha [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Uspuras, E. [Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI), Kaunas (Lithuania); Weber, J.P. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany); Zilys, K. [State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI), Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2001-07-01

    This paper explores the improvements that have taken place at INPP (Ignalina nuclear power plant) in both the engineering and operational aspects of nuclear safety, discussing as example some areas where there has been a large involvement of international experts. The development of the Lithuanian Nuclear Regulatory Authority VATESI, and also the technical support organisations for both the regulator and the NPP are discussed. In each of these sections the paper describes some of the successes and also the areas where there have been some problems. Many of the problems have been resolved but challenges remain for the future. The paper only deals with the assistance towards enhancing the safety of the NPP up to the time of its closure. Regulation of decommissioning is an important area for the future and is receiving urgent attention and active planning at the present time. (authors)

  19. TSO assistance towards the improvement of nuclear safety in Lithuania: achievements and perspectives

    This paper explores the improvements that have taken place at INPP (Ignalina nuclear power plant) in both the engineering and operational aspects of nuclear safety, discussing as example some areas where there has been a large involvement of international experts. The development of the Lithuanian Nuclear Regulatory Authority VATESI, and also the technical support organisations for both the regulator and the NPP are discussed. In each of these sections the paper describes some of the successes and also the areas where there have been some problems. Many of the problems have been resolved but challenges remain for the future. The paper only deals with the assistance towards enhancing the safety of the NPP up to the time of its closure. Regulation of decommissioning is an important area for the future and is receiving urgent attention and active planning at the present time. (authors)

  20. Working Order, Labor Safety, Occupational Diseases, Participation Certificate, Achievement Certificate, Expectations of Participants

    Ihsan Nuri Demirel

    2015-01-01

    Present research explores within the scope of the Perspectives of Directors from Agri Provincial Directorate of National Education, School Principals and Vice-Principals from Primary Secondary Education Institutions towards In-Service Training Activities within Administrative and Supervisory Aspect; whether or not they “Render sufficient amount of significance to the working order of In-Service training programs; whether In-Service training programs pay importance to labor-safety relevant act...

  1. From Science to Safety: The Long Way to Risk Management Assessment in Nuclear Industry

    Non-nuclear countries started to express their interest in building electronuclear programs in the early 2000s, with the consequence of creating the 'nuclear renaissance' concept. Nuclear reactors involve numerous and highly technical sciences: they cover fields from fundamental neutronics to thermohydraulics, from fuel thermomechanics to radiological gas diffusion. These sciences are in complete interactions with each other and computational tools are often required to simulate their effects on a research reactor safety. As these topics have to be examined together, with interaction between each other and in relation to the specificities of the facility, it is crucial to get a keystone engineer to manage these specialized analyses. Consequently, safety assessment requires also specific skills that are not based only on these sciences and that are not initially held by a nuclear engineer. Thus the first objective program is to define the inherent human, professional, and technical characteristics required by a safety analyst. Formalizing a safety analyst profile imposes to identify a set of applicable knowledge, hard and soft skills requirements in four topics. Several routes can be explored to build a safety analyst from a nuclear engineer, such as implementing nuclear safety into universities programs, theoretical training programs tutoring programs; such topics can be dealt with by dedicated instances such as ENSTTI and 'field-based' approaches emerging from case by case analysis. In this context, it is important to notice that research reactors require the same basic sciences and are not as complex as nuclear power plants. Hence holding a comprehensive set of knowledge allowing the global safety assessment of the reactor is more easily achievable by a safety analyst. Research reactors are the first object on which this set of knowledge will be applied. It would then be eventually extrapolated to any nuclear installation, and profitably nuclear power plants

  2. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 5. Application of the system for industries except electric power industry

    The purpose of our study is to develop a safety evaluation system which clarifies the safety level of an organization. As a basic method of evaluation using a questionnaire had been established, now that the generalization is needed for the system. Hence, this paper is intended to verify the applicability of the system for eight manufacture industries. The investigation using a questionnaire was conducted for 125 factories' workers. The following results were obtained: 1) The Comprehensive Safety Index (CSI) taking into account individual and organizational factors was identified using the principal component analysis. 2) Although the criterion-related validity of CSI was confirmed for some industries, ti will be necessary for the advancement of the system's reliability to compile more data into the system. 3) According to the result of investigations on safety management in secure companies and the causes of current industrial accidents, it was clarified that the CSI had the content validity. 4) It seemed possible to evaluate the safety level using two different industries' data if there were similarities between the industries in the score of the CSI and the aspects to which were attached importance for the improvement of the safety. (author)

  3. Contractor’s Awareness on Occupational Safety and Health (OSH Management Systems in Construction Industry

    Mohd Kamar I.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems is part of the overall management system that facilitates the management of the OS&H risks associated with the business of the organization. This includes the organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the organization’s OS&H policy. The purpose of this research is to determine the level of awareness of contractors on OSH management systems. A total of 34 numbers of class A contractors in Kelantan registered with Pusat Khidmat Kontraktor (PKK were randomly selected. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. The findings indicate that most of the Class A Contractor in Kelantan aware that the occupational safety and health management system are important and should be practiced to achieve zero accident and death on site

  4. Achieving carbon emission reduction through industrial and urban symbiosis: A case of Kawasaki

    Industry and fossil fuel combustion are the main sources for urban carbon emissions. Most studies focus on energy consumption emission reduction and energy efficiency improvement. Material saving is also important for carbon emission reduction from a lifecycle perspective. IS (Industrial symbiosis) and UrS (urban symbiosis) have been effective since both of them encourage byproduct exchange. However, quantitative carbon emission reduction evaluation on applying them is still lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to fill such a gap through a case study in Kawasaki Eco-town, Japan. A hybrid LCA model was employed to evaluate to the lifecycle carbon footprint. The results show that lifecycle carbon footprints with and without IS and UrS were 26.66 Mt CO2e and 30.92 Mt CO2e, respectively. The carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% with the implementation of IS and UrS. The carbon emission reduction was mainly from “iron and steel” industry, cement industry and “paper making” industry, with figures of 2.76 Mt CO2e, 1.16 Mt CO2e and 0.34 Mt CO2e, respectively. Reuse of scrape steel, blast furnace slag and waste paper are all effective measures for promoting carbon emission reductions. Finally, policy implications on how to further promote IS and UrS are presented. - Highlights: • We evaluate carbon emission reduction of industrial and urban symbiosis (IS/UrS). • Hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate lifecycle carbon footprint. • Carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% after applying IS/UrS. • The importance of UrS in responding carbon reduction was addressed in the paper

  5. Achieving Payoffs from an Industry Cloud Ecosystem at BankID

    Eaton, Ben; Hallingby, Hanne Kristine; Nesse, Per-Jonny;

    2014-01-01

    BankID is an industry cloud owned by Norwegian banks. It provides electronic identity, authentication and electronic signing capabilities for banking, merchant and government services. More than 60% of the population uses BankID services. As the broader ecosystem around BankID evolved, challenges......—arising from tensions between different parts of the ecosystem—had to be resolved. The four lessons learned from the BankID case will help others to build an industry cloud and establish a healthy ecosystem to service a broad user base....

  6. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India textile industries

    Rahul B Hiremath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eyesight using different techniques. The study aimed at developing a framework for understanding risks to textile workers resulting from lack of health and safety standards in companies. Results: Findings showed that most of the workers have been affected by respiratory problems, increase in muscle tone, eye problems and musculoskeletal problem. It has been also observed that job security or regular work impacts positively to the worker’s long term body health. However, there is an immediate need to adopt and implement measures in accordance with Indian Factories Act (OHSAS 18001/ILO-OSH 2001 which includes directions and procedures in respect of industrial installations, work environment and occupational health and safety guidelines.

  7. The influence of human factors science on safety in the offshore industry

    This paper aims to clarify applications of human factors science in the offshore process industry in terms of what can be done, why and how. Illustrative examples are given. An explanation is given of the meaning of 'human factors', and the use of human factors science before and after the Piper Alpha disaster is outlined. The influence of approaches developed after the nuclear Three Mile Island accident is discussed briefly. The need for human factors review of offshore installations in design, construction and operation is highlighted by providing quantitative information on underlying causes of loss-of-containment accidents. Human factors review should be part of the safety management system, which is described in terms of a set of control and monitoring loops; the control and monitoring requirements for optimizing human performance are outlined briefly. Using the concept design stage of an installation as an example, the use of human factors review in safety decision-making is exemplified by indicating which areas should be targeted for review and how this would influence safety. Key human factors review methods are identified and an example is given of one approach, a 'walk-through' of design and procedures. It is concluded that identification of causes of accidents has prompted the development of human factor applications, but that there is still room for much more comprehensive and long-term human factors programmes in the offshore industry, with considerable potential for risk reduction. (author)

  8. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and beverage industry. Central kitchens have many advantages while HACCP is the golden standard to ensure food safety and hygiene, hence, it will ensure food safety and hygiene if both can be combined with in the use of food and beverage industry.

  9. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  10. Commissioning of Mochovce 1 - Important achievement of the world's nuclear industry

    The nuclear power industry has been recently perceived by the general public as a specific industrial branch stretching its activities far beyond the conventional industrial standard. Similarly, the stage of testing and commissioning of a nuclear power plant is perceived as a specific stage in the plant life-cycle. This is a complicated process not only in technical terms, but in the context of nowadays, it is also one of the key periods in terms of public relations and public acceptance. The stage of commissioning unit 1 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant evoked a real communication media war between defenders and opponents of the nuclear industry started early in 1998 in Slovakia, as well as in other, mostly neighbouring countries. It should be noted, however, that the Mochovce plant has never been a technical problem as confirmed a number of international regulatory missions and audits, even though its construction was stopped in early 90's. The result of the war between the opponents and 'nuclear experts' was more or less clear to a thinking human being - a compromise could have been the only result. The compromise which is in fact a victory of the side of technical development, and loss of those lobbying for a nuclear-reactor-free central Europe. This article brings a review of events that accompanied commissioning activities of Mochovce NPP unit I which were important in terms of public relations

  11. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    time, they are requested to use the safety life cycle model in IEC 61508 as basis for their product development. This thesis links the safety life cycle model in IEC 61508 to a more general product development model, where IEC 61508 requirements are discussed in light of other RAMS requirements. SIS manufacturers who develop products for more than one industry sector must often adhere to IEC 61508 as well as sector specific standards. Some of the sector specific standards build directly on IEC 61508, while others have been developed prior to IEC 61508 and may use different concepts and approaches. This work describes an approach for qualification of a software development platform in light of these challenges. SIS designers have to balance the SIS reliability with the practicality of performing functional tests. Functional tests are important means to reveal SIS failures, but the tests often require process shutdowns. Partial stroke testing is a valve test that does not require full valve closure, but the test efficiency is highly influenced by the test coverage. This thesis suggests a way to determine the test coverage, taking into account application specific considerations and generic data for valve failures. The oil and gas industry has aimed at keeping the SIS as simple as possible, and here, reliability block diagrams have been well suited for reliability analysis. However, technology development challenges the principle of simplicity, and then fault tree analysis may be better suited to achieve complete reliability models and for involving design engineers in the model construction and verification. Many software tools for fault tree analysis make non conservative estimates for the reliability of periodically tested SISs, which may not be acceptable when the estimates are used as basis for selecting hardware architecture. This thesis proposes a conservative calculation approach for fault tree analysis that builds on calculation methods familiar to the oil and

  12. NMC and A and nuclear criticality safety systems integration: A prospective way for enhancement of the nuclear industry facilities safety

    A considerable body of data has now been acquired about the principles, parameters and consequences of nuclear (criticality) accidents at facilities of the atomic industry in Russia, the United States, Great Britain and Japan. The total number of such accidents stands at 22. Russian and US specialists have prepared a rather extensive survey and analysis of these accidents. The final and important section of this survey is the lessons implied by the results of analysis of these 22 accidents. Among these lessons is the necessity of unconditional enforcement of control over the movement and transformations of special nuclear materials (SNM), and in particular fissile materials, (those SNMs with criticality accident concerns) during production and processing. Inadequacies in such control have been among the causes of most of the accidents that have occurred. Nuclear materials control and accounting (MC and A) for the purpose of ensuring storage reliability and nonproliferation safeguards is a major task of nuclear facilities in any nation. MC and A systems use the latest techniques and hardware for periodic control of SNM in specifically organized material balance areas. Immediate checking, periodic inventory of SNM, and measurements of the parameters of SNM at key points are the main sources of data for these systems. Data about the presence and sites of location of SNM in material balance areas that are acquired in inventories can be used for objective assessment of the status of nuclear safety. On the other hand, the inventory itself involves performance of operations that are unlike routine process engineering, and require special consideration of nuclear safety. Use of the techniques and hardware of MC and A systems not only for purposes of storage reliability, but also to ensure nuclear safety, will reduce the risk of nuclear accidents. This paper gives a concise overview of nuclear accidents that have occurred due to inadequacies in MC and A, and demonstrates

  13. Development of engineering guidelines for ensuring seismic safety of industrial structures, systems and equipment

    In recent past, India has witnessed a few major earthquakes close to industrial centres including the Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001 with magnitude of 7.7 (MW). Bhuj region has many industrial facilities including Kandla Port Trust (KPT), Indian Farmers Fertilizers Corporation (IFFCO) etc. Majority of the failures of Mechanical and Electrical Systems at various industries were due to secondary damages caused either by failure of civil structures and debris falling on them or failure of supporting civil structures. Among electrical systems, majority of failures were due to either movement of unanchored transformers resting on wheels of falling of battery banks. Majorly, the mechanical systems in these industries performed well except at a few places viz., at IFFCO Jetty No. 5 where two out of three parallel running fire water piping got damaged and at KPT Jetty No. 4 where bunch of the piping came out of their racks. Detailed studies were performed to understand the mechanics of the failures of these systems with the analytical simulations of these real-life phenomenons. This paper shares the outcome of these studies. This paper briefly covers the efforts being put-in by DAE to develop engineering guidelines for ensuring seismic safety of industrial structures, systems and equipment. (author)

  14. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes industriels complexes. Principaux concepts

    Zwingelstein, G

    2009-06-15

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  15. Nutritionists in industry can play a key role in helping to achieve Health of the Nation targets for nutrition.

    Kirk, T R; de Looy, A; Fletcher, R; Ruxton, C H

    2007-06-01

    Nutritionists working in food manufacturing and retailing are potentially in a more powerful position than any other professional group to contribute towards achieving the national targets for nutrition and the reduction of nutrition-related diseases, set out in The Health of the Nation (DoH, 1992) and in Scotland's Health, A Challenge to Us All (Scottish Office, 1993). The present paper sets out the details of this argument. First, a review is given of the functions and types of activities carried out by nutritionists in industry. Then a number of key practical ways in which nutritionists, through their activities and functions, can help towards achieving national targets for nutrition and nutrition-related diseases are described. Finally, suggestions are made about the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes needed by nutritionists who intend making successful careers in industry and who wish, at the same time, to contribute towards improving the health of the nation. PMID:17539871

  16. Safety aspects in the use of 9 MV industrial linac for open field radiography

    Electron Accelerators are used for industrial radiography in various industries. Usually fixed accelerators in a well-shielded enclosure are used for radiography. However, in some special cases it is desired to have portable accelerators to carry out the radiography work at site. In many military applications the heavy objects are checked at the site, for which portable accelerators are preferred. X-ray intensity emanating from an industrial accelerator is very high. Proper safety precaution needs to be adopted by the radiation workers as well as other non-radiation workers involved in the open field radiography work and other supporting activities. A case of 9 MV linear accelerators to be used for open field radiography is being discussed here. Portable shielding thickness, which is to be given in the primary and secondary direction is evaluated numerically and suggested in the paper. As the portable radiography enclosure is open top and has limited wall height, more air volume above the enclosure is likely to get irradiated. Although the wall shielding is adequate, there is possibility of high radiation level around the radiography enclosure due to sky-shine radiation. Sky-shine radiation level is evaluated numerically and is presented in this paper. For the protection of the radiation and non-radiation workers about 100 m cordoning off is recommended. Operators sit inside a cabin of the transport car located outside the cordoning area. Various safety precautions and interlock facility to be adopted for safe radiography work practices are described in this paper. (author)

  17. Practical management tasks in the field of industrial safety in German coal mines; Fuehrungspraxis Arbeitssicherheit im deutschen Bergbau

    Giesel, R.J. [Bergbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Bochum (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-06-01

    The following aspects of industrial safety in coal mining are discussed: Responsibility, leadership, corporate culture and corporate identity. Further issues are quality management, industrial safety management, panel/hierarchy organisation, lean management, cooperative leadership, qualification and chance management. (MSK) [Deutsch] Im Folgenden werden hinsichtlich der Arbeitssicherheit im Bergbau die Punkte Verantwortung, Fuehrung sowie Unternehmenskultur und Unternehmensgrundsaetze behandelt. Weitere Themenpunkte sind: Qualitaetsmanagement, Arbeitssicherheitsmanagement, Stab-Linien-Organisation, Lean-Management, Mitarbeiterbeteiligung, Qualifizierung und Chance-Management. (MSK)

  18. Sensor Networks or Smart Artifacts? An Exploration of Organizational Issues of an Industrial Health and Safety Monitoring System

    Kortuem, Gerd; Alford, David; Ball, Linden; Busby, Jerry; Davies, Nigel; Efstratiou, Christos; Finney, Joe; WHITE, MARIAN; Kinder, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Industrial health and safety is an important yet largely unexplored application area of ubiquitous computing. In this paper we investigate the relationship between technology and organization in the context of a concrete industrial health and safety system. The system is designed to reduce the number of incidents of "�vibration white finger"� (VWF) at construction sites and uses wireless sensor nodes for monitoring workers'� exposure to vibrations and testing of compliance with legal health a...

  19. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography; Resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del metodo de matrices de riesgo para evaluaciones de seguridad en radiografia industrial

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Truppa, W. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aravena, M. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Tamayo, B., E-mail: alopezg@cnsns.gob.mx [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  20. New vision of the control organisms in industrial safety and maintenance, based approach to new pressure equipment

    Control agencies are companies dedicated to the verification of compliance with the safety of products and facilities as administrative regulation in industrial safety through certification activities, testing, inspection or audit.Changes have been made that will stimulate the increase of companies engaged in this sector.

  1. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  2. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu0.5,Am0.5)O2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu0.4,Am0.6)O2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2] in this

  3. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  4. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  5. Influence of material and gear parameters on the safety of gearing in metallurgical industry

    S. Medvecká - Beňová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appropriate choice of parameters to obtain the desired level of safety of gears in a gearbox to drive the conveyor in the metallurgical industry under increased load. Steel with surface hardness up to 350 HBW, or heat treated steel with hardness of 500 - 650 HBW are used. As a final heat treatment are used surface hardening, cementation and hardening, nitridation. Good properties of heat-treated steels are at the correct thickness of the heat-treated layer of the tooth. Results are presented for dual-ratio gearbox with spur gears from operation of an integrated steel company.

  6. Certification testing of safety relief valves for the nuclear power industry

    This paper presents a summary of current test methodology used to perform recertification testing of Code Safety Relief Valves (SRVs). This paper discusses current issues in SRV testing including the following: Alternate media testing including a discussion of EPRI Report NP-4235. In situ testing of SRVs using lift devices. Effects of handling and transportation on set point. SRV testing over the years at Wyle in close cooperation with the nuclear industry, NRC, and valve manufacturers provides the experience necessary to discuss lessons learned. These lessons may be helpful to those setting up inservice Inspection (ISI) Programs to effectively monitor SRV performance and meet the requirements of OM-1

  7. Health, safety, and environmental auditing in the E and P industry

    This paper gives an overview of the development of auditing within the field of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) management in the E and P industry. Auditing of these aspects of the business is relatively recent, and the adoption of formal audit programmes is increasingly regarded as an essential element of the HSE management program. Auditing provides assurance that internal controls are working effectively, and provides vital information for system improvement. An overview will be given of the transitional phases that the HSE auditing process has been through; the factors that have influenced those developments; and some views on potential future developments

  8. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  9. Use of neurofeedback to achieve human performance enhancement in the nuclear power industry

    The nuclear industry has spent many millions of dollars to provide training to personnel to operate our nuclear facilities. However, even with excellent training programs, candidates often fail examinations. For many, the debilitating effects of performance anxiety are contributing factors. Neurofeedback technology instantly presents psychophysiological feedback to the trainee while the trainee is performing a training task. This feedback can teach the trainee to effectively cope with environmental and psychological stressors. We hypothesize that NF training can help NPPs resolve staffing and training challenges while yielding a high ROI by ultimately improving success rates for Certification training candidates. (author)

  10. Use of neurofeedback to achieve human performance enhancement in the nuclear power industry

    Freer, P. [Freer Logic (United States); Chandler, K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Kinesiology, Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Lane, L.; Templeton, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear industry has spent many millions of dollars to provide training to personnel to operate our nuclear facilities. However, even with excellent training programs, candidates often fail examinations. For many, the debilitating effects of performance anxiety are contributing factors. Neurofeedback technology instantly presents psychophysiological feedback to the trainee while the trainee is performing a training task. This feedback can teach the trainee to effectively cope with environmental and psychological stressors. We hypothesize that NF training can help NPPs resolve staffing and training challenges while yielding a high ROI by ultimately improving success rates for Certification training candidates. (author)

  11. Achieving Competitive Advantage through Knowledge Management Initiatives in Small and Medium Software Industry

    Priyantha Kumarawadu

    2008-01-01

    Increasing number of small- and medium-scale software companies (SMSCs) has remarkably pressurised them to deliver good quality software products on time at minimum cost. This study attempted to prove that knowledge management initiatives can bestow business opportunities of small- and medium-scale software companies to improve productivity, product quality, flexibility, inter-employee relationships, effective knowledge creation and knowledge utilisation while achieving their cost, quality an...

  12. Nuclear safety. Summary of the intermediate report of the special joint parliamentary committee on nuclear safety, present and future outlook of the nuclear industry

    Following the Fukushima events, the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (OPECST) was officially asked at the end of March 2011 - jointly by the National Assembly Bureau and by the Senate Committee on the economy, sustainable development, territorial and regional planning - to carry out a study on nuclear safety, and the present and future outlook of the nuclear industry. To carry out this study, seven members of the National Assembly economic affairs and sustainable development committees were also involved, as well as eight members of the Senate Committee on the economy, sustainable development, territorial and regional planning. The first part of this study, devoted to nuclear safety, was completed on 30 June 2011 by the publication of an intermediate report. This report assembles and summarises the information collected during six public hearings and seven trips to nuclear sites. France is one of the nuclear countries where the management of safety is both the most demanding and the most transparent. In this respect, the independence of the Safety Authority is the best guarantee of strictness in the safety field and the existence of pluralistic bodies, such as the Local Information Committees, is the best guarantee of the transparency of safety. But no country can pride itself on being totally safe from a natural disaster of an unexpected scale. The French nuclear industry must therefore ratchet up one more notch its investment in safety and strengthen the means of university research. It must imagine events of even greater intensity, cascading accidents, with interactions between neighbouring industrial sites. Investment must be made by placing safety requirements above any economic consideration and in strict compliance with the specifications of public authorities supervising safety. (authors)

  13. Cross-index to ERDA-prescribed industrial safety codes and standards

    A Cross-Index volume is given containing the 1976 compilation of detailed information from more than four hundred and seventy ERDA-OSH prescribed/recommended industrial and construction safety codes and standards. The compilation of this material was conceived and initiated in 1973 by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering's (REECo) Industrial Safety organization, and is revised yearly to provide information from current codes. Condensed data from individual code portions are listed according to reference code, section, paragraph, and page. Each code is given a two-digit reference code number or letter in the ''Contents'' section. This reference code provides ready identification of any code listed in the Cross-Index. The computerized information listings are on the left-hand portion of a Cross-Index page; to the right of the listing are, in order to the right, the reference code letters or numbers, the section, paragraph, and page of the referenced code containing expanded information on the individual listing. Simplified ''How to Use'' directions are listed. A glossary of letter initials/abbreviations for the organizations or documents, whose codes or standard are contained in this Cross-Index, is also given. Even a cursory examination of the glossary will reveal the wide range of standards included

  14. Jointly achieving profitability and environmental outcomes: methane abatement from genetic improvement in the Australian beef industry

    Alford, Andrew R.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Griffith, Garry R.; Hegarty, Roger S.

    2006-01-01

    Selection of cattle with greater feed efficiency is known to be profitable. Savings in southern Australian beef production systems of $6.55 per breeding cow per year have been estimated for selection for lower residual feed intake (RFI), and an additional saving of $4.34 per breeding cow per year may be achieved in feedlots. Greater feed efficiency is also expected to reduce methane emissions. A gene flow model was developed to simulate the spread of improved RFI genes through both a single h...

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE WORK ACCIDENTS’ CONTROL. A CASE STUDY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

    Edison Cesar de Faria Nogueira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study related to the implementation of a Work Safety Program in a chemical industry, based on the Process Safety Program, PSP, of a huge energy company. The research was applied, exploratory, qualitative and with and data collection method through documentary and bibliographical research. There will be presented the main practices adopted in order to make the Safety Program a reality inside a chemical industry, its results and contributions for its better development. This paper proposes the implementation of a Safety Program must be preceded by a diagnosis of occupational safety and health management system and with constant critical analysis in order to make the necessary adjustments.

  16. Evolving framework of the LNG industry: Expected growth and continuing importance of safety

    A major increase in LNG trade, expected from the 1990s onwards, is quite significant in that a new framework will be developed. These changes and developments may well prove to be some of the most notable that have ever occurred in the 30-year history of the LNG industry. All over the world, new buyers and sellers are entering the scene, while in Japan, small and medium-size businesses are switching to LNG. Transporters and LNG carriers are also expecting an increase in their numbers. We are about to see a wide-ranging diversification in terms of the geography and the size of the companies that deal with LNG. Safety continues to be the main issue in promoting the development of the LNG market. The wider the spread of LNG, the greater the need will be for further development of the systems and organizations for transferring safety technology and skills. In addition to enhancing safety, it will be necessary to seek harmony with the social environment. This paper discusses measures for the future based on the author's many years of experience, particularly in the field of receiving terminals

  17. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety; Los laboratorios de ensayo, su funcion en el aseguramiento de la seguridad industrial

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  18. Evolution and current situation of the quality and industrial safety. Concepts, laws and regulations; Evolucion y situacion actual de la calidad y seguridad industrial. Conceptos, leyes y reglamentos

    Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show the difference between the concepts of quality and industrial safety and how in the legislation of products and industrial installation there is a very close relationship between both concepts. So, that Spanish companies could place in the market not only safe products but also reliable ones that meet the society's demand regarding quality. (Author)

  19. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    Hystad, Sigurd William; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadersh...

  20. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  1. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by microbiologi

  2. Days on safety of industrial radiographic controls; Securite des controles radiographiques industriels

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This program is divided in three parts: the context and the regulations, the preparation and the implementation, the tools of prevention and the initiatives and the perspectives.In the first part devoted to the context and regulation are: the context by the Authority of nuclear safety (A.S.N.), the regulation referential, the transport of gamma-graphs; in the second part are the distribution of liabilities, materials and associated requirements, the feedback of incidents and exploitation of it, training and base requirements, works of S.F.R.P./C.O.F.R.E.N.D. and the A.S.N. position; the third part includes help to evaluation of risks at working places of industry radiologists, dosimetry study of a working place, guide to evaluate oneself; the fourth part devoted to the initiatives and the perspectives are: regional experiences charters of good practices in industry radiography, integration of works and deployment by the members of the C.O.F.R.E.N.D., perspectives in matter of prevention of occupational risks in the area of industry radiography. (N.C.)

  3. A comparative study on different surface decontaminants on chevon carcass quality to achieve product safety

    parameters studied were total plate count (TPC), presumptive total coliform count (TCC), pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC), Extract Release Volume (ERV) and Thiobarbuturic Acid Reacting Substance (TBA). All the treatments in the said experiment reduced TPC and TCC. Lactic acid dip and hot water dip were most effective in reducing TPC with no significant difference between them (1.32 and 1.26 log/cm2 respectively). ASC and hot water in dip could diminish TCC but did not vary significantly (1.33 and 1.30 log/cm2 respectively). No treatment affected muscle pH, WHC, TBA, ERV, appearance, smell, tenderness and overall acceptability of treated chevon carcasses significantly. All the decontaminants were found to be effective in diminishing the surface microbial load in chevon carcasses without distressing the keeping and eating quality adversely but the potentiality of lactic acid and hot water were more effectual in flagging TPC. When TCC is considered, the best treatment was found to be the hot water and ASC. The primary aim of the work was to identify the most competent and cheapest decontaminant having the ample potentiality to uphold the wanted keeping and eating qualities, the hot water was found to be the apposite one for hygienic and wholesome goat meat production. The findings are more noteworthy due to the fact that the hot water is very simple to get hold of, and it do not have any residual or impact in terms of transferring any uncalled-for odour to the product and thereby the product safety, its excellence and the question of food security are away from any question. The entrepreneurs could be advocated to embark on this technique in larger way, without any extra economical contribution to take on it in their small ventures of chevon meat production. Thus it could be a very effective decontamination methodology, suitable for numerous small and marginal meat traders who deal with minimum number of slaughtered animals but are having a direct access to the consumers with

  4. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  5. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    Setianingsih, Lilis Susanti [KINS-KAIST Master Degree Program, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  6. Promoting Implementation of Safety Culture in Nuclear Application for Industrial Facilities; an Important Role of Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency in Indonesia

    Implementation of nuclear energy for industrial purposes has reached its highest peak. BAPETEN, as Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of Indonesia has published regulations regarding nuclear energy utilization. As high risk associating such utilization requires direct and thoroughly supervision in order to assure its compliance to safety and security aspect, procedures related to operational activities must by fully applied. Radiation Protection Program as one type of procedures that must be available in nuclear energy utilization operation is intended to provide operators specifically technical guidance to avoid undesired negative effects of incidents or accidents. It is the responsibility of managerial level in a company to provide the procedures and to further supervise their application in the field. Radiation workers, those are all employees working in or within radiation area must understand how to execute the procedures properly. The radiation protection program is intended to protect workers, member of community and property as well as the environment from the negative impacts of nuclear utilization operational due to its radiation exposure. Safety culture, a compound of nature derived from behavior of organization and people within the organization to pay a full attention and give main priority in radiation safety matters, is expected to be achieved by implementing the radiation protection program as safety habits at the work place. It requires a management commitment to ensure that all aspect in safety and, whenever necessary, security are accomplished within the radiation protection program in order to build a safety culture in a radiation work place. Government Regulation No. 33 2007 about Safety for Ionizing Radiation and Security for Radioactive Source and Government Regulation No. 29 2008 regarding Licensing for Utilization of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Material present regulation and arrangement related to radiation protection program as a basic

  7. Nuclear safety. ICFTU proposals for the international control of the nuclear energy industry

    are strong proponents of its use and others have said that they are only prepared to accept its application if safety controls are substantially improved. All affiliates of the ICFTU are convinced that energy policy options must be widened through increased research and development of new and renewable sources and through extensive energy conservation measures. The environmental impact of all methods of energy generation must be assessed on the basis of the public availability of all relevant information. It is in this context, that whatever their views about the desirability or otherwise of nuclear power, all ICFTU affiliates recognise the immediate need to assure the highest possible level of safety for all nuclear plants and activities everywhere - for example to deal with radioactive wastes created over the last 30 years. Even if some countries opt out of nuclear power it is likely that many others will be committed to it for many years. Given the widespread effects of a catastrophic failure anywhere in the world we must therefore all be concerned to strengthen the international safety regime. Because of their historic role in campaigning for health and safety at work, unions are well placed to exercise an independent watchdog role - making use of the knowledge and skills of their members in the nuclear industry - and are also able to speak on behalf of a large membership which is representative representative of the wide public concern about nuclear safety. Immediately following the Chernobyl disaster, the ICFTU Executive Board adopted a resolution (reproduced as Appendix 2 to this document) calling for immediate steps to tighten up nuclear safety. In the light of subsequent developments, the Confederation has now given further detailed consideration to the whole question of nuclear safety and has decided to publish this report which contains detailed proposals for tighter international control of nuclear energy via the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA

  8. Report on the upstream petroleum industry task force on safety (1988)

    This presentation discussed seven recommendations for improving bulk transportation in oil and natural gas fields. The recommendations dealt with: (1) formation of an oilfield trucking association, (2) minimum training standards and courses to be established, (3) industry and its oilfield truckers to improve work planning and operating standards, (4) code of practice for trucking of production fluids, (5) adopt occupational health and safety guidelines for handling and transportation of bulk sour products, (6) spark arresters and positive air shutoff to be required on all diesel equipment used to carry production fluids, and 7) a campaign to improve membership and commitment. A list of member companies in the Oilfield Driver Training Committee and the Technical Resource Committee was also provided

  9. Endogenous estimation of safety coefficient for optimal design of biochemical reactors at industrial level

    Siontorou, Christina G.; Karydi, Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the endogenous estimation of the Safety Coefficient Ge = Vd/Vm, where Vd is the design volume and Vm is the mean volume of liquid of a biochemical reactor operating at industrial level. The Vd-value is estimated through Monte Carlo simulation while Vm-value is obtained by means of material balances and biochemical kinetics. A case example on waste water biological treatment is presented, referring to a well-mixed bioreactor followed by a clarifier. The Ge-values finally estimated are in the lower part of the (exogenously determined) region as suggested in the relevant technical literature, implying a significant saving of investment capital, which forms the principle component of fixed cost. Similar applications are also mentioned in brief.

  10. Unravelling safety compliance in the mining industry: examining the role of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment as antecedents

    Uanda Masia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Safety compliance remains a major issue in the South African mining industry. This article explores the roles of specific work-related job and attitudinal variables in predicting compliance.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment to safety compliance in a mine.Motivation for the study: The study aims to predict safety compliance through work-related variables in order to manage safety better.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (n = 158. They distributed a survey booklet. It included a biographical questionnaire, scales for job insecurity, satisfaction, affective organisational commitment, workplace accidents and safety compliance as well as a work stress measure that comprised dimensions of role clarity, conflict and overload.Main findings: The results showed that work stress and job insecurity had a negative relationship with safety compliance. The researchers found that only job satisfaction was a significant predictor of safety.Practical/managerial implications: Although exploratory, this study suggests that promoting job satisfaction may improve safety compliance whilst job stress and job insecurity also relate negatively to safety compliance.Contribution/value-add: This study shows that job satisfaction is more important than organisational commitment, job security and work stress for predicting safety compliance.

  11. The responsible for the radiological safety in the industry. Between the environment work and the technology

    Within the industrial applications of sealed radioactive sources, there are two clearly defined branches for which these materials are used: radioactive sources used in fixed and mobile equipment. These devices are used in a myriad of applications and each time with more technological advanced systems. This requires a permanent improvement on the training of the responsible, and introduces a mandatory exchange to other groups of intervention during the useful life of the device. Accident risks during the use of the equipment, although its rate of occurrence is low, are related to mistakes during operation, improper use, maintenance performed by staff without knowledge, human failures or oversights and incidents occurring during transport. All these risks are surrounded by different groups of factors that influence during the safe use of radioactive material within the installation. So, it is evidenced the importance of implementing aspects of the 'Safety Culture' and evaluations of suitability of the person responsible for radiation safety. In this paper we will refer to all the concepts that surround the election of the head of radioactive material, the factors involved during the operation, their training, the obligations of the installation, and responsible for environment and the technology

  12. Instilling safety culture in the passenger rail transport industry within the South African context

    Khulumane (John Maluleke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has two major rail operators that constitute the rail transport industry. These are Transnet Freight Rail (TFR, which operates freight and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA. Although the Railway Safety Regulator (2011:29 reported the year on year declining trend of collisions, the main concern is that the costs incurred for each year’s incidents is escalating. This article is concerned with the declining safety standards of these operators as evidenced by 742 collisions recorded during the 2011/2012 financial year for both operators. The focus is mainly on collisions during the movement of rolling stock within the PRASA environment. The analysis of the occurrences is narrowed down, with the emphasis on the province of Gauteng. In the analysis of the causes of these collisions, the problems that led to the root causes of these collisions is reported. Of critical importance is that every transport operator is faced with the challenges of how to effectively respond to the basic transport needs and requirements of the travelling public. The transport users’ need is to travel between the two geographical points. During the journey between these geographical points, the operator has safety and security requirements and must provide a reliable, accessible and affordable transport system. As the travelling public becomes more affluent, the transport needs become open ended and require much more rational public choices. The rail transport system remains a vital or indispensable business sector of the economy. By investing in new technology, rolling stock and infrastructure, we woud see an increase in innovation, competitiveness, and an elevated standard of living.

  13. Rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the Chinese coal industry based on a tripartite game model

    There are extensive governmental rent-seeking activities in safety supervision of the Chinese coal industry. The rents come from industry safety barriers, low resource taxes, and privilege policies for coalmining enterprises. The rent-seeking mechanism was analyzed using a model comprising dynamic games with incomplete information. The equilibrium results indicate that the probability of national supervision is influenced by penalties and bribery: there is negative correlation with penalties and positive correlation with bribery. The rent-seeking probability of a governmental safety supervision department is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with the cost of national supervision. The probability of bribery of coalmining enterprises is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with wages of governmental departments and a reasonable rent-seeking range. Reversed rent-seeking reduces the probability of bribery, but it's not worth recommending. Some recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • We analyze rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the coal industry. • A dynamic game with incomplete information for Chinese coal industry is built. • Reversed rent-seeking is proposed as a new rent-seeking form. • We analyze the selection probability of the three participants. • We give some policies about how to enhance safety supervision

  14. Safety aspects of a medium energy industrial electron beam accelerator being utilized for technology demonstration and commercial operations

    The safety of industrial accelerators with high energy beams (upto 10 MeV) and large beam powers (as high as 400 kW) are not only limited to radiological safety but also is extended to the various equipment and different activities carried out in utilizing the machine for wide ranging applications. BARC in early nineties, (for the first time in India), installed a unique high pulse- powered electron beam accelerator of energy 2 MeV in Trombay for developing industrial applications. This accelerator is capable of delivering powered electron beams upto 40kW average beam power (with 1200kW peak pulse power) at energy range 1 to 2 MeV. The output beam is made available in air over an area of 100 cm x 10 cm, using beam scanning mechanism so that industrial scale processing of materials are carried out. Several applications have been developed and commercially being exploited in the field of polymer crosslinking, degradation, crystalline alterations etc. In addition, applications pertaining to the environmental remediation using electron beams are being worked out. The facility which has been relocated at Navi Mumbai a decade ago and is developed into a technology demonstration cum commercial plant with several product handling gadgets to evaluate the feasibility of different EB treatment processes for the industry viz. waste water treatment, polymer modifications, recycling to name a few. The safety features of such demonstration plant has been designed taking into account its industrial-friendly design for the its utilization during irradiation of large scale multiple products, safety of users (industrial labor for handling materials), operation staff, the much valued industrial products and also several types of material handling equipment. While adequate radiation shielding is provided in the facility taking into the Bremsstrahlung radiation with respect to maximum beam energy and power of the installed accelerator, safety with respect to the ozone emission, High

  15. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  16. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  17. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  18. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    Highlights: ► On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. ► The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). ► According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. ► The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are confident that our risk management strategy can be effectively reduced engineered NM industries risks for

  19. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    Ling, Min-Pei, E-mail: lingmp@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju [Industrial Safety and Health Association of the ROC, Taipei 11670, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Taipei 22143, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are

  20. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and be...

  1. Execution of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1994) in the Construction Industry from Contractors’ Point of View

    Awang H.; Kamil I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Construction is one of the highest contributing industries to occupational accidents by sector in Malaysia. Statistics have been drawn from year to year that show an increasing number of cases of accidents by industry sector. While it is impossible to completely eliminate all accidents, with a proper and effective safety and health policy or rules set by top management, especially contractors, the rate of accidents on construction sites can be reduced. The main objective of this study is to a...

  2. Developing Measures for Assessing the Causality of Safety Culture in a Petrochemical Industry

    This paper discusses safety culture in the petrochemical sector and the causes and consequences of safety culture. A sample of 520 responses selected by simple random sampling completed questionnaires for this survey, the return rate was 86.75%. The research instrument comprises four sections: basic information, the safety leadership scale (SLS), the safety climate scale (SCS), and the safety performance scale (SPS). SPSS 12.0, a statistical software package, was used for item analysis, validity analysis, and reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that (1) SLS abstracted three factors such as safety caring, safety controlling, and safety coaching; (2) SCS comprised three factors such as emergency response, safety commitment, and risk perception; and (3) SPS was composed of accident investigation, safety training, safety inspections, and safety motivation. We conclude that the SLS, SCS, and SPS developed in this paper have good construct validity and internal consistency and can serve as the basis for future research.

  3. Management of fire and industrial safety - challenges during commissioning of a NPP

    Construction and commissioning period of NPP are reduced world over drastically by stringent schedule for financial and economic reasons. For meeting the schedule, commissioning of components and systems are started immediate after installation, while construction activities are continued in parallel at the same place. Parallel activities' and 'Time Constraint' have brought new challenges to 'Management of Fire and Industrial Safely' during commissioning. An innovative approach was used during such phase of commissioning of TAPP-3 and 4. This paper outlines challenges encountered during this phase and special approach and measures used to meet those challenges. This paper also outlines problems encountered during implementation of these measures and subsequent change in approach to ensure smooth and safe execution of activities. Primarily, challenges were conflicting requirements by various agencies to carryout commissioning in parallel with construction activities concurrently. Main challenges were related to fall hazard, chemical hazard, fire hazard, electrical safety, work in confined space, housekeeping problem. Moreover it was within exclusion zone of another operating plant, which added one more dimension to those challenges. Conventional Safely management approach was little short to resolve these challenges. Such challenges were envisaged; analyzed and innovative measures were arrived at. Along with conventional safely analysis like Job Safely or Hazard Analysis (JSA or JHA), Accident Analysis, Accident Trend Analysis, Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA), innovative method like 'Area-Job- Hazard Charting' and 'Ratio Analysis' were used to understand activity dependent time varying hazard scenarios. Based on this analysis, decision were taken to change various existing elements of safely management like safety organizations; standard operating procedures (SOP); emergency operating procedures (EOP); resource allocation, planning and scheduling; safely training; safely

  4. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    Hassan DARVISH; Mehdi ROOSTAEI; Azizi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In ...

  5. An Industry/Academe Consortium for Achieving 20% wind by 2030 through Cutting-Edge Research and Workforce Training

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Marr, Jeffrey D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Milliren, Christopher [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kaveh, Mos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mohan, Ned [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Stolarski, Henryk [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Glauser, Mark [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Arndt, Roger [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    establish unique, open-access research facilities and creation of university-industry research collaborations in wind energy were achieved through this project. The University of Minnesota, through the establishment of the Eolos Wind Energy Consortium and the Eolos Wind Research Field Station continue to develop new research collaborations with industry partners.

  6. Regulator and industry Co-operation on safety research: challenges and opportunities. Final report and answers to questionnaire

    A Group has been set up by the CSNI to identify and review the issues which hinder closer co-operation on research between regulators and industry, and to propose possible ways for resolving such issues while maintaining regulatory independence in decision-making. The Group has analyzed the potential advantages and disadvantages of regulator-industry collaboration in safety research and has also provided indications on how to overcome possible difficulties that can arise from such collaboration. The Group focused in particular on the issue of regulator independence, on means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry

  7. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  8. 75 FR 71133 - Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and...

    2010-11-22

    ... Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of the Term ``Lead Free'' in the Labeling of Pottery; and... availability of a guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: The Safety of Imported Traditional Pottery Intended for Use With Food and the Use of the Term `Lead Free' in the Labeling of Pottery; and...

  9. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety. PMID:19778828

  10. Spatio-temporal elements of articulation work in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety in UK general practice.

    Grant, Suzanne; Mesman, Jessica; Guthrie, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Prescribing is the most common healthcare intervention, and is both beneficial and risky. An important source of risk in UK general practice is the management of 'repeat prescriptions', which are typically requested from and issued by non-clinically trained reception staff with only intermittent reauthorisation by a clinical prescriber. This paper ethnographically examines the formal and informal work employed by GPs and receptionists to safely conduct repeat prescribing work in primary care using Strauss's (1985, 1988, 1993) concept of 'articulation work' across eight UK general practices. The analytical lens of articulation work provided an investigative framing to contextually map the informal, invisible resources of resilience and strength employed by practice team members in the achievement of repeat prescribing safety, where risk and vulnerability were continually relocated across space and time. In particular, the paper makes visible the micro-level competencies and collaborative practices that were routinely employed by both GPs and receptionists across different socio-cultural contexts, with informal, cross-hierarchical communication usually considered more effective than the formal structures of communication that existed (e.g. protocols). While GPs held formal prescribing authority, this paper also examines the key role of receptionists in both the initiation and safe coordination of the repeat prescribing routine. PMID:26283462

  11. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  12. U.S. hospital industry restructuring and the hospital safety net.

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Manheim, Larry M; Waters, Teresa M

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. hospital industry was reshaped during the 1990s, with many hospitals becoming members of health systems and networks. Our research examines whether safety net hospitals (SNHs) were generally included or excluded from these arrangements, and the factors associated with their involvement. Our analysis draws on the earlier work of Alexander and Morrisey (1988), and not only studies factors affecting SNH participation in multihospital arrangements but also updates their earlier study. We constructed measures for hospital market conditions, management, and mission, and examined network and system affiliation patterns between 1994 and 1998. Our findings suggest that larger and more technically advanced hospitals joined systems in the 1990s, which contrasts with 1980s findings that smaller, financially weak institutions joined systems. Further, SNH participation in networks and systems was more common when hospitals faced less market pressure and where only a limited number of unaffiliated hospitals remained. If networks and systems are key parties in negotiating with private payers, SNHs may be going it alone in these negotiations in highly competitive markets. PMID:12836905

  13. Radiological safety programs in the petroleum and petrochemistry industry of Venezuela

    A diagnosis carried out five years ago showed that in Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) and its subsidiaries, exist about 530 radioactive sources. Also, about 1500 workers were also occupationally exposed, during operations such as industrial radiography and well logging. The same study determined the occurrence of some non-reported accidents and incidents with the overexposure of workers, specially contractors. Most of these problems were the result of the bad application of the radiological protection practices, and on the other hand, the disregarding of the governmental authorities in applying the regulatory standards. In order to solve this situation, PDVSA settled the safety guide for working with ionizing radiation, in which guidelines and technical advice are stablished to perform a safer work with radioactive elements. A radiological protection program was also organized in all the company operational areas. The paper includes the programs, practices and procedures implemented by PDVSA and its subsidiaries. Besides, the result of applying this comprehensive radiation protection program will be showed. (author). 1 ref

  14. Prioritized schedule for review of industrial safety and occupational health programs

    This document provides the rationale and criteria for developing a schedule for reviewing the Industrial Safety and Occupational Health programs for the Management and Operating Contractor (MOC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reviews will evaluate the MOC's compliance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders and regulatory requirements. The scope of this task includes developing prioritization criteria, determining the review priority of each program based upon the criteria, identifying review requirements for each program, and preparing a detailed review schedule. In keeping with the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) structure for the review of site activities, these review activities will be addressed as surveillances, although the original basis for this requirement refers to these activities as appraisals. Surveillances and appraisals are the same within this document. Surveillances are defined as: ''The act of monitoring or observing to verify whether an item, activity, system, or process conforms to specified requirements. Surveillance of a technical work activity is normally done in real time, i.e., the surveillance is accomplished as the work is being performed.''

  15. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  16. SAFETY

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  17. Safety and human factors impacts of introducing quality management into high-risk industries: A field study

    The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has undertaken a study for getting a better understanding, especially in terms of Safety and Human Factors, of the changes caused by the progressive deployment of the Quality Management in French high risk industries. This study is based on both theoretical elements from the human sciences and management and practical elements from the field, collected from interviews in large French industrial sites involved in integrating this management method. The results show frequent discrepancies between theory, which is very positive and production-oriented, and reality, which is more complex and subtle, ever looking for trade-offs between production requirements and safety constraints. Thus, each step forward announced in the literature may be matched by possible steps backward in terms of safety on the ground. Where, in theory, processes enable practices to be mastered, in practice they can reduce autonomy and fossilize know-how. Where theoretically continuous improvement stimulates and strengthens performances, in reality it can also generate stress and deadlock. Where theoretically personal commitment and collective responsibility work towards all-out performance, in reality they can also operate to conceal safety deviations and infringements. The assessment of Quality Management processes in the nuclear field will benefit from these results raised from theoretical review and confirmed by similar management changes. (author)

  18. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature.

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Hecker, Steven; Goldenhar, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Safety climate measurements can be used to proactively assess an organization's effectiveness in identifying and remediating work-related hazards, thereby reducing or preventing work-related ill health and injury. This review article focuses on construction-specific articles that developed and/or measured safety climate, assessed safety climate's relationship with other safety and health performance indicators, and/or used safety climate measures to evaluate interventions targeting one or more indicators of safety climate. Fifty-six articles met our inclusion criteria, 80% of which were published after 2008. Our findings demonstrate that researchers commonly defined safety climate as perception based, but the object of those perceptions varies widely. Within the wide range of indicators used to measure safety climate, safety policies, procedures, and practices were the most common, followed by general management commitment to safety. The most frequently used indicators should and do reflect that the prevention of work-related ill health and injury depends on both organizational and employee actions. Safety climate scores were commonly compared between groups (e.g. management and workers, different trades), and often correlated with subjective measures of safety behavior rather than measures of ill health or objective safety and health outcomes. Despite the observed limitations of current research, safety climate has been promised as a useful feature of research and practice activities to prevent work-related ill health and injury. Safety climate survey data can reveal gaps between management and employee perceptions, or between espoused and enacted policies, and trigger communication and action to narrow those gaps. The validation of safety climate with safety and health performance data offers the potential for using safety climate measures as a leading indicator of performance. We discuss these findings in relation to the related concept of safety culture and

  19. High Performing Schools in High Risk Environments: A Study on Leadership, School Safety, and Student Achievement at Two Urban Middle Schools in Los Angeles County

    Frias, Gus

    2010-01-01

    In the United States of America, all students and staff have a constitutional right to attend schools that are safe, secure, and successful. Despite this right, at many public schools, education leaders have failed to ensure the safety and high academic achievement of all students. The purpose of this research study is to expand knowledge about…

  20. International demands for retrofitting, trends in the nuclear industry, safety margins, concepts and options for retrofit

    The serious accidents at Fukushima in 2011 pointed out the missing implementation of existing international safety standards for nuclear power plants as also new aspects for nuclear safety. The main safety aspects in the aftermath of Fukushima are: robustness against internal and external impacts; sufficient safety margins; prolonged periods for safety measures; inherent and passive systems and mechanisms; enhanced independent operation of the plant in case of external failures; independent long-term supply with AC; accident management procedures; enhanced retention of radionuclides. Technologies for retrofit are available and are under implementation with respect to the demands and options in the countries using nuclear power.

  1. Safety

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  2. Concrete Shielding For Radiation Safety And Unexpected Dangerous Inside Cobalt-60 Industrial Irradiator

    The study shows a proposed destruction inside one of three cobalt-60 industrial irradiators to determine and reduce the negative results, to improve and modify emergency plan to face terrorism works. The results show the performance of concrete shielding (walls and ceiling) contains the bad effect of dynamic pressures. The explosion forces are prevented to destructive by performance of their concrete shielding, which will contain the most components of devastated systems inside each irradiator after explosion. Shield penetration like electrical cable tunnels, pushers holes, hole with removable plug, product boxes openings, lens opening and ozone duct are affected badly by destruction. Through probability of transporting, some of devastated parts of broken radioactive cobalt- 60 pencils from inside radiation concreter room to outside (surrounded environment) are maintained and causing very danger radiation exposure by gamma rays outside irradiator. A necessity needs to modify emergency plan to prevent any explosive materials to enter inside the main building (irradiation sale) and also discovering any explosive materials which are placed inside the product boxes before passing to inside irradiator. The minimizing radiation exposure (2 mrem/h) inside underground radiation shelters are maintained by reducing radiation dose exerted from a nuclear explosion of 20 kT about 1 km away to a safe value, and calculating the protective factors of radiation main building basements are more than 40 (safety factor) as they are located under ground level, are surrounded by sandy soil and are constructed by concrete. The study shows the proposed basements of the main building maintain success to use as under ground safe radiation shelter (during emergency) with separate safe radiation trace. It begins from the main opening of irradiation sale and leads to underground proposed shelter through modified main stair

  3. Cultivating Safety Culture in Malaysia Nuclear Industries through Education and Training

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is a national R and D organisation under Ministry of Science, Technology and the Innovation Malaysia, focusing on the application and promotion of nuclear and related technologies for national development. The core business of Nuclear Malaysia is R and D, and our approach has been customer focused, and remains in line with the mainstream of national socio-economic agenda. Thus Nuclear Malaysia.s activities support the short and long- terms national developmental programme. As a result of conducting R and D we generate products and services, including marketing of products and providing technical services, consultancy and training. Hence we would be able to move forwards towards achieving self-reliance and sustainability. Training service centre has been entrusted to enhance the application of nuclear technology in various socio-economic sectors i.e. industry, medical, agricultural and the environment. Thus, skill manpower should be developed and able to participate in various activities to support national development agenda. In executing the functions, the Centre has sufficient resources in term of manpower (for coordinating and training), finance and facilities. In addition, the Centre is backed by a pool of experienced and skilled personnel from other divisions in Nuclear Malaysia and also from our associates or partners to ensure smooth implementation of training

  4. Cultivating Safety Culture in Malaysia Nuclear Industries through Education and Training

    Ibrahim, Sabariah Kader [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is a national R and D organisation under Ministry of Science, Technology and the Innovation Malaysia, focusing on the application and promotion of nuclear and related technologies for national development. The core business of Nuclear Malaysia is R and D, and our approach has been customer focused, and remains in line with the mainstream of national socio-economic agenda. Thus Nuclear Malaysia.s activities support the short and long- terms national developmental programme. As a result of conducting R and D we generate products and services, including marketing of products and providing technical services, consultancy and training. Hence we would be able to move forwards towards achieving self-reliance and sustainability. Training service centre has been entrusted to enhance the application of nuclear technology in various socio-economic sectors i.e. industry, medical, agricultural and the environment. Thus, skill manpower should be developed and able to participate in various activities to support national development agenda. In executing the functions, the Centre has sufficient resources in term of manpower (for coordinating and training), finance and facilities. In addition, the Centre is backed by a pool of experienced and skilled personnel from other divisions in Nuclear Malaysia and also from our associates or partners to ensure smooth implementation of training

  5. The influence of workplace factors on employee safety awareness in the nuclear industry

    In any organization, safety performance will in some way be related to employee safety awareness and enhancement of awareness should lead to improvement in safety performance. If awareness is to be enhanced, factors influencing awareness need to be understood and influential factors developed and used to this effect. This paper describes a study which sought to establish, in the context of a nuclear electricity generating company, if relationships do exist between possible influences and safety awareness and, if so, to what extent. The study revealed that five factors - training/experience, safety initiatives, communication, organization and personnel - were judged to be influential and that some of these were key influences. The evidence may be used to influence safety awareness enhancement in this organizational setting. There may be a wider application of these results, certainly within the company and possibly in other similar organizations. (author)

  6. Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care

    Hudson, P

    2003-01-01

    High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pat...

  7. Execution of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1994 in the Construction Industry from Contractors’ Point of View

    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction is one of the highest contributing industries to occupational accidents by sector in Malaysia. Statistics have been drawn from year to year that show an increasing number of cases of accidents by industry sector. While it is impossible to completely eliminate all accidents, with a proper and effective safety and health policy or rules set by top management, especially contractors, the rate of accidents on construction sites can be reduced. The main objective of this study is to analyse the degree of application of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994 in the construction industry and to identify the contributing factors leading to a lack of execution of OSHA 1994 on construction sites with a primary focus on contractors’ point of view. Five on-going construction projects in Perak were selected as case studies and site inspections were conducted. The results showed that none of the contractors have fully implemented the rules and regulations provided by the government. Within this report, some recommendations are made towards enhancing the safety and health issues on construction sites.

  8. The economics of safety: A case study of the UK offshore helicopter industry

    Mitchell, S

    2006-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organisation maintains that future viability of air transportation may well be predicated on perception of safety rather than any more tangible measures. In order to keep safety risks at an acceptable level it advocates a change of fundamental approach to the system of safety management, one that is more proactive. This study examines the causes of such a requirement for change, and the scope for improving the efficiency of what Calabresi ...

  9. The Cost of Food Safety Technologies in the Meat and Poultry Industries.

    Ollinger, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses plant-level micro-data from the 2002 Census of Manufactures, Food Safety Inspection Service, and the Economic Research Service in a translog cost function to examine the costs of effort devoted to the performance of sanitation and process control tasks and levels of food safety technology use. Results suggest that more effort devoted to performance of sanitation and process control tasks and greater use of food safety technologies modestly reduce long run costs.

  10. Joint submission of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the Organization of CANDU Industries to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review

    The manufacturing company members of the Canadian Nuclear Association and the Organization of CANDU Industries are proud to have played their part in the development of the peaceful application of nuclear technology in Ontario, and the achievement of the very real benefits discussed in this paper, which greatly outweigh the hypothetical risks

  11. Food safety controls in different governance structures in China’s vegetable and fruit industry

    ZHOU Jie-hong; LI Kai; LIANG Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Food safety issues constitute an international topic discussed by many scholars. Although there is an extensive body of literature on comparisons of food safety control practices across different governance structures, these studies have been conducted mainly in terms of qualitative and descriptive analysis. In addition, little attention has been given to family farms. This study addresses the food safety control practices adopted by ifrms with different governance structures in China. Food safety control is expressed by the folowing aspects, i.e., polution-free, green, organic, and/or geographical indication prod-ucts certiifcation, establishment of production records, and pesticide residue testing. Three types of governance structures that engage in agricultural production are distinguished: farmer cooperatives, agricultural companies, and family farms. The food safety control practices of various governance structures are investigated based on a database that comprises 600 vegetable and fruit enterprises in Zhejiang, China. The results show that (1) pesticide residue testing is adopted by the most ifrms, folowed by products certiifcation, and production records are adopted by the fewest ifrms, and (2) agricul-tural companies adopt more food safety control practices than family farms, while farmer cooperatives adopt the fewest food safety control practices. Governance structure features of a cooperative in terms of ownership, decision-making, and income distribution are the main reasons for the low level of food safety control in the cooperative.

  12. Basic requirements for ensuring the safety of NPP extended operations (How best to achieve and ensure the safety of extended operations)

    The report contains basic requirements for prolongation of NPP extended operations. The main requirements concern obligation of operating organization for providing complex inspection, developing program for preparation NPP extended operations and justification safety. The report contains also requirements for documentation packages, submitted for obtaining license for NPP extended operations. (author)

  13. A New approach to the spread of safety culture. The trend of studies and practice in the foreign nuclear power industry, and future approach

    The purpose of this study is to clarify organizational factors influencing on safety and to suggest future approach for the spread of safety culture. As the results of investigations on safety companies, characteristics of organizational policies, those of safety activities' purposes, and organizational factors which encourage workers to take a positive attitude toward the safety activities were clarified. Based on the clarified characteristics and the trend of studies and practice in the foreign nuclear power industry, it was suggested that it would be necessary for the spread of safety culture in an organization to learn lessons for the prevention of accidents' recurring and to maintain safety behavior and attitude for the prevention of accidents' occurring. For support of this, it is desired to develop the assessment system of organizational safety and the planning system of safety management. The new approach was also suggested with the process model for influence of organizational factors which include workers' psychological aspects. (author)

  14. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    ... and Healthy Jobs - Prevention through Design Hierarchy of Controls Industry and Occupation Coding and Support Logging Safety Machine Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and ...

  15. Management of safety culture

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  16. Achieving Excellence through Memorable Traveler Experience and Challenges,Opportunities and Solutions for Romanian Travel and Hospitality Industry

    THEODOR VALENTIN PURCAREA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is probably the fastest growing one in the world. The tourism company should endeavour to shape the overall perception of value in this industry. What matters is the provision of experiences, but not services. To meet international standards the Romanian tourism should consider challenges, opportunities and solutions to cope with the specific requirements in this field.

  17. Achieving Excellence through Memorable Traveler Experience and Challenges,Opportunities and Solutions for Romanian Travel and Hospitality Industry

    THEODOR VALENTIN PURCAREA; VALERIU IOAN FRANC; MONICA PAULA RATIU

    2010-01-01

    Hospitality industry is probably the fastest growing one in the world. The tourism company should endeavour to shape the overall perception of value in this industry. What matters is the provision of experiences, but not services. To meet international standards the Romanian tourism should consider challenges, opportunities and solutions to cope with the specific requirements in this field.

  18. Safety Guide no. 5.14 issued in Spain by the Nuclear Safety Council: Security and radiological requirements in the industrial gamma radiography facilities

    Radioactive facilities where industrial gamma radiography equipment are used, require a use authorization in accordance to the Spanish regulations. In order to get authorized the person in charge of the installation has to display a set of documents; among them two of the most important attending to radiological safety, are the 'Operatory Manual' and the 'Emergency Procedures'. The fulfillment of these documents is essential to get, from the radiological point of view, the optimal conditions for the running of the installation. The Regulation on Sanitary Protection against the Ionizing Radiation, transposition of Directives 80/836/EURATOM and 84/467/EURATOM, provides certain targets to be reached and a set of radioactive protection measures, applied, in general terms, to this kind of installations. The experience gathered on the running of these specially radioactive risky installations demands special attention to the fulfillment of the security and radiological protection measures. The Nuclear Safety Council issued in 1998 the safety guide 5.14, in order to help people in charge of those installations to fulfill the security and radiological requirements, as well to became the guideline in the writing of obligatory documents, specially those referring to the 'Operatory Manual' and the 'Emergency Procedures', where the safe operational procedures of this kind of equipment are described. (author)

  19. 化工行业“安全观察与沟通”的初步探索%Safety Observation and Communication Exploration on Chemical Industry

    赵林; 王述存; 孟力

    2016-01-01

    安全观察与沟通是落实有感领导、展现领导承诺的一种有效手段[1]。通过对杜邦公司安全文化体系的认知,深刻剖析在化工危险作业中应该如何做好安全观察与沟通。结合当前在化工生产中的重点应用及注意事项,本文分别对安全观察与沟通的概况、内容及应用等,进行了较详细的分析与阐述。在工作中倡导并积极开展安全观察与沟通,将达到较好的安全管理效果。%Security Watch is to implement felt leadership and communication, as a means to show leadership commitments. Through the perception of the state company's safety culture system, a profound analysis of the chemical industry should be how to do dangerous work safety observation and communication. Combined with the current focus on the application and precautions in chemical production, the significance of safety observation and communication, content and applications were carried on for a more detailed exposition and analysis. Advocacy at work and actively carrying out safety observation and communication will achieve better security management effectiveness.

  20. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  1. Radiation safety and regulatory aspects of Industrial Ionising Radiation Gauging Devices (IRGD)

    In order to have an effective control on the use of these radiation sources and also to ensure the radiological safety of the user, as well as of the general public, the Government of India had promulgated the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 under Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the office of the competent authority for enforcing rules and regulations in respect of radiological safety

  2. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Amir S. GOHARDANI; Folke BJÖRK

    2013-01-01

    The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of...

  3. Effect of Occupational Health and Safety Management System on Work-Related Accident Rate and Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System Awareness between Managers in South Korea's Construction Industry

    Yoon, Seok J.; Lin, Hsing K.; Chen, Gang; Yi, Shinjea; Choi, Jeawook; Rui, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to investigate the current status of the occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) in the construction industry and the effect of OHSMS on accident rates. Differences of awareness levels on safety issues among site general managers and occupational health and safety (OHS) managers are identified through surveys. Methods The accident rates for the OHSMS-certified construction companies from 2006 to 2011, when the construction OHSMS became widel...

  4. MYSTICISM IN BATIK INDUSTRIAL RELATION: The Study of Trust Achievement on the Survivability of Small-Medium Batik Industry at Pekalongan City

    Imam Kanafi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between economy and religion had been known for long time ago as it was found in Max Weber’s books “The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism” and “The Protestant Sects and The Spirit of Capitalism”. This paper examines the extent to which mysticism practices have been conducted among the employers and employees of Batik Industries in Pekalongan City. It argues that mysticism has an important role to reinforce the social capital and make the industry survive, especially to face many problems related to productivity, motivation, trust as well as wage issues. By practicing mystics and religious traditions, like dhikiran, manakiban, hawl and muludan, people have spiritual force which has an important role both for personally and professionally in the work place, especially to maintain the relationship between employees and employers. Also they could be stronger when faced the changes and challenges of business and their industry can survive.

  5. Industry

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  6. New vision of the control organisms in industrial safety and maintenance, based approach to new pressure equipment; Nueva vision de los organismos de control en la seguridad industrial y mantenimiento en base al nuevo enfoque de equipos a presion

    Bernardez Garcia, A.

    2010-07-01

    Control agencies are companies dedicated to the verification of compliance with the safety of products and facilities as administrative regulation in industrial safety through certification activities, testing, inspection or audit.Changes have been made that will stimulate the increase of companies engaged in this sector.

  7. Safety upgrading of Novi Han Repository under IAEA TC Project BUL/4/005 achievements and future plans

    The report presents the safety upgrading of the Novi Han Repository under the IAEA TC Project BUL/4/005. The Project covers: identification of radionuclide inventory; characterisation of the disposal vaults; site characterisation; safety assessment; upgrading of the monitoring and radiation control; selection of treatment and conditioning processes and a conceptual design for a new waste processing and storage facility and other direct measures for safety improvement. The current inventory is identified and presented in the report. Schemes of the vault for solid wastes and vault for biological wastes are given, demonstrating reinforced concrete, stainless steel lining, and hydro insulation are presented. Several studies for safety assessment are made between 1997 and 2003. The operational safety assessment for disposal in existing facilities gives the annual risk for: spilling of waste package during upload (7.58.10-9); spilling of waste package in transport accident (2.90.10-9); fire scenario (3.50.10-13); radionuclide release due to flooding or earthquake (5.05.10-4). The monitoring radiation control is upgraded according to the regulatory guidance and covered the site, restricted zone (1 km) and supervised zone (5 km). The types of analyses made are: Direct measurement of the dose rate -TLD; Direct measurements of the dose rate - portable surveillance monitors; In situ gamma spectrometry; Gamma spectrometry; Gross beta, gross alpha; Liquid scintillation spectrometry. The analyses show no transfer od radionuclides to the environment. The individual radiation control shows no evidence for specific radiation pathology. The operational radiation control service premises and transport vehicles. The following is measured: gamma dose rate; beta exposure; alpha exposure; neutron radiation; contamination level. Under the development is a detailed technical design supply of equipment for characterization of waste, including hot cell for control over high level spent

  8. Towards an Industrial Application of Statistical Uncertainty Analysis Methods to Multi-physical Modelling and Safety Analyses

    Since 1980's, Tractebel Engineering (TE) has being developed and applied a multi-physical modelling and safety analyses capability, based on a code package consisting of the best estimate 3D neutronic (PANTHER), system thermal hydraulic (RELAP5), core sub-channel thermal hydraulic (COBRA-3C), and fuel thermal mechanic (FRAPCON/FRAPTRAN) codes. A series of methodologies have been developed to perform and to license the reactor safety analysis and core reload design, based on the deterministic bounding approach. Following the recent trends in research and development as well as in industrial applications, TE has been working since 2010 towards the application of the statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods to the multi-physical modelling and licensing safety analyses. In this paper, the TE multi-physical modelling and safety analyses capability is first described, followed by the proposed TE best estimate plus statistical uncertainty analysis method (BESUAM). The chosen statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods (non-parametric order statistic method or bootstrap) and tool (DAKOTA) are then presented, followed by some preliminary results of their applications to FRAPCON/FRAPTRAN simulation of OECD RIA fuel rod codes benchmark and RELAP5/MOD3.3 simulation of THTF tests. (authors)

  9. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  10. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  11. The MIT international program for enhanced nuclear power plant safety: Organization and management in the nuclear power industry

    This document is a report of the meeting between the Nuclear Power Industry Executives Advisory Panel and the Organization and Management Study Group of the MIT International Program for Enhanced Nuclear Power Plant Safety. At the first meeting, 16 representatives from utilities in four countries and 11 MIT faculty and staff explored mutual interests in order to guide future efforts. Roundtable groups selected four topics for further discussion: (1) compliance and autonomy, (2) cost control and safety, (3) plant aging and workforce changes, and (4) cross-functional complexity. The MIT researchers discussed their proposed research design featuring three studies conducted in utilities that operate multiple plants, one at each utility identified as a good performer, and a second at a utility needing improvement. These three studies were: (1) outage planning and implementation, (2) performance improvement as a problem solving process, and (3) ways to characterize the organizational knowledge at a utility and its relationship to performance enhancement

  12. Quality And Safety Management Systems: Joint Action For Certification Of Small Firms In An Industrial Cluster In Brazil

    Gerolamo, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses a proposal for joint action among small firms in an industrial cluster in Brazil for the certification of quality and safety management systems. It proposes a management system model, the implementation process, and periodic auditing. It is the result of an action-research project developed in a metal-mechanical cluster. Its originality lies mainly in the proposal for a joint action programme for the certification of companies, led by the cluster governance agency, to increase the collective efficiency of a cluster. Despite the obstacles encountered, this proposal can help to reduce the difficulties faced by small businesses in implementing and maintaining management systems, and in the long run to foster a culture of quality and safety management. It also contributes to joint actions within the cluster. The challenge faced by the cluster governance agency is to sustain the certification programme in the long term.

  13. Management of safety, environment and health in expansion of the Petrochemical industry; Gestao de seguranca, meio ambiente e saude na ampliacao da industria petroquimica

    Rodrigues, Sonia Marta Carpinelli; Abreu, Igor Melo de [UTC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The UTC Engineering S.A. search for excellence results to develop the Health, Environmental, and Safety Integrated Management System (SMS) which is addressed to the Petrochemical Uniao S.A. Project for Productivity Capacity Expansion. Despite challenges to set and maintain the System and besides risks associated to electro-mechanical industrial assembly and civil construction, the plan is being implemented. Due to activity changes associated with distinct enterprise steps execution there is a need of tight control related to alteration and immediate blockage actions as procedure to prevent accidents. Innovative programs as the 'Motivation Program for Prevention of Losses' and the 'Qualification Program and Training of Work', bring up to the workers sense of responsibilities and professional values related to SMS issues. As an aid, the Programs supplied by DuPont as STOP{sup TM} - (Program of Safety for Observation) and IAS (Index of Safe Actions) constituted important tools. But, its production leadership taking part, concerned SMS commitment and responsibilities, was crucial. The good results achievements are expressed by reduction of SMS distortions and by reduction of labor accidents as man hour exposed to the risk. (author)

  14. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  15. Experiments toward non-contact safety standards for automated industrial vehicles

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Madhavan, Raj

    2005-05-01

    The performance evaluation of an obstacle detection and segmentation algorithm for Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) navigation in factory-like environments using a new 3D real-time range camera is the subject of this paper. Our approach expands on the US ASME B56.5 Safety Standard, which now allows for non-contact safety sensors, by performing tests on objects specifically sized in both the US and the British Safety Standards. These successful tests placed the recommended, as well as smaller, material-covered and sized objects on the vehicle path for static measurement. The segmented (mapped) obstacles were then verified in range to the objects and object size using simultaneous, absolute measurements obtained using a relatively accurate 2D scanning laser rangefinder. These 3D range cameras are expected to be relatively inexpensive and used indoors and possibly used outdoors for a vast amount of mobile robot applications building on experimental results explained in this paper.

  16. Relevance for Food Safety of Applications of Nanotechnology in the Food and Feed Industry

    Pratt, Iona; Adley, Catherine; Chambers, Gordon; Anderson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in the food and feed industry offers many potential benefits for both consumers and manufacturers.The ultrafine dimensions of nanoparticles, and consequently their very large surface area, enable them to function more effectively than conventional macro-scale structures in many applications. Nanotechnology is however a relatively new area of science and the benefits and risks associated with its use in the food and feed industry are not fully understood at th...

  17. 实现甘蔗制糖产业科学发展的生态工业模式%Cane Sugar Industry to Achieve Scientific Development of Eco-industrial Model

    梁洪

    2011-01-01

    甘蔗制糖产业是高污染的传统产业,环境保护与产业发展的矛盾日益突出,环境问题已成为制约传统产业发展的重要因素.我们运用循环经济理念以及工业生态学的原理对甘蔗制糖产业进行生态化改造,推动产业升级,拓展产业链,全面提高工业污染防治技术水平,实现由"资源-产品-污染物排放"传统经济的发展方式,向"资源-产品-再生资源"的循环经济发展方式转变,促进甘蔗制糖产业科学发展.本文主要介绍责港生态工业模式的主要做法及其绩效.%The cane sugar Industry is a highly polluting traditional industry. Contradictions between environmental protection and industrial development have become increasingly prominent. Environmental issues have become an important restricting factor in the development of traditional industries. Therefore, it is necessary to use the concept of circular economy and industrial ecology principles, to make ecological transformation of cane sugar industry, to promote industrial upgrading, to expand industrial chain, and to comprehensively improve the level of industrial pollution control technology. So that, the economical development can be changed from the traditional mode of “Resources-Products-Emissions” to the circular pattern of “Resources-Products-Renewable Resources”, and scientific development of the cane sugar industry can be promoted. This paper mainly introduces the measures and achievements of Eco-industrial Model in Guigang.

  18. Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division annual report for 1981

    Activities over the past year are summarized for the Health Physics Department, the Environmental Management Program, and the Safety Department. The Health Physics Department conducts radiation and safety surveys, provides personnel monitoring services for both external and internal radiation, and procures, services, and calibrates appropriate portable and stationary health physics instruments. It was determined that the maximum whole-body dose sustained by an employee was about 3.8 rems, which is 76% of the applicable standard of 5 rems. The greatest cumulative dose to the skin of the whole body received by an employee during 1981 was about 5.9 rems, or 39% of the applicable standard of 15 rems. Atmospheric iodine sampled by the Department of Environmental Management at the perimeter stations averged 0.13E to 14 μCi/cc during 1981. This average represents 131I released to uncontrolled areas. All air samples taken had values below the allowable standards. The concentrations of 90Sr in milk from both the immediate and remote environs of ORNL are also within FRC range I. The average value of 1.5 E to 9 μCi/mL represents 0.5% of the CG/sub w/ for drinking water applicable to individuals in the general population. The Safety Department reported that the continuing emphasis on safety during CY 1981 resulted in significant improvements in the ORNL safety program: safety performance was better than all CY 1981 on-the-job injury and illness goals. Through December 31, 1981, the Laboratory had worked 600 days and accumulated 14,015,826 exposure-hours since the last lost-work-day case

  19. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as … well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  20. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  1. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  2. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants

  3. Probabilistic analysis of safety in industrial irradiation plants; Analisis probabilistico de seguridad en plantas industriales de irradiacion

    Alderete, F.; Elechosa, C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. del Libertador 8250 - Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: falderet@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority is carrying out the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of the two industrial irradiation plants existent in the country. The objective of this presentation is to show from the regulatory point of view, the advantages of applying this tool, as well as the appeared difficulties; for it will be made a brief description of the facilities, of the method and of the normative one. Both plants are multipurpose facilities classified as 'industrial irradiator category IV' (panoramic irradiator with source deposited in pool). Basically, the execution of an APS consists of the following stages: 1. Identification of initiating events. 2. Modeling of Accidental Sequences (Event Trees). 3. Analysis of Systems (Fault trees). 4. Quantification of Accidental Sequences. The argentine normative doesn't demand to these facilities the realization of an APS, however the basic standard of Radiological Safety establishes that in the design of this type of facilities in the cases that is justified, should make sure that the annual probability of occurrence of an accidental sequence and the resulting dose in a person gives as result an radiological risk inferior to the risk limit adopted as acceptance criteria. On the other hand the design standard specifies for these irradiators it demands a maximum fault rate of 10{sup -2} for the related components with the systems of radiological safety. In our case, the possible initiating events have been identified that carried out to not wanted situations (about people exposure, radioactive contamination). Then, for each one of the significant initiating events, the corresponding accidental sequences were modeled and the safety systems that intervene in this sequences by means of fault trees were analyzed, for then to determine the fault probabilities of the same ones. At the moment they are completing these fault trees, but the difficulty resides in the impossibility of obtaining real data

  4. An update on environmental, health, and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II-VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics.

  5. An update on environmental, health, and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II-VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics

  6. Yarrowia lipolytica: Safety assessment of an oleaginous yeast with a great industrial potential

    Groenewald, M.; Boekhout, T.; Neuveglise, C.; Gaillardin, C.; van Dijck, P.W.M.; Wyss, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Yarrowia lipolytica has been developed as a production host for a large variety of biotechnological applications. Efficacy and safety studies have demonstrated the safe use of Yarrowia-derived products containing significant proportions of Yarrowia biomass (as for DuPont's eicosapentaenoic

  7. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  8. Simulation Analysis of China’s Energy and Industrial Structure Adjustment Potential to Achieve a Low-carbon Economy by 2020

    Nan Xiang; Feng Xu; Jinghua Sha

    2013-01-01

    To achieve a low-carbon economy, China has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 40%–45% by 2020 from 2005 levels and increasing the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to approximately 15%. It is necessary to investigate whether this plan is suitable and how this target may be reached. This paper verifies the feasibility of achieving the CO 2 emission targets by energy and industrial structure adjustments,...

  9. Investigation of radio-nucleus for the purpose environmental control and safety in the oil industry

    This is well known that one of the sources of changing a radioactive background is an exploration and production of oil. The radio-ecological situation on oil deposits is defined by the composition and concentration of an radio-nucleus in the oil content, sedimentary, collection, produce water, an also be accumulated at keeping of the oil, etc. In this connection the great is environmental protection and safety in the oil industry. Danger of radio-nucleus, i.e. potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic elements is in radioactivity with can be in difficult forms, material and natural media. In spite of greater urgency of problem, the information on radio-ecological situation both offshore and onshore oil deposits is insufficient. The need of getting detailed geochemistry data on spreading and sharing the radioactive elements on their migration within oil-bearing produced water and oil important for scientific and practical indicated by G.Efendiyev (1964). He was beginning the investigations radioactive elements in the water column and sediments in the Caspian Sea in 1947 and systematic study from 1956 of produced water of oil deposits of Azerbaijan for the determination of Uranus and other radioelements, have allowed getting the data on geochemistry of radioelements. Comparative materials have show that seawater different content on of Uranus and the Caspian Sea is characterized by its comparatively greater concentration. Also it is know that natural radioactive background of the sea pools is defined by the Uranus contents in water and shallow layer of sediments. The presence of natural radio-nucleus is attributed by the climate, river flow, relief, geological structure, volcano, type of sediments and other factors. However, in studying content and activities of the radioactive elements in the environment, in their spatial distribution, impact on ecosystem. In spite of good studying many questions of the Caspian Sea the information on radiological condition of the sea

  10. Industrialization

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  11. The French Nuclear Safety Authority's policy of development of a culture of radiation protection: the example of industrial radiography

    Concerning industrial radiography, a nuclear activity where radioprotection is regarded as a priority, France has equipped itself since 1985 with legal instruments that are specific to this activity and particularly strict, which it has gradually reinforced over a period of years. Among French specificities, the decree of 1985 states that apparatuses distributed and used in France must have reinforced safety devices and an examination certificate attesting to their conformity with the technical specifications contained in the decree. In addition, an order of 2004 sets out the organisational rules to be respected by industrial radiography companies, and an order of 2007 reinforces the rules introduced in 1987 concerning the training of radiologists, who must in particular have a certificate of aptitude in safe handling of apparatuses. The experience feedback available to France shows that these regulations made it possible to limit the occurrence and the gravity of the incidents in industrial radiography, allowing that no incident on a major scale has arisen so far in France. Nevertheless, each year there are ten incidents whose consequences remain limited because of the safety measures apparatuses must conform to, and because of the user regulations imposed. In 2005, during a national meeting, the ASN reminded all representatives of the French Society of Non-destructive Testing (COFREND) of the need to justify the use of industrial radiography compared to the existing alternative methods and to define good practices for preparation and control procedures. The ASN asked these representatives to establish and run working groups on these subjects. The latter therefore took this step. Working groups were thus assembled on various subjects such as training, materials, job analysis, experience feedback, the responsibilities of parties involved etc. These working groups will present their work and will return their conclusions during a national meeting planned for 30

  12. Injury, death, and the deregulation fetish: the politics of occupational safety regulation in U.K. manufacturing industries.

    Tombs, S

    1996-01-01

    The author examines some of the more recent developments in the social and political environments within which the "deregulation fetish" is crucial, but of which it remains only one element. This fetish, as part of a broader assault on the legitimacy of the external regulation of business activity, will not go away; its effects are already being felt in the context of the regulation of occupational safety in the United Kingdom. After outlining recent trends in recorded injuries in U.K. workplaces, with particular reference to manufacturing industries, the author charts the nature and effects of the social and political contexts of the work of U.K. safety regulators in the 1980s. While Thatcher governments withdrew from any direct deregulatory assault on occupational safety, what transpired was a gradual but continual undermining of the ability of these agencies to fulfill their mandated functions. The nature and effects of a new politics of deregulation are examined and this new politics is related to U.K. governmental opposition to European Union influence in domestic social policy, which stands in a symbiotic relationship with the re-emergence of a sustained deregulatory discourse in the United Kingdom. PMID:9132377

  13. The effect of occupational safety legislation in preventing accidents at work: traditional versus advanced manufacturing industries

    Pablo Arocena; Imanol Núñez

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the effect of occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation in reducing workplace accidents. It is argued that different impacts should be expected in advanced and traditional manufacturing sectors. We test this hypothesis with data on Spanish manufacturing throughout the period 1988 – 2004. To that effect, we estimate the relationship between the number of serious injuries and the potential risk factors, by means of diverse specifications of the negative binomial regression mod...

  14. Enhancing Food Safety and Productivity: Technology Use in the Canadian Food Processing Industry

    Sabourin, David; Baldwin, John R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the factors contributing to the adoption of advanced technologies in the Canadian food-processing sector. The numbers of technologies used by a plant is found to be highly correlated with expected gains in firm performance. The benefits of enhanced food safety and quality, as well as productivity improvements, are closely associated with technology use. Impediments that negatively affect technology use include software costs, problems with external financing, lack of cash ...

  15. Examining the Influence of Safety Management in the Personal Spaceflight Industry

    Quinn, Charles Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Suborbital flights will soon take flight as a viable commercial operation. Operators such as Virgin Galactic, along with their designer Scaled Composites, will be responsible for safety of the flight crew, Spaceflight Participants and indeed the uninvolved public beneath their flight trajectories. Within the United States, the Federal Aviation Authority’s Office of Commercial Transportation (FAA-AST) has provided Launch License Regulations and Guidelines for prospective design organisations a...

  16. Pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus: Achievements and challenges in the citrus industry: A review

    Mohammed Yesuf

    2013-01-01

    Citruses are the worlds’ second fruit crops by volume next to banana. It is one of the most important commodity in tropical Africa as source of foreign currency, raw material for agro-industries and source of employment. The production and productivity of citrus in tropical Africa including Ethiopia are critically threatened by a number of diseases. Among others, pseudocercospora leaf and fruit spot of citrus caused by a fungus Pseudocercospora angolensis is the most destructive disease of c...

  17. An integrated approach towards safety during change in the chemical process industry

    Gort, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Lemkowitz, S.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure cause major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies continuously improve their manpower efficiency. As a result most chemical plants of today can be regarded as lean plants. Plans to further reduce the number of staff ar

  18. The radiological safety in the petroleum industry. The behavior toward the prevention

    Inside the mark of the regulatory control it takes a preponderant place the control of sealed and open radioactive sources, in oil applications. In this task, the handling of the radioactive sources, the demand of the use of written procedures and the training, they are only some examples, of all those that conform the regulatory control. Among these topics they stand out a series of aspects divided in three big groups: operative radiological safety in the base, in the transport and in the task properly said. Given the great quantity of aspects that should be kept in mind, as well as the integration of all the control processes should be included strongly, aspects of safety and quality culture, and to introduce improvements as for the prevention refers, to correct deviations and remoteness that can be produced, avoiding like this, situations of radiological risk, emphasizing aspects of perception of the risk, training in attitudes, the implementation of audits and verifications of the safety level of the installation and the pursuit and control of the tasks that involve the manipulation of radioactive material, which are described in this work. (Author)

  19. Practical applications of safety culture concepts in human performance advances on Russian nuclear industry

    Sometimes, many from negative external factors can be compensated by human psychological readiness of worker. However there would be main worse to come: some cases of personnel activity and organisational factors, some person's peculiarities (attitudes, responsibility, etc.) add considerable number of the events at NPPs. A lot of aspects of Human Factor Reliability are united in Safety Culture concept. This paper presents some results of our recently research in that area. In 'proactive approach': Unique methods for measuring maturity and satisfaction of personnel motivation: comparative analysis of the labour and safety culture motivation from attitude; organization of the socio-psychological climate and safety attitude examining monitoring at all of Russia's NPPs; working-out recommendations for managers on improving human performance are presented. Besides, ergonomic research concerning work conditions at the NPP is displayed. In 'reactive approach': Analysis of the incorrect activity cases, which led to the breaches of work of the Russian NPPs, is shown. The special method to work-up is used. It was issue, that events caused by a human error, depends not only on the worker's professional competence, but on the attitude and motivation, some professionally important psychological and psycho-physiological quality data, the functional state, the group's socio-psychological climate, etc. (author)

  20. Misapplication of the IAEA 1996 basic safety standards to the minerals industry. Impact on the NORM and TENORM issues

    Mining and processing of minerals results in increased concentrations of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products and/or process wastes, relative to the source materials. The technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) phenomenon may bring minerals industry operations into the ream of regulatory concern worldwide. The IAEA 1996 International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) have become the de facto blueprint for a number of national radiation safety regulations. But verbatim adoption of the BSS would clearly result in the great majority of minerals industry operations becoming, for the first time ever, subject to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, notification, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of radiation safety staff etc. would be required. This would not only constitute a major culture shock' but would result in ongoing logistics and economic burden to the affected operations. In some cases it could spell their end. The commensurate demand on regulatory authorities would also emerge. The exemption criteria from the requirements of the BSS are very restrictive. They are not suitable for mining and processing of NORM/TENORM bearing minerals. The criteria have been expressed in terms of numerical exemption levels for hundreds of radionuclides, including all those that occur naturally. The levels specify both, the maximum exempted Activity Concentration and the maximum exempted total Activity of each radionuclide in the host material. Even if an operation could comply with the Activity Concentration criterion, due to the sheer mass of the minerals a non-compliance with the total Activity would always occur. The maximum exempted mass is of the order of single kilograms for wastes from petroleum and gas production, tin smelting and bauxite ore processing; for phosphate rock, fertilisers and most mineral sands products

  1. SAFETY

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  2. SAFETY

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  3. Industry

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  4. Radiation safety and culture of prevention in the use of radioactive materials in industry : criteria and trends

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  5. Radiation Safety and Culture of Prevention in the Use of Radioactive Materials in Industry. Criteria and Trends

    As time goes by and experience is gained, modernization and technological development show the need to implement more complex programs and procedures to ensure a high level of compliance with radiation safety, particularly in those activities in which radioactive material is used in industry. A relevant aspect of present technology is the concern to introduce mechanisms to prevent radiological accidents or incidents, to ensure early detection of failures. This includes systems that either individually or as a whole, increase the level of responsibility of the different disciplines involved, so as to avoid a situation that could lead to loss of control of the facility or part of it. The prevention of an abnormal situation, overexposure of workers or unwanted risks, should be considered in the level of vulnerability of the facility, a concept drawn from international protection systems and which is applied directly in radiation safety. Preventive management, risk communication and proposals for change or improvement along with the detection of risks and training, constitute all the factors contained within prevention policies. Dose limitation, optimization and justification, old tools used for decades, could not be replaced by other modern concepts and criteria. ALARA culture (including performance indicators) should be considered. The atmosphere at work, working under pressure as well as other factors such as quality issues, ethics of prevention, etc. align with this idea of prevention and safety, besides changes in attitude, towards risk prevention (methods, reports, intervention guides, working instructions, and any other helpful tool), are followed by preventive, as well as predictive and corrective maintenance, applied to minimize the dose absorbed by workers. A clear policy of prevention is needed as well as an appropriate level of radiation safety which should be taken into account since the very beginning of the development of a given practice. All these

  6. Current Practices and Implementation of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Industrial Radiography in the Philippines

    The paper aims to illustrate the current level of maturity on the compliance to the international regulatory requirements on safety and security of radioactive sources in the Philippines as perceived by the licensees themselves through the implementation of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) as the regulatory body. The study showed that current practices and implementation of radiation safety in the use of radioactive sources in industrial radiography as perceive by the operators showed that out of the 38 questions, only five questions got an answer of ‘No’ (i.e. only 13.1% of the respondents are not compliant to the requirements — while 86.9% could be compliant). On the implementation of the security of radioactive sources, which was answered by senior managers, out of 14 respondents, 6, 1 and 5 respondents answered levels 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Therefore, the current security level of the licensees according to their perception showed the following: 50% at level 3, 8.33% at level 4 and 41.6% at level 5. The paper recommends that national regulatory requirements should be harmonized with the international standards and that continuing awareness and training programme should be carried out both for the operating organization and the regulators. The continued compliance to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources and the development and promotion of safety and security culture among radiographers and the regulators shall be one of the outcomes of the paper. (author)

  7. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    This dissertation treats system design, modeling of transient system response, and characterization of individual phenomena and demonstrates a framework for integration of these three activities early in the design process of a complex engineered system. A system analysis framework for prioritization of experiments, modeling, and development of detailed design is proposed. Two fundamental topics in thermal-hydraulics are discussed, which illustrate the integration of modeling and experimentation with nuclear reactor design and safety analysis: thermal-hydraulic modeling of heat generating pebble bed cores, and scaled experiments for natural circulation heat removal with Boussinesq liquids. The case studies used in this dissertation are derived from the design and safety analysis of a pebble bed fluoride salt cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (PB-FHR), currently under development in the United States at the university and national laboratories level. In the context of the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) methodology, new tools and approaches are proposed and demonstrated here, which are specifically relevant to technology in the early stages of development, and to analysis of passive safety features. A system decomposition approach is proposed. Definition of system functional requirements complements identification and compilation of the current knowledge base for the behavior of the system. Two new graphical tools are developed for ranking of phenomena importance: a phenomena ranking map, and a phenomena identification and ranking matrix (PIRM). The functional requirements established through this methodology were used for the design and optimization of the reactor core, and for the transient analysis and design of the passive natural circulation driven decay heat removal system for the PB-FHR. A numerical modeling approach for heat-generating porous media, with multi-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The application of this modeling

  8. A status report regarding industry implementation of safety parameter display systems

    This report provides a summary of the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's review of installed safety parameter display systems (SPDS) at 57 nuclear units. The staff describes its rationale and practice for determining acceptability of some of the methods for satisfying the various requirements for SPDS as well as some methods that the staff has not accepted. The staff's discussion of identified strengths and weaknesses should aid licensees in solving some of the problems they may be experiencing with their SPDS

  9. Consumer concerns about industrialized agriculture and food safety: importance, origin and possible solutions

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Le questionnement des consommateurs envers le productivisme agricole et les risques sanitaires alimentaires : importance, origine, et solutions recherchées. L'agriculture et l'industrie agro-alimentaire modernes font actuellement, en Europe occidentale et en particulier en France, l'objet de critiques de la part des consommateurs, notamment en matière de qualité des produits et d'impacts sur l'environnement. Ce texte vise à analyser ces questionnements et les réponses apportées par les différ...

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility: Safety, Health and Enviromental Issues in The Kenyan Oil and Gas Industry

    Makone, Francis O.

    2009-01-01

    As the oil industry in Kenya continues to grow, increased pressure is being placed on these companies to contribute in Corporate Social activities. The concept of CSR in the Kenyan Oil companies has been a topic of great interest. These oil companies have however been found to have a narrow perspective of what CSR entails as they do not identify all their stakeholders in their efforts to be socially responsible. Oil companies in Kenya also have various reasons as to why they come up with CSR ...

  11. Bans, tests and alchemy: Food safety standards and the Ugandan fish export industry

    Ponte, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Fish exports are the second largest foreign exchange earner in Uganda. When Uganda’s fish export industry started to operate in the late 1980s and early 1990s, one may have thought that fish was being turned into gold. From an export value of just over one million US$ in 1990, the mighty Nile Perch had earned the country over 45 million US$ just six years later. But alchemy proved to be more than the quest of the philosophers’ stone to change base metals into gold. From 1997 to 2000, the indu...

  12. Simulation Analysis of China’s Energy and Industrial Structure Adjustment Potential to Achieve a Low-carbon Economy by 2020

    Nan Xiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a low-carbon economy, China has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP by 40%–45% by 2020 from 2005 levels and increasing the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to approximately 15%. It is necessary to investigate whether this plan is suitable and how this target may be reached. This paper verifies the feasibility of achieving the CO2 emission targets by energy and industrial structure adjustments, and proposes applicable measures for further sustainable development by 2020 through comprehensive simulation. The simulation model comprises three sub-models: an energy flow balance model, a CO2 emission model, and a socio-economic model. The model is constructed based on input-output table and three balances (material, value, and energy flow balance, and it is written in LINGO, a linear dynamic programming language. The simulation results suggest that China’s carbon intensity reduction promise can be realized and even surpassed to 50% and that economic development (annual 10% GDP growth rate can be achieved if energy and industrial structure are adjusted properly by 2020. However, the total amount of CO2 emission will reach a relatively high level—13.68 billion tons—which calls for further sound approaches to realize a low carbon economy, such as energy utilization efficiency improvement, technology innovation, and non-fossil energy’s utilization.

  13. Report on nuclear industry quality assurance procedures for safety analysis computer code development and use

    As a result of a request from Commissioner V. Gilinsky to investigate in detail the causes of an error discovered in a vendor Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) computer code in March, 1978, the staff undertook an extensive investigation of the vendor quality assurance practices applied to safety analysis computer code development and use. This investigation included inspections of code development and use practices of the four major Light Water Reactor Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors and a major reload fuel supplier. The conclusion reached by the staff as a result of the investigation is that vendor practices for code development and use are basically sound. A number of areas were identified, however, where improvements to existing vendor procedures should be made. In addition, the investigation also addressed the quality assurance (QA) review and inspection process for computer codes and identified areas for improvement

  14. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  15. Industrial risks - Traceability and the centralization of responsibilities are essential for nuclear safety

    A new regulation has been implemented in France concerning the safety and the transparency of nuclear activities. The main changes are the centralisation of the responsibilities through first, a clear reaffirmation that the operator of the facility is the only responsible for the facility operations and secondly the limitation of sub-contracting to the level 3 for instance a society chosen by EDF to provide services can sub-contract some of these services but the sub-contractor himself is not allowed to sub-contract. The transparency of nuclear activities is improved through making it compulsory to have a written record of any decision taken in a nuclear facility. (A.C.)

  16. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants. PMID:19833051

  17. Health, safety and the environment : Are some oil industry uses of freshwater irresponsible?

    Nikiforuk, A.

    2002-08-01

    A multi billion-dollar oilsands/heavy oil boom is sure to increase water demand in Alberta as the United States requires a secure supply of oil that could be fulfilled by Alberta. Approximately 310,000 barrels of water a day will be required to support five new projects in the vicinity of Cold Lake, Alberta, and an additional 372,000 barrels a day of freshwater are expected to be required to support five oilsand mining projects north of Fort McMurray and four in-situ developments south of the city. Climate change, drying and fragmented forest and increased industrial demands for water have resulted in dramatic declines in river flows in Alberta, and this situation raises troubling questions. It is estimated that 7 to 9 barrels of water are required to produce one barrel of oil. One question that must be answered is: Is water injection an irresponsible use of fresh water? Ecologists are worried, since water injection represents a net loss in the water cycle. It is suggested that brackish or saline water be used instead of fresh water for water injection purposes, so as to reduce the amount of fresh water used by the oil industry. As it stands, water is a more expensive commodity than oil. The author indicated that increasing the rate of resource consumption cannot solve an environmental problem.

  18. Evaluation of radiological safety in industrial gammagraphy services during the construction of Bolivia-Brazil gas transmission lines (GASBOL), by regulatory inspections from brazilian CNEN

    This paper presents a brief description of the Brazilian Regulatory Authority's (National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN) action about safety control on industrial radioactive installations. It shows some specific radiation safety inspections that were done during the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Transmission Line (GASBOL). In this GASBOL work, it was used industrial radiography sources for weld quality control. During two years were done thirty regulatory safety inspections in these movable installations that use gamma radiography devices. As final result, it was noticed that the national system of inspection to control the safe use of radioactive sources in industrial activities is really efficient because none overexposure was detect and every CNEN's recommendations were applied by the operators. Some result about the gamma devices and violations are also showed. (author)

  19. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. Safety guide

    Radioactive waste is generated in a broad range of activities involving the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The amounts of waste generated from these activities are often limited in volume and activity; however, they have to be managed as radioactive waste. While the principles and safety requirements are the same for managing any amount of radioactive waste, a number of issues have to be considered specifically in organizations conducting activities in which only small amounts of waste are generated. This is the case in particular in respect of spent and disused sealed radioactive sources. For activities involving the generation and management of small amounts of radioactive waste, the types of facilities concerned and the arrangements for waste management vary considerably. Furthermore, the types of radioactive waste differ from facility to facility. The safe management of small amounts of radioactive waste should therefore be given specific consideration. The nature of the radioactive waste generated in the various activities under consideration also varies greatly. It may be in the form of discrete sealed or unsealed radiation sources or process materials or consumable materials. Waste arises as a result of many activities, including: diagnostic, therapeutic and research applications in medicine; process control and measurement in industry; and numerous uses of radioactive material in agriculture, geological exploration, construction and other fields. The radioactive waste under consideration can be in solid, liquid or gaseous form. Solid waste can include: spent or disused sealed sources; contaminated equipment, glassware, gloves and paper; and animal carcasses, excreta and other biological waste. Liquid waste can include: aqueous and organic solutions resulting from research and production processes; excreta; liquids arising from the decontamination of laboratory equipment or facilities; and liquids from

  20. The responsible by the radiological safety in the industry. Among the labour environment and the today technology

    Inside the industrial applications of the sealed radioactive sources, there are clearly exist two defined branches for which these materials are used: radioactive sources used in fixed equipment and in mobile ones. These devices are used in a countless of applications and every time with more advanced technological systems. This requires a permanent improvement inside the training of the responsible one and in turn it introduces an obligatory change to other intervention groups during the useful life of the device. The accident risks to those that are associate the use of these equipment, they are errors during the operation, undue use, maintenance carried out by personal without knowledge, flaws of human type or negligence and incidents happened during the transport. All these 'risks' its are surrounded of different groups of factors that influence during the safe use of the radioactive material, inside the installation of one way or another. Then it stands out the importance of implanting aspects of 'Safety Culture', evaluations of aptitude of the responsible one for the radiological safety, introduction of improvements in aspects of quality and communication of risks, chord to what indicates the normative of the Argentine Republic and the international requirements, which will be approached in the present work. (Author)

  1. How can nanobiotechnology oversight advance science and industry: examples from environmental, health, and safety studies of nanoparticles (nano-EHS)

    Nanotechnology has great potential to transform science and industry in the fields of energy, material, environment, and medicine. At the same time, more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanomaterials in the workplace and the implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems. Studies on environmental, health, and safety (EHS) issues of nanomaterials have a strong influence on public acceptance of nanotechnology and, eventually, affect its sustainability. Oversight and regulation by government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play significant roles in ensuring responsible and environmentally friendly development of nanotechnology. The EHS studies of nanomaterials can provide data and information to help the development of regulations and guidelines. We present research results on three aspects of EHS studies: physico-chemical characterization and measurement of nanomaterials; emission, exposure, and toxicity of nanomaterials; and control and abatement of nanomaterial releases using filtration technology. Measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates using a newly developed instrument, the Universal NanoParticle Analyzer (UNPA), is discussed. Exposure measurement results for silicon nanoparticles in a pilot scale production plant are presented, as well as exposure measurement and toxicity study of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Filtration studies of nanoparticle agglomerates are also presented as an example of emission control methods.

  2. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 1. Lessons to Learn from Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Tokaimura and the New Era of the European Nuclear Industry

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the reasons, the progression, and the improvements made in the aftermath of the world's three most disastrous and publicized nuclear accidents, as well as the lessons still to be learned. At present, the entire European electrical grid is integrated, and reactor manufacturers have become fewer and bigger. Until now, largely only the operators were accused of committing human errors. This contradicts the claim that later technological improvements offset the possibility of a repetition of the accident. To improve the safety culture, new complementary views are presented that previously had been overlooked. Technological improvements and safety culture deficiencies at the managerial level are still missing. Although the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, and Tokaimura occurred on different continents at entirely different plants, these accidents share many common features in terms of precursors, progression, and succession. In the actual work, these common features are analyzed, and as a result, some recommendations are made. The results of the analyses show the following deficiencies in safety culture: 1. The precursors were not properly evaluated, and consequently, the correct conclusions were not deduced and applied. 2. The operators need much improved information about the status of the process that they control to be able to make the right decisions. 3. Operators must improve their awareness of observing deviations at an early stage to avoid accidents, and they also must improve their preparedness to meet the challenges of unexpected occurrences. 4. Management must learn to see the activities at the plant through the operators' eyes. 5. The price of the 'profit' of meeting time schedules by pressuring people is all to high for these practices to continue. The significance of the results is that they give direction to an improved safety culture, as follows: 1. Industry and management authority must assume

  3. Agro-industrial sphere-radiological consequence of Chernobyl accident and major safety measures

    The early spring radionuclide fall as a consequence of Chernobyl accident caused air contamination of aerial part of agriculture crop - winter crops, natural and seeded permanent grasses. For other plants the soil and wind contamination are prevailing. After radionuclide fall most of them are concentrated in the soil upper layer. Radionuclide uptake depends on the ratio of their concentration in soils, that is varied due to the soil type. The soil development results in variation of radionuclide migration in the crop. In cattle production two main trends are the most significant: estimation of food contamination (primarily of milk and meat) and analysis of physiological state of animals near NPP. Organization and land-improvement measures permitting a stable agro-industrial functionaing on the contaminated territory are considered

  4. Last 20 years of gas hydrates in the oil industry : challenges and achievements in predicting pipeline blockage

    Estanga, D.A.; Creek, J.; Subramanian, S.; Kini, R.A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed how the successes of the past 20 years have shaped the new hydrate focus. It also outlined innovative tools for hydrate plugging prediction. Tools such as CSMHyK-OLGA were developed to address the design and operational challenges associated with offshore production regarding flow assurance in the area of gas hydrates. The effort to understand the complex behavior of gas hydrates in multiphase flow has resulted in new hydrate blockage models. Although the hydrate community continues to debate the impact of kinetics, agglomeration, and oil chemistry effects on hydrate blockage formation in pipelines and wellbores, the petroleum industry still relies on thermodynamic strategies that completely prevent hydrates in production systems. However, these complex strategies such as thermal insulation, electric heating, dead oil displacement, and methanol injection are costly, particularly for marginal fields. As such, research continues in developing a comprehensive multiphase flow simulator capable of handling the transient aspects of production operations, notably shut-in, restart, blowdown and blockage prediction. Model predictions are leading to new operating strategies based on risk management approach. This paper discussed the challenges and opportunities that have shifted the focus from prevention of hydrates to prevention of blockage. Some initial successes in the development of a first generation empirical tool for the prediction of hydrate blockages in flow lines were also presented along with new experimental data that explained how hydrate blockages can manifest in the field. It was concluded that additional research is needed to solve the problem of hydrate plugging mechanism. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Harmony Analysis on Economic Development and Safety Production Level in China’s Mining Industry Based on Identity-difference-opposition Dynamic Associated Method

    Tan Haixia; Chen Lin; Wang Hongtu

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the level of development between the mining economy and the national economy and between the safety of mining production and its economic development should be asynchronous or not and exploring the underlying causes for inharmonious development, using identity-difference-opposition analysis method, this study analyzed and evaluated the harmonies that economic development state of mining industry relative to that of industrial and t...

  6. Reactor safety in industrial nuclear power plants. Developments in a political and technical environment as it prevails in the German Federal Republic

    The present book describes the development of reactor safety in German light-water nuclear power plants from the beginnings with its multifarious links to model solutions seen in other countries, national and international research projects and accidents in conventional and nuclear power plants. It contains detailed, richly illustrated articles on specific safety techniques such as rupture safety of the pressurised envelope, safeguarding of emergency cooling in the event of accidents involving coolant loss, control technology and protection of the surroundings through containment. The results of national and international risk studies are discussed. It is shown how efforts on the part of industry, government and science to enhance safety resources and improve safety culture have been driven by a civic environment in which the use of nuclear energy has become a central issue of political debate. The book is written in readily comprehensible language and offers a wealth of material for further study.

  7. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    Horie, Yasuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  8. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  9. The use of computational method to assess the safety and quality of ventilation in industrial buildings

    Industrial buildings, particularly those containing nuclear and process plant, often require high standards of ventilation in order to cope with unusual features of the operations or process which take place within the buildings. Four examples of recent studies carried out by the present authors are given in this paper: storage of coal in a covered stockyard, a chlor-alkali plant, a clean room, and the turbine hall of a nuclear power station. In each of these examples, quite detailed information was required about air flows, temperatures and gas concentrations, and it was decided to use the two-equation k,epsilon model of turbulence to help predict these variables. This is solved with equations for momentum and continuity by finite differences. It is concluded that complex computer programs of this kind can provide valuable assistance in support of the more traditional hand calculations using BS codes and CIBS guides. However, careful engineering judgement must be exercised in the use of the programs and in the interpretation of the results. (author)

  10. Integrated Safety in Design

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    consider OHS in execution as a responsibility of the contractors. The output of this stage is a systematic and structured conceptual framework that couples OHS-risks in construction (health, safety and mental health) to the stages in the design and engineering processes. Moreover the framework includes......An on-going research project investigates the inclusion of health and safety considerations in the design phase as a means to achieve a higher level of health and safety in the construction industry. Moreover, the approach is coupled to the overall quality efforts. Two architectural firms and two...... consulting engineering firms are project participants. The hypothesis is that health and safety problems in execution can be prevented through better planning in the early stages of the construction processes and that accidents are prevented by providing safety. In the first stage of the research project...

  11. Nuclear safety

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  12. Construction Health and Safety: Effectiveness of Safety Incentive Programme

    Zulkefli F.A.; Ulang N. Md.; Baharum F.

    2014-01-01

    Safety incentive programmes or awards have become a standard practice for most construction companies as an effort to improve their safety performance on worksites. Providing incentives in the construction industry is an action which aims to motivate contractors and workers to achieve the objectives set by a project’s management in order to improve overall performance on the project. This study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of such incentives and analyse the extent of involved pa...

  13. Development of a fuzzy qualitative risk assessment model applied to construction industry

    Pinto, Abel Fernando do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry is plagued by occupational risky situations and poor working conditions. Risk Assessment for Occupational Safety (RAOS) is the first and key step to achieve adequate safety levels, particularly to support decision-making in safety programs. Most construction safety efforts are applied informally under the premise that simply allocating more resources to safety management will improve safety on site. Moreover, there are many traditional methods to address RAOS, but...

  14. Industrial Control Network Information Safety Protection Measures and Application%工业控制网络信息安全的防护措施与应用

    李玉敏

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, industrial incidents caused by network virus emerge in endlessly, industrial network security is increasingly crucial. Out of consideration to ensure the safe and stable operation of control system in critical infrastructure industries, loopholes and potential safety problems exist in different application industrial control networks. It's necessary to build a targeted safety protection system. This thesis explains dove's industrial control network information safety protection measures and application.%近几年,因网络病毒引起的工业事件层出不穷,工业网络安全问题已经日益严峻,为保证能源和关键性基础设施行业控制系统的安全稳定运行,不同应用领域工业控制网络存在的漏洞和安全隐患,需要建立有针对性的安全防护体系。简述多芬诺工业控制网络信息安全的防护措施与应用。

  15. Thresholds for domino effects and safety distances in the process industry: A review of approaches and regulations

    Domino effects resulting in cascading events in the chemical and process industries are well known causes of severe accident scenarios. Although the threats due to domino effects are recognized since at least three decades, this is still a controversial topic when coming to its assessment. A number of different approaches are proposed in technical standards and in the scientific literature. The present contribution aims at providing a critical revision of the procedure for the identification of domino effect scenarios. An overview of current regulations for domino effect assessment is provided. The criteria resulting from the regulations are compared and discussed in the light of recent developments concerning escalation hazards and safety distance assessments. - Highlights: • Definition and approach to the domino effect assessment in EU member states (MS) were analyzed. • A survey on criteria to identify domino hazard in eight EU MS was carried out. • Threshold criteria for the assessment of domino scenarios were critically compared. • Important differences in requirements concerning the domino effect are present in EU MS. • Agreement on escalation thresholds may improve protection from domino scenarios

  16. The responsible by the radiological safety in the industry. Between the occupational environment and the today technology

    In industrial applications of the sealed radioactive sources, there are two clearly definite branches for which these materials are utilized: radioactive sources utilized in fixed and in portable equipment. These devices are utilized in an endless number of applications and each time with more advanced technological systems. This requires a permanent improvement in the training of the responsible, and at the same time introduces an obligatory change to other intervention groups during the useful life of the device. The risks of accident, to the ones associated with the use of these equipment, though their rate of occurrence is low, they are errors during the operation, undue use, maintenance by personnel without knowledge, human type failures or carelessness and incidents occurred during the transportation. All these risks are surrounded by different groups of factors that influence during the sure use of the radioactive material inside the installation. Therefore the importance to establish aspects of Safety Culture, aptitude evaluations of the radiological security responsible, improvements introduction in quality and risks communication aspects, in agreement with the Argentine Republic regulations and the international requests, is emphasized. In the present paper all concepts about the radioactive material responsible election, the training, the factors that intervene during the operation, the installation obligations, insecurity situations and the changes or improvements that technology introduces, are referenced. (author)

  17. Safety matters

    Gelder, P. van

    1999-01-01

    Several events have transpired recently to underscore yet again how important the issue of safety is for the local construction industry. This month regular contributor J.A. McInnis takes a look at how some of these events relate to one major area of site safety: safety whilst working at a height.

  18. Nuclear Safety

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  19. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls. PMID:23759189

  20. Safety and Risk Assessment. Chapter 4. [Risk and safety assessments for the disposal concepts, exposure definition, limits for safety/risk evaluation, methodologies available and results achieved from the evaluation of certain scenarios

    The disposal of waste/hazardous substances is an important issue concerning toxic substances, such as spent fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) or carbon dioxide (CO2). Radioactive waste disposal considers the long term emplacement of radioactive material until its activity and (radio)toxicity decreases below acceptable levels or until the species decay to the levels similar to those of natural uranium ore bodies. The main goal of CO2 disposal in the geological environment is to contain large volumes of the gas in a safe and permanent way in order to avoid its release in the atmosphere. The main difference between CO2 and radioactive waste disposal is the form of the matter to be disposed. While disposal considers the allocation of small amounts of highly radioactive and radiotoxic material, CO2 disposal presumes the injection of large volumes of gas into rock structures. This chapter has been prepared on the basis of the information from the countries participating in the CRP that contributed to the topic of safety/risk assessments, i.e. the Czech Republic, India and Switzerland. Each of these countries had previous experience with radioactive waste disposal, though they are at different levels of programme development. Although the disposal of intermediate level waste (ILW) and low level waste (LLW) is also important, this CRP focused only on high level radioactive waste. CO2 disposal is still considered a ‘new’ technology in the countries involved in this study. Unfortunately, none of the countries with an advanced CO2 capture and disposal (CCD) status participated in this component of the CRP. Therefore, this chapter compares the state of the art in safety/risk assessment for a segment of the field based on the experience of the countries that share a similar vision that both technologies can exploit the knowledge and know-how of the other

  1. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  2. The Effects of a Case-Based Learning Approach on the Achievement and Attitudes of Students towards an Occupational Health and Safety Course in Turkey

    Aynur Gecer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of case-based learning (CBL and learning styles on the achievement and attitude of students towards an occupational health and safety (OHS course are investigated experimentally. A total of 50 students in their first year at the electrical education department at Kocaeli University participated in this research. The students were split into two equal groups according to their scores in the central university entrance exam conducted every year by the high education consul in Turkey. The students were assigned to the control and experimental groups randomly. The control group students processed the OHS course materials using the traditional methods, while the experimental group students processed them through the CBL method in the environments developed by the authors regarding to their learning styles. According to the results of the analysis, the CBL method based on learning styles applied to the experimental group students is significantly effective in increasing students’ success in the OHS course. The findings also show that for OHS training, the CBL method based on learning styles, which has not been applied in previous studies, has a great effect on the students’ performance compared to the traditional teaching methods.

  3. Radiological emergencies in industry (causes and consequences). Address at the second national course of Radiation Safety in Industry. Jun 5-7 2000 Guatemala

    The address discusses the following issues: review of accidents in industrial radiography, human factors, technical failures, factors that decrease risk, personnel training, design of equipment and recommendations

  4. On the use of genetic algorithm to optimize industrial assets lifecycle management under safety and budget constraints

    Lonchampt, J.; Fessart, K. [EDF R and D, Departement MRI, 6, quai Watier, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancements or logistic investments such as spare parts purchases. The two methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-Markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a safety requirement limiting the residual risk of failure of a component or group of component, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description

  5. On the use of genetic algorithm to optimize industrial assets lifecycle management under safety and budget constraints

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancements or logistic investments such as spare parts purchases. The two methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-Markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a safety requirement limiting the residual risk of failure of a component or group of component, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description

  6. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it. PMID:26696286

  7. Nano Regulation in Austria (II): Workplace Safety, Industrial Law and Environmental Law (NanoTrust Dossier No. 019en – January 2011)

    Gazsó, André; Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This dossier focuses on workplace safety, industrial law as well as on environmental law (water, air, soil, waste). These fields of law are likewise influenced by EU law and are very complex due to their interlocking with Austrian law. Discussion and conclusion refer to both dossiers on nano-regulation in Austria. They tentatively conclude that current legislation covers in principle nanotechnologies, especially in those cases where nano materials / nano products endanger legal interests. Exi...

  8. The Nuclear Safety Council actions to reduce the evolution of the operational doses from the industrial radiography (using mobile gammagraphy equipment) in Spain

    Since 1993 the Nuclear Safety Council has been making efforts for the reduction of the doses in the mobile gammagraphy industry, by means of a greater control of the operation of these facilities, the improvement of radiological protection equipment and the operational and emergency procedures. The enclosure of this paper will be to present: A summary of the actions that have been carried out from 1993 promoted by the Nuclear Safety Council with the purpose of the progressive reduction of the doses; First Radiological Protection Improvement Plan (1993-2000); Audits program to facilities with highest gammagraphy activity to detect problems; Sending Technical Instructions and recommendations; Development of Safety Guide 5.14 'Safety and Radiological requirements in the industrial gamma radiography facilities'. The study of doses evolution from 1993 to 2000 showed the need to elaborate a Second Radiological Protection Improvement Plan (approved in 2001) to reduce doses and to enforce ALARA principle. In this Plan CSN through complementary technical instructions (CTI) request to the licensees the establishment of: An Inspection program; A gammagraphy operation task plan; A continued training program. (author)

  9. 水利施工行业安全隐患与对策探究%Research of Water Conservancy Construction Industry Safety Hidden Trouble and Countermeasures

    周成坤

    2013-01-01

      工程施工的安全问题是工程施工的重要环节,是一个建筑施工企业生存发展的必要前提。只有强化建筑施工企业施工安全意识与施工安全管理才能有效地规避施工中的安全风险。本文主要研究水利施工行业所存在的安全隐患问题,找出问题并制定合理的应对办法,供水利施工行业相关人员参考。%Security problem of engineering construction is an important link of project construction, a construction enterpris-e development essential prerequisite for existence. Only by st-rengthening the construction enterprise construction safety aw-areness and safety management can ef ectively avoid safety ri-sk in construction. This paper mainly studies the safety hazards of water conservancy construction industry to find out the pro-blems and formulate reasonable measures for reference of wat-er conservancy construction industry related personnel.

  10. Empirical Analysis of Construction Safety Climate - A Study

    S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety in the construction industry has always been a major issue. Though much improvement in construction safety has been achieved, the industry still continues to lag behind most other industries with regard to safety. The safety climate of any organization consists of employee’s attitudes towards and perceptions of, health and safety behavior. Construction workers attitudes towards safety are influenced by their perceptions of risk, management, safety rulesand procedures. A measure of safety climate could be used to identify those areas of safety that need more attention and improvement. The dynamic nature of safety climate, which has the ability to change on daily basis, means there is a great need for reliable tools that can measure safety climate. Safety climate is a leading performance indicator that can provide insight into safety performance before accidents have occurred. In the present study a questionnaire was framed to ascertain safety climate in major construction rganizations across India involved in construction of Thermal power plants, Hydro power plants, Highway projects, Bridge works, Refinery works, High rise works, Pipe line works and Dam woks and its content validity was verified. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by using Cronbachs alpha coefficient. Data was collected based on questionnaire from employees working in various construction firms in India. The results of questionnaires survey was tested statistically by using the Kruskal – Wallis test to ascertain the attitudes of different categories of employees towards safety climate.

  11. Nuclear safety policy statement in korea

    Full text: Wide varieties of programs to enhance nuclear safety have been established and implemented by the Korean government in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement announced in September 1994. The policy statement was intended to set the long-term policy goals for maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It has been recognized as very effective in developing safety culture in nuclear-related organizations and also enhancing nuclear safety in Korea. However, ageing of operating nuclear power plants and increasing of new nuclear facilities have demanded a new comprehensive national safety policy to cover the coming decade, taking the implementation results of the policy statement of 1994 and the changing environment of nuclear industries into consideration. Therefore, the results of safety policy implementation have been reviewed and, considering changing environment and future prospects, a new nuclear safety policy statement as a highest level national policy has been developed. The implementation results of 11 regulatory policy directions such as the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment, introduction of Periodic Safety Review, strengthening of safety research, introduction of Risk Based Regulation stipulated in the safety policy statement of 1994 were reviewed and measures taken after various symposia on nuclear safety held in Nuclear Safety Days since 1995 were evaluated. The changing international and domestic environment of nuclear industry were analysed and future prospects were explored. Based on the analysis and review results, a draft of new nuclear safety policy statement was developed. The draft was finalized after the review of many prominent experts in Korea. Considering changing environment and future prospects, new policy statement that will show government's persistent will for nuclear safety has been

  12. Development and Validation of Career Development Guidelines by Task/Activity Analysis of Occupational Safety and Health Professions: Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professional. Final Report. Technical Report XII.

    Vernon, Ralph J.; And Others

    This report summarizes research findings which resulted in development of curricula for occupational safety and health professions based on task/activity analyses and related performance objectives. The first seven chapters focus on the seven objectives. Chapter 1, Literature Review and Selection of Employers, concerns tasks required for…

  13. Construction Health and Safety: Effectiveness of Safety Incentive Programme

    Zulkefli F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety incentive programmes or awards have become a standard practice for most construction companies as an effort to improve their safety performance on worksites. Providing incentives in the construction industry is an action which aims to motivate contractors and workers to achieve the objectives set by a project’s management in order to improve overall performance on the project. This study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of such incentives and analyse the extent of involved parties’ contribution to the success of the programme. It was found that workers have become motivated and site safety performance has also improved since the implementation of the safety incentive programme. Incentives are divided into two categories, (1 monetary and (2 non-monetary. These were evaluated based on workers’ rate of achievement or behaviour.

  14. Safety management. Topical issue 1

    The paper reviews the concept of safety management, which has been defined as a comprehensive set of processes, systems and procedures coupled with attitudes inculcated to operate nuclear installations safely. It highlights its inextricable link to safety culture and organizational issues, such as employee contribution and management commitment at all levels to overall safety management. In the face of increasing pressures on the nuclear industry through corporate and plant restructuring, deregulation and privatization, it is even more important that safety is managed correctly. The advantages of self-assessment and peer review of safety performance are stressed as effective tools to monitor standards and identify areas for improvement. This search for improvement can also be aided through the establishment of indicators, risk monitors and the will to learn from others in the pursuit of excellence. Regulatory bodies play a major part in the facilitation of safety improvements, the shaping of attitudes and the encouragement of good safety performance. Therefore, the regulatory-utility interfaces are seen as the vital components of a good safety management system. It has been shown that probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), properly applied, can provide added confidence in the safety management area, and when utilized in conjunction with configuration management and control it can contribute greatly to the achievement of shorter, safer outages and maintenance. Several key questions are posed in the paper relating to the essential issues of safety management and the need for internationally co-ordinated efforts to address current and future concerns. (author)

  15. Resolution proposal for the creation of an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks generated by the opening of the capital and the privatization of the French nuclear industry

    The privatization of the French nuclear industry leads to three types of risks: the dilution of decision prerogatives (need of long-term investment for maintenance and safety purposes which are incompatible with immediate profits), incompatibility between private control and safety, and speculation (need of stable and durable financing for a sustainable safety). For these reasons, the French house of commons has created an inquiry commission about the safety and transparency risks linked with the capital opening and privatization of the French nuclear industry. (J.S.)

  16. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  17. Relationship of safety climate perceptions and job satisfaction among employees in the construction industry: the moderating role of age.

    Stoilkovska, Biljana Blaževska; Žileska Pančovska, Valentina; Mijoski, Goran

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which construction sector employees perceive that safety is important in their organizations/sites and how job satisfaction affects these perceptions when age is introduced as a moderator variable. Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that job satisfaction has a strong effect on perceived management commitment to work safety and that this relationship was moderated by respondents' age. Job satisfaction was associated with perceived accident rate and safety inspection frequency, but the proposed role of age in this linkage was not confirmed. Consequently, the findings indicated that by increasing the level of job satisfaction, perceptions of these safety climate aspects proved to be more positive. The conclusion is that these relationships could further lead to a lower percentage of accidents and injuries in the workplace and better health among employees. A significant relationship between job satisfaction, age and perceived co-workers' commitment to work safety was not found. PMID:26693996

  18. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union

  19. On Demonstration Construction of Safety Production in New Materials Industry%新材料产业的安全生产示范建设

    魏海

    2016-01-01

    In view of the present situation of innovational development and safety production in new materials industry, this paper studies the construction of safety production responsibility system and the building of a long-term effective mecha-nism of safety production.Through constructing three work teams,supervising security hidden dangers,utilizing modern science and technology,reinforcing government and enterprise linkage and attaching great importance to the construction of safety culture,the essential security level in enterprises has been constantly improved to ensure a steady situation of produc-tion safety.%针对新材料产业创新发展的现状和安全生产要求,研究了如何推进安全生产责任制的措施,即构建安全生产长效机制,抓好三支队伍建设,严查安全隐患,科技兴安,政企联动,重视安全文化建设,不断提升新材料行业企业本质安全水平,确保安全生产形势的不断稳定.

  20. Contributions to the research programs in nuclear and industrial electronics, domestic production of instrumentation, safety and control systems and equipment for nuclear reactors and auxiliary installations

    Domestic production of component system and equipment for the control and safety of nuclear facilities was one of the priority objective of the Nuclear Research Institute Pitesti. The problems addressed were particularly related to design and production of analog and digital equipment for measurements, triggering and display of the values of process parameters as well as to regulating complex functions of this equipment. Associated to this effort were the research works concerning: - reliability and in-service life-time of the electronic components and equipment in the safety and control systems for nuclear processes; - radiation endurance of industrial electronic components; utilization of whirling currents in calandria tube testing; - expert systems and applications in nuclear reactor control and safety; design and testing methods of process real time software packages for safety in control critical systems for nuclear domain. There are presented characteristics of the following equipment: 1. amplifier for ionization chambers with triggering comparator circuits for the CANDU 600 reactor shut down system; 2. amplifier for ionization chambers without triggering comparator circuits for power regulating system; 3. safety and regulating computerized system for C9 and C5 cans; 4. acquisition system for dosimetric data in nuclear facilities; 5. program able digital comparator for the reactor shut down system; 6. stationary gamma areal monitors for CANDU 600 reactors and other nuclear facilities