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Sample records for achieving abuja targets

  1. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

    Tetteh Gladys

    2009-10-01

    the complexity and unclear messages regarding drug policy changes. Conclusion Kenya, like many other African countries, is still far from achieving the Abuja targets. The government, with support from donors, should invest adequately in mechanisms that promote access to effective treatment. Such approaches should focus on factors influencing multiple dimensions of access and will require the cooperation of all stakeholders working in malaria control.

  2. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  4. Cooperation Mechanisms To Achieve Eu Renewable Targets

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten;

    2014-01-01

    targets. Furthermore, countries might find themselves competing for investment in a market with limited capital available. In both cases, the cost-efficiency of the renewable support policies is reduced compared to a coordinated solution. Barriers for joint support such as network regulation regarding......There are considerable benefits from cooperating among member states on meeting the 2020 renewable energy sources (RES) targets. Today countries are supporting investments in renewable energy by many different types of support schemes and with different levels of support. The EU has opened for...... cooperation mechanisms such as joint support schemes for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. The potential coordination benefits, with more efficient localisation and composition of renewable investment, can be achieved by creating new areas/sub-segments of renewable technologies where...

  5. Inflation Targeting at 20 - Achievements and Challenges

    Scott Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of inflation targeting frameworks and macroeconomic performance under inflation targeting. Inflation targeting frameworks are generally quite similar across countries, and a broad consensus has developed in favor of "flexible" inflation targeting. The evidence shows that, although inflation target ranges are missed frequently in most countries, the inflation and growth performance under inflation targeting compares very favorably with performance under alternat...

  6. The Abuja +12 declaration: implications for HIV response in Africa.

    Mburu, Rosemary W; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Akanni, Olayide

    2014-09-01

    Heads of State and Governments of the Organization of African Unity now the African Union (AU) met in April 2001 at a Special Summit held in Abuja to address the challenges of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and other related infectious diseases in Africa. In May 2006, at the Special Summit under the theme: "Universal Access to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Services by 2010", the African Union Heads of States and Governments adopted the "Abuja Call for Accelerated Action towards Universal Access to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Services in Africa" and related commitments thus reaffirming earlier commitments. In July 2013, African leaders once again gathered in Abuja for the Abuja +12 summit, which focused on the theme 'Ownership, Accountability and Sustainability of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in Africa: Past, Present and the Future'. At the meeting, African leaders noted the tremendous progress that has been made in addressing HIV and AIDS, and made further commitments to effectively tackle the HIV epidemic on the continent. This article presents a critical look at each of these commitments and makes recommendations that would assist African countries in developing policies to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. PMID:26050375

  7. Sixth Africa malaria day in 2006: how far have we come after the Abuja Declaration?

    Wanga Charles L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Each year on the 25th April Africa and the rest of the world commemorate Africa Malaria Day as was agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria held in Abuja, Nigeria on 25th April 2000. The summit also called upon the United Nations to declare the period 2001–2010 a decade for malaria. The 1st Africa Malaria Day was commemorated with the theme "Communities Play a Central Role in Tackling Malaria". The 6th Africa Malaria Day was observed in 2006 with the theme "Get Your ACT Together" and the slogan "Universal Access to Effective Malaria Treatment is a Human Right". This article by the Secretariat of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM was also part of the commemorations for the day. MIM was founded in 1997 as an alliance of institutions and individuals concerned with the malaria problem, and aiming at maximizing the impact of scientific research on malaria through strengthening African research capacity and coordinated global collaboration. The MIM Secretariat has been hosted in rotation by the founding institutions, and is being hosted for the first time in Africa by the African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This article reviews the malaria situation in Africa six years after the Abuja Declaration, highlighting the disease burden trends, failures, achievements, challenges, and the way forward.

  8. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  9. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  10. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

    Tajudeen O. Oyewale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 384 respondents using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The participants were sampled randomly at antenatal care (ANC clinics in the five district hospitals in AMAC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and measures of inequality. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between SECs (predictors and maternal healthcare service utilisation.Results: There were differentials in the utilisation of maternal healthcare services (ANC, delivery care, post natal care [PNC] and contraceptive services amongst women withdifferent SECs; and the payment system for maternal healthcare services was regressive. There were inconsistencies in the predictive effect of the SECs of women included in this study (age,education, birth order, location of residence, income group and coverage by health insurance on maternal healthcare service utilisation when considered independently (bivariate analysis as opposed to when considered together (logistic regression, with the exception of birth order, which showed consistent effect.Conclusion: SECs of women were predictive factors of utilisation of maternal healthcare services. There is a need for targeted policy measures and programme actions toward multiple SECs of women in their natural co-existing state in order to optimise maternal health benefits.

  11. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater of Abuja, Nigeria

    M. A. Dan-Hassan; P. I. Olasehinde; A. N. Amadi; J. Yisa; J. O. Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many households, private and government establishments depends solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is rather delicate because of its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate when compared to surface water. The purpose of this paper is to present the occurrence of nitrate in groundwater of Abuja and discuss th...

  13. Governing from Above : Solid Waste Management in Nigeria's New Capital City of Abuja

    Adama, Onyanta

    2007-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation examines how the symbolic character of a relocated capital city influences and intersects with local conditions to shape the governance structure and relations in service delivery. The focus is on Abuja, the new capital city of Nigeria, and the sector studied is solid waste management. Abuja was planned to avoid the numerous problems facing other Nigerian cities. Contrary to the intention of government and planners, the city now houses the fastest growing slum in th...

  14. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

    Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Thandisizwe R. Mavundla

    2015-01-01

    Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs) of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC) in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 38...

  15. Eradication of yaws: historical efforts and achieving WHO's 2020 target.

    Kingsley Asiedu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, is targeted for eradication by 2020 in resolution WHA66.12 of the World Health Assembly (2013 and the WHO roadmap on NTDs (2012. The disease frequently affects children who live in poor socioeconomic conditions. Between 1952 and 1964, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF led a global eradication campaign using injectable benzathine penicillin. Recent developments using a single dose of oral azithromycin have renewed optimism that eradication can be achieved through a comprehensive large-scale treatment strategy. We review historical efforts to eradicate yaws and argue that this goal is now technically feasible using new tools and with the favorable environment for control of NTDs. We also summarize the work of WHO's Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases in leading the renewed eradication initiative and call on the international community to support efforts to achieve the 2020 eradication goal. The critical factor remains access to azithromycin. Excluding medicines, the financial cost of yaws eradication could be as little as US$ 100 million.The development of new tools has renewed interest in eradication of yaws; with modest support, the WHO eradication target of 2020 can be achieved.

  16. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Women with Intrauterine Adhesion in Abuja, Nigeria

    Efena R. Efetie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Infertility menstrual abnormalities continue to constitute a significant bulk of gynecological consultation in Africa. Both of these problems are sometimes traced to intrauterine adhesions which are preventable in the majority of cases. Study Design. A retrospective analysis of intrauterine adhesions at the National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria, was carried out, covering the period from 1st September 1999 to 1st September 2004. A total of 72 cases were analyzed. Statical analysis was done using 2. Results. The incidence of intrauterine adhesions was 1.73% of new patients. Mean age ± SD was 29.97±4.82 years. Patients who were Para 0 to 1 constituted 81.9% of the total. Intrauterine adhesions significantly (<0.02 occurred in nulliparae. The majority (68% were educated only up to secondary level which was significant (<0.05. Menstrual abnormalities were present in 90.3%. The commonest predisposing factor identified was a history of dilatation and curettage or uterine evacuation. Conclusion. Intrauterine adhesions are associated with lower educational status and low parity. Increasing educational targets nationally, poverty alleviation, nationwide retraining in manual vacuum aspiration, and wider application of this technique are recommended.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  18. Managing Pre-Construction and Construction Risks on Project Sites in Abuja-Nigeria

    Jimoh R.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing risks in construction projects has been acknowledged as a key direction process for the purposes of attaining the project goal in terms of time, cost, quality, safety, and environmental sustainability. Hence, the paper evaluated pre-construction and construction risks on active project sites in Abuja-Nigeria. This was achieved using survey method through the self-administration of 35 questionnaires to the professionals handling the 35 identified projects being undertaking at that time. Results showed that errors and omissions in design and improperly defined project scope had mean score values of 3.03 and 2.54, respectively, were the construction risks most experienced by the professionals during pre-construction. On the other hand, fluctuation in market prices and delays with mean score values of 3.14 and 2.74, respectively, were the construction risks experienced by the professionals during the construction phase of the projects. It is recommended that procurement methods such as construction management should be adopted and stakeholders should keep to their own side of the bargain to avoid unnecessary delays.

  19. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    2003-01-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  20. Target plasma achievements for unity beta operation in ET

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Carter, T. A.; Gauvreau, J.-L.; Grossman, A.; Lafonteese, D. J.; Pace, D. C.; Schmitz, L. W.; Taylor, R. J.

    2003-10-01

    The Electric Tokamak (ET) at UCLA (t_pulse0.3V, B=0.25T) is now in a critical stage of research to exceed the conventional beta limit. The latest program is aiming for 10s long plasma discharges at unity peak beta by means of 2^d harmonic ICRF heating and current profile control. A stable computational MHD high beta path has been found for ET high aspect ratio configuration leading from the Troyon limit to unity beta using an in-house equilibrium code and the DCON stability code. This critical path involves high power ICRF injection (5MW) for targeted plasma heating and ballooning/kink modes stabilization by poloidal rotation. Another major component is high plasma density using core and edge fueling relying on kinetic neutral beam and inboard/outboard gas puff. At this regime current profile control using fast wave current drive, with bootstrap current optimization, will be possible. A magnetic well should develop, leading to high beta plasmas with omnigenous properties. To achieve these goals, a tight feedback system between power and particle injections and plasma diagnostics is mandatory.

  1. Achieving blood pressure targets with the perindopril/amlodipine combination

    Ljevar Veronika

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood pressure (BP is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality, and BP lowering is associated with reduction of coronary events. Despite this, less than one-third of hypertensive patients in Europe have adequate BP control. Improvement of the rates of adequate BP control and thereby a reduction of CV morbidity and mortality, currently represent a major challenge in the daily clinical practice. Many patients require two or more antihypertensives to achieve guideline-recommended BP targets. Findings from different studies have demonstrated that the fixed-dose combination (FDC perindopril/amlodipine is an effective and well tolerated treatment in patients uncontrolled with monotherapy, and in patients inadequately managed on another combination therapy. The perindopril/amlodipine FDC provides good rates of BP control in daily clinical practice. These good rates of BP control could be ex- plained by the synergistic mode of action of the two components, leading to enhanced BP lowering and reduced side effects, which may have a positive impact on treatment adherence. Krka’s perindopril/amlodipine FDC is available in the full range of doses, providing a flexible and effective treatment of hypertension.

  2. Evaluation of background ionising radiation levels within Gwagwalada town, Abuja

    The background ionising radiation levels within Gwagwalada Town, Abuja has been carried out using Atomtex 1117M Radiation Monitor. Readings were taken in twelve different locations. Twenty different readings were taken at each location and the mean equivalent dose rate was used to calculate the annual equivalent dose rate. A total of 240 measurements were taken across the 12 locations in the study Area. It was observed that the average dose equivalent varied from 0.105±0.008 μSv/h to 0.114±0.015μSv/h with a mean of 0.109±0.013 μSv/h. The mean value from Ungwan Bassa shows the highest equivalent dose rate while the equivalent dose rate from Phase 3 was the lowest. Ungwan Dodo, Ungwan Gwari recorded the second and third highest in-situ gamma radiation of 0.113±0.013 μSv/h and 0.112±0.012 μSv/h respectively. The result shows that the entire equivalent dose rates of all the locations were below the value of the Standard Background Radiation of 0.133 μSv/h. The study also revealed that the average annual equivalent dose rate is 0.192±0.005 mSv/y which is lower than the value of 1.0 mSv/yr averaged over five consecutive years according to the dose limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

  3. Eradication of Yaws: Historical Efforts and Achieving WHO's 2020 Target

    Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Asiedu, Kingsley; Jannin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A disabling and disfiguring disease that “begins where the road ends”, yaws is targeted by WHO for eradication by the year 2020. The global campaign is not yet financed. To evaluate yaws eradication within the context of the post-2015 development agenda, we perform a somewhat allegorical cost-effectiveness analysis of eradication, comparing it to a counterfactual in which we simply wait for more roads (the end of poverty). Methods We use evidence from four yaws eradication pilot ...

  4. Comparison of public and private school teachers and school principals’ opinions in Abuja, Nigeria

    Deniz Ozcan; Teyang Istifanus Zabadi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine public and private school teachers’ opinions on different aspects of their professional associations and provisions and also asks principals about teachers’ conduct and their views on the Nigerian curriculum. To conduct this study, qualitative and quantitative research models were used to investigate differences between the two organizations. Quantitative data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 118 teachers in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Ni...

  5. Contributions of Vehicular Traffic to Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Kaduna and Abuja, Northern Nigeria

    Peter Ndoke NDOKE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2 contributed by automobile emissions to the environment was determined at some areas in Kaduna and Abuja in Northern Nigeria. Five census stations were selected in each of the two towns. In Kaduna, Jabi road in Ungwan Rimi, Kawo Motor park, Stadium round-about, Sabo and Kasuwa (Kaduna Main Market, were selected, while Asokoro (behind ECOWAS, Area One junction, A.Y.A. junction, Wuse market bus-stop, and Mabushi round-about were selected for Abuja. A gas sampling pump and tubes that could detect carbon dioxide were used to detect the quantity of CO2 in the environment at a certain time. The results obtained show a variation in the amount of CO2 in the environment. Areas with relatively heavy congestion show a high concentration of CO2, while areas with minimal traffic show a lower concentration of CO2. Sabo in Kaduna has an average concentration of 1840 ppm being the highest, while Asokoro (behind ECOWAS, Abuja has the least average concentration of 1160 ppm. Review of literature showed that increasing CO2 levels have adverse effects such as the Greenhouse Effect, which may lead to Global Warming, as well as a number of other climatic events. These concentrations are still not high enough to cause any serious health effects but they provide a baseline study for Policy makers and Town planners.

  6. Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management

    Ah Young Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur study group established "3H care" in 2002. The meaning of "3H care" attain and maintain adequate controls over hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. This study evaluated the achievement of target goals after one year or more of "3H care" by specialists in our diabetic clinic.MethodsThis was a retrospective study of 200 type 2 diabetic patients who received "3H care" for one year or more in our diabetic clinic. We evaluated achievement of target goals for metabolic controls as suggested by the American Diabetes Association.ResultsOverall, 200 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled, of whom 106 were males (53% and 94 were females (47%. After one year of "3H care," the mean HbA1c was 7.2±1.5% and the percentage of patients achieving glycemic control (HbA1c <7% was 51.8%. However only 32.2% of hypertensive patients achieved the recommended target. After one year of "3H care," the percentages of those who achieved the target value for dyslipidemia were 80.0% for total cholesterol, 66.3% for low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 57.9% for triglyceride, and 51.8% for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage that achieved all three targets level was only 4.4% after one year and 14.8% after two years.ConclusionThe results of this study demonstrate that only a minor proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes achieved the recommended goals despite the implementation of "3H care." It is our suggestion that better treatment strategies and methods should be used to control hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  7. Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate and Physician Perceptions about Target Goal Achievement in Korean Patients with Diabetes

    Jenie Yoonoo Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aims to investigate the discrepancy between clinicians' perceptions and actual achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in Korean patients with diabetes according to updated American Diabetes Association (ADA/American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACC recommendations.MethodsThis is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional, observational study. Diabetic patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had been diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or were receiving a lipid-lowering therapy between May 2010 and August 2010. The information was obtained by reviewing medical records and using a self-completed questionnaire to examine physician perceptions.ResultsA total of 2,591 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Highest-risk and high-risk patients accounted for 61.9% and 38.1% of the patients, respectively. Although most (96.3% underwent a statin monotherapy or a statin-based combination therapy, just 47.4% of patients attained the LDL-C target. However, the physicians' perceptions on target achievement rate (70.6% were different from the actual results (47.4%. Many patients (65.3% remained on the starting doses of statins, despite evidence of poor achievement of lipid goals.ConclusionOnly less than half of patients with diabetes attained the LDL-C goal. The surveys showed that poor physician performance might be due to the lack of recognition on ADA/ACC consensus causing a low LDL-C target attainment rate. Therefore, changes in doctor perception are needed to attain target LDL-C level and reduce cardiovascular risk in Korean patients with diabetes.

  8. Achievement of cardiovascular risk factor targets in young adults with diabetes mellitus

    Peter J Donovan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Donovan, H David McIntyreDepartment of Endocrinology, Mater Health Services, Mater Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, South Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaBackground: Many patients with diabetes mellitus fail to achieve treatment targets recommended in recognized guidelines. Little data is available in this area relating to young adults.Objective: To assess whether treatment goals for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid-lowering, and process outcomes for microvascular screening are being achieved in young adults with diabetes mellitus.Methods: A retrospective clinical record audit of 202 consecutive patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, aged predominantly 18–45 years, attending a specialist diabetes center in Brisbane, Australia, was conducted. Assessment was made as to whether goals for HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid lowering, and microvascular screening were being achieved. Descriptive statistics and comparison of continuous variables were produced.Results: Mean (SD HbA1c was 8.30% (±1.5 with no statistical difference between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.44. Sixteen percent of patients (12% type 1, 31% type 2 had an HbA1c of <7%. Eighty-three percent of patients had blood pressure ≤130/80 mmHg. Sixteen percent of patients with type 1 and 37% with type 2 diabetes were achieving combined lipid targets. Only 34% and 9% of patients who had an indication (and no documented contraindication for lipid-lowering and antiplatelet therapy, respectively, were prescribed such agents. There was a significant difference in achievement of macrovascular treatment targets in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but no difference in screening or treatment outcomes in microvascular disease. Patients below the age of 25 years were less likely to achieve macrovascular treatment targets.Conclusion: A large number of young adult patients with diabetes mellitus do not achieve recognized

  9. A method to achieve rapid localised deep heating in a laser irradiated solid density target

    Schmitz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Rapid heating of small buried regions by laser generated fast electrons may be useful for applications such as XUV radiation sources or as drivers for shock experiments. In non-structured targets the heating profile possesses a global maximum near the front surface. This paper presents a new target design that uses resistive guiding to concentrate the fast electron current density at a finite depth inside the target. The choice of geometry uses principles of non-imaging optics. A global temperature maximum at depths up to 50{\\mu}m into the target is achieved. Although theoretical calculations suggest that small source sizes should perform better than large ones, simulations show that a large angular spread at high intensities results in significant losses of the fast electrons to the sides. A systematic parameter scan suggests an optimal laser intensity. A ratio of 1.6 is demonstrated between the maximum ion temperature and the ion temperature at the front surface.

  10. POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA

    Igor Raguzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  11. Average Minimum Transmit Power to achieve SINR Targets: Performance Comparison of Various User Selection Algorithms

    Salim, Umer

    2010-01-01

    In multi-user communication from one base station (BS) to multiple users, the problem of minimizing the transmit power to achieve some target guaranteed performance (rates) at users has been well investigated in the literature. Similarly various user selection algorithms have been proposed and analyzed when the BS has to transmit to a subset of the users in the system, mostly for the objective of the sum rate maximization. We study the joint problem of minimizing the transmit power at the BS to achieve specific signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) targets at users in conjunction with user scheduling. The general analytical results for the average transmit power required to meet guaranteed performance at the users' side are difficult to obtain even without user selection due to joint optimization required over beamforming vectors and power allocation scalars. We study the transmit power minimization problem with various user selection algorithms, namely semi-orthogonal user selection (SUS), norm-based...

  12. Household waste management in Copenhagen A solution for achievement of the EU’s recycling target

    Dao Thi Thu Huong, Diu

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to identify the best solution for the Copenhagen’s household waste handling to achieve the recycling target of 45% and 50% in 2018 and 2022. Accordingly, the analyses in terms of recycling ratios and costs based on 3 household waste handling scenarios including the Renescience scenario, the Aikan scenario and the manure based biogas scenario are carried out. Among these scenarios, the Renescience scenario is in association with mixed collection of bio-waste i...

  13. Achievement of cardiovascular risk factor targets in young adults with diabetes mellitus

    DONOVAN, PETER J.; H David McIntyre

    2010-01-01

    Peter J Donovan, H David McIntyreDepartment of Endocrinology, Mater Health Services, Mater Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, South Brisbane, QLD, AustraliaBackground: Many patients with diabetes mellitus fail to achieve treatment targets recommended in recognized guidelines. Little data is available in this area relating to young adults.Objective: To assess whether treatment goals for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipid-lowering, and process ...

  14. Achieving targeted and quantifiable alteration of mRNA splicing with Morpholino oligos

    This work represents the first guide for using steric-block antisense oligos as tools for effective and targeted modification of RNA splicing. Comparison of several steric-block oligo types shows the properties of Morpholinos provide significant advantages over other potential splice-blocking oligos. The procedures and complications of designing effective splice-blocking Morpholino oligos are described. The design process requires complete pre-mRNA sequence for defining suitable targets, which usually generate specific predictable messengers. To validate the targeting procedure, the level and nature of transcript alteration is characterized by RT-PCR analysis of splice modification in a β-globin splice model system. An oligo-walking study reveals that while U1 and U2 small nuclear RiboNucleoProtein (snRNP) binding sites are the most effective targets for blocking splicing, inclusion of these sites is not required to achieve effective splice modifications. The most effective targeting strategy employs simultaneously blocking snRNP binding sites and splice-junctions. The work presented here continues to be the basis for most of the successful Morpholino oligos designed for the worldwide research community to block RNA splicing

  15. Why use of interventions targeting outdoor biting mosquitoes will be necessary to achieve malaria elimination

    Nicodem James Govella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available By definition, elimination of malaria means permanent reduction to zero of locally incidence of infections. Achieving this goal among other reasons, it requires fully understanding on where and when persons are most exposed to malaria vectors as these are fundamental for targeting interventions to achieve maximum impact. While elimination can be possible in some settings with low malaria transmission intensity and dominated with late and indoor biting of vectors using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRs, it’s difficult and even impossible in areas with high and where majority of human exposure to transmission occurs outside human dwellings. Recently in response to wide spread use of LLIN and IRS, human risk of exposure to transmission is increasingly spread across the entire night so that much of it occurs outdoors and before bed time. This modification of vector populations and behaviour has now been reported from across Africa, Asia and from the Solomon Islands. Historical evidence shows that even in areas with intervention coverage exceeding 90% of human population it was so hard to even push prevalence down below the pre elimination threshold of 1% being compromised mainly with the outdoor residual transmission. Malaria control experts must however continue to deliver interventions that tackle indoor transmission but considerable amount of resources that target mosquitoes outside of houses and outside of sleeping hours will therefore be required to sustain and go beyond existing levels of malaria control and achieve elimination.

  16. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of having a first-AI pregnancy. PMID:24679929

  17. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four ...

  18. EFFICACY OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  19. EFFICACY OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIABETIC PATIENTS

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of long-term combined antihypertensive therapy (AHT based on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS blockers, indapamide and calcium channel blocker (CCB in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in accordance with target blood pressure (BP <130/80 mm Hg achievement rate, dynamics of 24-hour BP profile, metabolic indices, and local stiffness of the main arteries. Besides, to study the effects of the CCB addition to dual therapy on these parameters. Material and methods. Patients (16 men, 31 women, 57.2±6.6 years old with arterial hypertension degrees 1–3 and mild to moderate DM type 2 were included into the study. The patients were treated with perindopril (5–10 mg/day or valsartan (80–160 mg/day in combination with indapamide SR (1.5 mg/day and amlodipine (5–10 mg/day. Examination included office BP measurement and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, common carotid arteries sonarography , evaluation of serum levels of potassium, creatinine, uric acid, glucose metabolism and lipid profile parameters, calculation of insulin resistance index (HOMA at baseline and after 30–32 weeks of treatment. Results. Target BP was achieved in 86.7% of patients. Evenly reduction of day and night BP without reflex tachycardia and hypotension episodes was observed. Office BP decreased from 149.5±12.0/90.0±8.3 to 125.0±7.6/76.8±4.9 mm Hg (p<0.05 and average daily BP (ABPM decreased to 120.1±10.0/71.7±6.9 mmHg. Three drugs were needed to achieve target BP in baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg (office or >134 mmHg (ABPM. Marked beneficial effect on the morphological and functional characteristics of the vascular wall and its elastic properties, improvement of glycemic control, tissue insulin sensitivity and lipids profile were found. These effects were associated mainly with amlodipine inclusion into the therapy. Conclusion. The combined AHT based on RAAS blockers, indapamide SR and CCB provides achievement of

  20. Optimal models with maximizing probability of first achieving target value in the preceding stages

    林元烈; 伍从斌; 康波大

    2003-01-01

    Decision makers often face the need of performance guarantee with some sufficiently high proba-bility. Such problems can be modelled using a discrete time Markov decision process (MDP) with a probabilitycriterion for the first achieving target value. The objective is to find a policy that maximizes the probabilityof the total discounted reward exceeding a target value in the preceding stages. We show that our formula-tion cannot be described by former models with standard criteria. We provide the properties of the objectivefunctions, optimal value functions and optimal policies. An algorithm for computing the optimal policies forthe finite horizon case is given. In this stochastic stopping model, we prove that there exists an optimal deter-ministic and stationary policy and the optimality equation has a unique solution. Using perturbation analysis,we approximate general models and prove the existence of ε-optimal policy for finite state space. We give anexample for the reliability of the satellite systems using the above theory. Finally, we extend these results tomore general cases.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on fungal load and Mycotoxin on Sesame seeds in Abuja, Nigeria

    Gamma rays of average energy of 1.25 MeV from radionuclide 60Co was used in this study and the effects of varying doses 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 kGy on fungal load of and mycotoxin content on sesame seeds were investigated. Sesame seed samples were collected from Abaji, Gwagwalada, Kubwa and Karu markets in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. A serial dilution technique was employed and the fungi so diluted from the sesame seed samples were identified based on micro and macro morphological characteristics. The Aflatoxin Total and Ochratoxin A Contents in the samples were analysed using AgraQaunt direct combative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In all, 157 fungal isolates to four genera: Aspergillus, Curvularia, Penicillium, and Fusarium spp. in decreasing order of predominance were identified. Aspergillus spp. were observed from all the nonirradiated samples. Doses of 6-15kGy eliminated the entire fungal load. Also doses of 9-15kGy generally reduced Ochratoxin A content in all the samples, the rate of mycotoxin reduction was inconsistent with absorbed dose. However, sesame seed samples from the four markets exposed to irradiation dose of 15kGy had the comparatively least Aflatoxin Total content.

  2. Comparison of public and private school teachers and school principals’ opinions in Abuja, Nigeria

    Deniz Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine public and private school teachers’ opinions on different aspects of their professional associations and provisions and also asks principals about teachers’ conduct and their views on the Nigerian curriculum. To conduct this study, qualitative and quantitative research models were used to investigate differences between the two organizations. Quantitative data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 118 teachers in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC, Nigeria. To conduct the qualitative analysis, 15 teachers from two schools were selected (a total of 30 teachers to answer 5 discussion questions concerning their views on the Nigerian educational system. The findings revealed that private school teachers are at an advantage when it comes to provision of resources and technology, professional development and to some degree salaries. Both public and private school teachers felt being a teacher did not bring them respect in their community. Government policy makers need to study private schools and how they operate to see how they can make changes to produce the revolutionary reform needed in education. 30 principals’ interviews revealed that public school teachers are not easily held accountable for misconduct due to the structure of leadership, while private school teachers are held accountable and any form of unprofessionalism easily leads to termination of employment.

  3. Assessment of antimicrobial drug residues in beef in Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.

    Omeiza, Gabriel K; Ajayi, Itopa E; Ode, Okwoche J

    2012-01-01

    Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where the residents rely heavily on beef as a source of protein. The administration of antibiotics close to the time of slaughter by marketers/herd owners and transporters was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with butchers and abattoir workers. The practice of administering antibiotics to animals close to the time of slaughter was believed to be profit-motivated. The research suggests that awareness campaigns amongst the stakeholders, the enactment of appropriate laws for the control of antibiotic use and the empowerment of veterinary public health practitioners in food regulatory agencies as some of the strategies which may positively reduce the risk of antimicrobial drug residues in food animals in Nigeria. PMID:23038074

  4. Categorisation Of Clay Deposits In The Federal Capital Territory Of Abuja

    Manukaji John U.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clay deposits in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja were investigated with a view to categorizing them in order to determine their suitability as insulating refractory material. Thesamples were collected from three different locations in the territory, namely Sheda, Abaji and Karimu, and labeled A, B, and C. In order toproject a better representation of the territory, the samples were mined from ten cites each. The mined clay samples from the ten cites were mixed properly and a representative specimen for test from that location was produced using the cone and quartering system as recommended by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer(AAS was used to determine the chemical composition, while other established processes were used to determine other insulating properties likeparticle size distribution, specific gravity, bulk density, solid density, water absorption, apparent porosity, permeability to air, refractoriness, thermal shock resistance, modulus of rupture, linear shrinkage and thermal conductivity. The chemical analysis showed that all the samples had high percentages of silica and alumina, thereby classifying them as Alumino-silicates.

  5. International target values 2010 for achievable measurement uncertainties in nuclear material accountancy

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Silvio G. de; Renha Junior, Geraldo, E-mail: silvio@abacc.org.b, E-mail: grenha@abacc.org.b [Agencia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (ABACC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The International Target Values (ITVs) are reasonable uncertainty estimates that can be used in judging the reliability of measurement techniques applied to industrial nuclear and fissile materials subject to accountancy and/or safeguards verification. In the absence of relevant experimental estimates, ITVs can also be used to select measurement techniques and calculate sample population during the planning phase of verification activities. It is important to note that ITVs represent estimates of the 'state-of-the-practice', which should be achievable under routine measurement conditions affecting both facility operators and safeguards inspectors, not only in the field, but also in laboratory. Tabulated values cover measurement methods used for the determination of volume or mass of the nuclear material, for its elemental and isotopic assays, and for its sampling. The 2010 edition represents the sixth revision of the International Target Values (ITVs), issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Safeguards Technical Report (STR-368). The first version was released as 'Target Values' in 1979 by the Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Destructive Analysis (WGDA) of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) and focused on destructive analytical methods. In the latest 2010 revision, international standards in estimating and expressing uncertainties have been considered while maintaining a format that allows comparison with the previous editions of the ITVs. Those standards have been usually applied in QC/QA programmes, as well as qualification of methods, techniques and instruments. Representatives of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) participated in previous Consultants Group Meetings since the one convened to establish the first list of ITVs released in 1993 and in subsequent revisions

  6. Seropositivity ofChlamydophila pneumoniae immunoglobulin G antibody of HIV/AIDS patients in Abuja, Nigeria

    Yakubu Boyi Ngwai; Izebe KS; Ijele IG; Ishaleku D; Inyang US

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect IgG antibody toChlamydophila pneumoniae(CP)in sera ofHIV/AIDS patients and provide rationale for inclusion of routine screening for anti-CP antibodies and anti-chlamydial agents in the Nigerian NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan.Methods: Serum samples from34 consentingHIV/AIDS patients attended a Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment Facility in Abuja were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-CP IgG antibody using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel).Results:Anti-CP IgG antibody was detected in20 (58.8%)of34 patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the males(8/13; 61.5%) than the females (12/21; 57.1%). Patients of the age group 16-30 years had the highest(7/10; 70%) detection of anti-CP IgG antibody.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CP antibodies in sera of the HIV/AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CPantibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden ofChlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infections and to reduceHIV-positive morbidity in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan to provide prophylaxis against or treat activeC. pneumoniae infections.

  7. Time, expectation and satisfaction: Patients’ experience at National Hospital Abuja, Nigeria

    Oluwagbenga Ogunfowokan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long patient-clinic encounter time is typical of many hospital general outpatient departments (OPD in Nigeria.Objectives: The objectives of our study were to determine the time spent by patients at the service points in the general OPD of the National Hospital Abuja (NHA, to establish the perception of patients regarding the patient–clinic encounter time, and to describe the level of satisfaction of patients with the services received.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the general OPD of the NHA. Information relating to the time spent at the various service points amongst others were obtained from 320 randomly selected patients using a patient administered validated questionnaire.Results: Two hundred and seventy (84.4% patients responded adequately and were analysed.The median patient–clinic encounter time was 2.7 hours (range 0.2–7.2 hours. The long patient–clinic encounter time was accounted for mainly by the waiting time to see a doctor which was a median of 1 hour (range 0–5.6 hours and time spent at the medical records with median of 0.5 hours (range 0–5 hours. There was a significant relationship between a short waiting time as perceived by patients, clinic visit encounters where patients’ expectations were met or surpassed, and overall patient satisfaction with the clinic visit encounter (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Reduction in patient–clinic encounter time and meeting patients’ pre-visit expectations could significantly improve patient satisfaction after clinic visit encounter at the general OPD of NHA.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Cooperative and Non-cooperative Farmers’ access to Farm Inputs in Abuja, Nigeria

    Julius Ajah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Access to farm inputs is one of the major challenges facing rural farmers in Nigeria. To alleviate this problem, government at different levels strongly recommended the formation of cooperative societies to farmers. Against this background, a study was conducted to determine if differential access to farm inputs exists between cooperative and non-cooperative farmers in Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage technique was used for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 360 farmers were randomly interviewed in four agricultural zones (180 cooperative and 180 non-cooperative farmers. Data were analyzed using two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean separation was done at 5% probability level. Results revealed that there was significant difference (P < 0.01 in cooperative and non-cooperative farmers’ access to farm inputs. Comparatively, the mean perceptions indicated that the cooperative farmers had more access to labour, loan, herbicide, insecticide, rodenticide, fertilizer, tractor services, storage equipment and processing equipment while the non-cooperative farmers had more access to land. The results also indicated that the most accessible farm input to both cooperative and non-cooperative farmers was land while the least accessible farm inputs were loan and tractor services. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that differential access to farm inputs existed between cooperative and non-cooperative farmers in the study area. It was recommended that government and non-governmental agencies should encourage farmers to form and/or join viable cooperative societies.Key words: cooperative societies, least accessible farm inputs, mean perception, most accessible farm input, small-scale farmers, 

  9. Prenatal Transmission of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: Achieving Regional Targets for Elimination.

    Cerda, Rodrigo; Perez, Freddy; Domingues, Rosa Maria S M; Luz, Paula M; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Caffe, Sonja; Francke, Jordan A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Ciaranello, Andrea L

    2015-04-01

    Background.  The Pan-American Health Organization has called for reducing (1) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) to ≤0.30 infections/1000 live births (LB), (2) HIV MTCT risk to ≤2.0%, and (3) congenital syphilis (CS) incidence to ≤0.50/1000 LB in the Americas by 2015. Methods.  Using published Brazilian data in a mathematical model, we simulated a cohort of pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) through birth. We investigated 2 scenarios: "current access" (89.1% receive one ANC syphilis test and 41.1% receive 2; 81.7% receive one ANC HIV test and 18.9% receive birth testing; if diagnosed, 81.0% are treated for syphilis and 87.5% are treated for HIV) and "ideal access" (95% of women undergo 2 HIV and syphilis screenings; 95% receive appropriate treatment). We conducted univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses on key inputs. Results.  With current access, we projected 2.95 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.29 HIV infections/1000 LB, 7.1% HIV MTCT risk, and 11.11 intrauterine fetal demises (IUFD)/1000 pregnancies, with significant regional variation. With ideal access, we projected improved outcomes: 1.00 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.10 HIV infections/1000 LB, HIV MTCT risk of 2.4%, and 10.65 IUFD/1000 pregnancies. Increased testing drove the greatest improvements. Even with ideal access, only HIV infections/1000 LB met elimination goals. Achieving all targets required testing and treatment >95% and reductions in prevalence and incidence of HIV and syphilis. Conclusions.  Increasing access to care and HIV and syphilis antenatal testing will substantially reduce HIV and syphilis MTCT in Brazil. In addition, regionally tailored interventions reducing syphilis incidence and prevalence and supporting HIV treatment adherence are necessary to completely meet elimination goals. PMID:26180825

  10. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the...... target CSD. Furthermore, this systematic procedure has been integrated with a generic multi-dimensional model-based framework. The generic nature of the model-based framework allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, the analysis of...... various crystallization operations and conditions. Therefore this generic multidimensional model-based framework can be used to generate “specific” models for crystallization processes and further verify the operational policies generated by the analytical CSD estimator for achieving the targeted CSD...

  11. Determinants for Achieving the LDL-C Target of Lipid Control for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Taiwan

    Ho, Li-Ting; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Li, Yi-Heng; Huang, Lien-Chi; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Fang, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dysl...

  12. Stroke risk factors, subtypes, and 30-day case fatality in Abuja, Nigeria

    Nura H Alkali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. A better understanding of stroke risk factors and outcome may help guide efforts at reducing the community burden of stroke. This study aimed to understand stroke risk factors, imaging subtypes, and 30-day outcomes among adult Nigerians. Materials and Methods: We prospectively recruited all patients presenting with acute stroke at the National Hospital Abuja between January 2010 and June 2012. We assessed clinical and laboratory variables, as well as brain computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and carotid Doppler ultrasound scans. We also assessed case fatality and functional outcome at 30 days after stroke. Results: Of 272 patients studied, 168 (61.8% were males. Age at presentation (mean ± standard deviation was 56.4 ± 12.7 years in males and 52.9 ± 14.8 years in females ( P = 0.039. Neuroimaging was obtained in 96.7% patients, revealing cerebral infarction (61.8%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH (34.8%, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH (3.4%. Carotid plaques or stenosis ≥50% were detected in 53.2% patients with cerebral infarction. Stroke risk factors included hypertension (82.7%, obesity (32.6%, diabetes (23.5%, hyperlipidemia (18.4%, atrial fibrillation (9.2%, and cigarette smoking (7.7%. At 30 days after stroke, case-fatality rate was 18.8%, whereas modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores for cerebral infarction, ICH, and SAH were 3.71, 4.21, and 4.56, respectively. Atrial fibrillation, a previous stroke, and age older than 50 years were all associated with worse mRS scores at 30 days. Conclusion: Although hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and atrial fibrillation were important stroke risk factors, in many patients, these were detected only after a stroke. While the commonest stroke subtype was cerebral infarction, observed in almost two-third of patients, SAH was associated with the highest case-fatality rate at

  13. Modelling Recycling Targets:Achieving a 50% Recycling Rate for Household Waste in Denmark

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, whereEU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency andrecycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of22% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This studyintegrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from whichstreams should b...

  14. Determinants for achieving the LDL-C target of lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in Taiwan.

    Li-Ting Ho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia.This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report.Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins.Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved their LDL-C target in Taiwan

  15. Engineering fusogenic molecules to achieve targeted transduction of enveloped lentiviral vectors

    Wang Pin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors with broad tropism are one of the most promising gene delivery systems capable of efficiently delivering genes of interest into both dividing and non-dividing cells while maintaining long-term transgene expression. However, there are needs for developing lentiviral vectors with the capability to deliver genes to specific cell types, thus reducing the "off-target" effect of gene therapy. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of engineering the fusion-active domain of a fusogenic molecule (FM with the aim to improve targeted transduction of lentiviral vectors co-displaying an anti-CD20 antibody (αCD20 and a FM. Results Specific mutations were introduced into the fusion domain of a binding-deficient Sindbis virus glycoprotein to generate several mutant FMs. Lentiviral vectors incorporated with αCD20 and one of the engineered FMs were successfully produced and demonstrated to be able to preferentially deliver genes to CD-20-expressing cells. Lentiviral vectors bearing engineered FMs exhibited 8 to 17-fold enhanced transduction towards target cells as compared to the parental FM. Different levels of enhancement were observed for the different engineered FMs. A pH-dependent study of vector transduction showed that the broader pH range of the engineered FM is a possible mechanism for the resulted increase in transduction efficiency. Conclusion The fusion domain of Sindbis virus glycoprotein is amenable for engineering and the engineered proteins provide elevated capacity to mediate lentiviral vectors for targeted transduction. Our data suggests that application of such an engineering strategy can optimize the two-molecular targeting method of lentiviral vectors for gene delivery to predetermined cells.

  16. The Impact of Home Environment Factors on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Garki Area District, Abuja - Nigeria

    L. T. Dzever

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of home environment factors on the academic performance of public secondary school students in Garki Area District, Abuja, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was used to select 300 students from six public schools, while the simple random sampling technique was used to administer the questionnaire. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design for the study. Also, data on student’s academic performance was obtained from student’s scores in four selected school subjects. Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques; Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis (ANOVA. The results result revealed a positive and significant relationship between permissive patenting style with academic performance (p0.05. Also, the result from the study identified income, educational background and occupational level as well as permissive parenting style as the main predictive variables influencing students’ academic performance.

  17. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Schmidt, Julie Berg;

    2016-01-01

    majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood...... TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS....... However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation....

  18. Nutritionists in industry can play a key role in helping to achieve Health of the Nation targets for nutrition.

    Kirk, T R; de Looy, A; Fletcher, R; Ruxton, C H

    2007-06-01

    Nutritionists working in food manufacturing and retailing are potentially in a more powerful position than any other professional group to contribute towards achieving the national targets for nutrition and the reduction of nutrition-related diseases, set out in The Health of the Nation (DoH, 1992) and in Scotland's Health, A Challenge to Us All (Scottish Office, 1993). The present paper sets out the details of this argument. First, a review is given of the functions and types of activities carried out by nutritionists in industry. Then a number of key practical ways in which nutritionists, through their activities and functions, can help towards achieving national targets for nutrition and nutrition-related diseases are described. Finally, suggestions are made about the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes needed by nutritionists who intend making successful careers in industry and who wish, at the same time, to contribute towards improving the health of the nation. PMID:17539871

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  20. A STUDY OF IGNITION, PROPAGATION OF BURN AND ACHIEVEMENT OF HIGH-GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION TARGETS

    Tahir, N.; Long, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses different ignition models including the volume ignition and a central ignition model. A comparison is made between these two models which shows that the central ignition model is superior to the volume ignition model. It is also demonstrated with the help of computer simulations how one may achieve a central ignition configuration in a reactor-size inertial confinement fusion target. The problem of propagation of burn from the central hot zone into the surrounding cold fu...

  1. Functional Antagonism of Human CD40 Achieved by Targeting a Unique Species-Specific Epitope.

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Suri, Anish; Krystek, Stanley R; Tamura, James; Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Kuhn, Robert; Carroll, Karen; Fleener, Catherine; Ryseck, Rolf; Cheng, Lin; An, Yongmi; Drew, Philip; Grant, Steven; Suchard, Suzanne J; Nadler, Steven G; Bryson, James W; Sheriff, Steven

    2016-07-17

    Current clinical anti-CD40 biologic agents include both antagonist molecules for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and agonist molecules for immuno-oncology, yet the relationship between CD40 epitope and these opposing biological outcomes is not well defined. This report describes the identification of potent antagonist domain antibodies (dAbs) that bind to a novel human CD40-specific epitope that is divergent in the CD40 of nonhuman primates. A similarly selected anti-cynomolgus CD40 dAb recognizing the homologous epitope is also a potent antagonist. Mutagenesis, biochemical, and X-ray crystallography studies demonstrate that the epitope is distinct from that of CD40 agonists. Both the human-specific and cynomolgus-specific molecules remain pure antagonists even when formatted as bivalent Fc-fusion proteins, making this an attractive therapeutic format for targeting hCD40 in autoimmune indications. PMID:27216500

  2. Trade-offs of different land and bioenergy policies on the path to achieving climate targets

    Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Patel, Pralit L. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Many papers have shown that bioenergy and land-use are potentially important elements in a strategy to limit anthropogenic climate change. But, significant expansion of bioenergy production can have a large terrestrial footprint. In this paper, we test the implications for land use, the global energy system, carbon cycle, and carbon prices of meeting a specific climate target, using a single fossil fuel and industrial sector policy instrument—the carbon tax, but with five alternative bioenergy and land-use policy architectures. We find that the policies we examined have differing effects on the different segments of the economy. Comprehensive land policies can reduce land-use change emissions, increasing allowable emissions in the energy system, but have implications for the cost of food. Bioenergy taxes and constraints, on the other hand, have little effect on food prices, but can result in increased carbon and energy prices.

  3. How much does it cost to achieve coverage targets for primary healthcare services? A costing model from Aceh, Indonesia.

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Abidin, Azwar Zaenal; Amin, Fadilah M

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investment in improving service infrastructure and training of staff, public primary healthcare services in low-income and middle-income countries tend to perform poorly in reaching coverage targets. One of the factors identified in Aceh, Indonesia was the lack of operational funds for service provision. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and transparent costing tool that enables health planners to calculate the unit costs of providing basic health services to estimate additional budgets required to deliver services in accordance with national targets. The tool was developed using a standard economic approach that linked the input activities to achieving six national priority programs at primary healthcare level: health promotion, sanitation and environment health, maternal and child health and family planning, nutrition, immunization and communicable diseases control, and treatment of common illness. Costing was focused on costs of delivery of the programs that need to be funded by local government budgets. The costing tool consisting of 16 linked Microsoft Excel worksheets was developed and tested in several districts enabled the calculation of the unit costs of delivering of the six national priority programs per coverage target of each program (such as unit costs of delivering of maternal and child health program per pregnant mother). This costing tool can be used by health planners to estimate additional money required to achieve a certain level of coverage of programs, and it can be adjusted for different costs and program delivery parameters in different settings. PMID:22887349

  4. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Guy Hutton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs.

  5. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene.

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of 'safely managed' water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  6. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to a higher standard of ‘safely managed’ water and sanitation. Lack of access to WASH can have an economic impact as much as 7% of Gross Domestic Product, not including the social and environmental consequences. Research points to significant health and socio-economic consequences of poor nutritional status, child growth and school performance caused by inadequate WASH. Groundwater over-extraction and pollution of surface water bodies have serious impacts on water resource availability and biodiversity, while climate change exacerbates the health risks of water insecurity. A significant literature documents the beneficial impacts of WASH interventions, and a growing number of impact evaluation studies assess how interventions are optimally financed, implemented and sustained. Many innovations in behavior change and service delivery offer potential for scaling up services to meet the SDGs. PMID:27240389

  7. MODIFIED RELEASE FORMULATIONS TO ACHIEVE THE QUALITY TARGET PRODUCT PROFILE (QTPP

    Mithilesh Kumar Jha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified Release (MR Formulations have a modification in the release mechanism. Modified release dosage forms are developed by altering drug absorption or the site of drug release in order to achieve predetermined clinical objectives. Modified drug release from dosage forms is complemented by the allied processes of drug design, of dosage administration, and of membrane transport and absorption of drug to the biological site of action. Modified-release drugs have complex formulations that can offer an advantage over standard medication for some patients. Modified-release preparations should only be used where there is a clear clinical advantage over conventional-release preparations. In general, Modified-release preparations should be reserved for specific patients where there is a problem with compliance, effectiveness or side-effects which these preparations could help overcome. Modified–release technologies have become indispensable to resolving critical technical, therapeutic, and marketing challenges, such as improving patience compliance, less dosage timings, better safety, better indications, delivering poorly soluble and poorly absorbable API’s, product differentiation, patent protection, product life-cycle extension, and better margins. Modified-release formulation design can be conducted for oral and non-oral administration routes. Possible therapeutic benefits of an MR product include improved efficacy and reduced adverse events, increased convenience and patient compliance, optimized performance, a greater selectivity of activity, or new indications.

  8. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  9. Physiological geroscience: targeting function to increase healthspan and achieve optimal longevity.

    Seals, Douglas R; Justice, Jamie N; LaRocca, Thomas J

    2016-04-15

    Most nations of the world are undergoing rapid and dramatic population ageing, which presents great socio-economic challenges, as well as opportunities, for individuals, families, governments and societies. The prevailing biomedical strategy for reducing the healthcare impact of population ageing has been 'compression of morbidity' and, more recently, to increase healthspan, both of which seek to extend the healthy period of life and delay the development of chronic diseases and disability until a brief period at the end of life. Indeed, a recently established field within biological ageing research, 'geroscience', is focused on healthspan extension. Superimposed on this background are new attitudes and demand for 'optimal longevity' - living long, but with good health and quality of life. A key obstacle to achieving optimal longevity is the progressive decline in physiological function that occurs with ageing, which causes functional limitations (e.g. reduced mobility) and increases the risk of chronic diseases, disability and mortality. Current efforts to increase healthspan centre on slowing the fundamental biological processes of ageing such as inflammation/oxidative stress, increased senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired proteostasis and reduced stress resistance. We propose that optimization of physiological function throughout the lifespan should be a major emphasis of any contemporary biomedical policy addressing global ageing. Effective strategies should delay, reduce in magnitude or abolish reductions in function with ageing (primary prevention) and/or improve function or slow further declines in older adults with already impaired function (secondary prevention). Healthy lifestyle practices featuring regular physical activity and ideal energy intake/diet composition represent first-line function-preserving strategies, with pharmacological agents, including existing and new pharmaceuticals and novel 'nutraceutical' compounds, serving as potential

  10. Mobile Health Insurance System and Associated Costs: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Primary Health Centers in Abuja, Nigeria

    Garg, Lalit; Eze, Godson

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria contributes only 2% to the world’s population, accounts for 10% of the global maternal death burden. Health care at primary health centers, the lowest level of public health care, is far below optimal in quality and grossly inadequate in coverage. Private primary health facilities attempt to fill this gap but at additional costs to the client. More than 65% Nigerians still pay out of pocket for health services. Meanwhile, the use of mobile phones and related services has risen geometrically in recent years in Nigeria, and their adoption into health care is an enterprise worth exploring. Objective The purpose of this study was to document costs associated with a mobile technology–supported, community-based health insurance scheme. Methods This analytic cross-sectional survey used a hybrid of mixed methods stakeholder interviews coupled with prototype throw-away software development to gather data from 50 public primary health facilities and 50 private primary care centers in Abuja, Nigeria. Data gathered documents costs relevant for a reliable and sustainable mobile-supported health insurance system. Clients and health workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires on services provided and cost of those services. Trained interviewers conducted the structured interviews, and 1 client and 1 health worker were interviewed per health facility. Clinic expenditure was analyzed to include personnel, fixed equipment, medical consumables, and operation costs. Key informant interviews included a midmanagement staff of a health-management organization, an officer-level staff member of a mobile network operator, and a mobile money agent. Results All the 200 respondents indicated willingness to use the proposed system. Differences in the cost of services between public and private facilities were analyzed at 95% confidence level (Pinformant interviews with a health management organizations and a telecom operator revealed high investment interests

  11. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  12. Achieving stringent climate targets

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2015-01-01

    Der anthropogene Klimawandel gefährdet das Wohlergehen der Menschheit. Aus diesem Grund haben Politiker wiederholt das Ziel formuliert, die Erhöhung der mittleren globalen Temperatur auf weniger als 2◦C über dem vorindustriellen Wert zu begrenzen. Dazu müssen die globalen Treibhausgasemissionen nahezu vollständig vermieden werden. Da das heutige globale System zur Energienutzung auf fossilen Rohstoffen beruht, erfordert die Reduktion von Treibhausgasemissionen eine fundamentale Umgestaltung u...

  13. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  14. Detection of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Abuja, Nigeria

    Izebe, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are among the sexually transmitted diseases known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Serum samples from 34 consenting AIDS patients which attended the Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Facility at the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD, Abuja between April 2005 and March 2006 were screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the presence of anti-CT antibodies using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel. Anti-CT antibodies were detected in ten (29.4% of the thirty-four patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the females (33.3% than the males (23.1%. Patients of the age group 31-45 years had the highest detection of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies, followed by those of age group 16-30 years. The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CT antibodies in AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CT antibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden of chlamydial diseases and to reduce the risk of HIV and its spread in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the National AIDS Management Plan to treat associated C. trachomatis infections.

  15. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a...... uniform and reproducible CSD. Therefore supersaturation control can be applied to drive the process within the metastable zone and thereby enhance the control of the CSD. Although this approach has been shown to produce high quality crystals, the set point operating profiles for the supersaturation...... controller are usually chosen arbitrarily or by trial-and-error. Therefore there is a need for a systematic procedure to generate operational policy that guarantees the target CSD can be achieved. Furthermore, to predict the desired crystal morphology by means of model-based approaches, appropriate models...

  16. Implementation of energy-saving policies in China: How local governments assisted industrial enterprises in achieving energy-saving targets

    Local governments have replaced the national ministries that are in charge of various industries to become the primary implementer of energy-saving policies in China since 2000. This paper employs a case study-based approach to demonstrate the significance of local governments’ policy measures in assisting industrial enterprises with energy-saving activities in China. Based on the longitudinal case of the Jasmine Thermal Electric Power Company, this paper hypothesizes that sub-national governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies in China since the 11th Five-year-plan period. A wide range of provincial and municipal agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures – informational policy, skill building, improved enforcement of central directives, price adjustment, and funding – that reduced barriers to energy saving and motivated active pursuit of energy-saving activities at industrial enterprises. The case study demonstrates how an enterprise and local governments work together to achieve the enterprise's energy-saving target. The authors will investigate the hypothesis of this paper in the context of multiple case studies that they plan to undertake in the future. - Highlights: • We employ a case study-based approach to study policy implementation in China. • Local governments have played a major role in implementing energy-saving policies. • Local public agencies collaborated in implementing five types of policy measures. • Local policy measures reduced barriers to energy saving at industrial enterprises. • Enterprises and local governments work together to achieve energy-saving targets

  17. Korea's emission trading scheme and policy design issues to achieve market-efficiency and abatement targets

    In 2008, the government of Republic of Korea (Korea) announced the national abatement target aiming at 30% reductions from the Business-as-Usual projections by 2020. Accordingly, the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 onwards. As ETS performance substantially depends on the structural design, it is critically important to examine the details of Korean ETS for the achievement of cost effectiveness and concurrent development of an active emission trading market. This paper addresses several policy design issues for this purpose. After providing an overview on the current framework of Korean ETS, we propose ways to achieve flexibility, consistency and market efficiency of the program in consideration of the preexisting policies. Issues in policy design are discussed by focusing on allowance allocation, market stabilization measures and price mechanism in the emission and energy markets in Korea. This paper will serve as a practical guideline for establishing sustainable and market-efficient Korean ETS that can be compatible with the international standards as in the EU ETS. - Highlights: • Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 in Korea to reduce CO2. • ETS performance substantially depends on structural design. • We provide policy overview on the current framework of Korean ETS. • Several policy design issues are discussed for developing policy consistency. • We focus on allowance allocation, allowance reserve and market stabilization measures

  18. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  19. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    tentative results point to a key policy message: do not rely on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target. It would make more sense to gear climate mitigation actions toward the stabilization target without betting on negative emissions because negative emissions might create large overshoot in case of strong feedbacks.

  20. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    A E Adeniji; O V Omonona; D N Obiora; J U Chukudebelu

    2014-04-01

    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3–6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with > 180 m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7–4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2–0.69 mhos), weak (0.1–0.19 mhos), and poor (> 0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  1. Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in boreholes at Gosa and Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the suitability of different sites as locations for obtaining underground water for consumption. The analysis of 238U, 232Th and 40K from rock samples from each layer of borehole at a depth of ∼50 m at Site A borehole, S3L1-S3L6 in Gosa and 40 m at Site B borehole, S4L1-S4L5 in Lugbe, Abuja, north central Nigeria is presented. The gamma-ray spectrometry was carried out using a high-purity germanium detector coupled to a computer-based high-resolution multichannel analyzer. The activity concentrations at Site A borehole for 238U have a mean value of 26±3, ranging from 23±2 to 30±3 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 63±5, ranging from 48±4 to 76±6 Bq kg-1 and 40K a mean value of 573±72, ranging from 437±56 to 821±60 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations at Site B borehole for 238U have a mean value of 20±2, ranging from 16±2 to 23±2 Bq kg-1, 232Th a mean value of 46±4, ranging from 43±4 to 49±4 Bq kg-1, 40K a mean value of 915±116 and ranging from 817±103 Bq kg-1 to 1011±128 Bq kg-1. It is noted that the higher activity concentrations of 232Th and 238U are found in Site A at Gosa. Site B has lower radioactivity, and it is recommended that both sites are suitable for underground water consumption. (authors)

  2. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide as integrin-targeting surface decorator of selenium nanoparticles to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy.

    Jiang, Wenting; Fu, Yuanting; Yang, Fang; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Ting; Zheng, Wenjie; Zeng, Lilan; Chen, Tianfeng

    2014-08-27

    The poor permeability of glioma parenchyma represents a major limit for antiglioblastoma drug delivery. Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), which has a high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed in glioma cells, was employed in the present study to functionalize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) to achieve antiglioblastoma efficacy. GLP-SeNPs showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. In U87 glioma cell membrane, which has a high integrin expression level, GLP-SeNPs exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than unmodified SeNPs. As expected, U87 cells exhibited a greater uptake of GLP-SeNPs than C6 cells with low integrin expression level. Furthermore, the internalization of GLP-SeNPs was inhibited by cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Lys) peptides, suggesting that cellular uptake into U87 cells and C6 cells occurred via αvβ3 integrin-mediated endocytosis. For U87 cells, the cytotoxicity of SeNPs decorated by GLP was enhanced significantly because of the induction of various apoptosis signaling pathways. Internalized GLP-SeNPs triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species downregulation. Therefore, p53, MAPKs, and AKT pathways were activated to advance cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that surface decoration of nanomaterials with GLP could be an efficient strategy for design and preparation of glioblastoma targeting nanodrugs. PMID:25073123

  3. Framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: Focused on educational facilities

    Since the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the global warming potential, an international agreement on carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) has been formulated in Kyoto Protocol (1997). This study aimed to develop a framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT. To verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, educational facilities were used for a case study. This study was conducted in six steps: (i) selection of the target school; (ii) establishment of the reference model for the target school; (iii) energy consumption pattern analysis by target school; (iv) establishment of the energy retrofit model for the target school; (v) economic and environmental assessment through the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analysis; and (vi) establishment of the low-carbon scenario in 2020 to achieve the national CERT. This study can help facility managers or policymakers establish the optimal retrofit strategy within the limited budget from a short-term perspective and the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT from the long-term perspective. The proposed framework could be also applied to any other building type or country in the global environment

  4. Analysis of Settlement Expansion and Urban Growth Modelling Using Geoinformation for Assessing Potential Impacts of Urbanization on Climate in Abuja City, Nigeria

    Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of settlement expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, one of West Africa’s fastest developing cities, using geoinformation and ancillary datasets. Three epochs of Land-use Land-cover (LULC maps for 1986, 2001 and 2014 were derived from Landsat images using support vector machines (SVM. Accuracy assessment (AA of the LULC maps based on the pixel count resulted in overall accuracy of 82%, 92% and 92%, while the AA derived from the error adjusted area (EAA method stood at 69%, 91% and 91% for 1986, 2001 and 2014, respectively. Two major techniques for detecting changes in the LULC epochs involved the use of binary maps as well as a post-classification comparison approach. Quantitative spatiotemporal analysis was conducted to detect LULC changes with specific focus on the settlement development pattern of Abuja, the federal capital city (FCC of Nigeria. Logical transitions to the urban category were modelled for predicting future scenarios for the year 2050 using the embedded land change modeler (LCM in the IDRISI package. Based on the EAA, the result showed that urban areas increased by more than 11% between 1986 and 2001. In contrast, this value rose to 17% between 2001 and 2014. The LCM model projected LULC changes that showed a growing trend in settlement expansion, which might take over allotted spaces for green areas and agricultural land if stringent development policies and enforcement measures are not implemented. In conclusion, integrating geospatial technologies with ancillary datasets offered improved understanding of how urbanization processes such as increased imperviousness of such a magnitude could influence the urban microclimate through the alteration of natural land surface temperature. Urban expansion could also lead to increased surface runoff as well as changes in drainage geography leading to urban floods.

  5. The Relationship between Anxiety and Attitude of Students Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language and Their Achievement on Target Language

    Gocer, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the anxiety connected with target language of the high school students learning Turkish as a foreign language. In this study, descriptive relational screening model was used. Two scales were used for collecting data. First scale was FLCAS-Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale; it was developed by Horwitz…

  6. Achieving K/DOQI Targets with Cinacalcet in Dialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. A Portuguese Observational Study

    Macário, F; Frazão, JM; Ferreira, A; Weigert, A; Mota, M.; Machado, D; Birne, R; R. Neto; Baldaia Moreira, A; Soares, C.; Ribeiro, S; Mendes, T.; Alves, R.; Gomes, H; Raposo, H

    2009-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. The elevated serum intact parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium and calcium x phosphorus product have been independently associated with an increased relative risk of mortality. The standard therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism, including active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, is often insufficient to allow patients to achieve the recommended Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative ta...

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics of Colistin Methanesulfonate in Rats: Achieving Sustained Lung Concentrations of Colistin for Targeting Respiratory Infections

    W. S. Yapa, Shalini; Jian LI; Porter, Christopher J. H.; Nation, Roger L; Patel, Kashyap; McIntosh, Michelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), the inactive prodrug of colistin, is administered by inhalation for the management of respiratory infections. However, limited pharmacokinetic data are available for CMS and colistin following pulmonary delivery. This study investigates the pharmacokinetics of CMS and colistin following intravenous (i.v.) and intratracheal (i.t.) administration in rats and determines the targeting advantage after direct delivery into the lungs. In addition to plasma, bronchoal...

  8. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same time, the

  9. The Situation of Health Centre Facilities in Ngada District in order to Meet the Achievement Target to Reduce Malaria Morbidity

    muhammad Hasyimi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ngada district, East Nusa Tenggara province is one of the malaria endemic districts NTT is one of areas targeted elimination by 2030. The strategy Ministry of Health, for 2010-2014 states that malaria control targets to reducethe morbidity from 2 to 1 per 1000 population. The study aimed to elucidate information proceeding situation of Public health center (PHC, Puskesmas facilities for decresing the morbidity in 2014. Method: It was an observational studi with cross sectional design in 2014. Information was collected by interview and observation of documents at each PHC. Result: Results showed all PHCs already have malaria program, conduct blood examination, equipped microscopic and with have human resources, though there are weakness such as malaria program and microscopist trainings have not been done. Many factors contribute to increase malaria cases and unsuccessful malaria control, however, all PHCs have already malaria program, has conducted blood tests, it equipped with binocular microscope adequate, human resources,sanitarians and environmental health workers available in each PHC. International donor agencies issued as Global Fun. Conclusion: Annual Parasite Incidence and AMI in Ngada during the period of 2009 untill 2011, tend to decline. Malaria control programs have been done in all health eentres. Recommendation: For the malaria elimination there should be action programs, such as screening, enhanced of existing health workers and improving quality and coverage of malaria vector control.

  10. The evolution of flexibility mechanisms for achieving European renewable energy targets 2020-ex-ante evaluation of the principle mechanisms

    In December 2008, the European Council and the European Parliament agreed on a final compromise for a new European renewable energy directive. One of the most debated issues prior to this compromise was the design of 'target flexibility mechanisms', which should allow member states with low or expensive renewable energy potential to partly fulfil their national renewable energy target in other countries. This article traces back the political discussion that has led to the evolution of the different flexibility options. It then evaluates the most prominent flexibility mechanisms against a set of qualitative criteria. It concludes that free or restricted certificate trade based on guarantees of origin (GOs) - as proposed earlier by the European Commission - is not a viable option due to some 'knockout' criteria, despite other potential advantages. The mechanisms that have replaced GO trade in the final compromise - joint projects, joint support schemes and statistical transfer between member states - provide less flexibility, but score better against a number of other important criteria. The crucial question for the coming years is how their utilisation can be facilitated. One first step might be that proactive member states define open design issues for implementing the mechanisms.

  11. Achieving California's 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in 2050: Technology, policy and scenario analysis using CA-TIMES energy economic systems model

    The CA-TIMES optimization model of the California Energy System (v1.5) is used to understand how California can meet the 2050 targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (80% below 1990 levels). This model represents energy supply and demand sectors in California and simulates the technology and resource requirements needed to meet projected energy service demands. The model includes assumptions on policy constraints, as well as technology and resource costs and availability. Multiple scenarios are developed to analyze the changes and investments in low-carbon electricity generation, alternative fuels and advanced vehicles in transportation, resource utilization, and efficiency improvements across many sectors. Results show that major energy transformations are needed but that achieving the 80% reduction goal for California is possible at reasonable average carbon reduction cost ($9 to $124/tonne CO2e at 4% discount rate) relative to a baseline scenario. Availability of low-carbon resources such as nuclear power, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), biofuels, wind and solar generation, and demand reduction all serve to lower the mitigation costs, but CCS is a key technology for achieving the lowest mitigation costs. - Highlights: • We model the California Energy System to 2050 under policy and technology scenarios. • The model optimizes technology and resource investments to meet emissions targets. • Deep emissions cuts (>74%) are achieved across all reduction scenarios. • Carbon capture enables negative emission biofuels and allows more petroleum use. • Greenhouse gas mitigation cost is small compared with total economic activity

  12. Guideline for Achieving a Target Share of Renewable Energy in Final Energy Consumption in Slovenia Until 2020

    European parliament's and Council for energy usage from renewable sources promotion's directive proposal determines acceptation of National action plan for every member state. General national goal for renewable energy share in final consumption in year 2020, defined in proposal, is 25 % energy from renewable sources in final energy consumption. Paper presents plan for renewable energy sources usage in electricity production and activities, which will be necessary to be held by organizations, which are carriers of energy activities, for building new capacities or rebuilding existing ones for electricity production from renewable energy sources. Purpose of plan is additional 3.000 GWh electricity production in year 2020 in comparison with today's electricity production from renewable energy sources. Accepted goal will be obligatory for organizations as carriers of energy activities for their social responsibility for obligations fulfillment and determined goals achievement. Report represents necessary steps that state has to make to reach bigger interest of investors for renewable energy investments and special attention is stressed on completion of regulation with goal to create suitable platform for future investors.(author).

  13. Coated minispheres of salmon calcitonin target rat intestinal regions to achieve systemic bioavailability: Comparison between intestinal instillation and oral gavage.

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Aversa, Vincenzo; Rosa, Mónica; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Coulter, Ivan; Brayden, David J

    2016-09-28

    Achieving oral peptide delivery is an elusive challenge. Emulsion-based minispheres of salmon calcitonin (sCT) were synthesized using single multiple pill (SmPill®) technology incorporating the permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10), or coco-glucoside (CG), or the pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres were coated with an outer layer of Eudragit® L30 D-55 (designed for jejunal release) or Surelease®/Pectin (designed for colonic release). The process was mild and in vitro biological activity of sCT was retained upon release from minispheres stored up to 4months. In vitro release profiles suggested that sCT was released from minispheres by diffusion through coatings due to swelling of gelatin and the polymeric matrix upon contact with PBS at pH6.8. X-ray analysis confirmed that coated minispheres dissolved at the intended intestinal region of rats following oral gavage. Uncoated minispheres at a dose of ~2000I.U.sCT/kg were administered to rats by intra-jejunal (i.j.) or intra-colonic (i.c.) instillation and caused hypocalcaemia. Notable sCT absolute bioavailability (F) values were: 5.5% from minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j), 17.3% with CG (i.c.) and 18.2% with C10 (i.c.). Coated minispheres administered by oral gavage at threefold higher doses also induced hypocalcaemia. A highly competitive F value of 2.7% was obtained for orally-administered sCT-minispheres containing CG (45μmol/kg) and coated with Eudragit®. In conclusion, the SmPill® technology is a potential dosage form for several peptides when formulated with PEs and coated for regional delivery. PK data from instillations over-estimates oral bioavailability and poorly predicts rank ordering of formulations. PMID:27480451

  14. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  15. Energy and Sustainability: the European challenge of achieving the 2020 targets; Energia y sostenibilidad. El reto Europeo del logro de los objectivos del 2020

    Bachiller Araque, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Union and the energy sector should particularly face up to the triple challenge of increasing the security of supply, de carbonizing its production system and improving the competitiveness of its business network. Achieving the above objectives will involve relevant changes in the way to satisfy the primary energy demand and the electricity generation mix, the development and incorporation of new technologies, as well as the full completion of the internal energy market. Moreover, achieving the 20 targets in 2020 and perhaps a greater requirement on one of them will require increased energy efficiency in the whole chain, from production to consumption, as well as policies and initiatives on energy saving which are consistent with the maintenance of the current levels of welfare. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. PROBIT MODEL ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER’S FARMERS DECISION TO USE AGROCHEMICAL INPUTS IN GWAGWALADA AND KUJE AREA COUNCILS OF FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

    Omotayo Olugbenga Alabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined Probit model analysis of smallholder’s farmers decision to use agrochemical inputs in Gwagwalada and Kuje Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to sixty smallholder’s farmers sampled using a two-stage sampling technique. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Probit model. Eight estimators, age; farm-size; education–level; extension services; access to credit; off-farm income; experiences in farming; in the Probit model were found statistically significant. Results show that the probability of using agrochemical inputs increases with age; farm-size; family-size; education-level; extension services; experiences in farming but decreases where they have off-farm income and access to credits. Mc Fadden Pseudo-R 2 gives 0.6866 and Probit model correctly classified 93%. This study concluded that capacity of agricultural extension agents needs to be improved in the study area to educate farmers to invest in agrochemicals and improved agricultural technologies. Also, Government needs to improve on good road networks and appropriate policies to regulate standard, use, safety needs and environment of use of agrochemicals in the study area.

  17. Tectonic and radioactivity impacts of 238U on groundwater-based drinking water at Gosa and Lugbe areas of Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Tectonic contribution of activity level of 238U in groundwater-based drinking water in Gosa and Lugbe areas of Abuja was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest activity level of 2736 µBq L-1 reported in Lugbe borehole, whereas the lowest value of 443 µBq L-1 reported at Gosa borehole. The inhabitants permanently used water from the boreholes for daily consumption. The group receives 5.55 × 10-5 mSv of the annual collective effective dose due to 238U in drinking water. The radiological risks of 238U in the water samples were found to be low, typically in magnitude of 10-7 with cancer mortality value of 1.03 × 10-7 and morbidity value of 1.57 × 10-7. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a mean value of 4.0 × 10-3 μg kg-1 day-1. It could be that the human risk due to 238U content in groundwater supplies from ingestion may likely be the chemical toxicity of 238U as a heavy metal rather than radiological risk. Significantly, Lugbe subsurface may have developed some fractions of granitic strata that contributed to the distribution of radioactive of 238U in tectonically weak zones. (author)

  18. EFFECT OF THE COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY WITH TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE ACHIEVEMENT ON INTRARENAL BLOOD FLOW IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    O. A. Koshel'skaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the dynamics of intrarenal vascular resistance (IRVR, circadian blood pressure (BP profile and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM who achieved the target BP levels (<130/80 mmHg due to long-term combined antihypertensive therapy with or without renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS inhibitors. Material and methods. Patients (n=61 with HT and DM without clinical symptoms of nephroangiopathy were included into the open randomized study , 59 of these patients completed study. Patients of Group 1 (n=41 received therapy with valsartan (n=20, 80–160 mg/day , or perindopril (n=21, 5–10 mg/day , in combination with indapamide retard, 1.5 mg/day , and amlodipine, 5–10 mg/day. Patients of Group 2 (n=18 received amlodipine (5–10 mg/day in combination with indapamide retard (1.5 mg/day and metoprolol succinate (50–100 mg/day. Initially and after 30–32 weeks of therapy the following examinations were performed: duplex ultrasound scanning of the main renal (MRA and intrarenal arteries (IRA with resistive index (RI calculation, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, GFR calculation (by Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. The target BP levels were achieved in all patients of both groups. Patient’s baseline characteristics including age, sex, duration of disease, office BP , GFR, RI in MRA and IRA did not differ in the groups as well as decrease in office BP due to treatment. However patients of Group 2 had higher levels of systolic BP and systolic BP load at night time than these in patients of Group 1 during all period of the treatment. In patients of Group 2 RI in MRA and arcuate IRA were increased from 0.67±0.06 to 0.69±0.06 (p=0.02 and from 0.62±0.07 to 0.64±0.06 (p=0.02, respectively. The increase in IRA was positively associated with systolic BP at night time in these patients (r=0.6; p=0.01. There were no significant changes of IRA in Group 1 totally

  19. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  20. Achieving stringent climate targets. An analysis of the role of transport and variable renewable energies using energy-economy-climate models

    Anthropogenic climate change is threatening the welfare of mankind. Accordingly, policy makers have repeatedly stated the goal of slowing climate change and limiting the increase of global mean temperature to less than 2 C above pre-industrial times (the so-called ''two degree target''). Stabilizing the temperature requires drastic reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to nearly zero. As the global system of energy supply currently relies on fossil fuels, reducing GHG emissions can only be achieved through a full-scale transformation of the energy system. This thesis investigates the economic requirements and implications of different scenarios that achieve stringent climate mitigation targets. It starts with the analysis of characteristic decarbonization patterns and identifies two particularly relevant aspects of mitigation scenarios: deployment of variable renewable energies (VRE) and decarbonization of the transport sector. After investigating these fields in detail, we turned towards one of the most relevant questions for policy makers and analyzed the trade-off between the stringency of a climate target and its economic requirements and implications. All analyses are based on the improvement, application, comparison, and discussion of large-scale IAMs. The novel ''mitigation share'' metric allowed us to identify the relevance of specific technology groups for mitigation and to improve our understanding of the decarbonization patterns of different energy subsectors. It turned out that the power sector is decarbonized first and reaches lowest emissions, while the transport sector is slowest to decarbonize. For the power sector, non-biomass renewable energies contribute most to emission reductions, while the transport sector strongly relies on liquid fuels and therefore requires biomass in combination with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) to reduce emissions. An in-depth investigation of the solar power

  1. 推进总量减排达标打造绿色石化企业%Build Green Petrochemical Company by Achieving Emission Target

    崔文峰; 王利红; 辛世希

    2015-01-01

    兰州石化将总量减排指标细化分解,制定出2010—2015年总量减排计划,以工程减排、技术减排、管理减排为手段,逐年逐项落实减排措施,推进了总量减排目标的实现。通过核实总量基数,研究减排政策,落实减排方案,细化减排措施,落实工程减排总量核查;开展工程项目完善和技术攻关,强化环保体系建设和过程控制,建立监督考核机制,实现环保设施稳定运行,企业排放达标水平稳步升级。2013年污染物排放强度较2010年降低50%~60%,主要污染物所占兰州市排放比例由2010年的20% 以上降低到3%~9%左右,环境质量大幅改善,清洁化、绿色化、可持续发展能力得到全面提升。%Total emission reduction plan of the company for the years from 2010 to 2015 is worked out through breakdown of total emission reduction target, in a bid to implement engineering, technical and management measures step by step and ifnally achieve the total target. Now the enterprise’s target-achieving capability has steadily improved via measures including verifying total emission base, studying emission reduction policy, perfecting engineering project, tackling technical problems, strengthening environmental protection system and process control, establishing supervision and examination mechanism and realizing stable operation of environmental protection facilities. Its pollutant emission intensity in 2013 is 50 %-60 % lower than that in 2010, and main pollutants proportion in the emission of Lanzhou city is reduced to 3 %-9 % from 20 % in 2010. Thus the environmental quality and the overall clean, green and sustainable development capability has been signiifcantly promoted.

  2. Split vector systems for ultra-targeted gene delivery: a contrivance to achieve ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy in vivo.

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2014-08-01

    Tightly controlled spatial localisation of therapeutic gene delivery is essential to maximize the benefits of somatic gene therapy in vivo and to reduce its undesired effects on the 'bystander' cell populations, most importantly germline cells. Indeed, complete ethical assurance of somatic gene therapy can only be achieved with ultra-targeted gene delivery, which excludes the risk of inadvertent germline gene transfer. Thus, it is desired to supplement existing strategies of physical focusing and biological (cell-specific) targeting of gene delivery with an additional principle for the rigid control over spread of gene transfer within the body. In this paper I advance the concept of 'combinatorial' targeting of therapeutic gene transfer in vivo. I hypothesize that it is possible to engineer complex gene delivery vector systems consisting of several components, each one of them capable of independent spread within the human body but incapable of independent facilitation of gene transfer. As the gene delivery augmented by such split vector systems would be reliant on the simultaneous availability of all the vector system components at a predetermined body site, it is envisaged that higher order reaction kinetics required for the assembly of the functional gene transfer configuration would sharpen spatial localisation of gene transfer via curtailing the blurring effect of the vector spread within the body. A particular implementation of such split vector system could be obtained through supplementing a viral therapeutic gene vector with a separate auxiliary vector carrying a non-integrative and non-replicative form of a gene (e.g., mRNA) coding for a cellular receptor of the therapeutic vector component. Gene-transfer-enabling components of the vector system, which would be delivered separately from the vector component loaded with the therapeutic gene cargo, could also be cell-membrane-insertion-proficient receptors, elements of artificial transmembrane channels

  3. High-dose continuous oxacillin infusion results in achievement of pharmacokinetics targets in critically ill patients with deep sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery.

    Nesseler, Nicolas; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  4. Radioactivity level and toxic elemental concentration in groundwater at Dei-Dei and Kubwa areas of Abuja, north-central Nigeria

    The activity concentrations of uranium and toxic elements in Dei-Dei borehole, Kubwa borehole, Water Board and hand-dug well water samples in Abuja area were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. The results obtained were used to calculate human radiological risk over lifetime consumption by the inhabitants in the area. The activity concentrations of 238U in all the water supplies for drinking ranges from 0.849 mBq L−1 to 2.699 mBq L−1 with the highest value of 2.699 mBq L−1 noted at Dei-Dei borehole whereas the lowest value of 0.849 mBq L−1 was noted in Kubwa borehole. The highest annual effective dose from natural 238U in all the water samples was found in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 8.9×10−5 mSv y−1 whereas the lowest value was noted in Kubwa borehole with a value of 2.8×10−5 mSv y−1. The radiological risks for cancer mortality were found distinctly low, with the highest value of 1.01×10−7 reported at Dei-Dei borehole compared to Kubwa borehole with a value of 3.01×10−8. The cancer morbidity risk was noted higher in Dei-Dei borehole with a value of 1.55×10−7 whereas lower value of 4.88×10−9 was reported in Kubwa borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a value of 0.006 μg kg−1 day−1 in Dei-Dei borehole whereas lower value of 0.002 μg kg−1 day−1 was found in Kubwa borehole. Measured lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) concentrations reported higher in Water Board compared to Dei-Dei and Kubwa borehole samples. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238U concentrations originate from granitic strata of the tectonic events in the area; thus, there was a trend of diffusion towards north to south and re-deposition towards Dei-Dei area. - Highlights: • The estimation of human radiological risk over lifetime consumption. • Determination of radiological risks. • The annual effective dose of 238U in drinking water. • Carcinogenic

  5. Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020

    Palmer, JJ; Chinanayi, F; Gilbert, A.; Pillay, D.; Fox, S; Jaggernath, J; Naidoo, K.; Graham, R.; Patel, D.; Blanchet, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major global eye health strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by the year 2020. Building on our previous analysis of current progress towards key HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSRs), we predicted future indicator achievement among 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Methods Surgical and HReH data were collected from national eye care programme coordinators on six practitioner...

  6. The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period-Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province

    Zhang Daisheng, E-mail: daisheng.zhang@kjemi.uio.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Aunan, Kristin [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway); Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Martin Seip, Hans [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO), P.O. Box 1129, Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway); Vennemo, Haakon [Oslo University College, P.O. Box 4, St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-07-15

    Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective. - Highlights: > We use Shanxi province to illustrate how local policies respond to the National FYP. > Energy saving in Shanxi has been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP. > Assumptions about baseline energy use strongly affects energy saving estimates. > The most important measures taken by local governments are in the secondary sector. > Further improvement of energy intensity will require efforts especially in heavy industries.

  7. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna

    2014-02-15

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  8. Raising Student Achievement Levels Through Target-setting and Academic Monitoring: A Case Study of Developments at Key Stage 3 in a Secondary School

    Male, T.; Berge, J.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence for the conclusions and recommendations are based on interviews with tutors and students from Year 8 conducted by the Head of Year, who then provides an overview from her perspective. The findings are contrasted against the examples of effective target-setting provided by the DfEE Standards and Effectiveness Unit (DfEE, 1998b) and the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted, 1996). The new scheme is also reviewed in the light of the call for equal opportunities by, amongst others, ...

  9. The energy intensity target in China's 11th Five-Year Plan period-Local implementation and achievements in Shanxi Province

    Facing the mounting pressure on energy security and increasing environmental concerns about air pollution and climate change, the Chinese government set a mandatory goal of 20% reduction of energy intensity in its 11th Five-Year Plan period (FYP, 2006-2010). In this paper we use Shanxi province to illustrate how policies and measures are implemented in practice at a provincial level as a response to the National FYP issued by the central government. Local policies are described and their effects are analyzed. We compare reported energy saving achievements with our own estimates and conclude that the achievements in Shanxi probably have been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP period. The most important measures taken by provincial and local governments seem to be in the secondary sector, such as Top-200/Top-1000 program and phasing out outdated technologies. However, Shanxi has still a long way to go to achieve satisfactory energy use. Further improvement of energy intensity will require continuing efforts. Although many measures are necessary, improving the energy efficiency in heavy industries and reducing the dependence on these industries should be particularly effective. - Highlights: → We use Shanxi province to illustrate how local policies respond to the National FYP. → Energy saving in Shanxi has been substantial since the start of the 11th FYP. → Assumptions about baseline energy use strongly affects energy saving estimates. → The most important measures taken by local governments are in the secondary sector. → Further improvement of energy intensity will require efforts especially in heavy industries.

  10. Climate cure 2020. Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020; Klimakur 2020. Tiltak og virkemidler for aa naa norske klimamaal mot 2020

    2010-07-01

    In this scenario, the analysis shows how international climate change agreements and the population's attitude to climate-friendly actions could affect Norway's ability to achieve the objectives of national emission reductions. Political feasibility, technology and carbon price may vary according to how forces will move in future. Some measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may be more robust against future uncertainties than others. Scenario analysis can therefore provide useful perspectives when instruments should be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the years ahead. (AG)

  11. Single peptide ligand-functionalized uniform hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles achieving dual-targeting drug delivery to tumor cells and angiogenic blood vessel cells

    Liu Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu,1,2 Qing Chen,1 Ming Xu,3 Guannan Guan,1 Wen Hu,3 Ying Liang,2 Xiuli Zhao,1 Mingxi Qiao,1 Dawei Chen,1 Hao Liu2 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Department of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 3College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to construct hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN decorated with tLyp-1 peptide (tHMSN for dual-targeting drug delivery to tumor cells and angiogenic blood vessel cells.Methods: HMSN were synthesized de novo using a novel cationic surfactant-assisted selective etching strategy and were then modified with tLyp-1. Multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, bicinchoninic acid assay, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms, were used to characterize the tHMSN. Doxorubicin were chosen as the model cargo, and the uptake of doxorubicin-loaded tHMSN into MDA-MB-231 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, as models of tumor cells and tumor neovascular endothelial cells, respectively, were observed and detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. An in vitro pharmacodynamic study and a study of the mechanism via which the nanoparticles were endocytosed were also performed.Results: HMSN with a highly uniform size and well oriented mesopores were synthesized. After tHMSN were characterized, enhanced uptake of the cargo carried by tHMSN into MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVECs compared with that of their unmodified counterparts was validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry at the qualitative and quantitative levels, respectively. Further, the pharmacodynamic study suggested that, compared with their unmodified counterparts, doxorubicin-loaded tHMSN had an enhanced inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVECs in vitro. Finally, a

  12. Achieving the salt intake target of 6 g/day in the current food supply in free-living adults using two dietary education strategies.

    Ireland, Dani-Maree; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2010-05-01

    There are national targets for salt intake of 6 g salt/day in Australia and the United States. Despite this, there is limited knowledge about the effectiveness of dietary education in reducing salt intake to this level. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary education enabled a reduction in salt consumption. In an 8-week parallel study, 49 healthy free-living adults were recruited from the Adelaide community by newspaper advertisement. In a randomized parallel design, participants received dietary education to choose foods identified by either Australia's National Heart Foundation Tick symbol or by the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand's low-salt guideline of 120 mg sodium/100 g food. Sodium excretion was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium collections at baseline and weeks 4 and 8. Participants' experiences of following the education strategies were recorded by self-administered questionnaire. These data were collected between August and October 2008. Forty-three participants completed the study. After 8 weeks, urinary sodium excretion decreased from 121+/-50 to 106+/-47 mmol/24 hours (7.3+/-3.0 to 6.4+/-2.8 g salt/24 hours) in the Tick group and from 132+/-44 to 98+/-50 mmol/24 hours (7.9+/-2.6 to 6.0+/-3.0 g salt/24 hours) in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand group (Pfood choice, difficulty when eating out, and increased time associated with identifying foods. In conclusion, dietary sodium reduction is possible among free-living individuals who received dietary advice. PMID:20430138

  13. Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentation On Students’ Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

    Amosa Isiaka Gambari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation (PPT for teaching Technical Drawing concepts in Basic Technology was determined using a pretest-posttest, non-equivalent, non-randomized experimental group design. A 2x2x3 factorial design was employed. One hundred JSS 1 students (53 male and 47 female categorized into 29 high, 54 medium and 17 low achievers from two secondary schools in Abuja Metropolis formed the sample. The schools were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught some selected concepts from Technical Drawing using PowerPoint Presentation (PPT while Chalkboard method (CB was used for the control group. A validated Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT comprising a 25-item multiple-choice test was employed for data collection. The reliability coefficient of TDAT was .88 using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Sidak post-hoc analysis. Results revealed that the students taught with PPT performed better than their counterparts taught with CB. Also, high achievers performed better than medium and low achievers respectfully. The PPT was found also to be gender friendly. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the use of PPT should be encouraged in Nigerian schools.

  14. Target factory in perspective

    A target factory diagram has been constructed for an analysis of the shell coating process system in relation to target production. The number of deposition units needed to achieve the coating requirements will be a major target production operating cost

  15. European climate targets achievable without nuclear power

    Kemfert, Claudia; Gerbaulet, Clemens; von Hirschhausen, Christian; Lorenz, Casimir; Reitz, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming Climate Change Conference in Paris will once again highlight the need for action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to mitigate climate change. The relevant global energy scenarios are often still based on the assumption that the expansion of nuclear power can contribute to climate change mitigation. The spiraling investment and operating costs of nuclear plants, the unresolved issues concerning the dismantling of these plants and permanent storage of nuclear wast...

  16. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  17. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  18. [EFFICACY OF STANDARD TWO-YEAR COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY TO ACHIEVE TARGET BLOOD PRESSURE AND REGRESSION DEGREES OF REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH COMORBID HYPERTENSION].

    Denesiuk, E V

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 23 men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with comorbid arterial hypertension (AH). Mean age of patients was 56.7 years. Recurrent myocardial infarction was determined in 38.4%, cardiac failure I-III functional classes--100% of the cases. All patients underwent clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography, blood lipid profile. Standard comprehensive treatment for two years included an perindopril 5-10 mg/day, beta-blocker bisoprolol--5-10 mg/day, antisclerotic drug atorvastatin--20 mg/day and aspirin--75 mg/day. The patients after treatment was determined by a gradual increase towards the target of AT at 3, 6 and 12 to 24 months. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) before treatment was determined in 47.8%, eccentric--in 52.2% of patients. In the study of degrees of LVH I (initial) the extent to treatment was determined by 4.3%, II (moderate)--26.1%, III (large)--at 69.6%, indicating the development of cardiac remodeling. After the treatment was determined by marked reduction III (large) degree and transfer it in the II (moderate) and I (small) degree of left ventricular hypertrophy due to more or less pronounced changes remodeling left ventricular. The obtained data allow a more detailed and adequately assess the structural and functional outcome variables and determine the regression of myocardial hypertrophy in the background to achieve target blood pressure, which is important in practical cardiology. PMID:27491146

  19. 科技成果产业化目标市场评估与选择模型研究%Research on Evaluation and Selection Model of Target Market for Industrialization of Scientific and Technological Achievements of the Institutes

    刘书庆; 苏秦; 陈丹丹

    2012-01-01

    Based on analysis of the current situation of target market evaluating and selecting both at home and abroad, this paper firstly constructed the target market evaluation and selection process control model based on the theory of system dy-namics(SD). Secondly, we cleared the system boundary and according to the method of strategic environmental assessment 24 marketing performance factors were comprehensively identified as the benchmark variables, which were from macro environment support level, industry environment challenges and internal resources satisfaction. Then this study built causal diagrams, system flow chart and quantitative equation of the target markets development which constituted the SD system structure model, and also we characterized the dynamic feedback laws between factors and industrialization marketing performance of scientific and technological achievements. Finally, according to industrialization of polymer material, vensim simulation was carried out on its target market evaluation and selection SD model. At the same time, we put forward the selecting option which based on the simulated results of target market's developmental level and stability, and offer some help to improve target market evaluating and selecting of industrialization of science and technology production.%在分析国内外目标市场评估与选择理论研究现状及其存在问题的基础上,构建了基于系统动力学(SD)的目标市场评估与选择过程控制模型;明确了科技成果产业化目标市场评估系统边界,并采用战略环境评估方法,从宏观环境支持程度、产业环境威胁力及内部资源条件满足程度等方面识别出24个营销绩效影响因素,形成了SD模型的基准变量;然后构建了科技成果产业化目标市场发展提升过程因果关系图、流图、量化分析方程,形成了SD系统结构模型,刻画出影响因素与科技成果产业化营销绩效的动态反馈规律;最后结合某高分

  20. Environmental impact of elemental concentration and distribution in waters, soils and plants along the Lokoja-Abuja pipeline routes of Bida Basin, northwestern Nigeria

    Boboye, Olugbenga A.; Abumere, Iyior O.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents environmental study carried out to evaluate the impacts of elements' concentrations in water, soil, plants and the level of environmental damage. This is to establish the rate of pollution and degree of enrichment to enhance delineation of highly polluted areas along the pipeline routes. It was achieved by determining their spatial distribution, concentration and/or occurrences as well as the possible sources of enrichment. Forty-six (46) surface water samples were collected during the dry season while thirty (30) surface water samples were collected in the wet season respectively. The sampling was systematically carried out at diverse locations along the streams and major rivers to broadly cover the variation in the area. Fifty-one (51) soil samples were collected during dry and wet seasons to determine the texture, heavy metal concentration and physico-chemical characteristics. Thirty (30) and twenty-six (26) samples of stream and river sediments were also collected during the dry and wet seasons for physico-chemical characterization, texture and heavy metal concentrations. Ten plant tissues were collected and analysed to ascertain the rate of absorption. The results of the surface water during the dry and wet seasons showed slight acidity while the Electrical Conductivity revealed that the major ions are higher in the dry season. The major anions and cations accounted for about 71% and 29% of the Total Dissolved Solids respectively. The higher concentrations of Fe in the stream sediments and soil than that in the water and plant tissues suggest the weathering of oolitic, pisolitic and argillaceous ironstone within the area. Concentration of NH4 emanate from anthropogenic sources Textural classification revealed sand dominated soil which confirmed that the soil and stream sediment are autochthonous. The concentration of heavy metals and cations for both seasons in the plant tissues showed no discrepancy. The hydro-chemical facies

  1. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  2. Indonesian Achievement [Country report: Indonesia

    Since 1996 Indonesia has produced 99Mo from HEU fission product mainly for domestic consumption. Due to limited and restricted raw material of HEU, Indonesia has a conversion program from HEU to LEU for producing 99Mo from LEU foil target. The substitution of low enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO2 used in current target designs will be applied for production of 99Mo commercially. Batan has had a joint research project with ANL to develop LEU-metal-foil target fabrication since 1992. Many achievements have resulted from the experiments. Design target has undergone several changes in design, materials and wrapping of LEU foil targets. ANL has developed several of LEU target design and fabrication, and has demonstrated Radio Metallurgy Installation hot cell in Batan for disassembly process to take out LEU foil from the target after being irradiated in the RSG-GAS BATAN reactor. Installed power of RSG-GAS is 30 MW but operational power is 15 MW. LEU foil targets were irradiated in CIP of RSG-GAS with thermal neutron flux 2.4x1014n cm-2s-1. Chemical processing was conducted in Isotope Production Centre hot cell for producing 99Mo which will be used to produce 99mTc generator. Batan has a license to use the process from US DOE. The experiment was terminated temporarily in 2001 due to September eleven accident. In 2004, cooperation between the ANL and BATAN was continued. In November 2005, ANL provided training on LEU target assembly to BATAN by simulation of Cu-foil as LEU foil. Then BATAN personnel demonstrated reassembly of 2 ANL LEU targets to replace Zn and Al foil barrier with Ni foil barrier in January 2006. In 2006, Indonesia began to manufacture foil targets using depleted uranium following the procedures established by ANL

  3. Post2012 climate regime options for global GHG emission reduction. Analysis and evaluation of regime options and reduction potential for achieving the 2 degree target with respect to environmental effectiveness, costs and institutional aspects

    Schumacher, Katja; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord and provides an in-depth comparison with results arrived at in other model analyses. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO2 emissions by 30 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target, i.e. where the EU adopts a 30 % emission reduction target in 2020 (rather than a 20 % reduction target), while all other countries stick with their ''weak'' pledges. Not included in the calculations is possible financial support for developing countries from industrialized countries as currently discussed in the climate change negotiations and laid out in the Copenhagen Accord. (orig.)

  4. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Estimating achievement from fame

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  6. 一种快速区域视频行检测方法的设计与实现%Achievement of Rapid Target Detection Algorithm Based on Video

    陆蔚

    2011-01-01

    根据目前国内各种视频检测技术在电子警察系统上的应用,结合雷达目标检测算法,设计出具有背景自适应、目标跟踪等特点的一种快速区域视频行检测方法;该方法通过检测区域行亮度的变化,通过检测目标之间的相关处理来判断机动车是否违法,不仅能高效实现对汽车违规跨越道路中心黄线进行自动监测、记录,还为交通管理部门进行执法提供有力的证据并减少交通事故的发生;通过现场测试表明,该方法不仅准确率高,而且实时性很强,具有很大的实用价值.%According to the current domestic variety of video detection technology in the electronic police system combined with radar target detection method gives a Rapid Target video detection algorithm. The method of detection is realized through the change of line brightness in Regional Detection , through the line between target detection of related to judge whether the vehicle with illegal, It' s avaibable not only efficiently for automobile compasses across the yellow line on road center automatic monitoring and recording, also for traffic management to provide strong evidence, and reduce the number of traffic accidents. Experimental result shows that method can track the vehicles effectively and get a better time-consuming.

  7. Experience of targeting subsidies on insecticide-treated nets: what do we know and what are the knowledge gaps?

    Worrall, Eve; Hill, Jenny; Webster, Jayne; Mortimer, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Widespread coverage of vulnerable populations with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) constitutes an important component of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy to control malaria. The Abuja Targets call for 60% coverage of children under 5 years of age and pregnant women by 2005; but current coverage in Africa is unacceptably low. The RBM 'Strategic Framework for Coordinated National Action in Scaling-up Insecticide-Treated Netting Programmes in Africa' promotes coordinated national action and advocates sustained public provision of targeted subsidies to maximise public health benefits, alongside support and stimulation of the private sector. Several countries have already planned or initiated targeted subsidy schemes either on a pilot scale or on a national scale, and have valuable experience which can inform future interventions. The WHO RBM 'Workshop on mapping models for delivering ITNs through targeted subsidies' held in Zambia in 2003 provided an opportunity to share and document these country experiences. This paper brings together experiences presented at the workshop with other information on experiences of targeting subsidies on ITNs, net treatment kits and retreatment services (ITN products) in order to describe alternative approaches, highlight their similarities and differences, outline lessons learnt, and identify gaps in knowledge. We find that while there is a growing body of knowledge on different approaches to targeting ITN subsidies, there are significant gaps in knowledge in crucial areas. Key questions regarding how best to target, how much it will cost and what outcomes (levels of coverage) to expect remain unanswered. High quality, well-funded monitoring and evaluation of alternative approaches to targeting ITN subsidies is vital to develop a knowledge base so that countries can design and implement effective strategies to target ITN subsidies. PMID:15655010

  8. Hemisphericity and student achievement.

    Yeap, L L

    1989-10-01

    Hemispheric preference, the newest element of learning style, refers to the tendency of a person to use one side of the brain to perceive and function more than the other. The objective of the study was to investigate the psychological domain of learning styles in terms of the hemispheric patterns of Singapore Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels, namely Normal (low achievers), Express (average achievers), and Special (high achievers). Using the Cognitive Laterality Battery (Gordon, 1986) to measure the students' hemispheric dominance, the study found that it is in the psychological domain of the students' learning styles, in terms of their hemispheric dominance that the Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels are distinctly different. PMID:2583937

  9. College Achievement and Earnings

    Gemus, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    I study the size and sources of the monetary return to college achievement as measured by cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA). I first present evidence that the return to achievement is large and statistically significant. I find, however, that this masks variation in the return across different groups of people. In particular, there is no relationship between GPA and earnings for graduate degree holders but a large and positive relationship for people without a graduate degree. To reconcile...

  10. Achieving High Burnup Targets With Mox Fuels: Techno Economic Implications

    For a typical MOX fuelled SFR of power reactor size, Implications due to higher burnup have been quantified. Advantages: – Improvement in the economy is seen upto 200 GWd/ t; Disadvantages: – Design changes > 150 GWd/ t bu; – Need for 8/ 16 more fuel SA at 150/ 200 GWd/ t bu; – Higher enrichment of B4C in CSR/ DSR at higher bu; – Reduction in LHR may be required at higher bu; – Structural material changes beyond 150 GWd/ t bu; – Reprocessing point of view-Sp Activity & Decay heat increase. Need for R & D is a must before increasing burnup. bu- refers burnup. Efforts to increase MOX fuel burnup beyond 200 GWd/ t may not be highly lucrative; • MOX fuelled FBR would be restricted to two or four further reactors; • Imported MOX fuelled FBRs may be considered; • India looks towards launching metal fuel FBRs in the future. – Due to high Breeding Ratio; – High burnup capability

  11. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  12. Sputter target

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  13. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  14. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  15. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  16. Achieving the Goals of Sports Organizations

    Horal, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical part focuses on setting and achieving of goals in organizations in general and identifies specific performance objectives in sports organizations. In the practical part examines the process of setting targets and performance in sport organizations to Jindřichohradecko.

  17. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2003-01-01

    's pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target is...... inside the telescope FOV. During the telescope observation time, the ASC will constantly control the folding mirror to correctly position the target at the center of the telescope, basically performing a standard telescope tracking service. The telescope will alter the initial target acquisition track...

  18. ACHIEVING OPTIMAL SCHOOL CLIMATE

    Nizar SHIHADI

    2015-01-01

    Development of optimal school climate is the basis of educational, social and moral work in school. Optimal educa-tional climate in a school is a condition for learning and development of all those attending the educational establishment (pupils, teachers and parents). The school is responsible for the personal, cognitive, emotional, social and moral develop-ment of pupils. The educational team has the ability and commitment to promote an educational climate. Improvement of study achievements...

  19. Motivation and achievements

    Stefanova, Sladzana; Miceski, Trajko

    2015-01-01

    Motivation of employees as management function is an important factor in encouraging, guiding and strengthening the behavior of employees in organizations. For one organization is very important the employees to be motivated, only thus will be achieved its objectives. The manager is usually responsible for the motivation of employees and for fulfilment their needs in the workplace, but it is recommended the employees to motivate themselves. Generally, employees are working t...

  20. Target capture and target ghosts

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  1. Achieving customer choice

    The Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) is composed of 66 members representing the largest industrial consumers of electricity in Ontario. AMPCO's goal is to achieve competitive rates and a reliable supply of electricity in the province. This paper explains AMPCO's minimum conditions that customers should expect in Ontario's new restructured electricity marketplace. A review of the White Paper and what AMPCO considers to be its major weaknesses, namely the creation of one single giant generating company, (Genco), problems regarding stranded debt, market regulation, and increased volatility in the marketplace are also addressed

  2. Achieving empowerment through information.

    Parmalee, J C; Scholomiti, T O; Whitman, P; Sees, M; Smith, D; Gardner, E; Bastian, C

    1993-05-01

    Despite the problems we encountered, which are not uncommon with the development and implementation of any data system, we are confident that our success in achieving our goals is due to the following: establishing a reliable information database connecting several related departments; interfacing with registration and billing systems to avoid duplication of data and chance for error; appointing a qualified Systems Manager devoted to the project; developing superusers to include intensive training in the operating system (UNIX), parameters of the information system, and the report writer. We achieved what we set out to accomplish: the development of a reliable database and reports on which to base a variety of hospital decisions; improved hospital utilization; reliable clinical data for reimbursement, quality management, and credentialing; enhanced communication and collaboration among departments; and an increased profile of the departments and staff. Data quality specialists, Utilization Management and Quality Management coordinators, and the Medical Staff Credentialing Supervisor and their managers are relied upon by physicians and administrators to provide timely information. The staff are recognized for their knowledge and expertise in their department-specific information. The most significant reward is the potential for innovation. Users are no longer restricted to narrow information corridors. UNIX programming encourages creativity without demanding a degree in computer science. The capability to reach and use diverse hospital database information is no longer a dream. PMID:10139109

  3. Does inflation targeting make a difference?

    Frederic S. Mishkin; Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Yes, as inferred from panel evidence for inflation-targeting countries and a control group of high-achieving industrial countries that do not target inflation. Our evidence suggests that inflation targeting helps countries achieve lower inflation in the long run, have smaller inflation response to oil-price and exchange-rate shocks, strengthen monetary policy independence, improve monetary policy efficiency, and obtain inflation outcomes closer to target levels. Some benefits of inflation tar...

  4. Treating rheumatoid arthritis to target

    Smolen, Josef S; Aletaha, Daniel; Bijlsma, Johannes W J;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aiming at therapeutic targets has reduced the risk of organ failure in many diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. Such targets have not been defined for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: /st> To develop recommendations for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in RA. METHODS...

  5. FEWER HOURS MORE ACHIEVEMENTS

    NingQuanxin; QiuLizhong

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study is to improve instructional classes for “Extensive Reading”. We compare two approaches. The traditional method is based on the original procedure; the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the method we try is a “task-placemented” one. inspired by the theory of “Tasks of Ascending Difficulty”.This paper provides a comparative evaluation of our experiments on Extensive Reading. Our aim is to resolve the logistical problem of heavy teaching loads and limited class hours, which often prevents English learners from fulfilling their study targets and our intended learning outcomes. In view of the experimental data,we have managed to establish a “feedback” to test the two hypotheses, and demonstrate that the new approach contributes to efficient acquisition of the information in the presented reading materials. Our study concludes with an interpretation of the function and merits of this approach.

  6. How to achieve deterrence

    This paper reports on the present direction of U.S. nuclear weapons policy toward a greater emphasis on counterforce targeting which has caused great concern among members of the public and among many strategic theorists. Although U.S. policy has been moving in this direction for many years, the speed of the movement has increased greatly, with talk of flexible response giving way to that of escalation dominance and nuclear war fighting. The public concern this has raised has led the philosophical community belatedly to begin considering issues such as the morality of nuclear deterrence. But most of the philosophical examinations of this issue have focused on the moral status of nuclear deterrence in general and thus on the choice between nuclear deterrence and unilateral nuclear disarmament. This misses much of the contemporary debate on nuclear weapons policy, which is concerned mainly with the choice between present policy and some form of minimum deterrence

  7. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  8. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  9. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  10. Antiproton Target

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  11. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  12. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  13. Modelling Recycling Targets

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses...... how the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish...

  14. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement using Intrinsic Motivation

    Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…

  15. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  16. Targeted Learning

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  17. The Sinuous Target

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  18. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  19. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  1. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  2. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  3. Attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement towards Physics Achievement

    Arsaythamby Veloo; Rahimah Nor; Rozalina Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students’ attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards Physics, career related to Physics, importance of Physics, difficulty of understanding Physics, Physics teachers and Physics equipment usage. The re...

  4. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  5. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  6. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  7. Achieving relativistic interaction intensities on Vulcan

    Vulcan is a multi-beam, Nd:glass, ultra-high power laser facility situated at the Central Laser Facility (CLF) in the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). Recent developments have generated intensities on target up to 1020 W cm-2. This is achieved by delivering a high energy, ultra-short pulse using the technique of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA), in a high quality beam that is close to the diffraction limit. This report presents the current capabilities of the system and progress in the 1 Peta-watt upgrade of the facility. (authors)

  8. Accelerator target

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  9. 12. Target fabrication

    This series of papers presents the requirements and critical issues for IFE (inertial fusion energy) target fabrication and injection. The critical issues for target fabrication are: -) ability to fabricate target capsules and hohlraums, -) ability to fabricate them economically, and -) ability to fabricate, assemble, fill and layer at the required rate. Potential fabrication processes or methodologies include: micro-encapsulation (for foam shells and thick ablators), phase-inversion technique (for CH foams), super-fast cooling techniques, emulsion technique, injection molding (for higher density foam shells), sputter coating (for density high-Z coating), permeation (for DT filling) and cryogenic fluidized beds (for layering of individual capsules). The cooling-induced deformation (CID) of polystyrene shells is characterized in detail (2 papers). Another paper deals with the fabrication of hollow pellets with high Z metal oxide coating of the inner surface. In order to achieve high density compression in laser experiments, the non-contact suspension of pellets is required, Japanese teams propose 2 ways to get it: magnetic suspension and the use of electromagnetic force. The last paper summarizes the major steps in cost reduction that will be taken to economically supply targets for IFE power plants. (A.C.)

  10. Attribution theory in science achievement

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  11. The Process of Science Achievement.

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  12. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  13. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  14. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  15. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  16. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  17. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS

    V.AMBEDKAR

    2012-01-01

    The world is becoming more and more competitive. Quality of performance has become the key factor for personal progress. Parents desire that their children climb the ladder of performance to as high a level as possible. This desire for a high level of achievement puts a lot of pressure on students, teachers, schools, and, in general, the educational system itself. In fact, it appears as if, the whole system of education revolves round the academic achievement of students, though various other...

  18. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  19. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  20. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere

  1. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    Progress of molecular biology, genetic engineering, and polymer chemistry provide various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. In this paper, recent achievements in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune, and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques are introduced

  2. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation

  3. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  4. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  5. Achieving universal access to broadband

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be...

  6. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  7. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  8. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  9. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  10. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented

  11. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  12. Practically Perfect in Every Way: Can Reframing Perfectionism for High-Achieving Undergraduates Impact Academic Resilience?

    Dickinson, Mary J.; Dickinson, David A. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a pan-disciplinary scheme that targeted high-achieving undergraduate students. Earlier research from the scheme argued that high achievers have discernibly different learning and personal development support needs. One of the most frequent self-reported challenges within this high-achieving group is perfectionism. This…

  13. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    A. Vrugt; F.J. Oort

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  14. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  15. Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement.

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Vandewater, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    Marie Evans Schmidt and Elizabeth Vandewater review research on links between various types of electronic media and the cognitive skills of school-aged children and adolescents. One central finding of studies to date, they say, is that the content delivered by electronic media is far more influential than the media themselves. Most studies, they point out, find a small negative link between the total hours a child spends viewing TV and that child's academic achievement. But when researchers take into account characteristics of the child, such as IQ or socioeconomic status, this link typically disappears. Content appears to be crucial. Viewing educational TV is linked positively with academic achievement; viewing entertainment TV is linked negatively with achievement. When it comes to particular cognitive skills, say the authors, researchers have found that electronic media, particularly video games, can enhance visual spatial skills, such as visual tracking, mental rotation, and target localization. Gaming may also improve problem-solving skills. Researchers have yet to understand fully the issue of transfer of learning from electronic media. Studies suggest that, under some circumstances, young people are able to transfer what they learn from electronic media to other applications, but analysts are uncertain how such transfer occurs. In response to growing public concern about possible links between electronic media use and attention problems in children and adolescents, say the authors, researchers have found evidence for small positive links between heavy electronic media use and mild attention problems among young people but have found only inconsistent evidence so far for a link between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and media use. The authors point out that although video games, interactive websites, and multimedia software programs appear to offer a variety of possible benefits for learning, there is as yet little empirical evidence to suggest that

  16. Migrants and educational achievement gaps

    Entorf, Horst

    2015-01-01

    As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...

  17. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-d...

  18. School sport and academic achievement

    Bradley, John L.; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the Healthy Body, Healthy Mind philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects and research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This case study aims to investigate how partic...

  19. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations.The emerg...

  20. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen

    2006-01-01

    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  1. Creativity, knowledge and school achievement

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of education the knowledge is acquired which is a necessary base for creativity. The problem of relations between creativity and knowledge in school context is posed as a problem of relations between creativity and academic performance due to the influence it has on personal and professional development of an individual. The paper presents the results of survey on relations between creativity, academic performance and academic preferences. Creativity was measured by the test for creative thinking - drawing production of Urban and Jellen, academic performance by general achievement, and academic preferences by a questionnaire. The sample comprised final primary school graders. Low and statistically significant positive correlation was found between creativity and school achievement in the sub-sample of girls. However, girls have a significantly better school achievement and prefer art as a school subject and the test administered demands visual art expression. Hence, it can not be claimed for sure that the obtained results reflect realistic differences in creativity between boys and girls. It is of vital importance for work in school the data that high creativity can be possessed by students who are failures at school. It has been concluded that initial step in the acquisition of knowledge that will contribute to student creative thinking and behavior is the development of cognitive flexibility.

  2. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    Ducheine, P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our knowledge and understanding of the kinetic prevalence. Paradoxically, non-kinetic targeting is not recognized as a separate concept: kinetic and non-kinetic are intertwined facets of targeting. Kinetic tar...

  3. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  4. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  5. Physical measurements of inertial-fusion targets

    Measurement of inertial-fusion targets has stimulated the development of many new techniques and instruments. This paper reviews the basis for selected target measurement requirements and the development of optical interferometry, optical scattering, microradiography and scanning electron microscopy as applied to target measurement. We summarize the resolution and speed which have been achieved to date, and describe several systems in which these are traded off to fill specific measurement applications. We point out the extent to which present capabilities meet the requirements for target measurement and the key problems which remain to be solved

  6. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  7. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having...

  8. Target Awareness: Lupus

    ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  9. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  10. On Roald Amundsen's scientific achievements

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the significant direct and indirect contributions to science made by the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen in the period 1897–1924. It documents that his expeditions through the North-west Passage (1903–06 with Gjøa, to the South Pole (1910–12 with Fram and through the North-east Passage (1918–1920 and the Chukchi and East Siberian seas (1921–25 with Maud yielded vast amounts of published scientific material on meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, geology, palaeontology, oceanography, ethnography, zoology and botany, which, though celebrated at the time, have since received scant recognition in more recent assessments of Amundsen's achievements.

  11. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    , professional associations argue that the low numbers of people in STEM fields can severely damage the competitiveness of developed nations in international, globalized markets. The narrative that connects progress, economic superiority, and development to citizen’s mathematical competence is made intelligible...... as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what......, H. (1899). Préface. L' Enseignement Mathématique, 1(1), 1-5. Popkewitz, T. S. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the age of school reform: Science, education, and making society by making the child. New York: Routledge....

  12. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    was necessary to achieve the overall schedule. Plans had to be developed for the precise location and alignment of laser beam ports. Upon completion of the fabrication of the aluminum target chamber in a temporary structure the 130 ton sphere was moved from the temporary construction enclosure to its final location in the target building. Prior to the installation of a concrete shield and after completion of the welding of the chamber penetrations vacuum leak checking was performed to insure the vacuum integrity of target chamber. The entire spherical chamber external surface supports a 40 cm thick reinforced concrete shield after installation in the target building. The final task is a total survey of the laser ports and the contour machining of spacer plates so that laser devices attached to these ports meet the alignment criteria.

  13. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    necessary to achieve the overall schedule. Plans had to be developed for the precise location and alignment of laser beam ports. Upon completion of the fabrication of the aluminum target chamber in a temporary structure the 130 ton sphere was moved from the temporary construction enclosure to its final location in the target building. Prior to the installation of a concrete shield and after completion of the welding of the chamber penetrations vacuum leak checking was performed to insure the vacuum integrity of target chamber. The entire spherical chamber external surface supports a 40 cm thick reinforced concrete shield after installation in the target building. The final task is a total survey of the laser ports and the contour machining of spacer plates so that laser devices attached to these ports meet the alignment criteria

  14. Achieving Nuclear Sustainability through Innovation

    In 2000, the IAEA Member States recognized that concerted and coordinated research and development is needed to drive innovation that ensures that nuclear energy can help meet energy needs sustainably in the 21st century. Following an IAEA General Conference resolution, an international 'think tank' and dialogue forum were established. The resulting organization, the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), helps nuclear technology holders and users coordinate the national and international studies, research and other activities needed to achieve innovations in nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. Currently, 38 countries plus the European Commission are participating in the project. This group includes both developing and developed economies that represent more than 75% of the world's population and 85% of its gross domestic product. INPRO undertakes collaborative projects among IAEA Member States, which analyse development scenarios and examine how nuclear energy can support the United Nations' goals for sustainable development in the 21st century. The results of these projects can be applied by IAEA Member States in their national nuclear energy strategies and can lead to international cooperation resulting in beneficial innovations in nuclear energy technology and its deployment. For example, INPRO studies the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, including recycling of spent fuel to increase resource use efficiency and to reduce the waste disposal burdens.

  15. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  16. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  17. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science

  18. Competitive Advantage Achievement through Innovation and Knowledge

    Urbancova Hana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment the goal of each organisation is to defeat competition and win new customers. Individuals who are holders of knowledge represent a tool for the generation of innovations. Thanks to their personal creativity, their knowledge, skills and abilities it is possible to generate new innovative ideas that will help organisations to achieve a competitiveadvantage. The aim of the article is to present the findings of a survey targeted at innovations and to identify knowledge as an important element in the process of innovations. Primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey carried out in organisations in the Czech Republic and evaluated using the tools of descriptive statistics and also the methods of comparison, induction, deduction and synthesis were applied. One of the conclusions of the article is that organisations find it important to innovate and support an innovative culture. Knowledge too is very significant in the innovation process since it represents not only important input, but also output of the transformation process.

  19. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  20. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    R Prakash Upadhyay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India pre­sent a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second world­wide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘tradi­tional con­cept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-de­mographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-devel­opmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nu­tritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agricul­ture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employ­ment and im­proving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene. As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solu­tion needs to be multi-sectoral.

  1. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Muhammad Faudzi; Mahbub Rohana; Nawawi Abdul Hadi; Abidin Nazirah Zainul

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending i...

  2. Target Visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    Potter, Daniel Abraham [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    As the National Ignition Facility continues its campaign to achieve ignition, new methods and tools will be required to measure the quality of the targets used to achieve this goal. Techniques have been developed to measure target surface features using a phase-shifting diffraction interferometer and Leica Microsystems confocal microscope. Using these techniques we are able to produce a detailed view of the shell surface, which in turn allows us to refine target manufacturing and cleaning processes. However, the volume of data produced limits the methods by which this data can be effectively viewed by a user. This paper introduces an image-based visualization system for data exploration of target shells at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It aims to combine multiple image sets into a single visualization to provide a method of navigating the data in ways that are not possible with existing tools.

  3. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  4. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  5. Achievements and perspectives of ERAWAST

    Dressler R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ERAWAST initiative (Exotic Radionuclides from Accelerator Waste for Science and Technology was started at PSI in 2006 and is aimed to acquire resources from the PSI accelerator facilities for the preparation of rare long-lived radionuclides for several scientific purposes [1]. One of the application fields where such radionuclides like 60Fe, 53Mn, 44Ti, 26Al, 7/10Be are urgently needed is nuclear astrophysics. First laboratory-scale separations have been carried out, with the result that two samples of around 1016 atoms of 60Fe each could be provided for experiments [2]. A re-determination of the half-life of 60Fe was performed with the first one [3], and the neutron capture cross section of 60Fe at stellar energies was measured for the first time [4] using the second one. These successes encouraged us to put more efforts into the development of remote- controlled separation systems in order to gain higher amounts and the exploitation of new sources of the desired isotopes. These works are currently ongoing and for the first time, separation of about 5 GBq 7Be from the cooling water of the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ was succeeded. Moreover, about 50  g of 10Be are now available after its separation from graphite samples of the target E station at PSI [5]. Considerable amounts of 60Fe, 53Mn, 26Al and others from an irradiated copper beam dump can be expected in the near future. In addition, a scientific program was originated to determine half-lives and neutron capture cross-section of astrophysical interesting radionuclides. In a first step a confirmation of the new measured 60Fe half-life in two independent experiments was started. First studies aimed to re-measure the half-life of 10Be are currently ongoing. Experiments to determine the neutron capture cross-section of 53Mn using cold and ultra-cold neutrons as well as its half-life at PSI are planned.

  6. Effective neutron targets

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the 3He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized 3He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized 3He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized 3He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized 3He targets will also be discussed

  7. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  8. On the Chinese Carbon Reduction Target

    Michinori Uwasu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In November 2009, China pledged a 40–45% decrease in CO2 emissions per GDP by 2020, as compared with the 2005 level. Although carbon intensity (emission targets by nature are ambiguous, this study demonstrates that China’s pledge is consistent with the current Chinese domestic agenda that simultaneously pursues economic growth and energy security. The target numbers in the pledge seem reasonable, given the technological feasibility and measures, considered along with the assumption that moderate economic growth will occur. However, the study also argues that financial and institutional constraints exist as potential obstacles to achieving the target if the trend of the current economic tendencies continues.

  9. Direct-illumination spherical-target experiments

    A set of spherical target experiments was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of three techniques for achieving higher convergence implosions. They are (1) cryogenically frozen fuel layers, (2) submicron wavelength laser light, and (3) temporally tailored pulse shapes. A second set of experiments provides information about energy transport by thermal and suprathermal electrons and uses multilayered targets as an integral component of the diagnostics. These results, in conjunction with existing laser-target coupling data, provide a more comprehensive test of our understanding of laser plasma interaction, energy transport, and hydrodynamic response of small scale spherical laser fusion experiments

  10. Features of photonuclear radionuclide production in the thick targets

    One of the basic requirements for the production technology of radionuclides is to provide a high specific activity of the target nuclide as well as its full activity in target. Traditionally this problem is solved by using a large volume of photonuclear targets with subsequent by radiochemical separation target nuclide. Modeling and experimental study of the spatial distribution of the activity carried out in this work for the various targets. Optimal parameters of irradiation to achieve the maximum yield of isotopes Mo99(Tc99m) and Cu67 in targets from molybdenum and zinc of natural composition have been found.

  11. Arts Achieve, Impacting Student Success in the Arts: Preliminary Findings after One Year of Implementation

    Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal…

  12. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load. PMID:26415215

  13. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  14. Price level targeting

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  15. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  16. Target Price Accuracy

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  17. The Targeting of Advertising

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  18. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  19. Target studies for surface muon production

    Berg, F.; Desorgher, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hajdas, W.; Hodge, Z.; Kettle, P.-R.; Knecht, A.; Lüscher, R.; Papa, A.; Rutar, G.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2016-02-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programs. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90°. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30% and 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizing novel target materials such as, e.g., boron carbide.

  20. An actionable climate target

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  1. Randomized trial of achieving healthy lifestyles in psychiatric rehabilitation: the ACHIEVE trial

    Guallar Eliseo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among persons with serious mental illness. These conditions likely contribute to premature cardiovascular disease and a 20 to 30 percent shortened life expectancy in this vulnerable population. Persons with serious mental illness need effective, appropriately tailored behavioral interventions to achieve and maintain weight loss. Psychiatric rehabilitation day programs provide logical intervention settings because mental health consumers often attend regularly and exercise can take place on-site. This paper describes the Randomized Trial of Achieving Healthy Lifestyles in Psychiatric Rehabilitation (ACHIEVE. The goal of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a behavioral weight loss intervention among persons with serious mental illness that attend psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Participants randomized to the intervention arm of the study are hypothesized to have greater weight loss than the control group. Methods/Design A targeted 320 men and women with serious mental illness and overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited from 10 psychiatric rehabilitation programs across Maryland. The core design is a randomized, two-arm, parallel, multi-site clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of an 18-month behavioral weight loss intervention to usual care. Active intervention participants receive weight management sessions and physical activity classes on-site led by study interventionists. The intervention incorporates cognitive adaptations for persons with serious mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. The initial intensive intervention period is six months, followed by a twelve-month maintenance period in which trained rehabilitation program staff assume responsibility for delivering parts of the intervention. Primary outcomes are weight loss at six and 18 months. Discussion Evidence-based approaches to the high burden

  2. Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    Gokce Uysal; M. Alper Dincer

    2009-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using data from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey. We find that the program type the student is enrolled in affects student achievement significantly. However, this effect may partially be biased by past academic achievement. In line with the previous literature, our results also indicate that school resources...

  3. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  4. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...... that tabu search could be used in near real-time decision making systems...

  5. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  6. Reception Study: News Media & Target Groups

    Nærland, Kristoffer; Beerli, Donat Balthasar; Loznica, Javor

    2013-01-01

    The following project is a study on the influence of emerging media products of the 21st century. By conducting a focus group interview, this project examines how a modern media company, VICE, has achieved its success. The project seeks to investigate which techniques have determined the success within its current target demographic, and if said techniques can influence other demographics.

  7. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  8. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  9. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  10. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dickinson, M.R.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.

    2008-06-09

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams.

  11. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams

  12. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Ajogbeje Oke James; Borisade Fidelis Tunde; Aladesaye Charles Ademuyiwa; Ayodele Oludolapo Bolanle

    2013-01-01

    The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268...

  13. Targeted cancer therapies

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  14. Polarized targets and beams

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  15. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  16. Rotating target wheel for the FMA

    Back, B.B.; Davids, C.N.; Falout, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In anticipation of high intensity beams that will be available from the PII-ECR source injector to ATLAS, a new rotating target wheel was developed for the sliding seal chamber at the FMA. The wheel is 9 inch in diameter and contains up to ten targets. The rotation of the wheel is achieved by a DC motor, a ferrofluidic feedthrough, and a gear mechanism that allows both target rotation and changing the target angle relative to the beam. The nominal rotation speed is 1000 RPM, although higher speeds can be achieved if necessary. The assembly is equipped with an absolute encoder which is read out via a newly developed CAMAC module. This module provides the following main functions: (1) a TTL signal to be used for sweeping the beam when a target frame is about to pass through the beam, (2) a read-out of the target position that can be included in the data event structure, (3) programmable set points for the beam-off signal. The system is presently being tested and will be used in experiments scheduled for March 1995.

  17. Liquid hydrogen target cooled by circulating helium

    Structure and characteristics of a liquid hydrogen target, where hydrogen is liquefied with liquid helium flow using evaporation heat of liquid helium and vapour cold, are described. Good thermal insulation of liquid helium supply line permits to remove out of the target the most volumetric and heavy component - helium tank - and to supply liquid helium along spreaded pipeline from the Dewar helium flask. It results in considerable reduction of dimensions and weight, the structure simplification and work facilitation with the target. The target having a working volume of 400 mm length and 60 mm diameter was tested. Vacuum casing of the working volume was made of foam plastic, heat flow to the working volume is equal to 1.5 W. Achieving mode of operation including structure cooling and hydrogen liquefaction took approximately 3 h, liquid helium flow rate for liquefaction of 1 l hydrogen is 2.7 l. Liquid helium flow rate in the mode of operation was equal to 0.7 l/h, i.e. target operation period without adding liquid helium to the Dewar flask is 4-5 days. The target described is notable for simplicity in fabrication, reliability in operation and is very suitable for using in experiment as compared to existing targets with hydrogen liquefaction with liquid helium. Unit structure of the target enables to easily change its configuration relative to problems of concrete physical experiment

  18. Target Studies for Surface Muon Production

    Berg, F; Fuchs, A; Hajdas, W; Hodge, Z; Kettle, P -R; Knecht, A; Lüscher, R; Papa, A; Rutar, G; Wohlmuther, M

    2015-01-01

    Meson factories are powerful drivers of diverse physics programmes. With beam powers already in the MW-regime attention has to be turned to target and beam line design to further significantly increase surface muon rates available for experiments. For this reason we have explored the possibility of using a neutron spallation target as a source of surface muons by performing detailed Geant4 simulations with pion production cross sections based on a parametrization of existing data. While the spallation target outperforms standard targets in the backward direction by more than a factor 7 it is not more efficient than standard targets viewed under 90{\\deg}. Not surprisingly, the geometry of the target plays a large role in the generation of surface muons. Through careful optimization, a gain in surface muon rate of between 30 - 60% over the standard "box-like" target used at the Paul Scherrer Institute could be achieved by employing a rotated slab target. An additional 10% gain could also be possible by utilizin...

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Fast Ignition Targets

    Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. We have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets

  20. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST IGNITION TARGETS

    OAK-B135 Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. The authors have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets

  1. Understanding the contribution of target repetition and target expectation to the emergence of the prevalence effect in visual search.

    Godwin, Hayward J; Menneer, Tamaryn; Riggs, Charlotte A; Taunton, Dominic; Cave, Kyle R; Donnel, Nick

    2016-06-01

    Behavior in visual search tasks is influenced by the proportion of trials on which a target is presented (the target prevalence). Previous research has shown that when target prevalence is low (2 % prevalence), participants tend to miss targets, as compared with higher prevalence levels (e.g., 50 % prevalence). There is an ongoing debate regarding the relative contributions of target repetition and the expectation that a target will occur in the emergence of prevalence effects. In order to disentangle these two factors, we went beyond previous studies by directly manipulating participants' expectations regarding how likely a target was to appear on a given trial. This we achieved without using cues or feedback. Our results indicated that both target repetition and target expectation contribute to the emergence of the prevalence effect. PMID:26597890

  2. GWAS and drug targets

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  3. Deuterium high pressure target

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  4. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  5. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  6. The ISOLDE target robots

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  7. Moving Target Defense

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  8. Target Window Reliability

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  9. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  10. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  11. Target Assembly Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  12. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  13. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  14. The Target Visitation Problem

    Hildenbrandt, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the target visitation problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, which merges the classical traveling salesman problem with the linear ordering problem. In more detail, we are looking for a tour which visits a set of targets and which is optimal with respect to two different aspects: On the one hand, we have given a travel cost from each target to every other. On the other hand, we have preference values which tell us how much we would like to visit one target before ...

  15. Are European Bioenergy Targets Achievable? An Evaluation Based on Thermoeconomic and Environmental Indicators

    The goal of the research project is dual. Firstly, the creation of a multidimensional model (3E-model) that could be used to assess how sustainable it is to produce 2nd generation biofuels in a specific region or country and at any scale. Unlike the previously mentioned methods, this new multidimensional model integrates 3 key parameters for a more accurate evaluation, i.e., efficiency, economic and environmental impact analysis. Secondly, the model is applied to predict the feasibility of producing and implementing different biofuels (i.e., SNG, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuels and H2) or bioelectricity in Europe. The outcome of this analysis gives an overview of which countries are more promising in terms of production and distribution costs as well as CO2 emissions reduction. Moreover, the accomplishment of the European Energy Policy (i.e., 20% share of renewable energy by 2020) is also discussed. Chapter 2 is devoted to introduce biomass availability in Europe, its distribution across the different regions and its composition. Chapter 3 deals with the design of the whole biomass-to-bioenergy conversion routes (i.e., from biomass collection to final biofuel application). Mass and energy balances from Aspen Plus simulations are used in Chapter 4 to calculate the efficiency of biomass-to-bioenergy conversion plants from an energetic and exergetic point of view. A Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology is applied in Chapter 5 to quantify all emissions from the different bioenergy chains. In Chapter 6, mass and energy balances from Aspen Plus simulations are exported to Aspen Icarus to calculate biofuels and bioelectricity 'ex-work' prices. Results from previous chapter are combined in Chapter 7 to build an own multidimensional 3E model. In Chapter 8 the multidimensional model is applied at European scale. Finally, the main conclusions of this thesis are presented in Chapter 9 together with the recommendations for future work.

  16. Process and Method Variability Modeling to Achieve QbD Targets.

    Alasandro, Mark; Little, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    A statistical modeling tool is presented that enables real-time viewing of how changes in method, process, and stability variability/bias impact product acceptance rate. The tool can be used to set and justify specifications. As needed, additional sources of variability/bias can be added to further optimize the tool's prediction power. The tool can be used to assess each manufacturing run to ensure the process is in control. Aberrant results can then be investigated to see what source of variability/bias may have changed. To enable continuous improvement, the impact of new processes, methods, or technologies can also be addressed and such changes justified. PMID:26265189

  17. Adaptive Channel Allocation for Enabling Target SINR Achievability in Power-Controlled Wireless Networks

    Kučera, Štěpán; Aissa, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2010), s. 833-843. ISSN 1536-1276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : ALGORITHMS * RADIO SYSTEMS Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.152, year: 2010

  18. Optimizing the role of tax auditor in attempt to achieve tax revenue target

    Mawan Setianto; Hamidah Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explain the role of Tax Auditor in KPP Madya Surabaya. This study uses a case study by collecting the data from Directorate General of Taxation official sources, either in KPP Madya Surabaya, Regional Office of Directorate General of Taxation East Java I, as well as the Directorate of Potency, Compliance, and Revenue. Researcher also conducted interviews with 12 informants consisting of Tax Auditor, Account Representative, Head of Office, as well as officials from the Direc...

  19. Optimizing the role of tax auditor in attempt to achieve tax revenue target

    Mawan Setianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the role of Tax Auditor in KPP Madya Surabaya. This study uses a case study by collecting the data from Directorate General of Taxation official sources, either in KPP Madya Surabaya, Regional Office of Directorate General of Taxation East Java I, as well as the Directorate of Potency, Compliance, and Revenue. Researcher also conducted interviews with 12 informants consisting of Tax Auditor, Account Representative, Head of Office, as well as officials from the Directorate of Inspection and Billing. There are discrepancies between the expectations of stakeholders and what being  understood/perceived and expected by the Tax Auditor in relation to the role that must be executed. This causes the Tax Auditor to experience a role ambiguity which disrupts the optimizing the implementation of the role. Things that still impede the implementation of the role of the Tax Auditor are: rejection of the Taxpayer; intervention both from inside and outside/difficult to implement the independence in appearance and independence in fact; both physically and psychologically threats; the unclear mutation policy; promotion criteria being implemented inconsistently; and databases that have not been accurate and reliable. 

  20. Bevalac versatility: Operations achievements in the multi-tasking mode

    Demand for relativistic heavy ion beams at the Bevalac has increased dramatically in the past two years. To keep pace, the Bevalac makes use of five injectors, precise guide field control, preset beam transport line tunes, nine nuclear science target areas, and three biology/radiotherapy areas, along with elegant control computer algorithms, to achieve high operating efficiency. Routine operation includes as many as ten ion/energy/beamline changes per day, 15 major nuclear science experiments each year, radiotherapy on nearly a daily basis, with biology experiments operating biweekly. High operating efficiency and low failure rates combine to produce high annual research hours. 12 refs., 2 figs

  1. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  2. Predicting achievement in mathematics in adolescent students

    Zupančič, Maja; PUKLEK LEVPUŠČEK, Melita; Sočan, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The study examined individual factors and social factors that influence adolescent studentsʼ achievement in mathematics. The predictive model suggested direct positive effects of student intelligence, self-rated openness and parental education on achievement in mathematics, whereas direct effects of extraversion on measures of achievement were negative. Indirect positive effects of intelligence, self-rated conscientiousness, student-perceived mathematics teacherʼs press for understanding and ...

  3. Teacher Qualifications and Middle School Student Achievement

    Richard Buddin; Gema Zamarro

    2009-01-01

    This research examines whether teacher licensure test scores and other teacher qualifications affect middle school student achievement. The results are based on longitudinal student-level data from Los Angeles. The achievement analysis uses a value-added approach that adjusts for both student and teacher fixed effects. The results show little relationship between traditional measures of teacher quality (e.g., experience and education level) and student achievement in reading or math. Similarl...

  4. Inequality, SES, economic indicators, and student achievement

    John J. McCreary; Edwards, Julianne M.; Gregory J. Marchant

    2015-01-01

    HLM model fit was used to determine the relationship of the country level economic variables of GDP and the GINI Index to 2012 student PISA reading, math, and science achievement, along with individual SES, country SES mean, and country SES inequality. For all achievement areas the complete model of all variables represented the best fit. The significant predictors in the models were country SES inequality and student SES. This suggested a less direct relationship to achievement for the econo...

  5. Inertial fusion target development for ignition and energy

    The target needs of the next Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments(ICF) will lead toward ignition and energy. The experiments described in this document include the OMEGA Upgrade, GEKKO XII Upgrade, the National Ignition Facility and Megajoule. Those facilities require high quality, cryogenic targets. Improvements are achieved in the field of direct and indirect drive targets, as well as shell fabrication, cryogenic layering, and target handling. Those experiments could be extrapolated to inertial fusion power plants, thus new research should be completed for the target injection concepts. (TEC). 39 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An 16O target in the compound form of CO2 gas was used to produce a 145mSm beam by using an 16O(136Xe, 7n)145mSm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little

  7. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    Kishida, T; Shibata, M; Watanabe, H; Tsutsumi, T; Motomura, S; Ideguchi, E; Zhou, X H; Morikawa, T; Kubo, T; Ishihara, M

    1999-01-01

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An sup 1 sup 6 O target in the compound form of CO sub 2 gas was used to produce a sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm beam by using an sup 1 sup 6 O( sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe, 7n) sup 1 sup 4 sup 5 sup m Sm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm sup 2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little.

  8. Kinetic controlled affinity labeling of target enzyme with thioester chemistry.

    Tomohiro, Takenori; Nakabayashi, Masahiro; Sugita, Yuka; Morimoto, Shota

    2016-08-01

    High specificity has been an important feature in affinity labeling for target profiling. Especially, to label targets via rapidly progressing reactions with consumption of ligand (probe), high specificity of reaction with common functional groups of target protein should be achieved without reactions with similar groups of non-target proteins. Herein, we demonstrate the kinetic controlled affinity labeling of acyl CoA synthetase using a fatty acid analogue containing a phenylthioester linkage. High specificity was attained by accelerating the labeling rate in the binding pocket. This approach could be useful for profiling a series of target enzymes and transporters in signal transduction pathways. PMID:27298000

  9. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    Jyoti A Upadhye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater academic goals. Underlying motivations can include grades, social acceptance or parental approval.

  10. The Costs of Meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

    Hutton, Guy; Varughese, Mili

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated goal for water has recently been endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as part of the sustainable development goal (SDG) framework. This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of Goal #6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6...

  11. Monetary policy rules and stability: inflation targeting versus price-level targeting

    Charles T. Carlstrom; Timothy S. Fuerst

    2002-01-01

    Monetary policy rules help central banks exercise the discipline necessary to achieve their long-term goals. The type of rule many banks are turning to these days is inflation targeting, which has several advantages. But because banks base their actions on forecasts of future inflation, following the rule can lead to inflation-rate instability in some cases. A price-level target offers the same benefits as an inflation target but, because actions are based on past inflation, it avoids this vu...

  12. Can tourism deliver its "aspirational" greenhouse gas emission reduction targets?

    Scott, D.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets postulated by a range of organizations seeking to reduce the consequences of global climate change and how, or if, the global tourism sector can achieve its share of those targets. It takes both existing estimates of curr

  13. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  14. Pure HD polarized targets

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors)

  15. The CNGS target

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  16. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  17. Triplex-mediated genome targeting and editing.

    Reza, Faisal; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Genome targeting and editing in vitro and in vivo can be achieved through an interplay of exogenously introduced molecules and the induction of endogenous recombination machinery. The former includes a repertoire of sequence-specific binding molecules for targeted induction and appropriation of this machinery, such as by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) or triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and recombinagenic donor DNA, respectively. This versatile targeting and editing via recombination approach facilitates high-fidelity and low-off-target genome mutagenesis, repair, expression, and regulation. Herein, we describe the current state-of-the-art in triplex-mediated genome targeting and editing with a perspective towards potential translational and therapeutic applications. We detail several materials and methods for the design, delivery, and use of triplex-forming and recombinagenic molecules for mediating and introducing specific, heritable, and safe genomic modifications. Furthermore we denote some guidelines for endogenous genome targeting and editing site identification and techniques to test targeting and editing efficiency. PMID:24557900

  18. Adaptive collaborative tracking for multiple targets

    This paper presents a new method for tracking multiple targets in video sequences. A common dilemma that multiple target tracking methods have to face in practice is reducing computational cost and addressing occlusion to achieve efficient and robust long-duration tracking. Existing methods mainly focus on deriving the measurement-to-track assignment through probabilistic analysis, in which the motions of targets are considered to be independent of each other. These methods tend to be computationally expensive due to the complexity of implementation for the visual tracking task. In this paper, we propose a collaboration model in which the acceleration difference between two targets is used to calculate the motion correlation value based on the two-dimensional Gaussian function. By the collaboration model, the location of occluded target is estimated using the motion information from other targets. In order to sense the occurrence of an occlusion accurately before estimating the location of target, we also propose a border-based occlusion decision method which is integrated into our tracking framework. The proposed approach is computationally efficient and robust. Experimental results exhibit the performance of the tracker based on our approach. (paper)

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Illinois

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Illinois students showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There was mixed progress made in narrowing achievement gaps in reading and math…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  4. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  5. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  6. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  7. Regulatory Contributors to Children's Kindergarten Achievement.

    Howse, Robin B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Keane, Susan P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether preschoolers' emotion regulation, problem behavior, and kindergarten behavioral self-regulation in the classroom predicted kindergarten achievement scores. Findings indicated that children's emotion regulation and behavioral self-regulation in the classroom were related to all achievement measures. Relation between…

  8. Personality, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    Swanberg, Anne Berit; Martinsen, Oyvind Lund

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the five-factor model of personality, approaches to learning and academic achievement. Based on the previous research, we expected approaches to have a mediating effect between personality and academic achievement. Six hundred and eighty-seven business students participated in a survey; 56%…

  9. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  10. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  11. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  12. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  13. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  14. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  15. Nanocrystals in the manufacture of target for inertial confinement fusion

    Guerrero, Carlo; Perlado Martin, Jose Manuel; Cuesta Lopez, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Systems inertial confinement fusion (ICF) need of a manufacturing process targets very accurate and efficient (Fig. A). Due to the frequency needed for energy production techniques are necessary to achieve high repetition rates, however it is also necessary to increase or maintain the quality and efficiency of these targets. In order to observe more resolution possible problems in the target manufacture (B), we propose the following theoretical methodology, by means of which analyze different...

  16. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeuti...

  17. SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE TARGET RECOGNITION USING POLARIZATION AGILE WAVES

    Chen Xinwei; Zhao Jianzhong; Wu Wen

    2012-01-01

    A novel matching method for simultaneous multi-target recognition is proposed by jointly considering target's prior scattering knowledge and the polarization parameters of radar echoes.The matching coefficients are calculated for the judgment.MATLAB simulations show that several targets can be accurately recognized simultaneously,and a high recognition probability can be achieved in Monte Carlo simulations.The total execution time can be remarkably reduced in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of the matching procedure.

  18. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement

    Fariha Gull

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple teaching methods are used by teachers in order to improve learning of students. The most popular is lecture method, while very effective is cooperative learning method. Later teaching method had been preferred for teaching science and languages as cited by previous research studies. However, in the subjects of social sciences and humanities, its importance cannot be ignored. Following study is an effort to determine effect of cooperative learning method on students’ achievement in subject of Education.  Qusi experimental design, with pre and post test of control and experimental group was used to achieve target of the study. Sample of the study consisted of 63 female students enrolled in grade 12 of a public college. An achievement test was used as a pre-test, the students were than divided in experimental and control groups. Multiple cooperative learning activities were performed with experimental group by using three common methods of cooperative learning i.e., STAD, TGT and Jigsaw II. The control group was taught by lecture method only. After 8 weeks a post test was administered on both experimental and control group in order to identify difference in achievement. The independent sample t-test was used to measure the mean scores difference between achievement scores of control and treatment groups on pretest.  The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=.825 leading to assumption that both groups were on equal level of achievement before intervention.  Same test was applied to find out difference between two groups before and after intervention.  The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores of control and experimental group in post-test. In addition to this paired sample t-test was conducted to compare the effect of intervention on achievement scores of experimental group.  The results showed that there was significant difference between scores of experimental

  19. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  20. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  1. Research on the intelligent control simulation target with IR imaging target for hardware-in-the-loop simulation test

    Dong, Key-an; Gu, Ye; An, Yan; Meng, Xiang-kai; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Ya-lin; Zhan, Juntong; Song, Yan-song; Dong, Yan; Tong, Shou-feng

    2014-11-01

    The intelligent control of simulation target with infrared imaging target in the indoor and outdoor environment can effectively and quantitatively evaluated the parameters such as the minimum resolution temperature difference (MRTD) and spatial resolution of airborne forward looking infrared, infrared detection and tracking, infrared alarm, and etc. This paper focused on introducing the working principles of the intelligent control simulation target of Infrared imaging target, studying the thermal radiation characteristics of the infrared target surface material, analyzing the influences of the infrared radiation energy distribution, and developing the intelligent control simulation target with IR imaging target for hardware-in-the-loop simulation test. The intelligent control simulation target which area was 5 m2 and concluded 44 infrared targets including two kinds of infrared targets ,0.25m×0.25m;, and 0.25m×0.5m, achieved 1°~10° temperature simulation of target and the background, and temperature control precision better than 0.5°. Field test requirements were achieved by actual test.

  2. AA antiproton production target

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  3. Personality and academic achievement in nniversity students

    Isabel Niño de Guzmán

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlations among personality, academic performance and other variables in 170 university students were studied, using two instruments validated into the population: the NEOPJ-R, and the EPPS. Other variables as age, study level, self perception of academic achievement and self perception of motivation, and sources of support were included. Jt was confirmed the reliability and validity of both tests and the correlations between them. The results showed associations among academic performance and conscientiousness, endurance,change, and aggression. The academic performance was better explained by achievements triving, deliberation, change, self perception of academic achievement and age.

  4. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  5. Efforts and achievements of nuclear safety operation in ROC

    This paper depicts the efforts and achievements of nuclear safety operation in ROC in the areas of raising nuclear power plant safety, stability, operation convenience and personnel qualifications. First of all, a brief explanation is given on the promotion of nuclear safety through the experience of operating the three nuclear power plants in Taiwan. Secondly, a description about the improvement of power plant operating stability is presented. Thirdly, efforts are mentioned for the promotion of operating convenience in the following three aspects: optimized regulation rules, dedication for the commercial grade items, and the establishment of good practice cases. Finally, the presentation is targeted on the technical skill promotion for all the personnel engaged in the nuclear power plant operation. Solid evidences in this area are: establishing the training center for the NPP maintenance, revising the specification for the operator license renewal, strengthening the audits and regulations on personnel training, and conducting various nuclear safety symposiums. No significant incident or safety violation has ever been occurred from the six operating units in Taiwan that have accumulated nearly 80 reactor years of operating experience so far. Certainly, small number of mild incidents, such as reactor scrams have occurred in the past. Take 1995 operating records for example, each unit has reached the capacity of at least 80%, yearly scram rate has been averaged to 1.3 times, which is less than the target number of 1.5 times, reliability of the fuel rod has been 100%, the number of the reportable events record has been reduced constantly. All these achievements explain the above efforts and solid acts have resulted in good measures. Many operating and maintenance systems have been established step by step at each nuclear power plant. These efforts really form a good environment to ensure the nuclear safety and raise the operation targets. (J.P.N.)

  6. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  7. Targeted therapies for cancer

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  8. SETI target selection.

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.

  9. High pressure gas target

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    Compact, high pressure, high current gas target features all metal construction and semi-automatic window assembly change. The unique aspect of this target is the domed-shaped window. The Havar alloy window is electron beam welded to a metal ring, thus forming one, interchangeable assembly. The window assembly is sealed by knife-edges locked by a pneumatic toggle allowing a quick, in situ window change.

  10. Engineering professor achieves two prestigious professional milestones

    Gilbert, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Ali Nayfeh of Blacksburg, University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, recently achieved two prestigious professional milestones.

  11. Multifaceted Determinants for Achieving Glycemic Control

    Chan, Juliana C N; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; Baik, Sei Hyun; Chantelot, Jean-Marc; Ferreira, Sandra R.G.; Hancu, Nicolae; Ilkova, Hasan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Aschner, Pablo; . .

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practice in developing regions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for achieving A1C

  12. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  13. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  14. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION EFFECTS ON TEACHERS’ ACHIEVEMENT

    Naji SALEH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the effects of technology integration on teachers’ achievement. The previous literature in this regard was reviewed and a sample of teachers was chosen from 7-9 grade teachers. The sample consisted of 50 teachers males and females with different years of experience and different number of training courses. The questionnaire included paragraphs about the effect of technology integration on their achievement in school and in teaching. The results showed a great effect of technology integration on teachers’ achievement. The results also showed no differences attributed to teacher’s gender and that there were differences attributed to teacher’s years of experience and number of training courses. The article shows the aspects in which the achievement of teachers was influenced by technology integration.

  15. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS IN COTTON PREPARATION SPINNING

    Ionel Barbu; Adina Bucevschi; Alexandru Popa

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented the latest achievements in the field of cotton spinning. All in preparation for spinning cotton equipment are aspects of automation, robotics and aggregatisation which led to increased quality of products and increasing labor productivity.

  16. Recent CAS Achievements in Life Sciences

    2003-01-01

    @@ Recent years have witnessed remarkable progress scored by CAS researchers along with the smooth development of the knowledge innovation program piloted at CAS. The follow-ings are just recent examples of CAS research achievements in life sciences.

  17. Achievements of school education in Finland

    Mihail Brazhnik

    2010-01-01

    Discussed are specific traits of the evaluation of schools and students education achievements, as well as the specifics of the recruitment of teachers in Finland. Those are considered as factors improving the education quality.

  18. The cryogenic target handling system for the OMEGA laser

    The next series of inertial fusion experiments will approach ignition conditions. To achieve sufficient power density to approach ignition conditions with reasonable laser power, these experiments call for cryogenic targets with a uniform condensed fuel layer and a smooth inner surface inside a thin spherical shell. To field such targets, General Atomics is designing and building the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) for the upgraded OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The OCTS contains subsystems that operate on targets to fill, freeze, transport, layer, characterize, position to laser confluence and expose them for laser illumination milliseconds before short time. The OCTS will fill targets with deuterium-tritium (DT) to densities of up to 0.031 mol/cm3. The pressure cell and rack that contains the filled targets is cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the fill system cryostat. The rack of targets is transferred cold by the cold transfer cryostat to the transfer station cryostat. The transfer station separates individual targets from the rack and inserts them into the moving cryostat. The moving cryostat transports a target out of the LLE tritium laboratory, layers the target and inserts the target into the center of the OMEGA target tank. Targets are characterized optically during a pause in the insertion. At shot time, the end of the cryostat is rapidly removed by high acceleration motors mounted in a port on the target tank directly opposite that used to insert the target. Prototypes of the target filling and cold transfer equipment have been built and operated with deuterium. Mounted targets were successfully field to densities of 0.026 mol/cm3. Cold transfer of high density targets into and out of the fill system with the cold transfer cryostat was also successfully carried out. (author)

  19. Linguistic validation of translation of the self-assessment goal achievement (saga) questionnaire from English

    Piault Elisabeth; Doshi Sameepa; Brandt Barbara A; Angün Çolpan; Evans Christopher J; Bergqvist Agneta; Trocio Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the...

  20. An ISOLDE target unit

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  1. Radar target detection simulation

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  2. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement.

  3. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Lennia Matos

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and higher academic achievement, and negative effects of performance avoidance goals, including lower academic achievement. Mixed results were found for pursuing performance approach goals, which predicted a greater use of learning strategies, but were unrelated to academic achievement. The present findings support the external validity of achievement goal theory in a sample of students from a culture that is understudied in the achievement goal literature in particular and the motivational literature in general.

  4. Incentives for Academic Achievement: An Experimental Study

    Sharma, Dhiraj

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, educators and economists have experimented with a number of innovations to improve academic outcomes of students in developing countries. Providing cash rewards to students based on academic achievement may be a cost effective approach to achieve the goal. However, psychologists contend that external rewards undermines students' internal motivation to learn. To test these hypotheses, I am conducting a field experiment among eighth graders in public schools in the suburbs of K...

  5. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    Shanmukananda P; L. Padma

    2013-01-01

    Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers ...

  6. Intelligence and Its Relationship to Achievement

    Fatih KAYA; Juntune, Joyce; Stough, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence and achievement are two different, but interrelated, constructs and have been studied for over a century in an attempt to explain differences in educational and life outcomes. An enhanced understanding of the relationship between intelligence, both verbal and nonverbal, and achievement may contribute to improving the identification of gifted and talented children, particularly those from low SES populations. This comprehensive literature review examines the link between intellige...

  7. Peer acceptance/rejection and academic achievement

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2003-01-01

    Considerations of the nature and role of peer relations in child development indicate that peer interaction is an important factor in developing social and cognitive competences. Peer relations not only influence current but also subsequent academic, behavioral and emotional development. Accepted students more often display better academic achievement, whereas the status of rejection is coupled with academic difficulties and lower academic achievement. Peer rejection is a relatively stable ch...

  8. Identifying learning techniques among high achievers

    Shanmukananda P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In every college, it is noticed that in spite of being exposed to the same teaching modalities and adopting seemingly similar strategies, some students perform much better than their peers. This can be evaluated in the form of better academic performance in the internal assessments they undertake. This project is an endeavor to identify the learning techniques among high achievers which they employ to outperform others. We can also suggest the same to the medium and low achievers so that they can improve their academic performance. This study was conducted to identify different learning techniques adopted by high achievers and suggesting the same to medium and low achievers. Methods: After obtaining clearance from the institutional ethics committee, the high achievers were identified by selecting the upper third of the students in the ascending order of marks obtained in the consecutive three internal assessments in three consecutive batches. The identity of the students was not revealed. They were then administered an open ended questionnaire which addressed relevant issues. The most common and feasible techniques will be suggested to the medium and low achievers. Results: The respondents’ (n=101 replies were analyzed by calculating the percentages of responses, and assessing based on that, which were the most frequently adapted techniques by these high achievers Conclusions: High-achievers have a diligent study pattern; they not only study regularly, but also involve in group discussions and approach their teachers when in doubt. Additionally, they refer to other sources of information like the internet, demonstrating a proactive attitude towards studies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 203-207

  9. Adoptive Status, Social Capital, and Academic Achievement

    Toussaint, Jeffrey Guy

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive Status, Social Capital, and Academic Achievement Jeffrey G. Toussaint ABSTRACT This dissertation examined the relationships among adoptive status, social capital, and academic achievement. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) had 609 adopted and 11, 940 non-adopted adolescents. I used OLS regression models to help explain why adopted adolescents have significantly lower grade point averages (GPA) than non-adopted adolescents. Potent...

  10. Achieving quality in procurement through automation

    Jacunski, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Department of Defense has mandated that TQM be implemented in procurement. This research looks at achieving quality in procurement through the use of information systems. In doing so, it defines what quality in procurement means. The armed services; three automated systems: APADE, BCAS, and SAACONS are analyzed to see what tools they provide users to aid them in achieving procurement quality. It gives suggestions on how information sy...

  11. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Muhammad Faudzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending is seen as one of the enablers to maintain the right momentum of economic growth. Previous studies have established the importance of integrating sustainability consideration into Value Planning protocol in order to achieve value for money, underpinned by the sustainable development agenda. Despite the establishment of the framework for the integration, the opportunity of such integration within the Malaysian Value Planning protocol for public projects remains unclear. The present state of sustainability consideration within the Value Planning practice should be first evaluated, so that potential interventions to enhance the integration can be introduced. Responding to the gap, this exploratory study was conducted. The data was collected by means of document analysis, interviews and observations; subsequently analysed using the Template Analysis technique. Based on the current practice of Value Planning in Malaysia, ten interventions are proposed to transform the present practice into Sustainable Value Planning. Sustainable Value Planning is seen as a comprehensive concept in achieving value for money in public spending underpinned by the overarching concept of sustainability

  12. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL VARIABLES AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT

    Christoph Randler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological studies highlight emotional aspects, and they show an important role within individual learning processes. Hereby, positive emotions were supposed to positively influence learning and achievement processes and negative ones do the contrary. In this study, an educational unit “ecosystem lake” was used during which achievement (three tests and emotional variables (interest, well-being, anxiety and boredom; measured at the end of three pre-selected lessons were monitored. The research question was to explore correlations between emotional variables and the learning outcome of the teaching unit. Prior knowledge was regressed against the subsequent tests to account for its confounding effect. Regressions showed a highly significant influence of prior knowledge on the subsequent measurements of achievement. However, after accounting for prior knowledge, a positive correlation between interest/well-being and achievement and a negative correlation between anxiety/boredom and achievement was found. Further research and interventions should try to enhance positive emotions in biology lessons to positively influence achievement.

  13. Measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the sample of adult respondents from the domestic population we defined the structure of achievement motivation with four relatively independent dimensions of competing with others, perseverance in achieving goals, achieving goals as a source of pleasure and orientation towards planning. Based on this model we constructed the MOP/D scale for measuring achievement motivation at early adolescent age, containing 35 items and three-level categories of responses. This scale was administered together with the questionnaires exploring the motivation for school learning and personality features on the initial sample (261 respondents; 48% female and the cross-validation sample (2234 respondents; 49% female aged 10 to 16. It has been shown that the MOP/D scale is highly representative, with excellent reliability, and, considering the expected complexity of the space of measuring, acceptable homogeneity. Using the exploratory factor analysis on both samples, four primary dimensions were defined: planning, studying, competing and perseverance, and the general factor of achievement motivation. The results of correlation analyses revealed satisfactory criterion, convergent and discriminatory validity of the MOP/D scale against the measures of academic motivation, personality features and the variables derived from data on school success. Hence, the MOP/D scale has good psychometric characteristics and can be applied in research and practical psychological activities for measuring achievement motivation of respondents at early adolescent age.

  14. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF B.ED STUDENTS IN RELATION TO INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION

    Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The study was experimental in nature and conducted on the sample of 300 students, as per the requirements of 2*2 factorial design in which the independent variables of Intelligence and Achievement Motivation were studied. Academic Achievement was taken as a dependent variable. There were two levels of Intelligence – High Group Intelligence (I1) and Low Group Intelligence (I2) and two levels of the variable Achievement Motivation (A) – High Achievement Motivation (A1) & Low Achi...

  15. ТHE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF SERBIA IN ACHIEVING MONETARY STABILITY

    Milan Marković

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is understanding role of the National bank of Serbia in maintaining monetary stability. Monetary stability means the achievement of low and stable inflation rate. Through the instruments of monetary policy, the central bank seeks to achieve the inflation target, in order to save macroeconomic stability. The National bank of Serbia works proceeding from the fundamental determinants of the increase in the general price level in Serbia. Due to the highest inflation rates...

  16. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... for Applications Lupus Achievements and Advances Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do Who ... program aggressively seeks to advance the science and medicine of lupus and to improve the quality of ...

  17. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Request for Applications Lupus Achievements and Advances Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do ... a cruel mystery. Video | Nov. 08, 2012 Advancing Science - Improving Lives Our national lupus research program aggressively ...

  18. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Applications Lupus Achievements and Advances Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do Who We ... Twitter YouTube Lupus.org Get Answers Find Help Local Chapters News & Stories Research Message Boards Store Get ...

  19. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Lead Scientific Initiatives to Address Barriers in Lupus Drug Development LFA-REAL LFA Collective Data Analysis Initiative ... for Applications Lupus Achievements and Advances Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do Who ...

  20. Target volume uncertainty and a method to visualize its effect on the target dose prescription

    Purpose: To consider the uncertainty in the construction of target boundaries for optimization, and to demonstrate how the principles of mathematical programming can be applied to determine and display the effect on the tumor dose of making small changes to the target boundary. Methods: The effect on the achievable target dose of making successive small shifts to the target boundary within its range of uncertainty was found by constructing a mixed-integer linear program that automated the placement of the beam angles using the initial target volume. Results: The method was demonstrated using contours taken from a nasopharynx case, with dose limits placed on surrounding structures. In the illustrated case, enlarging the target anteriorly to provide greater assurance of disease coverage did not force a sacrifice in the minimum or mean tumor doses. However, enlarging the margin posteriorly, near a critical structure, dramatically changed the minimum, mean, and maximum tumor doses. Conclusion: Tradeoffs between the position of the target boundary and the minimum target dose can be developed using mixed-integer programming, and the results projected as a guide to contouring and plan selection

  1. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  2. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Need for Achievement on Interpersonal Relations and Academic Achievement of Undergraduates

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…

  3. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  4. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  5. Achievement Goals in a Presentation Task: Performance Expectancy, Achievement Goals, State Anxiety, and Task Performance

    Tanaka, Ayumi; Takehara, Takuma; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were…

  6. Feature analysis for indoor radar target classification

    Bufler, Travis D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyzes the spectral features from human beings and indoor clutter for building and tuning Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers for the purpose of classifying stationary human targets. The spectral characteristics were obtained through simulations using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) techniques where the radar cross section (RCS) of humans and indoor clutter objects were captured over a wide range of frequencies, polarizations, aspect angles, and materials. Additionally, experimental data was obtained using a vector network analyzer. Two different feature sets for class discrimination are used from the acquired target and clutter RCS spectral data sets. The first feature vectors consist of the raw spectral characteristics, while the second set of feature vectors are statistical features extracted over a set frequency interval. Utilizing variables of frequency and polarization, a SVM classifier can be trained to classify unknown targets as a human or clutter. Classification accuracy over 80% can be effectively achieved given appropriate features.

  7. Overcoming Resistance to Targeted Therapies in Cancer.

    Redmond, Keara L; Papafili, Anastasia; Lawler, Mark; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The recent discovery of oncogenic drivers and subsequent development of novel targeted strategies has significantly added to the therapeutic armamentarium of anti-cancer therapies. Targeting BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or HER2 in breast cancer has led to practice-changing clinical benefits, while promising therapeutic responses have been achieved by precision medicine approaches in EGFR mutant lung cancer, colorectal cancer and BRAF mutant melanoma. However, although initial therapeutic responses to targeted therapies can be substantial, many patients will develop disease progression within 6-12 months. An increasing application of powerful omics-based approaches and improving preclinical models have enabled the rapid identification of secondary resistance mechanisms. Herein, we discuss how this knowledge has translated into rational, novel treatment strategies for relapsed patients in genomically selected cancer populations. PMID:26615134

  8. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  9. Climate change draft plan : achieving our commitments together : overview

    This plan for climate change presents the actions that Canada has undertaken to address climate change. Since 1998, the Canadian government has already invested $1.6 billion into this initiative. This draft plan will be discussed at a meeting of the provincial and territorial Ministers of the Environment and Energy at a meeting in October 2002. The meeting will focus on the role that governments, industries and consumers will play in dealing with the climate change issue. The plan includes strategies to meet the Kyoto target, how to improve our understanding of climate change, and accountability. The general scientific consensus regarding climate change suggests that wise actions must be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report emphasizes that Canada's economy can continue to grow while reducing emissions. While Canada's Kyoto target is demanding, there is substantial capacity for cost-effective emissions reductions. The fundamentals of the Canadian approach includes a national project in which everyone must contribute their part with no undue burden on any region or sector. In the Canadian approach, risks would be managed and shared fairly, with adequate and prudent funding. It was noted that Canada played a significant role in shaping the Kyoto Protocol, with the Kyoto mechanisms and sinks provisions. The decision by the United States to withdraw from the agreement has put Canada in a unique position regarding competitiveness, but modelling suggests that Canadian industry can achieve the Kyoto target at acceptable costs. The government of Canada is working with the United States to help reduce the costs and impacts of reaching our targets through clean coal technology, carbon dioxide capture and storage, co-generation, use of renewables, and sustainable practices in forestry and agriculture. It was emphasized that if the Kyoto Protocol fails, it could take years to negotiate a new international agreement, and the science suggests that we do not have

  10. High Range Resolution Profile Automatic Target Recognition Using Sparse Representation

    Zhou Nuo; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Sparse representation is a new signal analysis method which is receiving increasing attention in recent years.In this article,a novel scheme solving high range resolution profile automatic target recognition for ground moving targets is proposed.The sparse representation theory is applied to analyzing the components of high range resolution profiles and sparse coefficients are used to describe their features.Numerous experiments with the target type number ranging from 2 to 6 have been implemented.Results show that the proposed scheme not only provides higher recognition preciseness in real time,but also achieves more robust performance as the target type number increases.

  11. Dependence of exotic nuclides production on target and beam features

    Ricciardi, M.V. E-mail: valentina.ricciardi@pg.infn.it; Barone-Tonghi, L.; Cuttone, G.; Ciavola, G.; Di Bartolo, G.; Menna, M.; Fortuna, G.; Monti, S.; Tecchio, L

    1999-12-01

    With regard to the ISOL technique, the dependence of intermediate mass (80-160A) production on target and proton beam features has been investigated by means of hadronic transport Monte Carlo codes. The analysis of the target material (mechanism of production), dimensions (length and width) and composition as well as the proton beam energy has shown that in principle, regardless of technological difficulties, the production of neutron-rich isotopes of intermediate mass (80-160 A) can be successfully achieved with proton beams of low-medium energy into uranium thick targets. The power density in uranium targets bombarded by low-medium energy protons has been analyzed too.

  12. Dependence of exotic nuclides production on target and beam features

    With regard to the ISOL technique, the dependence of intermediate mass (80-160A) production on target and proton beam features has been investigated by means of hadronic transport Monte Carlo codes. The analysis of the target material (mechanism of production), dimensions (length and width) and composition as well as the proton beam energy has shown that in principle, regardless of technological difficulties, the production of neutron-rich isotopes of intermediate mass (80-160 A) can be successfully achieved with proton beams of low-medium energy into uranium thick targets. The power density in uranium targets bombarded by low-medium energy protons has been analyzed too

  13. Ignition target design for the National Ignition Facility

    Haan, S.W.; Pollaine, S.M.; Lindl, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The goal of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to produce significant thermonuclear burn from a target driven with a laser or ion beam. To achieve that goal, the national ICF Program has proposed a laser capable of producing ignition and intermediate gain. The facility is called the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This article describes ignition targets designed for the NIF and their modeling. Although the baseline NIF target design, described herein, is indirect drive, the facility will also be capable of doing direct-drive ignition targets - currently being developed at the University of Rochester.

  14. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  15. Targeted assets risk analysis.

    Bouwsema, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessments utilising the consolidated risk assessment process as described by Public Safety Canada and the Centre for Security Science utilise the five threat categories of natural, human accidental, technological, human intentional and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE). The categories of human intentional and CBRNE indicate intended actions against specific targets. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify which pieces of critical infrastructure represent the likely targets of individuals with malicious intent. Using the consolidated risk assessment process and the target capabilities list, coupled with the CARVER methodology and a security vulnerability analysis, it is possible to identify these targeted assets and their weaknesses. This process can help emergency managers to identify where resources should be allocated and funding spent. Targeted Assets Risk Analysis (TARA) presents a new opportunity to improve how risk is measured, monitored, managed and minimised through the four phases of emergency management, namely, prevention, preparation, response and recovery. To reduce risk throughout Canada, Defence Research and Development Canada is interested in researching the potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to risk assessment and management. The TARA provides a framework against which potential human intentional threats can be measured and quantified, thereby improving safety for all Canadians. PMID:23615063

  16. Production Target Design Report

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  17. Inflation Forecast Targeting: Implementing and Monitoring Inflation Targets

    Lars E.O. Svensson

    1996-01-01

    Inflation targeting is shown to imply inflation forecast targeting: the central bank's inflation forecast becomes an intermediate target. Inflation forecast targeting simplifies both implementing and monitoring of monetary policy. The inflation forecast is actually an ideal intermediate target: it is most correlated with the goal, easier to control than the goal, more observable than the goal, and very transparent. Money growth targeting generally leads to higher inflation variability than in...

  18. Factors Influencing Seminar Learning and Academic Achievement.

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Leppink, Jimmie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Mainhard, Tim; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Many veterinary curricula use seminars, interactive educational group formats in which some 25 students discuss questions and issues relating to course themes. To get indications on how to optimize the seminar learning process for students, we aimed to investigate relationships between factors that seem to be important for the seminar learning process, and to determine how these seminar factors account for differences in students' achievement scores. A 57-item seminar evaluation (USEME) questionnaire was administered to students right after they attended a seminar. In total, 80 seminars distributed over years 1, 2, and 3 of an undergraduate veterinary medicine curriculum were sampled and 988 questionnaires were handed in. Principal factor analysis (PFA) was conducted on 410 questionnaires to examine which items could be grouped together as indicators of the same factor, and to determine correlations between the derived factors. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to explore the effects of these seminar factors and students' prior achievement scores on students' achievement scores. Within the questionnaire, four factors were identified that influence the seminar learning process: teacher performance, seminar content, student preparation, and opportunities for interaction within seminars. Strong correlations were found between teacher performance, seminar content, and group interaction. Prior achievement scores and, to a much lesser extent, the seminar factor group interaction appeared to account for differences in students' achievement scores. The factors resulting from the present study and their relation to the method of assessment should be examined further, for example, in an experimental setup. PMID:26075625

  19. Setting reference targets

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  20. Targeted Phototherapy (newer phototherapy

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional phototherapy uses a whole body cabinet or body part machine such as hand, foot or scalp machines. They have many disadvantages due to which new phototherapy technique was then developed to overcome this situation. This new technique is called targeted phototherapy which includes excimer laser, intense pulse light system (IPL, photodynamic therapy and ultraviolet (UV light source with a sophisticated delivery system which is easy to be operated by hands. The mechanisms of action of targeted phototherapy systems are similar to those in conventional UVB/UVA therapy. They have many advantages like less chances of side effects, avoidance of exposure of unnecessary sites, faster response, shortening of the duration of treatments. But they have disadvantages like high costs and inability to use for extensive areas. This review article discusses targeted phototherapy in considerable to the mechanism of actions and advantages and disadvantages in comparison to the conventional phototherapy.

  1. Phoenix Color Targets

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Achieving single channel, full duplex wireless communication

    Choi, Jung Il

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a single channel full-duplex wireless transceiver. The design uses a combination of RF and baseband techniques to achieve full-duplexing with minimal effect on link reliability. Experiments on real nodes show the full-duplex prototype achieves median performance that is within 8% of an ideal full-duplexing system. This paper presents Antenna Cancellation, a novel technique for self-interference cancellation. In conjunction with existing RF interference cancellation and digital baseband interference cancellation, antenna cancellation achieves the amount of self-interference cancellation required for full-duplex operation. The paper also discusses potential MAC and network gains with full-duplexing. It suggests ways in which a full-duplex system can solve some important problems with existing wireless systems including hidden terminals, loss of throughput due to congestion, and large end-to-end delays. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  3. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  4. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  5. Five years of achievement in ISCS

    McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Derose, James V.

    Achievement associated with a school district committed to the implementation of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) materials and instructional strategy is the focus of this report. While ISCS is a three level, activity oriented, junior high program, the research was limited to the first year or Level I. Data were gathered from Level I students (mostly seventh graders) during a five year period. Analyses were per- formed to help answer questions such as: Are IQ and reading scores the highest correlates of achievement? Do IQ and reading correlates hold for both quantitative and qualitative indices of achievement? Do ISCS learning relationships hold over time? Are students able to evaluate how well they understand the concepts covered?Received: 21 June 1979; Revised: 11 March 1981;

  6. Environmental campaigns against forest companies: What are the campaigns trying to achieve?

    Gritten, D.; Gonzalez Olabarria, J. R.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Dominguez, G.

    2012-11-01

    Campaigns by environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) can have far reaching consequences in determining the policies of governments and corporations. This paper examines campaigns targeting forestry companies to determine what makes a successful campaign. Over forty ENGOs completed a questionnaire defining what they perceive to constitute a successful campaign. The responses were analysed using Analytical Hierarchy Process. The results showed that campaigns by ENGOs have two main targets: changes in laws and the target group implementing the campaigns recommendation(s). Achieving these targets, for most, constitute a successful campaign. Subsequently, representatives of seven ENGOs were questioned to attain their perspectives of the results in comparison to campaigns they are conducting against forest enterprises. They supported the results of the questionnaire, but also felt that there are various other factors that need to be considered (e.g. the campaigns time frame and the possibility of having hidden targets) that increase the issues complexity. (Author) 49 refs.

  7. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-01-01

    Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the e...

  8. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    Church, George M.; Janse, Daniel M.

    2008-05-13

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  9. Fine target of deuterium

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  10. AA antiproton production target

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  11. Leadership Strategies: Achieving Personal and Professional Success.

    Menaker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Physicians and allied health staff in healthcare are finding themselves in situations characterized by uncertainty, chaos, and ambiguity, with high levels of burnout. A major influence is an aging U.S. population, resulting in increasing cost and reimbursement pressures. Medical group practices need leaders who have the capability to thrive in this environment. This article presents an integrated leadership model offering strategies and insights gained from keeping a journal for 40 years. Strategies to be shared include leading self through learning, leading others by developing relationships, leading organizations by achieving excellence, and achieving work-life integration and synergy. PMID:27443052

  12. Impact of Metacognition on Guitar Performance Achievement

    YOKUŞ, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the impact of the development of metacognition on guitar performance achievement in the individual instrument guitar lesson, which is included in the Bachelor’s program of Music Teacher Education in Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts Education, in Turkey. “Experimental Design with Pretest–Posttest Control Group” has been used, in order to achieve the objective of the study. The study sample (N=10) consists of g...

  13. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  14. Challenges and achievements from the 'old' millennium

    Since 1968 NAC International has been dedicated to the search for excellence through achieving safe, reliable and sometimes unique solutions to our customers' problems and needs. In furthering our commitment to excellence in customer service, we have re-dedicated ourselves to providing the best in spent fuel cycle and transportation services into the year 2000 and beyond. In order to accomplish this forward looking process, we have peered into the past and evaluated some of our challenges and achievements over the past decade

  15. Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform, Achieve, Trade mechanisms to enhance the energy security for India

    The Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade mechanisms in India are designed to target energy generation and saving, respectively, in line with Clean Development Mechanism implemented by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Renewable Energy Certificate System is a voluntary regulation in India for renewable energy generators and is designed for effective implementation of inter-state transactions by introducing the Renewable Purchase Obligation regulation for consumers and a flexible trading platform for transactions across the country. Another initiative, the Perform Achieve Trade scheme, is an enhanced energy efficiency trading mechanism based on consumption targets that require large energy user sectors to improve efficiency by 1–2% per year. The Perform Achieve Trade programme has introduced mechanisms for the identification of industry sector, designated customer, specific energy consumption and target setting. The Perform Achieve Trade design issues are in test phase in the first cycle of the scheme which will run from 2012 to 2015. This paper discusses key design issues about boundary and target setting for Renewable Energy Certificate and Perform Achieve Trade energy saving certificate (ESCert) A data sharing and trading mechanism for Perform Achieve Trade is also proposed for review and coordination among regulator, designated consumers and traders in the market. - Highlights: ► Renewable Energy Certificate’ and ‘Perform Achieve Trade’ are energy certification programmes. ► REC and PAT programme implementation and the institutional network work are presented. ► The trading and communication network propose for possible linkage between REC, PAT and CDM. ► Independent associations in parallel with CERC and BEE are redefined for two tier review of scheme

  16. Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders.

    Ibeas Bih, Clementino; Chen, Tong; Nunn, Alistair V W; Bazelot, Michaël; Dallas, Mark; Whalley, Benjamin J

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis has a long history of anecdotal medicinal use and limited licensed medicinal use. Until recently, alleged clinical effects from anecdotal reports and the use of licensed cannabinoid medicines are most likely mediated by tetrahydrocannabinol by virtue of: 1) this cannabinoid being present in the most significant quantities in these preparations; and b) the proportion:potency relationship between tetrahydrocannabinol and other plant cannabinoids derived from cannabis. However, there has recently been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential for the plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), in neurological disorders but the current evidence suggests that CBD does not directly interact with the endocannabinoid system except in vitro at supraphysiological concentrations. Thus, as further evidence for CBD's beneficial effects in neurological disease emerges, there remains an urgent need to establish the molecular targets through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Here, we conducted a systematic search of the extant literature for original articles describing the molecular pharmacology of CBD. We critically appraised the results for the validity of the molecular targets proposed. Thereafter, we considered whether the molecular targets of CBD identified hold therapeutic potential in relevant neurological diseases. The molecular targets identified include numerous classical ion channels, receptors, transporters, and enzymes. Some CBD effects at these targets in in vitro assays only manifest at high concentrations, which may be difficult to achieve in vivo, particularly given CBD's relatively poor bioavailability. Moreover, several targets were asserted through experimental designs that demonstrate only correlation with a given target rather than a causal proof. When the molecular targets of CBD that were physiologically plausible were considered for their potential for exploitation in neurological therapeutics, the results were variable. In some cases

  17. Progress in target physics and design for heavy ion fusion

    Two-dimensional, integrated calculations of a close-coupled version of the distributed radiator, heavy ion target predict gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy. To achieve these results, the case-to-capsule ratio was decreased by about 25% from the previous heavy ion targets [M. Tabak and D. Callahan-Miller, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1895 (1998)]. These targets are robust to changes in the ion stopping model because changes in the ion stopping model can be accommodated by changes to the target. The capsule is also insensitive to changes in the deuterium-tritium (DT) gas fill in the center of the capsule over the range that is of interest for target fabrication and target injection. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates for this capsule are smaller than those for at least one National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] design. As a result, stability issues for the heavy ion capsule can be settled on NIF. The close-coupled target also opens up the possibility of a high gain engineering test facility from a 1.5-2 MJ driver; calculations predict that gain 90 is achievable from 1.75 MJ of beam energy. Finally, the choice of hohlraum wall material, which must satisfy constraints from target physics, environment and safety, chamber design, and target fabrication, is discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Achieving Proficiency Goals through Competency Guidelines.

    Bartz, Walter H.; Strasheim, Lorraine

    The Indiana Foreign Language Generic Competencies for Levels 1-4 define language-learning outcomes in terms of communicative competencies within generic cultural contexts. Nine cultural contexts (travel/transportation, the "world" of the target language, school and education, family and home, leisure time, meeting personal needs, world of work,…

  19. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  20. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University

    2013-09-24

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  1. Major Targets for 2010

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year, the main targets we have set for economic and social development are: increasing GDP by approximately 8 percent, creating jobs for more than 9 million people, keeping the urban registered unemployment rate no higher than 4.6 percent, holding the rise in consumer prices to around 3 percent, and improving the balance of payments.

  2. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  3. ISOLDE back on target

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  4. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  5. The targets of curcumin.

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S; Huang, Shile

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-kB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer's disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  6. Achievement Motivation Skill Training: Assisting Unmotivated Students.

    Grossnickle, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    Achievement motivation training addresses the needs of unmotivated, "turned-off" students by employing sequential self-improvement steps and other strategies such as videotape clips, games, simulations, music, role playing, modeling, career education, and small-group exercises. Includes eight references. (MLH)

  7. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  8. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  9. Reading Achievement in California: Miracle or Mirage?

    Ruddell, Robert B.; Williams, Arthur

    Reading achievement of elementary school children in California has been measured by several separate studies, not all of which appear to present compatible results. This study of three assessments contained in the Miller-Unruh Report analyzes their purposes, methods, results, and recommendations in an effort to produce some way to arrive at an…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maine

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maine students had across-the-board gains. There were improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for the subgroups large enough to count, which were white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on…

  11. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  12. Achievement Goal Orientations and Identity Formation Styles

    Kaplan, Avi; Flum, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    The present article points to shared underlying theoretical assumptions and central processes of a prominent academic motivation perspective--achievement goal theory--and recent process perspectives in the identity formation literature, and more specifically, identity formation styles. The review highlights the shared definition of achievement…

  13. Relating Preferred Learning Style to Student Achievement.

    Thomas, Heather; Cox, Robin; Kojima, Takahiro

    The paper examines the learning style preferences of 44 second-year Japanese college students pursuing an undergraduate degree and learning English as a Second Language at a New Zealand college. The goal is to learn more about between style and achievement, and how to cater to such students as multi-dimensional individuals and as members of a…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In New Jersey, achievement gaps narrowed in grade 11 reading and math for all major subgroups, with one exception. Comparable data for grade 11 by subgroup were available for 2002-2009, with a few exceptions. Because the state changed its tests at grades 4 and 8 in recent years, there were too few years of comparable data to determine trends at…

  15. Interplanetary monitoring platform engineering history and achievements

    Butler, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1979, last of ten Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.

  16. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  17. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  18. School Support for Lower Achieving Pupils.

    Duffield, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study in four Scottish schools (with differing socio-economic and school-effectiveness ratings) of how lower achieving students experience schooling. Emphasis is on the available pupil-support systems: learning support, behavioral support, and guidance services. (DB)

  19. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  20. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  1. Can Code Switching Enhance Learners' Academic Achievement?

    Simasiku, Liswani; Kasanda, Choshi; Smit, Talita

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high failure rate of Grade 10 learners in the year end examinations in the Caprivi Education Region of Namibia over a number of years. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the use of mother tongue in English medium classrooms enhanced learners' academic achievement.The study investigated 12 teachers at 12 schools…

  2. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  3. How Teacher Turnover Harms Student Achievement

    Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…

  4. Impact of School Technology on Student Achievement

    Young, Larry Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the impact of school technology on elementary students in grades three through five attending public schools in Indiana. The investigation focused on the impact of various technologies on student achievement as measured on Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+). Various comparisons were…

  5. How External Exit Exams Spur Achievement.

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Compared with minimum competency tests, curriculum-based external exit exams provide better measures of students' achievement levels. Analysis of Third Mathematics and Science Study data shows that 13 year-olds from exit-exam countries are ahead of nonparticipating countries. Effects on college enrollment, job success, and test scores are…

  6. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  7. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  8. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  9. Attributional Biases: More Barriers to Women's Achievement.

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…

  10. Only Children, Achievement, and Interpersonal Orientation.

    Falbo, Toni

    Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…

  11. Height and cognitive achievement among Indian children.

    Spears, Dean

    2012-03-01

    Taller children perform better on average on tests of cognitive achievement, in part because of differences in early-life health and net nutrition. Recent research documenting this height-achievement slope has primarily focused on rich countries. Using the India Human Development Survey, a representative sample of 40,000 households which matches anthropometric data to learning tests, this paper documents a height-achievement slope among Indian children. The height-achievement slope in India is more than twice as steep as in the U.S. An earlier survey interviewed some IHDS children's households eleven years before. Including matched early-life control variables reduces the apparent effect of height, but does not eliminate it; water, sanitation, and hygiene may be particularly important for children's outcomes. Being one standard deviation taller is associated with being 5 percentage points more likely to be able to write, a slope that falls only to 3.4 percentage points controlling for a long list of contemporary and early-life conditions. PMID:21907646

  12. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  13. Parenting Style and Black Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Attaway, Nicole M.; Bry, Brenna Hafer

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between maternal beliefs in control and responsiveness and adolescent academic achievement were examined by interviewing 59 Black mothers and female guardians of adolescents, ages 11 to 19, living in a northeastern small city or adjacent suburb and correlating their answers to year-end report cards of their adolescents.…

  14. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  15. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  16. Assets and Educational Achievement: Theory and Evidence

    Elliott, William; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Economics of Education Review explores the role of savings and asset holding in post-secondary educational achievement. Most college success research has focused on income rather than assets as a predictor, and most college financing policy has focused on tuition support and educational debt, rather than asset accumulation.…

  17. Transformational School Leadership Effects on Student Achievement

    Sun, Jingping; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. Results identify a wider range of TSL practices than…

  18. Decomposing Achievement Gaps among OECD Countries

    Zhang, Liang; Lee, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD…

  19. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  20. Achievable efficiencies for probabilistically cloning the states

    Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli; Wang, Zhixi

    2003-01-01

    We present an example of quantum computational tasks whose performance is enhanced if we distribute quantum information using quantum cloning. Furthermore we give achievable efficiencies for probabilistic cloning the quantum states used in implemented tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance.

  1. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  2. Physics Achievements from the Belle Experiment

    Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chang, Paoti; Eidelman, Simon; Golob, Bostjan; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hayashii, Hisaki; Iijima, Toru; Inami, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kay; Kwon, Youngjoon; Miyabayashi, Kenkichi; Mohanty, Gagan; Nakao, Mikihiko; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Olsen, Stephen; Sakai, Yoshihide; Schwanda, Christoph; Schwartz, Alan; Trabelsi, Karim; Uehara, Sadaharu; Uno, Shoji; Watanabe, Yasushi; Zupanc, Anze

    2012-01-01

    The Belle experiment, running at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider during the first decade of the century, achieved its original objective of measuring precisely differences between particles and anti-particles in the B system. After collecting 1000 fb-1 of data at various Upsilon resonances, Belle also obtained the many other physics results described in this article.

  3. Enhancing Communication and Achieving Mutual-benefits

    Yu Gendang; Xu Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small &Medium Enterprises Fair was completed successfully The pageant for international small and medium enterprises, the third China International Small & Medium Enterprises Fair and Sino-Italy Small & Medium Enterprises Fair, was completed successfully recently in Guangzhou.During those several days, the fair has achieved great success.

  4. Designing of Student Learning Achievement Evaluation

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to solve the following problematic issue: how the most essential elements of student learning achievement evaluation should be properly designed? The answers are pursued by the validation of identification of evaluation types, formulation of evaluation criteria and choice of assessment methods. Designing of the most essential…

  5. What Characterises High Achieving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning?

    Haavold, Per Øystein

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates high achieving students’ mathematical reasoning when given an unfamiliar trigonometric equation. The findings indicate that the students’ way of thinking is strongly linked with imitative reasoning and only when they received some form of guidance, were they able to display flexible and creative mathematical reasoning.

  6. Depressive Symptoms, Academic Achievement, and Intelligence

    Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67. ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Positive Functions of Emotions in Achievement Sports

    Puig, Nuria; Vilanova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of two research projects on the emotions of men engaged in achievement outdoor sports. The conditions were analyzed under which emotions carry out positive functions. The question strikes us as a fundamental one, because it is of crucial importance when it comes to increasing sportspeople's success. The…

  8. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    2010-01-01

    @@ CARY, NC April 28, 2010 - The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years, were presented in six different categories during a special ceremony on the second day of IDEA10 International Engineered Fabrics Conference and Exposition, April 28, 2010, in Miami Beach, Florida.

  9. Five Companies Receive IDEA10 Achievement Awards

    2010-01-01

    Prestigious industry awards presented at IDEA10 in Miami Beach this week;special Entrepreneurial Award also presented at IDEA 10 CARY,NC April 28,2010-The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years,were presented in six different categories

  10. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  11. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  12. Student Perceptions of High-Achieving Classmates

    Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…

  13. Evaluating and Reporting Student Achievements in Australia.

    Baumgart, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Issues that emerged within the context of an Australian national project on secondary education--"Reports and Records of Achievement for School Leavers"--are addressed. The role of external examinations, move toward standards-based assessment, certificates/records, tertiary selection, reporting, student-to-teacher relationship, teacher…

  14. Quantum chromodynamics: achievements and unresolved problems

    Modern status of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. Achievements of QCD: establishment of the form of QCD lagrangian, asymptotic freedom, noticeable progress in description of statical properties of mesons and baryons and low-energy processes based on chromodynamics, are reviewed. The unsolved problems: confinement, chiral symmetry, quarkonium, exotic states and hadron substance at high temperatures and densities are mentioned

  15. A Structural Model of Medical Student Achievement.

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; Sanford, Keat

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical model of medical student performance begins with 38 measures, reduced to 18 without loss of information. These measures are shown to reflect five underlying theoretical interrelated variables: medical knowledge; clinical performance; science aptitude; college achievement; and attitudes and values. Results should be useful in…

  16. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  17. Attitude, Gender and Achievement in Computer Programming

    Baser, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship among students' attitudes toward programming, gender and academic achievement in programming. The scale used for measuring students' attitudes toward programming was developed by the researcher and consisted of 35 five-point Likert type items in four subscales. The scale was administered to…

  18. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  19. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  20. Low and high achievers in math

    Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck; Weng, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    In this session we will present the results of the preliminary analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data, which can be used to enhance the teaching of low and high mathematics achievers so as to increase their mathematical knowledge and confidence....

  1. Achieving Proficiencies in Economics Capstone Courses

    Seeborg, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that capstone courses in economics should be integrative experiences that require students to demonstrate six core proficiencies. The capstone economics senior seminar at Illinois Wesleyan University is used as an example of how a capstone course that requires completion of an original research paper might achieve these…

  2. Recent Achievement of Gas Electron Multiplier

    XIA Yi-ben; WANG Lin-jun; ZHANG Ming-long; YANG Ying; ZHANG Wei-li; RUAN Jian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) as a novel gas detector, due to it's simple structure, high performance, well compatibility etc. ,is widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics and other fields. In this review, the principle, recent achievements,developments and applications of GEM are mainly described.

  3. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  4. Achievements and aspirations in Australian environmental education

    Linke, R.D.

    Progress made in environmental education in Australia is reviewed. Most notable among the achievements has been a considerable expansion in the development and use of outdoor education areas and in the availability of school curriculum materials with an explicit environmental theme. The furthering of such education in tertiary institutions is stressed. (6 references)

  5. Dissonant Feedback about Achievement and Teachers' Expectations.

    Bognar, Carl J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates impact of achievement test results (N=285) on 13 sixth-grade teachers' expectations using hypotheses from cognitive dissonance theory. Shows teacher expectations changed very little as a result of feedback, and test results for both under- and overestimated students were rejected. (AH)

  6. Mathematics Achievement of Vietnamese Grade 5 Pupils

    Griffin, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a national survey of mathematics achievement at the end of primary school in Vietnam. A sample of more than 72000 students were assessed from 61 provinces. The items were matched to the Vietnam Mathematics curriculum for Year 5 students. Using a skills audit of the items, a variable of Vietnamese mathematics…

  7. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  8. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  9. Refugee Children in South Africa: Access and Challenges to Achieving Universal Primary Education

    Meda, L.; Sookrajh, R.; Maharaj, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper questions whether the second Millennium Development Goal of achieving universal primary education targets by 2015 for all children to complete a full course of primary schooling, can be realised. A key contention of this paper is that this forecast is far-fetched when we take into cognizance refugee children's accessibility to…

  10. Influence of Parenting Styles on the Adolescent Students' Academic Achievement in Kenyan Day Secondary Schools

    Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…

  11. Impact of Discussion on Peer Evaluations: Perceptions of Low Achievement and Effort

    Huenecke, Todd M.; Waas, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The authors placed 5th-grade students into small groups of 3 in order to examine the impact of group discussion and displayed effort on children's evaluations of a low-achieving peer. Low effort by a target peer resulted in negative evaluations across attributional, affective, help-giving, and social response dimensions. Children who participated…

  12. An Architecture for Personal Achievement Evaluation System in An University By Applying Open Source ECM and Bi Software

    Muslin Ridhrod; Taratip Suwannasart; Arthit Thongtak

    2014-01-01

    Personal achievement evaluation process is necessary to understand each employee’s abilities, competencies, and relative merits which are very important for an organization. The results of evaluation process are analyzed between achievement targets and actual achievement scores, which are collected and stored from many data sources and documents such as evaluation patterns, groups of person, and kinds of workload. Furthermore, for each evaluation period, flexible policies and procedures are n...

  13. Mannosylated liposomes for targeted gene delivery

    Kong F

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fansheng Kong1, Fang Zhou1, Linfu Ge1, Ximin Liu1, Yong Wang21Department of Hematology, 2Department of Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, General Hospital of Ji'nan Command, PLA, Ji'nan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Liposomes can be modified with different ligands to control their biological properties, such as longevity, targeting ability, and intracellular penetration, in a desired fashion. The aim of this study was to modify liposomes with a novel mannosylated polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (M-PEG-PE ligand to achieve active targeted gene delivery.Methods: Rat Kupffer cells were isolated and used as model cells for in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. The modified liposomes were intravenously injected into the rats, and Kupffer cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry for in vivo gene delivery and expression.Results: The M-PEG-PE-modified liposome-enhanced green fluorescence protein plasmid (M-PEG-PE-Lipo-pEGFP complexes had a particle size of 237 nm and a loading efficiency of 90%. The M-PEG-PE-Lipo-pEGFP complexes displayed remarkably higher transfection efficiency than unmodified Lipo-pEGFP, both in vitro (51%–30% and in vivo (43%–27%.Conclusion: M-PEG-PE could function as an excellent active targeting ligand, and M-PEG-PE-modified liposomes could be promising active targeted drug delivery vectors.Keywords: gene delivery, active targeting, mannosylated, polyethylene glycol, phosphatidylethanolamine, liposomes

  14. Prior Academic Achievement, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations: A Longitudinal Examination

    Huy P. Phan

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence attesting to the potency of two major theoretical frameworks inteaching and learning, namely, achievement goals and effort. The testing of achievement goals and effort invarious cross-sectional studies (Dupeyrat & Mariné, 2005; Elliot, McGregor, & Gable, 1999; Fenollar, Román,& Cuestas, 2007) has yielded findings that indicate their positive effects on academic achievement, directly andindirectly via means of other internal cognitive proces...

  15. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Language Achievement among Peruvian High School Students

    Lennia Matos; Willy Lens; Maarten Vansteenkiste

    2007-01-01

    We used an achievement goal framework to study the role of motivation in the academic context of a Peruvian sample of 8th to 10th grade high school students (N = 1505). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between students' achievement goals, their use of learning strategies and their academic achievement. Multiple Hierarchical Regressions Analyses identified, as predicted, positive effects of mastery goals, including more use of learning strategies and hi...

  16. Role of resilient personality on lower achieving first grade students' current and future achievement

    Kwok, Oi-man; Hughes, Jan N.; Luo, Wen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated a measurement model of personality resilience and the contribution of personality resilience to lower achieving first grade students' academic achievement. Participants were 445 ethnically diverse children who at entrance to first grade scored below their school district median on a test of literacy. Participants were administered an individual achievement test in first grade and 1 year later. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a second-order latent construct of re...

  17. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Full Text Available ... Investigator Prize About Dr. Mary Betty Stevens Career Development Award Gina M. Finzi Memorial Student Summer Fellowship Program Submit an Application About the Finzi Program Request for Applications Lupus Achievements and Advances Lupus Science & Medicine™ Local Chapters About Us What We Do Who We ...

  18. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable. PMID:23485093

  19. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:25869441

  20. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99mTc as a radionuclide. We developed 99mTc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99mTc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99mTc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  1. Promoting equity to achieve maternal and child health.

    Thomsen, Sarah; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Målqvist, Mats; Sanneving, Linda; Saxena, Deepak; Tana, Susilowati; Yuan, Beibei; Byass, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Maternal and child mortality rates, the targets for two of the eight Millennium Development Goals, remain unacceptably high in many countries. Some countries have made significant advances in reducing deaths in pregnancy, childbirth, and childhood at the national level. However, on a sub-national basis most countries show wide disparities in health indices which are not necessarily reflected in national figures. This is a sign of inequitable access to and provision of health services. Yet there has been little attention to health equity in relation to the Millennium Development Goals. Instead, countries have focused on achieving national targets. This has led to an emphasis on utilitarian, as opposed to universalist, approaches to public health, which we discuss here. We recommend a policy of "proportionate universalism". In this approach, universal health care and a universal social policy are the ultimate goal, but in the interim actions are carried out with intensities proportionate to disadvantage. We also briefly describe an initiative that aims to promote evidence-based policy and interventions that will reduce inequity in access to maternal and child health care in China, India, Indonesia and Viet Nam. PMID:22118151

  2. Achievements of element technology development for breeding blanket

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been performing the development of breeding blanket for fusion power plant, as a leading institute of the development of solid breeder blankets, according to the long-term R and D program of the blanket development established by the Fusion Council of Japan in 1999. This report is an overview of development plan, achievements of element technology development and future prospect and plan of the development of the solid breeding blanket in JAERI. In this report, the mission of the blanket development activity in JAERI, key issues and roadmap of the blanket development have been clarified. Then, achievements of the element technology development were summarized and showed that the development has progressed to enter the engineering testing phase. The specific development target and plan were clarified with bright prospect. Realization of the engineering test phase R and D and completion of ITER test blanket module testing program, with universities/NIFS cooperation, are most important steps in the development of breeding blanket of fusion power demonstration plant. (author)

  3. Stellar Chemical Abundances: In Pursuit of the Highest Achievable Precision

    Bedell, M; Bean, J; Ramirez, I; Leite, P; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epoc...

  4. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  5. Students' Achievement Values, Goal Orientations, and Interest: Definitions, Development, and Relations to Achievement Outcomes

    Wigfield, Allan; Cambria, Jenna

    2010-01-01

    Students' achievement task values, goal orientations, and interest are motivation-related constructs which concern students' purposes and reasons for doing achievement activities. The authors review the extant research on these constructs and describe and compare many of the most frequently used measures of these constructs. They also discuss…

  6. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  7. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  8. The Link between Musical Achievement and Academic Achievement of Young Children

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century it has been theorized that there is a link between musical achievement and academic achievement of young children. In support of this controversial view, many educators and music specialists promote the relationship between, parent, teacher, and child. The theory is: with cooperative learning experiences in the study…

  9. Back to the Basics: In Defense of Achievement (and Achievement Tests) in College Admissions

    Geiser, Saul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the growth and acceptance of achievement tests, such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), over the past century, advocating that many SAT claims of equity, uniformity, technical reliability, and prediction, over traditional measures of academic achievement have been found to be illusory. Summarizing a series…

  10. Evolution with Drifting Targets

    Kanade, Varun; Vaughan, Jennifer Wortman

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \\epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \\epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general prod...

  11. Physics of polarized targets

    Niinikoski, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    For developing, building and operating solid polarized targets we need to understand several fields of physics that have seen sub stantial advances during the last 50 years. W e shall briefly review a selection of those that are important today. These are: 1) quantum statistical methods to describe saturation and relaxation in magnetic resonance; 2) equal spin temperature model for dy namic nuclear polarization; 3 ) weak saturation during NMR polarization measurement; 4 ) refrigeration using the quantum fluid properties of helium isotopes. These, combined with superconducting magnet technologies, permit today to reach nearly complete pola rization of almost any nuclear spins. Targets can be operated in frozen spin mode in rather low and inhomogeneous field of any orientation, and in DNP mode in beams of high intensity. Beyond such experiments of nuclear and particle physics, applications a re also emerging in macromolecular chemistry and in magnetic resonance imaging. This talk is a tribute to Michel Borghini...

  12. Autonomous Target Ranging Techniques

    Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz;

    2003-01-01

    determination two ranging strategies are presented. One is an improved laser ranger with an effective range with non-cooperative targets of at least 10,000 km, demonstrated in ground tests. The accuracy of the laser ranging will be approximately 1 m. The laser ranger may furthermore be used for trajectory...... determination of nano-gravity probes, which will perform direct mass measurements of selected targets. The other is triangulation from two spacecraft. For this method it is important to distinguish between detection and tracking range, which will be different for Bering since different instruments are used for......For the deep space asteroid mission, Bering, the main goal is the detection and tracking of near Earth objects (NEOs) and asteroids. One of the key science instruments is the 0.3-m telescope used for imaging and tracking of the detected asteroidal objects. For efficient use of the observation time...

  13. Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students' achievement goals.

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-10-01

    Achievement goal theory assumes that self-instrumental (mastery) achievement goals are associated with academic achievement, whereas social-instrumental (performance) goals are not. However, research on Asian students shows that both mastery and performance-approach goals are positively related to achievement; possibly because achievement motivation in Asian cultures is socially oriented and not individually oriented. The current study explored the structure of the social and individual achievement motivation orientations, and how these achievement orientations and achievement goals were related to achievement of Filipino university students. The results showed two dimensions of social-oriented achievement motivations-parent-oriented and teacher-oriented motivations-and two dimensions of individual-oriented achievement motivations-personal performance standards and personal goal choice. However, these achievement motivation orientations were not associated with achievement. Instead mastery and performance-approach goals were both positively associated with academic achievement, personal performance standards, and parent-oriented achievement motivation. PMID:22022793

  14. Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Wulff Pabilonia, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has shown that homework improves students' academic achievement, the majority of these studies use data on students' homework time from retrospective questionnaires, which are less accurate than time-diary data. However, most time-diary data sets do not contain outcome measures, and thus are limited in the questions they can answer. One data set that does have both time-diary and outcome information is the combined Child Development Supplement (CDS) and the Transiti...

  15. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  16. Achieving sustainability in Swedish historic buildings

    Martínez Pérez, Carmen Coronada

    2014-01-01

    The increasing world energy demand has become the need of achieving energy efficiency and sustainable practices a key element in order to ensure the future of the societies. In Sweden, buildings accounts for 40% of total energy consumption. Within a sector that consumes almost half of the energy in the country it is possible to identify a group of buildings which generally presents a higher consumption and bigger problems, the historic and protected buildings. There is big room for improvemen...

  17. Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors.

    Morosanova V.I.; Fomina T.G.; Bondarenko I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predicto...

  18. Academic achievement: intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors

    MOROSANOVA VARVARA I.; FOMINA TATIANA G.; BONDARENKO IRINA N.

    2015-01-01

    Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects), our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16) in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predicto...

  19. Parental Economic Hardship and Children's Achievement Orientations*

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Zhang, Frank Lei; Hussemann, Jeanette; Wu, Chen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    While children’s orientations to achievement are strong predictors of attainments, little is known about how parental economic hardship during recessionary times influences children’s orientations to their futures. The Youth Development Study has followed a community sample of young people in St Paul, Minnesota from mid-adolescence through their mid-thirties with near-annual surveys, and has recently begun surveying the children of this cohort. Using linked parent and child data, the present ...

  20. Academic achievement: Intelligence, regulatory, and cognitive predictors.

    Morosanova V.I.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the results of two empirical studies (with different samples and academic subjects, our research was aimed at discovering the significant role of conscious self-regulation, intelligence, and cognitive features in predicting optimal academic achievement. The sample consisted of 406 students (aged 14-16 in the 8th to 11th grades of the Russian formal education system. Conscious self-regulation together with intelligence and cognitive abilities was determined to be a significant predictor of academic success. The Study 1 results revealed that the general level of self-regulation of learning activity and certain regulatory features were significant predictors of different types of mathematical achievements: academic grades, scores on exams, mathematical fluency, as well as solving logical mathematical problems and equations. The present study is the first to show the mediating role of self-regulation in relation to intelligence, cognitive features, and academic success. Study 2 found evidence that conscious self-regulation and intelligence can predict academic achievement in the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences... At the same time, this determination has its peculiarities in particular variables of intelligence and certain self-regulation processes depending on the substantive characteristics of the academic subjects. Regression models of academic success in the humanities identified verbal intelligence associated with vocabulary as highly significant and a definitive requirement for success in these subjects. Study 1 and Study 2 showed that the only significant predictors of success in algebra and geometry were quantitative- relations intelligence and spatial intelligence. The implications of these findings for investigating predictors of academic achievement are discussed.