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Sample records for achieve tight glycemic

  1. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    Steil, Garry M.; Agus, Michael SD

    2014-01-01

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become...

  2. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-01-01

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today. PMID:25041720

  3. Tight glycemic control: what do we really know, and what should we expect?

    Nasraway, Stanley A; Rattan, Rishi

    2010-01-01

    Tight glycemic control has engendered large numbers of investigations, with conflicting results. The world has largely embraced intensive insulin as a practice, but applies this therapy with great variability in the manner of glucose control and measurement. The present commentary reviews what we actually know with certainty from this vast sea of literature, and what we can expect looking forward.

  4. Multifaceted Determinants for Achieving Glycemic Control

    Chan, Juliana C N; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; Baik, Sei Hyun; Chantelot, Jean-Marc; Ferreira, Sandra R.G.; Hancu, Nicolae; Ilkova, Hasan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Aschner, Pablo; . .

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practice in developing regions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for achieving A1C

  5. Outcome of tight versus standard glycemic control in coronary artery bypass patients

    Objectives: To compare the outcome of tight versus standard glycemic control and its impact on post operative morbidity and short term mortality in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CA-BG). Patients and Methods: A prospective surveillance of 124 patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery (on pump) was included in the study, 62 patients in each group were randomly assigned to tight and standard glucose control group. The main exposure was insulin in respect to level of blood glucose and the primary outcome measures were Sternotomy wound infection, Leg wound infection and new Myocardial Infarction. Surgical Site infection was assessed on a daily basis during the patient's stay in the Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore or within 30 days of operation prompting the patient to return to the hospital. Chi-square test or test was used to identify the significance of various short term morbidities and mortality. Results: In this study, 12 patients in the standard group and 4 patients in the tightly controlled group developed Sternal wound infection (p value 0.046). Similarly, 9 versus 2 patients in the standard and tight group respectively developed Leg wound infection (p-value 0.035). Test of proportion was applied and it was found that there was significant difference in the pro-portion of infection in the two groups (p value 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in other morbidities and the short term mortality. Conclusion: Study confirmed that tight glucose con-trol post operatively in CABG patient's results in reduced sternal and leg wound infection rates; however, there was no effect on other morbidities and short term mortality. (author)

  6. Second pilot trials of the STAR-Liege protocol for tight glycemic control in critically ill patients

    Penning Sophie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients often present increased insulin resistance and stress-induced hyperglycemia. Tight glycemic control aims to reduce blood glucose (BG levels and variability while ensuring safety from hypoglycemia. This paper presents the results of the second Belgian clinical trial using the customizable STAR framework in a target-to-range control approach. The main objective is reducing measurement frequency while maintaining performance and safety of the glycemic control. Methods The STAR-Liege 2 (SL2 protocol targeted the 100–140 mg/dL glycemic band and offered 2-hourly and 3-hourly interventions. Only insulin rates were adjusted, and nutrition inputs were left to the attending clinicians. This protocol restricted the forecasted risk of BG  Results During the SL2 trial, 91 measurements were taken over 194 hours. BG levels were tightly distributed: 54.9% of BG within 100–140 mg/dL, 40.7% were ≥ 140 mg/dL and 4.4% were  0.05 with significantly reduced measurement frequency for SL2 (p  Conclusions The SL2 protocol succeeded in reducing clinical workload while maintaining safety and effectiveness of the glycemic control. SL2 was also shown to be safer and tighter than hospital control. Overall results validate the efficacy of significantly customizing the STAR framework.

  7. Validation of a model-based virtual trials method for tight glycemic control in intensive care

    Shaw Geoffrey M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-silico virtual patients and trials offer significant advantages in cost, time and safety for designing effective tight glycemic control (TGC protocols. However, no such method has fully validated the independence of virtual patients (or resulting clinical trial predictions from the data used to create them. This study uses matched cohorts from a TGC clinical trial to validate virtual patients and in-silico virtual trial models and methods. Methods Data from a 211 patient subset of the Glucontrol trial in Liege, Belgium. Glucontrol-A (N = 142 targeted 4.4-6.1 mmol/L and Glucontrol-B (N = 69 targeted 7.8-10.0 mmol/L. Cohorts were matched by APACHE II score, initial BG, age, weight, BMI and sex (p > 0.25. Virtual patients are created by fitting a clinically validated model to clinical data, yielding time varying insulin sensitivity profiles (SI(t that drives in-silico patients. Model fit and intra-patient (forward prediction errors are used to validate individual in-silico virtual patients. Self-validation (tests A protocol on Group-A virtual patients; and B protocol on B virtual patients and cross-validation (tests A protocol on Group-B virtual patients; and B protocol on A virtual patients are used in comparison to clinical data to assess ability to predict clinical trial results. Results Model fit errors were small ( Self and cross validation results were within 1-10% of the clinical data for both Group-A and Group-B. Self-validation indicated clinically insignificant errors due to model and/or clinical compliance. Cross-validation clearly showed that virtual patients enabled by identified patient-specific SI(t profiles can accurately predict the performance of independent and different TGC protocols. Conclusions This study fully validates these virtual patients and in silico virtual trial methods, and clearly shows they can accurately simulate, in advance, the clinical results of a TGC protocol, enabling rapid in silico

  8. Glucose Information for Tight Glycemic Control: Different Methods with Different Challenges

    Weber, Christian; Neeser, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Rigorous glucose control is essential for prevention of diabetes-related complications in diabetes patients. Even without diabetes, tight glucose control is beneficial in hospitalized, critically ill patients.

  9. Link between Hypoglycemia and Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Answer to Why Tight Glycemic Control May Increase Mortality in ...

    ... Size: A A A Listen The Link Between Hypoglycemia and Cardiac Arrhythmias: An Answer to Why Tight ... from the University of Sheffield found that overnight hypoglycemia was associated with increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias ...

  10. Tight glycemic control in critical care--the leading role of insulin sensitivity and patient variability: a review and model-based analysis.

    Chase, J Geoffrey; Le Compte, Aaron J; Suhaimi, Fatanah; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Lynn, Adrienne; Lin, Jessica; Pretty, Christopher G; Razak, Normy; Parente, Jacquelyn D; Hann, Christopher E; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Desaive, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has emerged as a major research focus in critical care due to its potential to simultaneously reduce both mortality and costs. However, repeating initial successful TGC trials that reduced mortality and other outcomes has proven difficult with more failures than successes. Hence, there has been growing debate over the necessity of TGC, its goals, the risk of severe hypoglycemia, and target cohorts. This paper provides a review of TGC via new analyses of data from several clinical trials, including SPRINT, Glucontrol and a recent NICU study. It thus provides both a review of the problem and major background factors driving it, as well as a novel model-based analysis designed to examine these dynamics from a new perspective. Using these clinical results and analysis, the goal is to develop new insights that shed greater light on the leading factors that make TGC difficult and inconsistent, as well as the requirements they thus impose on the design and implementation of TGC protocols. A model-based analysis of insulin sensitivity using data from three different critical care units, comprising over 75,000h of clinical data, is used to analyse variability in metabolic dynamics using a clinically validated model-based insulin sensitivity metric (S(I)). Variation in S(I) provides a new interpretation and explanation for the variable results seen (across cohorts and studies) in applying TGC. In particular, significant intra- and inter-patient variability in insulin resistance (1/S(I)) is seen be a major confounder that makes TGC difficult over diverse cohorts, yielding variable results over many published studies and protocols. Further factors that exacerbate this variability in glycemic outcome are found to include measurement frequency and whether a protocol is blind to carbohydrate administration. PMID:21145614

  11. Motor vehicle crashes in diabetic patients with tight glycemic control: a population-based case control analysis.

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complications from diabetes mellitus can compromise a driver's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle, yet little is known about whether euglycemia predicts normal driving risks among adults with diabetes. We studied the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the risk of a motor vehicle crash using a population-based case control analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified consecutive drivers reported to vehicle licensing authorities between January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2007 who had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and a HbA1c documented. The risk of a crash was calculated taking into account potential confounders including blood glucose monitoring, complications, and treatments. A total of 57 patients were involved in a crash and 738 were not involved in a crash. The mean HbA1c was lower for those in a crash than controls (7.4% versus 7.9%, unpaired t-test, p = 0.019, equal to a 26% increase in the relative risk of a crash for each 1% reduction in HbA1c (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.54. The trend was evident across the range of HbA1c values and persisted after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55. The two other significant risk factors for a crash were a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval 2.35-7.04 and later age at diabetes diagnosis (odds ratio per decade = 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.57. CONCLUSIONS: In this selected population, tighter glycemic control, as measured by the HbA1c, is associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash.

  12. Achieving glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a critical comparison of current options

    Du YF

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ye-Fong Du,1 Horng-Yih Ou,1 Elizabeth A Beverly,2 Ching-Ju Chiu3 1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Social Medicine, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Athens, OH, USA; 3Institute of Gerontology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing in the elderly. Because of the unique characteristics of elderly people with T2DM, therapeutic strategy and focus should be tailored to suit this population. This article reviews the guidelines and studies related to older people with T2DM worldwide. A few important themes are generalized: 1 the functional and cognitive status is critical for older people with T2DM considering their life expectancy compared to younger counterparts; 2 both severe hypoglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia are deleterious to older adults with T2DM, and both conditions should be avoided when determining therapeutic goals; 3 recently developed guidelines emphasize the avoidance of hypoglycemic episodes in older people, even in the absence of symptoms. In addition, we raise the concern of glycemic variability, and discuss the rationale for the selection of current options in managing this patient population. Keywords: glycemic target, glycemic variability, blood glucose, frailty

  13. Utility of indices using C‐peptide levels for indication of insulin therapy to achieve good glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Funakoshi, Shogo; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Hideya; Fujita, Yoshihito; Ikeda, Kaori; Takahara, Shiho; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Hosokawa, Masaya; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Type 2 diabetes is progressive in that therapy must be altered over time, which is partly as a result of the progressive loss of pancreatic β‐cell function. To elucidate the relationship between residual endogenous insulin secretion and the necessity of insulin therapy to achieve good glycemic control, indices using serum C‐peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) were analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods:  The data of 201 Japanese patients with ...

  14. Design and Fabrication of Double-Focused Ultrasound Transducers to Achieve Tight Focusing.

    Jang, Jihun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Beauty treatment for skin requires a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer to generate coagulative necrosis in a small focal volume (e.g., 1 mm³) placed at a shallow depth (3-4.5 mm from the skin surface). For this, it is desirable to make the F-number as small as possible under the largest possible aperture in order to generate ultrasound energy high enough to induce tissue coagulation in such a small focal volume. However, satisfying both conditions at the same time is demanding. To meet the requirements, this paper, therefore, proposes a double-focusing technique, in which the aperture of an ultrasound transducer is spherically shaped for initial focusing and an acoustic lens is used to finally focus ultrasound on a target depth of treatment; it is possible to achieve the F-number of unity or less while keeping the aperture of a transducer as large as possible. In accordance with the proposed method, we designed and fabricated a 7-MHz double-focused ultrasound transducer. The experimental results demonstrated that the fabricated double-focused transducer had a focal length of 10.2 mm reduced from an initial focal length of 15.2 mm and, thus, the F-number changed from 1.52 to 1.02. Based on the results, we concluded that the proposed double-focusing method is suitable to decrease F-number while maintaining a large aperture size. PMID:27509500

  15. Development of a patient decision aid for type 2 diabetes mellitus for patients not achieving glycemic control on metformin alone

    Shillington AC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia C Shillington,1 Nananda Col,2 Robert A Bailey,3 Mark A Jewell11EPI-Q, Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA; 2Shared Decision-making Resources, Georgetown, ME, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USAPurpose: To describe the process used to develop an evidence-based patient decision aid (PDA that facilitates shared decision-making for treatment intensification in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM consistent with International Patient Decision Aids Standards.Methods: A PDA was developed by a multidisciplinary steering committee of clinicians, patient advocate, nurse, certified diabetes educators, and decision scientist, using a systematic development process. The process included defining the PDA scope and purpose, outlining the framework, content creation, and designing for integration into clinical practice. This was accomplished through a review of the literature and publically available educational materials and input from practicing clinicians and patients during development and iteratively refining content based on input. Patients with poorly controlled T2DM on metformin considering additional medication assessed the PDA during a pilot.Results: Testing identified six preference-sensitive domains important for choosing T2DM treatment: degree of glycemic response, avoiding weight gain, hypoglycemia risk and other adverse events, avoiding injections, convenience of dose administration, blood glucose monitoring, and cost of therapy. Patient feedback guided content revision. Treatment options were offered after presenting medication class risk–benefit information and eliciting patient values, goals, and preferences. The PDA received the highest International Patient Decision Aids Standards global score to date, 88/100, with 100% of criteria fully met for the following dimensions: development process, disclosures, evaluation process, evidence quality, guidance for users, information quality, language

  16. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    ... A A Listen En Español Glycemic Index and Diabetes The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a ... 08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html More from diabetes.org Shopdiabetes.org: Take the Guesswork out of ...

  17. The Glycemic Index

    Williams, Pauline; Stubbs, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a food raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR IMPACT OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES

    Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM is characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic beta cell destruction , type 2 DM is characterized by a state of long standing insulin resistance (IR , compensatory hyperinsulinemia and varying degrees of elevated plasma glucose (PG , associated with clustering of cardiovascular (CV risk and development of macrovascular disease prior to diagnosis of D M. Coronary artery disease (CAD accounts for 70% of mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. Studies made in diabetes care have helped prevent or reduce microvascular complications in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. However the same cannot be said a bout macrovascular disease. Despite all data concerning the association of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD , the exact mechanism by which diabetes is linked to atherosclerosis is incompletely understood , this is especially true in case of hypergly cemia. The positive effect of intensive glucose management in comparison to non - intensive glucose control is far from proven. DCCT and UKPDS study have shown that while a glycemic control is important for reaching long term macrovascular complications , ear ly glucose control is far more rewarding (metabolic memory.Later trials like ACCORD , ADVANCE and VADT don’t advocate tight glycemic control. In fact , ACCORD trial has shown increased mortality with tight glucose control. Tight glucose control may be benef icial in selected patients with short disease duration , long life expectancy and no CVD. In critically ill patients a blood glucose target of 140 - 180 mg % is fairly reasonable and achievable. The ESC/EASD guidelines of October 2013 , l ike those of ADA , AHA and ACC continue to endorse a treatment target for glucose control in diabetes of HbAlc < 7% , based predominantly on microvascular disease with acknowledged uncertainty regarding the effect of the intensive glucose control on CVD risk. Management of hyperg lycemia in diabetics should

  19. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load You’ve ... The glycemic index and load concern carbohydrates, or carbs—one of the main types of nutrients in ...

  20. Improving Care in Older Patients with Diabetes: A Focus on Glycemic Control.

    Lee, Eric A; Gibbs, Nancy E; Martin, John; Ziel, Fred; Polzin, Jennifer K; Palmer-Toy, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes affects more than 25% of Americans older than age 65 years. The medical care of older patients must differ from the care of their younger counterparts. Older patients are at high risk of drug toxicity. A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level less than 7.0% has historically been the goal of all patients with diabetes, regardless of age. Recent research has demonstrated that using medications to achieve such tight glycemic control is not necessary and is often not safe.This article discusses the seminal research findings that strongly suggest that HbA1c goals should be relaxed in older patients. The authors then recommend an age-specific and functionally appropriate HbA1c reference range for patients receiving medications to improve glycemic control. Other interventions are suggested that should make diabetes care safer in older patients receiving hypoglycemic medications. PMID:27352408

  1. Relationship between perioperative glycemic control and postoperative infections

    Kazuhiro Hanazaki; Hiromichi Maeda; Takehiro Okabayashi

    2009-01-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia in critically ill surgery patients increases the risk of postoperative infection (POI), which is a common, and often costly, surgical complication. Hyperglycemia is associated with abnormalities in leukocyte function, including granulocyte adherence, impaired phagocytosis, delayed chemotaxis,and depressed bactericidal capacity. These leukocyte deficiencies are the cause of infection and improve with tight glycemic control, which leads to fewer POIs in critically ill surgical patients. Tight glycemic control, such as intensive insulin therapy, has a risk of hypoglycemia.In addition, the optimal targeted blood glucose range to reduce POI remains unknown. Since 2006, we have investigated tight perioperative blood glucose control using a closed-loop artificial endocrine pancreas system,to reduce POI and to avoid hypoglycemia. In this Topic Highlight, we review the relationship between perioperative glycemic control and POI, including the use of the artificial pancreas.

  2. Tight turns

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has successfully tested the first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet. This is great news for CERN, which sees the advance as holding potential for the future of the SPS.   The first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet being prepared for cryogenic testing at the LASA laboratory (INFN Milano, Italy). On 16 July INFN introduced an innovative dipole magnet. With a length of some 4 metres, it can produce a 4.5 Tesla magnetic field and achieve a tighter bend than ever before (the bending radius has been squeezed to a remarkable 66.7 metres). This new magnet was designed in the first instance for GSI’s SIS300 synchrotron (in Germany), which will require 60 dipoles of this type. "Achieving such a tight bend demanded a major R&D effort," stressed Pasquale Fabbricatore, the spokesman of the INFN collaboration responsible for the magnet’s development. "We had to not o...

  3. The Glycemic Index

    Williams, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The glycemic index is a ranking of carbohydrate containing foods. Foods are ranked according to their immediate effect on blood sugar levels. The higher a f ood raises blood sugar, the higher its glycemic index. Scientists published the first index in 1981 when they were researching diet therapy for diabetes. This first list contained 51 foods, and the list has continued to expand, with the most recent official list containing 750 foods. Fruits, grains, dairy products, some vegetables, pastas...

  4. Three pillars for achieving quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations of huge systems: Divide-and-conquer, density-functional tight-binding, and massively parallel computation.

    Nishizawa, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Irle, Stephan; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-08-01

    The linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC) quantum chemical methodology is applied to the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) theory to develop a massively parallel program that achieves on-the-fly molecular reaction dynamics simulations of huge systems from scratch. The functions to perform large scale geometry optimization and molecular dynamics with DC-DFTB potential energy surface are implemented to the program called DC-DFTB-K. A novel interpolation-based algorithm is developed for parallelizing the determination of the Fermi level in the DC method. The performance of the DC-DFTB-K program is assessed using a laboratory computer and the K computer. Numerical tests show the high efficiency of the DC-DFTB-K program, a single-point energy gradient calculation of a one-million-atom system is completed within 60 s using 7290 nodes of the K computer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317328

  5. Relationship between perioperative glycemic control and postoperative infections

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Hiromichi; Okabayashi, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia in critically ill surgery patients increases the risk of postoperative infection (POI), which is a common, and often costly, surgical complication. Hyperglycemia is associated with abnormalities in leukocyte function, including granulocyte adherence, impaired phagocytosis, delayed chemotaxis, and depressed bactericidal capacity. These leukocyte deficiencies are the cause of infection and improve with tight glycemic control, which leads to fewer POIs in critically i...

  6. Glycemic control in cardiac surgery: Rationale and current evidence

    G Girish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cardiac surgical patients have shown an association of hyperglycemia with increased incidences of sepsis, mediastinitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrhythmias and longer intensive care and hospital stay. There is considerable controversy regarding appropriate glycemic management in these patients and in the definition of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia or the blood sugar levels at which therapy should be initiated. There is also dilemma regarding the usage of "tight glycemic control" with studies showing conflicting evidences. Part of the controversy can be explained by the differing designs of these studies and the variable definitions of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

  7. Glycemic index, glycemic load and childhood obesity: A systematic review

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several evidences have been reported so far in terms of the relationship between obesity and glycemic index and glycemic load in children. However, the number of review studies that have dealt with recent findings is quite low. The purpose of present study is to review the existing evidences in this regard. Materials and Methods: First of all, the phrases: "Glycaemic index", "Glycaemic load", "Glycemic index" OR "Glycemic load" accompanied by one of the words: "Adolescent", "Young", "Youth" "Children" OR "Child" were searched in texts of articles existing in ISI and PUBMED databases which were obtained out of 1001 articles. Among these, some articles, which reviewed the relationship of obesity with glycemic index and glycemic load, were selected. Finally, 20 articles were studied in current review study. Results: The majority of cross-sectional studies have found children′s obesity directly linked with glycemic index and glycemic load; however, cohort studies found controversial results. Also, the intervention studies indicate the negative effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on obesity in children. Conclusion: Published evidences reported inconsistent results. It seems that existing studies are not sufficient and more studies are needed in this regard.

  8. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  9. Combination therapy with insulin and oral agents: optimizing glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2002-01-01

    The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) showed that tight glycemic control with any of several therapeutic regimens has the potential to significantly reduce the risk for long-term microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. An important question that remains to be answered is what is the best approach to optimizing glycemic control in patients with this disease. This article reviews results of studies in which insulin was used alone or in combination with oral antidiabetic agents for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of comparative studies (13 in insulin-naive and 26 in previously insulin-treated patients) showed that combination therapy involving one to two insulin injections per day plus oral therapy is usually more effective than insulin monotherapy for achieving and maintaining glycemic control. Combination treatment for type 2 diabetes can be significantly improved by newly developed preparations that lack the major limitations of older products. Once-daily administration of isophane insulin (NPH insulin) is limited by a 15-18-h duration of action and a peak effect that occurs about 6 h after injection. Insulin glargine, a new insulin analogue developed using recombinant DNA technology, has a flat pharmacodynamic profile and a 24-h duration of action. Results from a recent comparative study indicate that insulin glargine plus oral therapy may provide better post-dinner glucose control as well as less symptomatic and nocturnal hypoglycemia than oral therapy combined with NPH insulin. The studies reviewed in the present article support the conclusion that combination therapy with insulin glargine combined with one or more oral antidiabetic agents may be the treatment of choice for achieving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:12324990

  10. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, gl

  11. Tight Bernoulli tail probability bounds

    Dzindzalieta, Dainius

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to prove universal tight bounds for deviation from the mean probability inequalities for functions of random variables. Universal bounds shows that they are uniform with respect to some class of distributions and quantity of variables and other parameters. The bounds are called tight, if we can construct a sequence of random variables, such that the upper bounds are achieved. Such inequalities are useful for example in insurance mathematics, for constructing...

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods

    Stephen; Heung-sang; Wong

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the glycemic index(GI)and glycemic load(GL)values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong.METHODS:Fifteen healthy subjects(8 males and 7 females)volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast.The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before,15,30,45,60,90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples.The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose respon...

  13. Prime tight frames

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  14. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults12345

    Mendez, Michelle A; Covas, Maria Isabel; Marrugat, Jaume; Vila, Joan; Schröder, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Background: Studies on obesity and glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) have had inconsistent results, perhaps in part because of underreporting or to heterogeneous dietary patterns across food cultures.

  15. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    Bressan Josefina; Cecon Paulo R.; Marins João CB; Pereira Letícia G; Cocate Paula G; Alfenas Rita CG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI) foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI) foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period b...

  16. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance

    Lau, Cathrine; Faerch, Kristine; Glümer, Charlotte;

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women.......To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women....

  17. Glycemic Targets in Diabetes Care: Emerging Clarity after Accord

    Buse, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Through the 1990s convincing evidence emerged from studies involving relatively recent onset diabetes that glycemic control achieving glycated hemoglobin A1c levels of approximately 7% was associated with improved microvascular outcomes. Based on advocacy groups' statements encouraging lower targets and recognition of cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death in diabetes, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study was funded in 1999 to explore more intensi...

  18. Tight Diabetes Control

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  19. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine; Carstensen, Bendix; Glumer, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Torben; Tetens, Inge; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance.......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a.......05). Intake of dietary fiber explained the associations with daily glycemic load and total carbohydrate and attenuated the association with fruit and vegetables. No significant associations were observed for daily glycemic index or sucrose. CONCLUSIONS - Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and...

  20. Tight products and Expansion

    Daniely, Amit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a new product of graphs called {\\em tight product}. A graph $H$ is said to be a tight product of two (undirected multi) graphs $G_1$ and $G_2$, if $V(H)=V(G_1)\\times V(G_2)$ and both projection maps $V(H)\\to V(G_1)$ and $V(H)\\to V(G_2)$ are covering maps. It is not a priori clear when two given graphs have a tight product (in fact, it is $NP$-hard to decide). We investigate the conditions under which this is possible. This perspective yields a new characterization of class-1 $(2k+1)$-regular graphs. We also obtain a new model of random $d$-regular graphs whose second eigenvalue is almost surely at most $O(d^{3/4})$. This construction resembles random graph lifts, but requires fewer random bits.

  1. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  2. Leak-tightness technology

    In this chapter on the leak-tightness of welded joints a study is made of welding and bonding technology (metals, glass-metals, ceramic-metals), the welding of flanges and collars, the welding of end pieces, the welding of an electric crossover and a bellows

  3. Tight bifunctional hierarchical catalyst.

    Højholt, Karen T; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; Beato, Pablo

    2011-12-28

    A new concept to prepare tight bifunctional catalysts has been developed, by anchoring CoMo(6) clusters on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for simultaneous use in HDS and hydrocracking catalysis. The prepared material displays a significant improved activity in HDS catalysis compared to the impregnated counterpart. PMID:22048337

  4. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Selladurai Pirasath; Kulasingam Thayananthan; Sandrasekarampillai Balakumar; Vasanthy Arasaratnam

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI) values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain), ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain), and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain) varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public t...

  5. Depression, glycemic control and type 2 diabetes

    Papelbaum Marcelo; Moreira Rodrigo de O.; Coutinho Walmir; Kupfer Rosane; Zagury Leão; Freitas Silvia; Appolinário José C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Comorbid depression in diabetes has been suggested as one of the possible causes of an inadequate glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between major depression and the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Seventy T2DM patients were evaluated. They underwent a psychiatric examination using the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Beck Depression Inventory. The diabetes status wa...

  6. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications

    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  7. On weakly tight families

    Raghavan, Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Using ideas from Shelah's recent proof that a completely separable maximal almost disjoint family exists when $\\c < {\\aleph}_{\\omega}$, we construct a weakly tight family under the hypothesis $\\s \\leq \\b < {\\aleph}_{\\omega}$. The case when $\\s < \\b$ is handled in $\\ZFC$ and does not require $\\b < {\\aleph}_{\\omega}$, while an additional PCF type hypothesis, which holds when $\\b < {\\aleph}_{\\omega}$ is used to treat the case $\\s = \\b$. The notion of a weakly tight family is a natural weakening of the well studied notion of a Cohen indestructible maximal almost disjoint family. It was introduced by Hru{\\v{s}}{\\'a}k and Garc{\\'{\\i}}a Ferreira \\cite{Hr1}, who applied it to the Kat\\'etov order on almost disjoint families.

  8. BEYOND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS: EFFECTS OF INCRETIN-BASED THERAPY ON BONE METABOLISM

    FRANCESCODOTTA

    2013-06-01

    Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients.

  9. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  11. Patient perception of understanding health education and instructions has moderating effect on glycemic control

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether health literacy is independently associated with processes or outcomes of diabetes-related care is controversial. We tried to demonstrate the interaction of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions in achieving glycemic control. Methods Five hundred and one consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the outpatient clinic of the metabolism department were recruited into this pilot study. The demographic data were collected from patients’ self-reports. The clinical background information was collected through electronic medical records. A questionnaire derived from part of the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale was used to measure numeracy and functional health literacy of people with diabetes. Health literacy levels were categorized into inadequate, marginal and adequate. Patient self-ratings of their perceived understanding of the health education information and instructions provided by their case manager in the past were categorized into two subgroups: better and poor. Patients with an HbA1c level equal to or below 7% were considered to have good glycemic control. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find associated factors of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions. GENMOD procedures were used to analyze repeated outcome measurements of glycemic control. Results Higher educational attainment and higher household income (odds ratios were 2.23 and 2.22, respectively) were significantly associated with patients who had adequate health literacy. Higher educational attainment and patients with a family history of DM (odds ratios were 4.99 and 1.85, respectively) were significantly associated with better understanding of health education and instructions. Adequate health literacy is not the only factor associated with good glycemic control. The effect of adequate health literacy in achieving good glycemic control might be masked by patients with better understanding

  12. Determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients in Southwest Ethiopia: hospital based cross sectional study.

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetic complications. Despite this, achieving good glycemic control remains a challenge in diabetic patients. The objective of this study is to identify determinants of glycemic control among insulin treated diabetic patients at Jimma University Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on systematically sampled 284 insulin-treated diabetic patients with a regular follow up. Data was collected by interviewing patients during hospital visits and reviewing respective databases of September 2010 to December 2011. Data collection took place from February 20 to May 20, 2012. Poor glycemic control was defined as fasting blood sugar (FBS ≥126 mg/dL. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of poor glycemic control. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 41.37 (±15.08 years, 58.5% were males, the mean duration of insulin treatment was 4.9 (±5.1 years, 18.3% achieved good glycemic control (FBS≤126 mg/dL, 95% self-reported repeated use of disposable insulin syringe-needle and 48% correctly rotating insulin injection sites. Most (83.1% of study participants had one or more complications. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, body weight of >70 Kg (AOR = 0.21; P<0.001, total daily dose of insulin ≤35 IU/day (AOR = 0.26; P<0.001, total daily dose variation without checking glycemic level (AOR = 3.39; P = 0.020, knowledge deficit about signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (AOR = 3.60; P = 0.004, and non-adherence to dietary management (AOR = 0.35; P = 0.005 were independent predictors of poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high, which resulted in the development of one or more complications regardless of duration on insulin treatment. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors and

  13. Subjective Assessment of Diabetes Self-Care Correlates with Perceived Glycemic Control but not with Actual Glycemic Control

    Jung Hun Ohn; Ju Hee Lee; Eun Shil Hong; Bo Kyung Koo; Sang Wan Kim; Ka Hee Yi; Min Kyong Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated whether patients' perceived glycemic control and self-reported diabetes self-care correlated with their actual glycemic control. Methods A survey was administered among patients with diabetes mellitus at an outpatient clinic with structured self-report questionnaires regarding perceived glycemic control and diabetes self-management. Actual glycemic control was defined as a change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) since the last clinic visi...

  14. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  15. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos; Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio; Maria Olganê Dantas Sabry; Maria Luisa Pereira de Melo; Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho; José Wellington de Oliveira Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”), guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommend...

  16. Practice of strict glycemic control in critically ill patients.

    Schultz, Marcus J; de Graaff, Mart J; Royakkers, Annic A N M; van Braam Houckgeest, Floris; van der Sluijs, Johannes P; Kieft, Hans; Spronk, Peter E

    2008-11-01

    Blood glucose control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as "strict glycemic control", decreases mortality and morbidity of critically ill patients. We searched the medical literature for export opinions, surveys, and clinical reports on blood glucose control in intensive care medicine. While strict glycemic control has been recommended standard of care for critically ill patients, the risk of severe hypoglycemia with strict glycemic control is frequently mentioned by experts. Some rationalize this risk, though others strongly point out the high incidence of hypoglycemia to be (one) reason not to perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete in intensive care units across the world. Frequently local guidelines accept higher blood glucose levels than those with strict glycemic control. Only a minority of retrieved manuscripts are on blood glucose regimens with the lower targets as with strict glycemic control. Hypoglycemia certainly is encountered with blood glucose control, in particular with strict glycemic control. Reports show intensive care-nurses can adequately and safely perform strict glycemic control. Implementation of strict glycemic control is far from complete, at least in part because of the feared risks of hypoglycemia. The preference for hyperglycemia over intermittent hypoglycemia is irrational, however, because there is causal evidence of harm for the former but only associative evidence of harm for the latter. For several reasons it is wise to have strict glycemic control being a nurse-based strategy. PMID:18971884

  17. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe i

  18. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  19. Subjective Assessment of Diabetes Self-Care Correlates with Perceived Glycemic Control but not with Actual Glycemic Control

    Jung Hun Ohn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated whether patients' perceived glycemic control and self-reported diabetes self-care correlated with their actual glycemic control.MethodsA survey was administered among patients with diabetes mellitus at an outpatient clinic with structured self-report questionnaires regarding perceived glycemic control and diabetes self-management. Actual glycemic control was defined as a change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C or fasting plasma glucose (FPG since the last clinic visit.ResultsPatients who perceived their glycemic control as "improved" actually showed a mild but significant decrease in the mean A1C (-0.1%, P=0.02, and those who perceived glycemic control as "aggravated" had a significant increase in the mean FPG (10.5 mg/dL or 0.59 mmol/L, P=0.04 compared to the "stationary" group. However, one-half of patients falsely predicted their actual glycemic control status. Subjective assessment of diabetes self-care efforts, such as adherence to a diet regimen or physical activity, correlated positively with perceived glycemic control but showed no association with actual glycemic control.ConclusionPatients should be encouraged to assess and monitor diabetes self-care more objectively to motivate behavioral modifications and improve their actual glycemic control.

  20. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  1. Tight control benefits dewatering

    Dahlstrom, D.A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Depts. of Chemical Engineering Metallurgy and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Dewatering of fine coal can be effectively achieved by the proper control of: particle size distribution, concentration of feed solids, slimes content in the feed, vacuum level, filter media, and filter cycle time. Attention must also be paid to the operation of the tailings thickener, to control: feed size distribution, concentration of feed solids, flocculant preparation, concentration of underflow solids and overflow quality. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  3. Glycemic and blood pressure control in older patients with hypertension and diabetes: association with carotid atherosclerosis

    Hong-Wei Du; Jia-Yue Li; Yao He

    2011-01-01

    Backgroud Numerous studies have confirmed the effectiveness of slowing the progression of atherosclerosis by blood pressure (Bp)control in patients with hypertension and several studies also showed the efficacy of intensive glycemic control in decreasing progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.However, few studies have compared the relative importance of glycemic vs.Bp control in patients with diabetes and hypertension.We aimed to investigate the association between Bp and glycemic control and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in older patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.Methods In a cross-sectional study, B-mode high-resolution ultrasonography of the carotid artery was performed in 670 subjects (508 males and 162 females) aged 60 years or over who had self-reported hypertension and diabetes but no history of coronary heart disease or stroke.Subjects were categorized by their systolic blood pressure: tight control, < 130 mmHg; usual control, 130-139 mmHg; or uncontrolled, > 140 mmHg,and by their hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc) level: tight control, < 6.5%; usual control, 6.5%-7.5%; or uncontrolled, ≥ 7.5%, respectively.Results The mean CIMT was 8.20 ± 0.11 mm, and carotid plaque was found in 52.5% (352/670) subjects.Overall, 62.1% of the subjects had subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, defined as having either carotid plaque or elevated CIMT (≥1.1 mm).The mean CIMT was significantly different between Bp control categories (7.60 ± 0.09 mm, 7.90 ± 0.08 mm, and 8.60 ± 0.12 mm, respectively, P = 0.03) but not between glycemic control categories (8.20 ± 0.10 mm, 8.1 ± 0.08 mm, and 8.40 ± 0.14 mm, respectively, P = 0.13) using ANCOVA analysis.Multivariable logistic regression adjusting for potential confounding factors showed that usual or uncontrolled Bp control were associated with having carotid plaque (OR = 1.08 and OR = 1.42, respectively), or elevated CIMT [Odd ratio (OR) = 1

  4. Patient perception of understanding health education and instructions has moderating effect on glycemic control

    Chen, Gin-Den; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lew-Ting, Chin-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether health literacy is independently associated with processes or outcomes of diabetes-related care is controversial. We tried to demonstrate the interaction of health literacy and understanding of health education and instructions in achieving glycemic control. Methods Five hundred and one consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the outpatient clinic of the metabolism department were recruited into this pilot study. The demographic data were collected from p...

  5. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe is mechanically fitted inside a carbon steel outer pipe through a thermo-hydraulic manufacturing process. Reeling is a fast method of offshore pipeline installation where a pipe is spooled on a reel...

  6. Tight p-fusion frames

    Bachoc, Christine; Ehler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fusion frames enable signal decompositions into weighted linear subspace components. For positive integers p, we introduce p-fusion frames, a sharpening of the notion of fusion frames. Tight p-fusion frames are closely related to the classical notions of designs and cubature formulas in Grassmann spaces and are analyzed with methods from harmonic analysis in the Grassmannians. We define the p-fusion frame potential, derive bounds for its value, and discuss the connections to tight p-fusion fr...

  7. Better Glycemic Control with Insulin Premix 50/50 TID Compared to Insulin Premix 70/30 BID - Original Article

    Hasan Aydın; Hülya Demir; İbrahim Volkan Şenkal; Fevzi Fırat Yalnız; Ayşe Ayrılmaz

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Since only a small proportion of diabetics achieve optimal glycemic targets, intensification of treatment with insulin is needed in most of the cases. Application of insulin lispro premix 50/50 TID provides better glycemic control compared to human insulin premix 70/30 and comparable results reported with basal-bolus insulin regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of insulin lispro premix 50/50 TID (Group 1, n=60) in comparison with insulin aspart premix 70/30 (...

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30 - 60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire......, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity...

  9. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  10. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  11. Use of the glycemic index in nutrition education

    Flávia Galvão Cândido

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the lack of studies providing practical guidance for the use of the glycemic index has been indicated as the cause of its little use in nutrition education. The aim of this study is to give instructions on the use of the glycemic index as a tool to be used in nutrition education to estimulate the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Studies published over the past 12 years, in addition to classic studies on this topic, found in the databases MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Lilacs exploring the importance of the glycemic index and the factors that affect the glycemic index were selected for this article. The preparation of lists grouping foods according to their glycemic index should be based on information found in tables and specific web sites. This is an interesting strategy that must be very carefully conducted, considering the eating habits of the assisted people. To reduce the postprandial blood glucose response, high glycemic index foods should be consumed in association with the following foods: high protein and low fat foods, good quality oils and unprocessed foods with high fiber content. Caffeine should also be avoided. The glycemic index should be considered as an additional carbohydrate-selection tool, which should be part of a nutritionally balanced diet capable of promoting and/or maintaining body weight and health.

  12. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), inc

  13. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge; Richelsen, B.; Jørgensen, T.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Glumer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The few studies examining the potential associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and body mass index (BMI) have provided no clear pictures. Underreporting of energy intake may be one explanation for this. Objective: We examined the associations between GI, GL, and...

  14. Intraoperative glycemic control procedures and the use of an artificial pancreas

    Koichi Yamashita; Tomoaki Yatabe

    2009-01-01

    Strict intraoperative glycemic control can significantly decrease the incidence of postoperative infection;however, anesthesiologists must carefully control blood glucose levels as well as properly manage the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. However,standard blood glucose measurement systems and insulin dosing algorithms, which are necessary for achieving strict glycemic control, have not yet been developed. An artificial pancreas (STG-22TM;Nikkiso Co., Tokyo, Japan) is considered a highly accurate blood glucose monitoring system capable of closedloopcontrol of blood glucose. The device has, however,many problems to be addressed since it is a large and expensive system with little versatility, and it requires a large amount of blood to be collected. Therefore,the development of less invasive and inexpensive systems with future technological progress is greatly anticipated.

  15. Microfine grouting in tight fractures

    Microfine cements were used to grout tight fractures in basalt at McNary Dam in Umatilla, Oregon. Six boreholes were grouted with different microfine mixes. Hydraulic conductivity testing before and after the grouting provided a quantitative estimate of average fracture apertures and the effect of grouting on rock mass permeability. A downhole video camera survey was conducted in each hole to determine which fractures and joint sets allowed grout penetration. Pressure and the flow rate for grout were monitored during the testing. Total grout takes were calculated for each borehole stage grouted. Grouting pressures varied from less than a quarter to more than five times the estimated overburden pressure. The results of this testing indicate that tight fractures can be grouted with microfine cements. In addition, for tight fracture the relationship of injection pressures to grout take is significantly more non-linear than conventional grouting experience has suggested

  16. Metabolic responses to high glycemic index and low glycemic index meals: a controlled crossover clinical trial

    Bressan Josefina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of low glycemic index (LGI foods before exercise results in slower and more stable glycemic increases. Besides maintaining an adequate supply of energy during exercise, this response may favor an increase in fat oxidation in the postprandial period before the exercise compared to high glycemic index (HGI foods. The majority of the studies that evaluated the effect of foods differing in glycemic index on substrate oxidation during the postprandial period before the exercise are acute studies in which a single meal is consumed right before the exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consuming two daily HGI or LGI meals for five consecutive days on substrate oxidation before the exercise and in the concentrations of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids before and during a high intensity exercise. Methods Fifteen male cyclists, aged 24.4 ± 3.8 years, with body mass index of 21.9 ± 1.4 kg.m-2 and a VO2 max of 70.0 ± 5.3 mL.kg-1.min-1, participated in this crossover study. All test meals were consumed in the laboratory. On days 1 and 5, substrate oxidation (30 minutes before and 90 minutes after breakfast (HGI or LGI and diet-induced thermogenesis (90 minutes postprandial were assessed before the exercise. The levels of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were determined during 2 h after breakfast on these same days. Ninety minutes after breakfast, subjects completed a 30 min cycloergometric exercise at 85 to 95% of their maximum heart rate, during which lactate concentrations were assessed. Results The consumption of HGI meals resulted in higher areas under the glycemic and insulinemic curves in the postprandial period. However, glycemia did not differ by study treatment during exercise. There were no differences in free fatty acids in the postprandial period or in lactate levels during exercise. LGI meals resulted in lower fat oxidation and higher carbohydrate oxidation than the

  17. Sotagliflozin improves glycemic control in nonobese diabetes-prone mice with type 1 diabetes

    Powell DR

    2015-02-01

    diabetic mice maintained on a low insulin dose. This sotagliflozin-mediated improvement in glycemic control was comparable to that achieved by raising the insulin dose alone, but was not accompanied by the increased rate of hypoglycemia measurements observed with the higher insulin dose. Keywords: insulin, glucose, hypoglycemia, hemoglobin A1c

  18. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study.

    Nusca, Annunziata; Lauria Pantano, Angelo; Melfi, Rosetta; Proscia, Claudio; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Contuzzi, Rocco; Mangiacapra, Fabio; Palermo, Andrea; Manfrini, Silvia; Pozzilli, Paolo; Di Sciascio, Germano

    2015-01-01

    Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV) has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome. PMID:26273664

  19. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study

    Annunziata Nusca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome.

  20. Perioperative glycemic control%围手术期病人的血糖调控

    赵春临; 袁甲翔

    2011-01-01

    糖尿病病人围手术期维持血糖稳定是一大难题.围手术期高血糖能引发病人术后感染和增加病死率.尽管如此,严格控制血糖(如胰岛素强化治疗)却能导致低血糖等不良事件的发生.围手术期血糖控制的合理目标和最佳方式仍无充分的依据.本文作者复习近年来的有关研究,并结合自己临床经验,现就围手术期病人的血糖控制作一探讨.%Maintaining glycemic control is difficult in diabetic patients who are undergoing surgery. Perioperative hyperglycemia increases the risk of postoperative infection and mortality. However, tight glycemic control such as intensive insulin therapy has a risk of hypoglycemia. In addition, the optimal target range and the best way for blood glucose to reduce postoperative infection remains unknown.

  1. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  2. Dietary patterns associated with glycemic index and glycemic load among Alberta adolescents.

    Forbes, Laura E; Storey, Kate E; Fraser, Shawn N; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M; McCargar, Linda J

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of adolescents, based on a Web-based 24-h recall, and to investigate dietary predictors of GI and GL. In addition, the relationship between GI and GL and weight status was examined. A Web-based 24-h recall was completed by 4936 adolescents, aged 9-17 years; macronutrient and food group intakes were assessed using the ESHA Food Processor, the Canadian Nutrient File, and Canada's Food Guide. Dietary GI and GL were calculated based on published GI values for foods. Students provided self-reported height and mass. Multiple regression models assessed the ability of food group choices and food behaviours to predict GI and GL. Mean GI was 55 for girls and 56 for boys. Mean GL was 128 for girls and 168 for boys. Food group choices explained 26% of the variation in GI (p GL (p GL; however, these results disappeared when adjusted for total energy intake. The GI was positively correlated with body mass index in girls (r = 0.05, p = 0.02), and GL was significantly higher among nonoverweight boys than overweight boys. This study identified eating patterns related to daily GI and GL, and suggests certain dietary patterns that could have beneficial effects on health. It also showed that GI and GL were weakly related to weight status. PMID:19767800

  3. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and their relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese children.

    Zhang, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanna; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Guo, Li; Jin, Yu; Ma, Yinghua; Chen, Yajun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Chinese children. A total of 234 Chinese schoolchildren aged 8-11 years in Guangdong participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed via a 3-day dietary record. Seven established cardiovascular indicators were analyzed in this study: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Higher dietary GI was significantly associated with higher TG levels (P = 0.037) and lower HDL-C levels (P = 0.005) after adjusting for age, sex, nutritional intake, physical activity, and body mass index z score. LDL-C was found to differ across tertiles of dietary GL. The middle tertile tended to show the highest level of LDL-C. TC, FPG, and blood pressure were independent of both dietary GI and GL. Our findings suggest that higher dietary GI is differentially associated with some CVD risk factors, including lower HDL-C and higher TG, in school-aged children from south China. PMID:26944225

  4. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects. PMID:1959761

  5. Better Glycemic Control with Insulin Premix 50/50 TID Compared to Insulin Premix 70/30 BID - Original Article

    Hasan Aydın

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since only a small proportion of diabetics achieve optimal glycemic targets, intensification of treatment with insulin is needed in most of the cases. Application of insulin lispro premix 50/50 TID provides better glycemic control compared to human insulin premix 70/30 and comparable results reported with basal-bolus insulin regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of insulin lispro premix 50/50 TID (Group 1, n=60 in comparison with insulin aspart premix 70/30 (Group 2, n=62. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients, who were started on insulin treatment for the first time, were screened retrospectively. Change in A1C levels, 4-point self-monitored blood glucose measurements and rate of hypoglycemia within a 3-month period were recorded. Results: Basal A1C levels were higher (p=0.002 and the rate of improvement was greater in patients of Group 1 than in Group 2 patients (p=0.0006. There was no difference between the patients in achieving target A1C level and in the rate of hypoglycemia. A greater decrease in postprandial blood glucose level was achieved in patients of Group 1 (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Compared to insulin aspart premix 70/30, insulin lispro premix 50/50 provided better glycemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. Turk Jem 2010; 14: 60-5

  6. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome

    Rogers, S.A.

    1987-12-01

    Formaldehyde is but one of many chemicals capable of causing the tight building syndrome or environmentally induced illness (EI). The spectrum of symptoms it may induce includes attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness, arthralgia, unwarranted depression, dysphonia, exhaustion, inability to think clearly, arrhythmia or muscle spasms. The nonspecificity of such symptoms can baffle physicians from many specialties. Presented herein is a simple office method for demonstrating that formaldehyde is among the etiologic agents triggering these symptoms. The very symptoms that patients complain of can be provoked within minutes, and subsequently abolished, with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of formaldehyde. This injection aids in convincing the patient of the cause of the symptoms so he can initiate measure to bring his disease under control.

  7. Fingerprinting with Equiangular Tight Frames

    Mixon, Dustin G; Kiyavash, Negar; Fickus, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Digital fingerprinting is a framework for marking media files, such as images, music, or movies, with user-specific signatures to deter illegal distribution. Multiple users can collude to produce a forgery that can potentially overcome a fingerprinting system. This paper proposes an equiangular tight frame fingerprint design which is robust to such collusion attacks. We motivate this design by considering digital fingerprinting in terms of compressed sensing. The attack is modeled as linear averaging of multiple marked copies before adding a Gaussian noise vector. The content owner can then determine guilt by exploiting correlation between each user's fingerprint and the forged copy. The worst-case error probability of this detection scheme is analyzed and bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the average-case performance is similar to the performance of orthogonal and simplex fingerprint designs, while accommodating several times as many users.

  8. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  9. Glycemic Control for Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Hai-peng XIAO; Juan CHEN

    2009-01-01

    @@ The risk of myocardial infarction increases in patients with diabetes mellitus. The incidence of myocardial in-farction is similar in patients with type 2 diabetes without history of myocardial infarction and in non-diabetic pa-tients with history of myocardial infarction. Diabetes mellitus was considered as a coronary disease equivalent by the National Cholesterol Education Program. Strict glycemic control can improve the long-term outcome of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whatever with diabetic or non-diabetic, strict glycemic control with in-tensive insulin therapy can reduce the mortality of criti-cally ill patients in hospital. After myocardial infarction, there would be a worse outcome for patients with poor glycemic control, whatever in diabetic or non-diabetic patients with stress hyperglycemia.

  10. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    potential field data, the GGRB was divided into partitions that will be used to analyze the resource potential of the Frontier and Mesaverde Upper Cretaceous tight gas play. A total of 20 partitions were developed, which will be instrumental for examining the Upper Cretaceous play potential. (5) Partition Analysis. Resource assessment associated with individual partitions was initiated starting with the Vermilion Sub-basin and the Green River Deep (which include the Stratos well) partitions (see Chapter 5). (6) Technology Transfer. Tech transfer was achieved by documenting our research and presenting it at various conferences.

  12. [Dapagliflozin: Beyond glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Sanz-Serra, Pol; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A; Benaiges, David; Chillarón, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a high or very high cardiovascular risk. The clinical practice guidelines focus on the need to achieve optimal glycemic control, and strategies for a multifactorial therapeutic approach have shown significant cardiovascular benefits in these patients. Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) are a new class of orally administered drugs in the treatment of T2DM, which act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the renal proximal tubule with consequent glycosuric effect and lowering of blood glucose. Dapagliflozin, SGLT-2 inhibitor marketed in Europe and Australia, has been shown to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin reductions similar to other oral agents, as well as beneficial effects on major comorbidities associated with T2DM. Therefore, it is considered of interest to review the clinical efficacy of this new oral hypoglycemic on glycemic control, risk of hypoglycemia, and its impact on body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile and renal function. PMID:25648671

  13. Glycemic Status and Brain Injury in Older Individuals

    Saczynski, Jane S.; Siggurdsson, Sigurdur; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Olafsdottir, Elin; Kjartansson, Olafur; Harris, Tamara B; van Buchem, Mark A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of glycemic status to magnetic resonance imaging indicators of brain pathological changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 4,415 men and women without dementia (mean age 76 years) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study. Glycemic status groups included the following: type 2 diabetes (self-report of diabetes, use of diabetes medications, or fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l [...

  14. Carbohydrate Intake, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Stroke: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Shan; Cao, Gaoyang; Jin, Chao; Yu, Jiawei; Li, Xiuyang; Yan, Jing; Wang, Fudi; Yu, Wei; Ding, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between carbohydrate intake/glycemic index (GI)/glycemic load (GL) and stroke risk. A literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CBM databases was performed to retrieve eligible studies published up to March 2014. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger's regression asymmetry test and Begg's rank correlation test with Begg's funnel plot. All analyses were conducted using software STATA 12.0 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX) and SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). We identified 7 prospective studies that met the inclusion criteria and processed data from cohort studies to update available evidence. There were 25 independent estimates and 225 000 participants free of diabetes from 6 different countries; 3046 stroke events were included; and the follow-up range was 5 to 18 years. High GI was not associated with risk of stroke events (pooled RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.21); GL was a risk factor for stroke (pooled RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.36). There was no significant association between high carbohydrate intake and stroke risk (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.93-1.35). A daily high GL diet is the risk factor of stroke event, and further researches need to verify the meta-analyses results and study associated mechanisms. PMID:25593213

  15. Utility of different glycemic control metrics for optimizingmanagement of diabetes

    Klaus-Dieter Kohnert; Peter Heinke; Lutz Vogt; Eckhard Salzsieder

    2015-01-01

    The benchmark for assessing quality of long-termglycemic control and adjustment of therapy is currentlyglycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Despite its importanceas an indicator for the development of diabeticcomplications, recent studies have revealed that thismetric has some limitations; it conveys a rather complexmessage, which has to be taken into considerationfor diabetes screening and treatment. On the basis ofrecent clinical trials, the relationship between HbA1cand cardiovascular outcomes in long-standing diabeteshas been called into question. It becomes obvious thatother surrogate and biomarkers are needed to betterpredict cardiovascular diabetes complications and assessefficiency of therapy. Glycated albumin, fructosamin,and 1,5-anhydroglucitol have received growing interestas alternative markers of glycemic control. In additionto measures of hyperglycemia, advanced glucosemonitoring methods became available. An indispensibleadjunct to HbA1c in routine diabetes care is selfmonitoringof blood glucose. This monitoring methodis now widely used, as it provides immediate feedbackto patients on short-term changes, involving fasting,preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels. Beyondthe traditional metrics, glycemic variability has beenidentified as a predictor of hypoglycemia, and it mightalso be implicated in the pathogenesis of vasculardiabetes complications. Assessment of glycemicvariability is thus important, but exact quantificationrequires frequently sampled glucose measurements. Inorder to optimize diabetes treatment, there is a needfor both key metrics of glycemic control on a day-to-daybasis and for more advanced, user-friendly monitoringmethods. In addition to traditional discontinuous glucosetesting, continuous glucose sensing has become auseful tool to reveal insufficient glycemic management.This new technology is particularly effective in patientswith complicated diabetes and provides the opportunityto characterize glucose dynamics. Several

  16. Clinical Outcomes of Metabolic Surgery: Efficacy of Glycemic Control, Weight Loss, and Remission of Diabetes.

    Schauer, Philip R; Mingrone, Geltrude; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Wolfe, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Since the 2007 Diabetes Surgery Summit in Rome, Italy, and the subsequent publishing of the world's first guidelines for the surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), much new evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of metabolic surgery has emerged. Additional observational cohort studies support the superior effects of surgery over medical treatment with respect to glycemic control, weight loss, and even reduction in mortality and microvascular complications associated with T2D. Furthermore, new safety data suggest that the perioperative morbidity and mortality of metabolic surgery (5% and 0.3%, respectively) are now similar to that of common low-risk procedures, such as cholecystectomy and hysterectomy. The largest advance, however, has been the completion of 11 randomized controlled trials from around the globe that compare surgery with medical treatment of T2D. These studies with follow-up duration of 1-5 years involve nearly 800 patients without surgical mortality and with major complication rates of less than 5% and a reoperation rate of 8%. All but 1 of the 11 randomized controlled trials have shown the superiority of surgery over medical management at achieving remission or glycemic improvement. Surgery was also superior to medical treatment with respect to improving cardiovascular risk factors, such as weight loss and dyslipidemia, while reducing medication burden. This new efficacy and safety evidence should help guide physicians across the globe to the appropriate use of surgery as an effective treatment for patients suffering from T2D and obesity. PMID:27222548

  17. Improvement of Glycemic Control in Insulin-Dependent Diabetics with Depression by Concomitant Treatment with Antidepressants.

    Radojkovic, Jana; Sikanic, Natasa; Bukumiric, Zoran; Tadic, Marijana; Kostic, Nada; Babic, Rade

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is still disputable whether negative effects of comorbid depression in diabetics can be diminished by successful treatment of depression. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether addition of antidepressants to existing insulin treatment would further improve glycemic control in these patients. A secondary objective was to assess whether such treatment impairs their lipid and inflammatory status. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total of 192 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (defined as HbA1c ≥8%) in the absence of any uncontrolled medical condition entered the 6-month run-in phase with optimization of diabetic therapy. Depression status was screened at the end of this phase by BDI-II depression testing. Patients with BDI-II ≥14 and psychiatric confirmation of depression (58 patients) entered the 6-month interventional phase with SSRI class antidepressants. RESULTS Fifty patients completed the study. During the run-in phase, HbA1c dropped from 10.0±1.8% to 8.5±1.2% (pdepression scale and improvement in glycemic control was observed (R²=0.139, p=0.008). Lipid profile and inflammatory status did not change significantly during the interventional phase. CONCLUSIONS Patients with poorly controlled diabetes and comorbid depression might benefit from screening and treatment of depression with SSRI antidepressants by achieving an incremental effect on glycoregulation. This therapy did not have any adverse effects on lipid profile or inflammatory status. PMID:27329213

  18. Approaches to reduce the glycemic response of gluten-free products: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Capriles, V D; Arêas, J A G

    2016-03-01

    This article aims to discuss the current approaches used to reduce the postprandial glycemic response (GR) of starchy gluten-free products (GFP) and to provide some further prospects. The GR is evaluated through in vivo trials to determine the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of foods or using the in vitro starch digestibility method to predict the GI. The reviewed studies demonstrated that a reduction in the GR of GFP can be achieved by replacing traditionally used refined flours and starches with nutrient-dense alternative raw materials due to an increase in dietary fiber, resistant starch and protein contents, which can alter the rate of starch digestion, reduce the GI and dilute the amount of available carbohydrate; both the factors contribute to reduce the GL. The addition of viscous dietary fibers could also be a successful way to reduce the GR of GFP. Some studies have demonstrated the potential of germination of GF grains and sourdough fermentation in decreasing the GR of GF bread. Further studies could evaluate alternative GF flours, soluble fibers, resistant starch, and other formulation factors that may affect the GR of different types of GFP. New studies should be performed to test and optimize processing methods by considering the reduction of GR of GFP. Another key aspect for further investigation is the confirmation of the promising results obtained through in vitro assays by in vivo GI evaluation. PMID:26838096

  19. Relationship of morphological changes of blood cells with endothelial function, renal function and lipidemic profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal glycemic control and hypertension

    Pertseva N.O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many questions about the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and morphological substrate of hemostasis damage that occur during the progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension require clarification and further advance. Objective. The aim of this study is to determine the relationships between endothelial dysfunction, the degree of renal function damage, lipidemic profile and morphological changes of vascular-platelet hemostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal glycemic control and hypertension. Methods. In 87 patients with insufficient glycemic compensation using clinical, laboratory, morphological methods and correlational analysis were identified association between endothelial dysfunction, degree of renal function damage, lipidemic profile and morphological changes of vascular-platelet hemostasis. Results. Against the background of insufficient glycemic compensation glycated hemoglobin concentration tightly correlated with the share of activated platelets (r=+0.77; p<0.05, with the level of aggregated forms (r=+0.82; p<0.05 and the concentration of small blood platelet aggregates (r=+0.76; p<0.05, established a positive relationship with the share degranulated platelets (r=+0.60; p<0.05. Signs of atherogenic dyslipidemia triad that this contingent of patients indicated significant deviation from that of the control group not only had a correlation with the share of activated platelets and content of alpha and delta granules, but also formed a new moderate strength correlations with other observable parameters of platelet morphology. In particular, amid insufficient glycemic compensation formed reliable values of the coefficients of linear correlation in pairs: total cholesterol and activated platelets (r=-0.54, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and activated platelets (r=-0.51, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and aggregated forms (r=+0.59, low density lipoprotein

  20. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven.

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2010-11-01

    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity. PMID:20367217

  1. Lifting scheme of symmetric tight wavelets frames

    ZHUANG BoJin; YUAN WeiTao; PENG LiZhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to realize the lifting scheme of tight frame wavelet filters. As for 4-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the tight frame transforms' ma-trix is 2×4, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 4×4. And in the case of 3-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the transforms' matrix is 2×3, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 3×3. In order to solve this problem, we intro-duce two concepts: transferred polyphase matrix for 4-channel filters and trans-ferred unitary matrix for 3-channel filters. The transferred polyphase matrix is sym-metric/antisymmetric. Thus, we use this advantage to realize the lifting scheme.

  2. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    Kureta, Masatoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Complex Hadamard matrices and Equiangular Tight Frames

    Szöll\\Hosi, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a new construction of parametric families of complex Hadamard matrices of square orders, and connect them to equiangular tight frames. The results presented here generalize some of the recent ideas of Bodmann et al. and extend the list of known equiangular tight frames. In particular, a (36,21) frame coming from a nontrivial cube root signature matrix is obtained for the first time.

  4. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  5. Variable Classifications of Glycemic Index Determined by Glucose Meters

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated and compared the differences of glucose responses, incremental area under curve (IAUC), glycemic index (GI) and the classification of GI values between measured by biochemical analyzer (Fuji automatic biochemistry analyzer (FAA)) and three glucose meters: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 ± 1.5, followed by FAA, ...

  6. Dietary Glycemic Index and the Risk of Birth Defects

    Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Anderka, Marlene; Yazdy, Mahsa M.

    2012-01-01

    Prepregnancy diabetes and obesity have been identified as independent risk factors for several birth defects, providing support for a mechanism that involves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the development of malformations. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1997 to 2007 were used to investigate the association between the maternal dietary glycemic index (DGI) and the risk of birth defects among nondiabetic women. DGI was categorized by using spline regression mo...

  7. Postprandial blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes for carbohydrates with varying glycemic index foods.

    Hashimoto, Shogo; Noguchi, Claudia Cecilia Yamamoto; Furutani, Eiko

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes consists of maintaining postprandial normoglycemia using the correct prandial insulin dose according to food intake. Nonetheless, it is hardly achieved in practice, which results in several diabetes-related complications. In this study we present a feedforward plus feedback blood glucose control system that considers the glycemic index of foods. It consists of a preprandial insulin bolus whose optimal bolus dose and timing are stated as a minimization problem, which is followed by a postprandial closed-loop control based on model predictive control. Simulation results show that, for a representative carbohydrate intake of 50 g, the present control system is able to maintain postprandial glycemia below 140 mg/dL while preventing postprandial hypoglycemia as well. PMID:25571074

  8. Optimizing glycemic control and minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Stanley S Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications arise from hyperglycemia, presenting an increasing healthcare burden as the diabetic population continues to grow. Clinical trial evidence indicates that antihyperglycemic medications are beneficial with regard to microvascular disease (retinopathy, renal impairment, and perhaps neuropathy; however, the benefit of aggressive use of these medications with regard to cardiovascular risk has been less clear in recent studies. These studies were confounded by the propensity of the antihyperglycemic medications involved to cause hypoglycemia, which itself presents cardiovascular risk. This article presents additional context for these seemingly discordant results and maintains that the achievement of glycemic targets is warranted in most patients and provides cardiovascular benefit, provided that hypoglycemia is avoided and the treatment regimen is tailored to the needs of the individual patient. A treatment approach that is driven by these principles and emphasizes diet and exercise, a combination of noninsulin antidiabetic agents, not including sulfonylureas and glinides, and judicious use of insulin is also presented.

  9. Glycemic changes after vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency

    A prospective, nonblinded and nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation would improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who have vitamin D deficiency. Patients and 0 Eighty patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 50 nmol/L were assigned to receive 4000 IU of vitamin D3. Calcium supplements were provided to ensure a total calcium intake of 1200 mg/d. Glycosylated hemoglobin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks.There was a significant difference in mean (SD) glycosylated hemoglobin level (%) between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.02). There was a significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin change from baseline between the groups that achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 51 nmol/L at 12 weeks (P=.04). There was a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between the groups that achieved glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 9.9 at 12 weeks (P=.001). Patients were more likely to achieve lower glycosylated hemoglobin levels at 12 weeks if they had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at 12 weeks (r=-0.4, P=.001).There was an observed effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in vitamin D-replete, type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Further studies are needed to determine if these findings are applicable (Author).

  10. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance, androgens and insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins were assessed at baseline and at eight weeks, a period corresponding to the school term. Forty-three subjects (n = 23 low glycemic index and n = 20 high glycemic index completed the study. Diets differed significantly in glycemic index (mean ± standard error of the mean, low glycemic index 51 ± 1 vs. high glycemic index 61 ± 2, p = 0.0002, but not in macronutrient distribution or fiber content. Facial acne improved on both diets (low glycemic index −26 ± 6%, p = 0.0004 and high glycemic index −16 ± 7%, p = 0.01, but differences between diets did not reach significance. Change in insulin sensitivity was not different between diets (low glycemic index 0.2 ± 0.1 and high glycemic index 0.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.60 and did not correlate with change in acne severity (Pearson correlation r = −0.196, p = 0.244. Longer time frames, greater reductions in glycemic load or/and weight loss may be necessary to detect improvements in acne among adolescent boys.

  11. Tight coupling UFMArcGIS for simulating inundation depth in densely area

    Kang, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of hydrological models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. This paper presents a tight coupling approach within a GIS environment that is achieved by integrating the urban flood model with the macro language of GIS. Such an approach affords an uncomplicated way to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic simulation process of hydrologi...

  12. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    2010-01-15

    ...) Clinical accuracy for blood glucose meters, (2) tight glycemic control in clinical settings, and (3... allow for better glycemic control by diabetics than in the past. Glucose meters are not only used by... evaluated by FDA. For example, glucose meters are increasingly being used to achieve tight glycemic...

  13. Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture after Mini TightRope Suspensionplasty.

    Seetharaman, Mani; Vitale, Mark A; Desai, Kapil; Crowe, John F

    2016-05-01

    Background Arthritis of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint has been surgically treated in multiple ways with varying levels of success as measured by subjective and objective measures. Trapeziectomy with numerous variations in suspensionplasty comprises one of the more commonly used surgical procedures. Recently, the Mini TightRope apparatus has been utilized as a new method for achieving suspensionplasty, and as such lacks significant review of use and safety in the literature. Case Description An extensor pollicis longus (EPL) rupture following a trapeziectomy and Mini TightRope suspensionplasty for CMC arthritis of the thumb is presented. The patient successfully underwent an extensor indicis proprius (EIP) to EPL transfer to treat this complication. Literature Review There is well-established documentation of injury to the extensor tendons from orthopedic hardware such as volar locking plates. Regarding use of the Mini TightRope apparatus, guidelines for placement of the suture button include caution to place the button away from the EPL tendon to minimize the chance of tendon irritation. Additionally, FiberWire sutures, a component of the apparatus, have been shown to demonstrate soft tissue reactions with adjacent inflammatory response. Published reports on adverse events utilizing this device have been limited to case reports including an index metacarpal fracture. Clinical Relevance The aim of this case report was to cite an occurrence of EPL rupture following its use and discuss the possibilities of its direct contribution. PMID:27104081

  14. Exenatide once weekly: sustained improvement in glycemic control and cardiometabolic measures through 3 years

    MacConell L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh MacConell, Richard Pencek, Yan Li, David Maggs, Lisa PorterAmylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC, San Diego, CA, USABackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive metabolic disease necessitating therapies with sustained efficacy and safety over time. Exenatide once weekly (ExQW, an extended-release formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide, has demonstrated improvements in glycemic and cardiometabolic measures from 30 weeks to 2 years of treatment. Here, the efficacy and safety of treatment with ExQW for 3 years are described.Methods: Patients were initially randomized to receive either ExQW (2 mg or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks. Following the initial 30 weeks, all patients were treated with ExQW in an open-label extension. Analyses of primary glycemic endpoints, beta-cell function, and cardiometabolic measures were assessed for patients who completed 3 years of ExQW treatment and for the intention-to-treat population. Safety and tolerability analyses were provided for the intention-to-treat population.Results: Sixty-six percent of the intention-to-treat population (n = 295 completed 3 years of treatment (n = 194. At 3 years, a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (least squares mean ± standard error of -1.6% ± 0.08% was observed, with 55% and 33% of patients achieving hemoglobin A1c targets of <7% and ≤6.5%, respectively. Consistent with a sustained reduction in hemoglobin A1c, improvements in beta-cell function were also observed. Body weight was significantly reduced by -2.3 ± 0.6 kg. Reductions in blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were also observed. Adverse events reported most frequently during both controlled and uncontrolled periods included diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting of mostly mild intensity. The incidence of these adverse events decreased over time. Incidence of minor hypoglycemia was low and no major hypoglycemia was observed

  15. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  16. Factors Predicting Glycemic Control in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Ching-Ju Chiu, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFew studies have prospectively assessed the explanatory effects of demographics, clinical conditions, treatment modality, and general lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control in large heterogeneous samples of middle-aged and older adults with type 2 diabetes. We hierarchically examined these factors, focused especially on the effects of modifiable factors (ie, general lifestyle behaviors, and compared predictive patterns between middle-aged and older adults.MethodsWe used nationally representative data from the 1998 and 2000 Health and Retirement Study (HRS and the HRS 2003 Diabetes Study. We analyzed data from 379 middle-aged adults (aged 51-64 y and 430 older adults (aged ≥65 y who self-reported having type 2 diabetes at baseline.ResultsAmong middle-aged adults, demographic factors and clinical conditions were the strongest predictors of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels. However, among older adults, treatment modality (diet only, oral medication, or insulin only or in combination with other regimens significantly affected HbA1c levels. Lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, drinking, and body weight control, independent of the effects of demographics, clinical conditions, and treatment modality, significantly affected HbA1c levels. An increase of 1 healthy behavior was associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels of more than 1 percentage point.ConclusionOur findings provide support for current diabetes guidelines that recommend a lifestyle regimen across the entire span of diabetes care and highlight the need to help both sociodemographically and clinically disadvantaged middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes as well as older adults who exhibit poor adherence to medication recommendations to achieve better glycemic control.

  17. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  18. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    Marina Cassab Carreira; Franco Maria Lajolo; Elizabete Wenzel de Menezes

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC) and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI). The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the ...

  19. Is there a need to optimize glycemic control in hemodialyzed diabetic patients?

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2006-01-01

    The report of Williams et al. gives rise to at least two important questions regarding diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis: (1) Does glycemic control play a significant role? (2) Is HbA1c a reliable measure of glycemic control? These questions are discussed. It is recommended that you...

  20. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van;

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  1. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Jolanta Šadauskienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  2. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10-3 ref-cm3.s-1, as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  3. Classifying tight Weyl-Heisenberg frames

    Cazsazza, P.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.; Christensen, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A Weyl-Heisenberg frame for L^2(R) is a frame consisting of translates and modulates of a fixed function. In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for this family to form a tight WH-frame. This allows us to write down explicitly all functions g for which all translates and...

  4. Classifying tight Weyl-Heisenberg frames

    Cazsazza, P.; Janssen, A. J. E. M.; Christensen, Ole

    A Weyl-Heisenberg frame for L^2(R) is a frame consisting of translates and modulates of a fixed function. In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for this family to form a tight WH-frame. This allows us to write down explicitly all functions g for which all translates and modula...

  5. Repaglinide/metformin fixed-dose combination to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: an update

    Robert G Moses

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert G MosesClinical Trials and Research Unit, South East Sydney and Illawarra Area Health Service, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality and for which there is both a large and growing prevalence worldwide. Lifestyle advice plus metformin is commonly recommended initially to manage hyperglycemia and to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, additional agents are required when glycemic targets cannot be achieved or maintained due to the progressive nature of the disease. Repaglinide/metformin fixed-dose combination (FDC therapy (PrandiMet®; Novo Nordisk, Bagsværd, Denmark has been approved for use in the USA. This FDC is a rational second-line therapy given the complementary mechanisms of action of the components. Repaglinide is a rapidly absorbed, short-acting insulin secretagogue targeting postprandial glucose excursions; metformin is an insulin sensitizer with a longer duration of action that principally regulates basal glucose levels. A pivotal, 26-week, randomized study with repaglinide/metformin FDC therapy has been conducted in patients experiencing suboptimal control with previous oral antidiabetes therapy. Repaglinide/metformin FDC improved glycemic control and weight neutrality without adverse effects on lipid profiles. There were no major hypoglycemic episodes and patients expressed greater satisfaction with repaglinide/metformin FDC than previous treatments. Repaglinide/metformin FDC is expected to be more convenient than individual tablets for patients taking repaglinide and metformin in loose combination, and it is expected to improve glycemic control in patients for whom meglitinide or metformin monotherapies provide inadequate control.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, metformin, repaglinide, PrandiMet®, fixed-dose combination

  6. A nationwide survey of diabetes education, self-management and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in China

    GUO Xiao-hui; YUAN Li; LOU Qing-qing; SHEN Li; SUN Zi-lin; ZHAO Fang; DAI Xia; HUANG Jin; YANG Hui-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes management could be improved by diabetes education,through influencing attitudes towards diabetes,knowledge and behaviors of patients.The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of diabetes education on glycemic control,and to assess the attitude,knowledge and self-care behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes in China.Methods This questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 50 medical centers across China from April to July of 2010.The patients with type 2 diabetes were eligible for the study.The information of glycemic control and diabetes education was collected.The diabetes attitude scale-3 formulae,a questionnaire of diabetes knowledge and Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities scale were used to assess attitude,knowledge and the self-care of patients,respectively.Results Among the 5961 eligible respondents (3233 males; mean age (59.50±12.48) years; mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (8.27±2.23)%),most patients (79.8%) considered themselves educated on diabetes.Compared with patients without diabetes education,their educated counterparts showed significant lower value of HbA1c,after controlling for age,gender,body mass index and duration of diabetes (P <0.01).The patients who received diabetes education also performed significant higher scores on attitude,knowledge and self-care than their uneducated counterparts.Patients with lower income or education level tended to have higher glucose levels,and showed lower percentage of patients received diabetic education.Conclusions Chinese patients with diabetes education achieved better glycemic control than un-educated patients.Our study indicates effort is required to provide professional education to patients,with emphasis on lower income and lower education level populations.

  7. The argument against glycemic index: what are the other options?

    Franz, Marion J

    2006-01-01

    There is debate among professionals regarding the use of the glycemic index (GI) for meal planning. In type-1 diabetes, there are 4 studies (average duration approximately 4 weeks) comparing high versus low GI diets; none reported improvements in HbA1c, and although 2 reported improvements in fructosamine, 2 reported no differences. In type-2 diabetes, there are 12 studies (average duration approximately 5 weeks); 3 reported improvements in HbA1c and fructosamine, 5 reported no differences in HBA1c, and 3 reported no differences in fructosamine. In adults, there is limited evidence that a low GI diet is beneficial for weight loss or satiety. Three epidemiologic studies reported that a low GI/glycemic load (GL) is associated with a reduced risk of developing diabetes or prevalence of insulin resistance; however, 5 studies report no association between GI/GL and the risk of developing diabetes, fasting insulin or insulin resistance, or adiposity. In general, the total amount of carbohydrate in a meal is the primary meal-planning strategy for people with diabetes. The GI can be used as an adjunct for the fine tuning of postprandial blood glucose responses. Other food/meal-planning interventions have been shown to be more effective than the use of the GI. PMID:16820731

  8. A combinatorial characterization of tight fusion frames

    Bownik, Marcin; Richmond, Edward

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a combinatorial characterization of tight fusion frame (TFF) sequences using Littlewood-Richardson skew tableaux. The equal rank case has been solved recently by Casazza, Fickus, Mixon, Wang, and Zhou. Our characterization does not have this limitation. We also develop some methods for generating TFF sequences. The basic technique is a majorization principle for TFF sequences combined with spatial and Naimark dualities. We use these methods and our characterization to give necessary and sufficient conditions which are satisfied by the first three highest ranks. We also give a combinatorial interpretation of spatial and Naimark dualities in terms of Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. We exhibit four classes of TFF sequences which have unique maximal elements with respect to majorization partial order. Finally, we give several examples illustrating our techniques including an example of tight fusion frame which can not be constructed by the existing spectral tetris techniques. We end the ...

  9. Tight-binding treatment of conjugated polymers

    Lynge, Thomas Bastholm

    This PhD thesis concerns conjugated polymers which constitute a constantly growing research area. Today, among other things, conjugated polymers play a role in plastic based solar cells, photodetectors and light emitting diodes, and even today such plastic-based components constitute an alternative...... of tomorrow. This thesis specifically treats the three conjugated polymers trans-polyacetylene (tPA), poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) and poly(para-phe\\-nylene vinylene) (PPV). The present results, which are derived within the tight-binding model, are divided into two parts. In one part, analytic results...... are derived for the optical properties of the polymers expressed in terms of the optical susceptibility both in the presence and in the absence of a static electric field. In the other part, the cumputationally efficient Density Functional-based Tight-Binding (DFTB) model is applied to the description...

  10. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  11. Inward Leakage in Tight-Fitting PAPRs

    Frank C. Koh; Johnson, Arthur T.; Rehak, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of local flow measurement techniques and fog flow visualization was used to determine the inward leakage for two tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), the 3M Breathe-Easy PAPR and the SE 400 breathing demand PAPR. The PAPRs were mounted on a breathing machine head form, and flows were measured from the blower and into the breathing machine. Both respirators leaked a little at the beginning of inhalation, probably through their exhalation valves. In both cases,...

  12. Tight and random nonorthogonal fusion frames

    Cahill, Jameson; Casazza, Peter G.; Ehler, Martin; Li, Shidong

    2013-01-01

    First we show that tight nonorthogonal fusion frames a relatively easy to com by. In order to do this we need to establish a classification of how to to wire a self adjoint operator as a product of (nonorthogonal) projection operators. We also discuss the link between nonorthogonal fusion frames and positive operator valued measures, we define and study a nonorthogonal fusion frame potential, and we introduce the idea of random nonorthogonal fusion frames.

  13. Tightly Coupled UWB/IMU Pose Estimation

    Hol, Jeroen D.; Dijkstra, Fred; Luinge, Henk; Schön, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 6DOF tracking system combining Ultra-Wideband measurements with low-cost MEMS inertial measurements. A tightly coupled system is developed which estimates position as well as orientation of the sensorunit while being reliable in case of multipath effects and NLOS conditions. The experimental results show robust and continuous tracking in a realistic indoor positioning scenario.

  14. New techniques in tightness verification: Eurodif plants

    Leak dection techniques use processes and equipments evidencing on the low pressure side a test fluid which has been put on the other side of the wall. Helium is generally used as a test fluid in leak detection techniques with a mass spectrometer. Natural helium of air (and even natural neon of air) has been used for tightness verification of uranium hexafluoride enrichment circuits in the Eurodif plant at Tricastin (France)

  15. Tight Binding Models in Cold Atoms Physics

    Zakrzewski, J.

    2007-05-01

    Cold atomic gases placed in optical lattice potentials offer a unique tool to study simple tight binding models. Both the standard cases known from the condensed matter theory as well as novel situations may be addressed. Cold atoms setting allows for a precise control of parameters of the systems discussed, stimulating new questions and problems. The attempts to treat disorder in a controlled fashion are addressed in detail.

  16. Superconductivity in tight-binding approximation

    An interpretation of Barisic's relation for transition elements between the d-electron contribution to the cohesive energy and the local atomic parameter eta is presented. This relation is extended to a lattice with more than one atom per unit cell in the tight- binding approximation of rigid ions. It is conjectured that Barisic's relation is correct to first order approximation for transition metal alloys, provided the phonon induced d-d coupling is the dominant mechanism for superconductivity

  17. Glycemic targets in pregnancies affected by diabetes: historical perspective and future directions.

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2015-01-01

    The definition of optimal glycemic control in pregnancies affected by diabetes remains enigmatic. Diabetes phenotypes are heterogeneous. Moreover, fetal macrosomia insidiously occurs even with excellent glycemic control. Current blood glucose (BG) targets (FBG ≤95, 1-h post-prandial controlled trial (RCT) has never compared current vs. lower glucose targets powered on maternal/fetal outcomes. This paper provides historical context to the current targets by reviewing evidence supporting their evolution. Using lower targets (FBG optimal glycemic control that minimizes both small for and large for gestational age across pregnancies affected by diabetes. PMID:25398204

  18. Glycemic Variability Is Associated With Reduced Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    Fleischer, Jesper; Lebech Cichosz, Simon; Hoeyem, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    and 39 women with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and a known duration of diabetes <5 years. All patients were equipped with a continuous glucose monitoring sensor for 3 days, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) was calculated to obtain individual glycemic variability. Cardiac......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex differences in cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and to determine whether cardiac autonomic modulation is associated with glycemic variability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated a cohort consisting of 48 men...

  19. Dietary Glycemic Load and Breast Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Study

    Higginbotham, Susan; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Buring, Julie E.; Liu, Simin

    2004-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic load (GL) may contribute to a metabolic environment that enhances tumorigenesis. Little is known, however, about whether high glycemic diets increase breast cancer risk in women. We examined the associations between baseline measurements of dietary GL and overall glycemic index (GI) and subsequent breast cancer in a cohort of 39,876 women, ages 45 years or older, participating in the Women’s Health Study. During a mean of 6.8 years of follow-up there were 946 confi...

  20. Glycemic index of cereals and tubers produced in China

    Yue-Xin Yang; Hong-Wei Wang; Hong-Mei Cui; Yan Wang; Lian-Da Yu; Shi-Xue Xiang; Shui-Ying Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the GI of some cereals and tubers produced in China in an effort to establish the database of glycemic index (GI) of Chinese food.METHODS: Food containing 50 g carbohydrate was consumed by 8-12 healthy adults after they have been fasted for 10 h and blood glucose was monitored for 2 h.Glucose was used as reference food. GI of food was calculated according to a standard method.RESULTS: GI of 9 types of sugar and 60 kinds of food were determined.CONCLUSION: Food GI is mainly determined by nature of carbohydrate and procession. Most of cereals and tubers produced in China have similar GI with their counterparts produced in other countries.

  1. Creatine supplementation and glycemic control: a systematic review.

    Pinto, Camila Lemos; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia Lopes; Mota, João Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this review is the effects of creatine supplementation with or without exercise on glucose metabolism. A comprehensive examination of the past 16 years of study within the field provided a distillation of key data. Both in animal and human studies, creatine supplementation together with exercise training demonstrated greater beneficial effects on glucose metabolism; creatine supplementation itself demonstrated positive results in only a few of the studies. In the animal studies, the effects of creatine supplementation on glucose metabolism were even more distinct, and caution is needed in extrapolating these data to different species, especially to humans. Regarding human studies, considering the samples characteristics, the findings cannot be extrapolated to patients who have poorer glycemic control, are older, are on a different pharmacological treatment (e.g., exogenous insulin therapy) or are physically inactive. Thus, creatine supplementation is a possible nutritional therapy adjuvant with hypoglycemic effects, particularly when used in conjunction with exercise. PMID:27306768

  2. Are gastrointestinal symptoms related to diabetes mellitus and glycemic control?

    Koch, Christian A; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2008-09-01

    Many patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from upper and lower GI symptoms. The reported prevalence of these symptoms varies among different ethnic groups/populations. The natural history of GI symptoms as well as their pathogenesis in patients with diabetes remains poorly understood, although it is known that gastric emptying is influenced by hyperglycemia, euglycemia, and hypoglycemia. Poor glycemic control over a long period of time can lead to neuropathy and damage the vagus nerve, resulting in diabetic gastroparesis whose signs and symptoms vary in the individual patient. Gastroparesis can further worsen glycemic control by adversely altering the pharmacokinetics of orally administered hypoglycemic agents as well as by altering the delivery of diet-derived calories to intestines from which absorption, subsequently, determines incipient blood glucose, and thus effectiveness of various injectable antidiabetics including various insulins and related insulin analogs. As GI symptoms may overlap with other disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression, it is important to have such patients/patients with diabetes undergo standardized testing for measuring gastric emptying. Certain medications including metformin, amylin analogues (i.e. pramlintide), glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs (i.e. exenatide, liraglutide), anticholinergic agents, antidepressants, calcium-channel blockers, and others may contribute to GI symptoms observed in patients with diabetes. Given the global diabetes pandemic, it is of utmost importance to not only diagnose and treat present patients with diabetes mellitus and its comorbidities, but also to help prevent the development of further disease burden by educating children and adolescents about healthy lifestyle modifications (avoidance of overeating, portion control, healthy food choices, increased physical and reduced sedentary activity), as changing behavior in adulthood has proven to be notoriously

  3. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  4. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of diets in children and young people with Down’s Syndrome

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Down’s Syndrome (DS belongs to the most frequent aberrations of autosomal chromosomes of all known chromosome disorders. The most frequent diseases accompanying Down’s Syndrome include diabetes and obesity. One of the causes of fatty tissue, including visceral tissue accumulation in body is an ill balanced diet in terms of, among others, the quantity and structure of carbohydrates, as well as values of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL. As in Down’s Syndrome the incidence of both obesity and diabetes is higher than in healthy population, it seems essential to evaluate and correct the diet in terms of not only carbohydrates level, but also of GI and GL. The object of this study was to evaluate the nutritive status and nutritional patterns of children and adolescents (both sexes with Down’s Syndrome (DS taking into account the GI and GL of their meals. Material and methods. The state of nutrition was assessed in October and November 2009 in 24 people with clinically-diagnosed trisomy of chromosome 21 including 16 boys (aged 10-22 and 8 girls (aged 13-18 pupils of two school-and-educational centres from the West Pomerania Province. Methods of feeding evaluation that is energy and nutritive value, consumption patterns of groups of food products, GI and GL values were based on analysis of three days menu by currently noting. Results.Among the young people under research 54% were overweight and obese and among those 41% with visceral obesity. Analysis of menus of the young people with Down’s Syndrome has shown low energy value of diet, low realization of the recommended supply of fibre, Ca, Mg, Zn, B vitamin and fluids. The par- ticipation of energy coming from fat and saccharose was too high and too low from carbohydrates compared to the recommended values. Resultant GI of meals of the young people under research exceeded average values and the whole day GL exceeded high values. Conclusions.Everyday food rations of both

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  6. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:24922183

  7. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-wk randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease risk to cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese type ...

  8. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... high GI diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1...

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF), and......ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...

  10. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    1993-12-01

    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  11. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  12. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlo...

  13. Glycemic profile and prebiotic potential "in vitro" of bread with yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) flour

    Priscilla Moura Rolim; Silvana Magalhães Salgado; Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha; Alda Verônica de Souza Livera; Samara Alvachian Cardoso Andrade; Nonete Barbosa Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate bread with yacon flour at two different levels (6% and 11%) and to analyze their proximate composition, their glycemic indices and their prebiotic potentials in vitro. Bread with 6% and 11% of yacon flour presented, simultaneously, low and moderate glycemic index. As for the prebiotic potentials, it was evident the presence of probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus. The results showed that, the addition of yacon flour on bread rendered produc...

  14. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; MEUNIER, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin ...

  15. Executive Functioning, Treatment Adherence, and Glycemic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    McNally, Kelly; Rohan, Jennifer; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary aim of the study was to investigate the relationship among executive functioning, diabetes treatment adherence, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty-five children with type 1 diabetes and their primary caregivers were administered the Diabetes Self-Management Profile to assess treatment adherence. Executive functioning was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning and glycemic control was based on A1C. RESUL...

  16. Effect of current glycemic control on qualitative body composition in sedentary ambulatory Type 2 diabetics

    Jayesh Dalpatbhai Solanki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus are on rise with cause–effect relationship. Diabetics monitor blood sugar, neglecting qualitative body composition, leaving residual threat of ectopic fat unattended. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with parameters of body composition derived objectively by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Materials and Methods: A sample of 78 under treatment sedentary Type 2 diabetics of either sex with known glycemic and lipidemic control from our city. Following baseline assessment measurement was done by instrument Omron Karada Scan (Model HBF-510, China using the principle of tetra poplar BIA to derive parameters of body composition. We tried to correlate glycemic triad with these parameters, both directly as well as after defining them as per established cutoff norms. Results: We found poor glycemic control in the study group (20% for Hb1AC, high body mass index, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat (VF, total body fat (TBF, and lesser mass of skeletal muscle in Type 2 diabetics. However, there were small, insignificant, and inconsistent difference of these parameters while directly correlating with the fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin. On qualitative assessment, the impact of glycemic control as per standard norms, the risk of high VF, high TBF, low skeletal muscle mass was though high (between 1 and 2 in Type 2 diabetics with poor glycemic control as compared to good glycemics, but each strength lacks statistical significance. Conclusion: BIA reveals that Type 2 diabetics have more ectopic fat on expense of skeletal muscle that do not correlate with current glycemic status, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Measurement of body composition can be included and subjects can be motivated for lifestyle modification strategies while managing metabolic derangements of Type 2 diabetes.

  17. Available Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and Pancreatic Cancer: Is There a Link?

    Meinhold, Cari L.; Dodd, Kevin W; Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Shikany, James M.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Hayes, Richard B; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2010-01-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been linked to pancreatic cancer risk in case-control studies, but prospective studies have shown mostly null results. The authors investigated the associations of glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake with pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dietary intake was assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire. Between 1998 and 2006 (median follow-up = 6.5 years), 266 incident, confirmed ...

  18. Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model

    Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Gupta, Resmi; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a comprehensive model of biologic (pubertal status), family (communication and conflict), and psychological influences (behavioral autonomy) on diabetes management and glycemic control in a sample of youth (N = 226) with type 1 diabetes recruited during late childhood/early adolescence (ages 9–11 years). The study design was a prospective, multisite, multi-method study involving prediction of diabetes management and glycemic control 1 year post-baseline...

  19. Self-Efficacy Links Health Literacy and Numeracy to Glycemic Control

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Cavanaugh, Kerri; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relationship between health literacy, numeracy, and glycemic control are unclear. We explored the role of self-efficacy in the predicted pathway linking health literacy and numeracy to glycemic control (A1C). Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (N=383) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at primary care and diabetes clinics at three medical centers. Data collected included demographic information, health literacy, general numeracy, and A1C. Path a...

  20. Food Insecurity and Glycemic Control Among Low-Income Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; López, Andrea; Tschann, Jeanne; Fernandez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether food insecurity—the inability to reliably afford safe and nutritious food—is associated with poor glycemic control and whether this association is mediated by difficulty following a healthy diet, diabetes self-efficacy, or emotional distress related to diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used multivariable regression models to examine the association between food insecurity and poor glycemic control using a cross-sectional survey and chart review of 711 pat...

  1. Establishment of normal reference ranges for glycemic variability in Chinese subjects using continuous glucose monitoring

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; LI Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Glycemic variability is increasingly recognized as an important issue in diabetes management. However, the lack of normative values may limit its applicability in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to establish preliminary normal reference ranges for glycemic variability by analyzing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data obtained from healthy Chinese adults. Material/Methods Three-day CGM data were obtained from 434 healthy adults at 10 academic hospit...

  2. Status of glycemic control in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Objective: To determine the status of glycemic control in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical out-patient/ in -patient departments at Military Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2011 to December 2012. Methods: Six hundred and fifty patients of type 2 DM fulfilling the required criteria were included in the study. Glycemic control of these patients was determined by estimation of blood glucose (fasting and random) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The patients were grouped in three categories good, fair and poor diabetic control having their HbA1c values of being 6-7%, 7.1-8% and more than 8.1% respectively. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used for analysis. Results: Out of 650 patients 377 (58%) had poor glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 9.5% +- 0.95, 78 (12%) patients had fair control of glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 7.8 +- 0.25, and 195 (30%) patients had good glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 6.4 +- 0.17. Conclusion: Majority of patients had poor control of their glycemic status which is an important indicator and predictor of both micro and macrovascular complications. (author)

  3. Medication adherence and glycemic control in patients with psychotic disorders in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system

    Nelson LA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare antihyperglycemic medication adherence and glycemic control between individuals with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders and a nonpsychiatric comparison group.Methods: This was a retrospective medical record review. A total of 124 subjects with diabetes (62 patients with schizophrenia or a related psychotic disorder and 62 randomly selected, age-matched patients without a psychiatric illness receiving their medical and psychiatric care exclusively through the Kansas City Veterans Affairs healthcare system during 2008 were included in the study. Adherence to antihyperglycemic and antipsychotic medication was determined by refill records obtained through the computerized patient record system to calculate the cumulative mean gap ratio. Hemoglobin A1C values were utilized to compare glycemic control between groups and compared to glycemic goals established by diabetes treatment guidelines.Results: Antihyperglycemic medication adherence was poor for both groups as approximately 60% of the psychotic disorder group and 75% of the nonpsychiatric comparison group were without antihyperglycemic medication for greater than 30 days during the 12-month period but adherence did not differ between the groups (p=0.182. Antipsychotic adherent subjects (=80% adherent were more likely to be adherent to their antihyperglycemic medication (p=0.0003. There were no significant differences between groups in glycemic control.Conclusion: Antihyperglycemic medication adherence and glycemic control was less than optimal for both groups. There were no significant differences in antihyperglycemic medication adherence and glycemic control between patients with a psychotic disorder and those without a psychiatric illness.

  4. Glycemic Variation in Tumor Patients with Total Parenteral Nutrition

    Jin-Cheng Yang; Yuan-Yuan Dai; Li-Ming Wang; Yi-Bin Xie; Hai-Yan Zhou; Guo-Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes and mortality in several patients.However,studies evaluating hyperglycemia variation in tumor patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) are scarce.The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between glycemia and tumor kinds with TPN by monitoring glycemic variation in tumor patients.Methods:This retrospective clinical trial selected 312 patients with various cancer types,whose unique nutrition treatment was TPN during the monitoring period.All patients had blood glucose (BG) values assessed at least six times daily during the TPN infusion.The glycemic variation before and after TPN was set as the indicator to evaluate the factors influencing BG.Results:The clinical trial lasted 7.5 ± 3.0 days adjusted for age,gender,family cancer history and blood types.There were six cancer types:Hepatic carcinoma (HC,21.8%),rectal carcinoma (17.3%),colon carcinoma (CC,14.7%),gastric carcinoma (29.8%),pancreatic carcinoma (11.5%),and duodenal carcinoma (DC,4.8%).The patients were divided into diabetes and nondiabetes groups.No statistical differences in TPN glucose content between diabetes and nondiabetes groups were found;however,the tumor types affected by BG values were obvious.With increasing BG values,DC,HC and CC were more represented than other tumor types in this sequence in diabetic individuals,as well as in the nondiabetic group.BG was inclined to be more easily influenced in the nondiabetes group.Other factors did not impact BG values,includiug gender,body mass index,and TPN infusion duration time.Conclusions:When tumor patients are treated with TPN,BG levels should be monitored according to different types of tumors,besides differentiating diabetes or nondiabetes patients.Special BG control is needed for DC,HC and CC in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients.If BG overtly increases,positive measurements are needed to control BG values.The ClinicalTrials.gov ID is NCT

  5. Optimizing screening procedures for early detection of glycemic disorders

    Inna Vldimirovna Misnikova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the actual prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and prediabetes in individuals at high risk for T2DM and to develop an optimized stepwise screening procedure.Materials and Methods. A mobile diagnostic unit conducted outpatient screening for glycemic disorders. First stage of the survey included distribution of the FINDRISK questionnaire within the target subpopulation. At the second stage, study groups were formed based on the acquired data. Third stage involved clinical evaluation of glucose homeostasis by testing HbA1c levels and performing oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Individuals considered at high risk for development of T2DM were referred to specialized educational programs. A total of 2200 subjects were included in the present survey. In 1377 cases OGTT was supplemented with the testing of HbA1c. Statistical processing of the data was performed with Microsoft Excel software utility.Results. The interpretation of OGTT results identified 53.5% (n=1176 of study subjects as positive for glycemic disorders: 26.7% (n=587 with T2DM and 26.8% (n=589 with prediabetes, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance was detected in 12.1% (n=266, impaired fasting glucose – in 9.1% (n=199, and the combination of these two conditions – in 5.6% (n=124 of examined individuals, respectively. In 235 subjects (17.1% T2DM was diagnosed by means of HbA1c testing. 45% of examined individuals (n=620 had HbA1c<5.7%, 37.9% (n=522 showed HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%.Conclusion. A stepwise procedure allows for higher screening performance in subjects at risk for development of T2DM. Overall prevalence of T2DM, identified either by OGTT or HbA1c testing made up 31,1% of the examined sampling. Results from both methods were in agreement in 39.2% of cases.

  6. Evaluation of tight-pitch PWR cores

    The impact of tight pinch cores on the consumption of natural uranium ore has been evaluated for two systems of coupled PWR's namely one particular type of thorium system - 235U/UO2 : Pu/ThO2 : 233U/ThO2 - and the conventional recycle-mode uranium system - 235U/UO2 : Pu/UO2. The basic parameter varied was the fuel-to-moderator volume ratio (F/M) of the (uniform) lattice for the last core in each sequence. Although methods and data verification in the range of present interest, 0.5 (current lattices) 1.0, the EPRI-LEOPARD and LASER programs used for the thorium and uranium calculations, respectively, were successfully benchmarked against several of the more pertinent experiments

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  8. Tight gas sand tax credit yields opportunities

    The U.S. Internal Revenue Service on Apr. 1, 1991, released the inflation adjustments used in the calculations of Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits for 1990. The inflation adjustment, 1.6730, when applied to the base price of $3/bbl of oil equivalent, adjusts the tax credit to $5.019/bbl for oil and 86.53 cents/MMBTU for gas. The conversion factor for equivalent fuels is 5.8 MMBTU/bbl. Unfortunately, the tax credit for tight formation gas continues to be unadjusted for inflation and remains 52 cents/MMBTU. As many producers are aware, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 expanded the dates of eligibility and the usage for-Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits. Among other provisions, eligible wells may be placed in service until Jan. 1, 1992, and once in place may utilize the credit for production through Dec. 31, 2002. Both dates are 2 year extensions from previous regulations

  9. Effect of Reynolds number and bundle geometry on the turbulent flow in tight lattice bundle

    The flow structure in tight lattice is still of great interest to nuclear industry. The accurate prediction of flow parameter in subchannels of tight lattice is likable. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) is a promising approach to achieve this goal. The implementation of URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) approach will be validated by comparing computational results with the experimental data of Krauss (1998). In this paper, the turbulent flow with different Reynolds number (5000~215000) and different P/D(1.005~1.2) are simulated with CFD code CFX12.The effects of the Reynolds number and the bundle geometry(P/D) on wall shear stress, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent mixing and large scale coherent structure in tight lattice are analyzed in details. It is hoped that the present work will contribute to the understanding of these important flow phenomena and facilitate the prediction and design of rod bundles. (author)

  10. Correlation between 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients

    SUN Jie; DOU Jing-tao; WANG Xian-ling; YANG Guo-qing; L(U) Zhao-hui; ZHENG Hua; MA Fang-ling; LU Ju-ming; MU Yi-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate and comprehensive assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes is important for optimizing glycemic management and for formulating personalized diabetic treatment schemes.This study aimed to analyze the correlation between 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) and glycemic excursions in type 2 diabetic patients.Methods Seventy-one outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly recruited from Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital.Using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS),these patients' blood glucose levels were monitored for three consecutive days to obtain mean blood glucose (MBG) data.Intraday glycemic excursions were evaluated using the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE),the largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE),standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and the M-value.Interday glycemic excursion was assessed by absolute mean of daily difference (MODD).Postprandial glycemic fluctuations were evaluated using postprandial glucose excursions (PPGE) and postprandial incremental area under the curve (iAUC).Fasting venous blood samples were collected to measure serum 1,5-AG,whole-blood hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum glycated albumin (GA).Clinical markers of glycemia and parameters of glycemic excursions from CGMS were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate stepwise regression.Results Pearson correlation analysis revealed that 1,5-AG was significantly correlated with MAGE,SDBG,M-value,LAGE,PPGE and iAUC (r values were -0.509,-0.430,-0.530,-0.462,-0.416 and -0.435,respectively,P <0.01),especially in moderately and well-controlled patients,based on defined HbA1c levels.Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between 1,5-AG and the above parameters,but not HbA1c and GA.Finally,HbA1c and GA were positively correlated with MBG and fasting blood glucose (FBG).Conclusions 1,5-AG was much better than HbA1c and GA as a marker of

  11. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets Las variaciones de la glucosa aguda en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 causada por las dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico

    C. E. Gonçalves Reis; J. Dullius

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. Objectives: To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days) by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic i...

  12. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  13. Metabolic Management during Critical Illness: Glycemic Control in the ICU.

    Honiden, Shyoko; Inzucchi, Silvio E

    2015-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered metabolic derangement in the ICU. Important cellular pathways, such as those related to oxidant stress, immunity, and cellular homeostasis, can become deranged with prolonged and uncontrolled hyperglycemia. There is additionally a complex interplay between nutritional status, ambient glucose concentrations, and protein catabolism. While the nuances of glucose management in the ICU have been debated, results from landmark studies support the notion that for most critically ill patients moderate glycemic control is appropriate, as reflected by recent guidelines. Beyond the target population and optimal glucose range, additional factors such as hypoglycemia and glucose variability are important metrics to follow. In this regard, new technologies such as continuous glucose sensors may help alleviate the risks associated with such glucose fluctuations in the ICU. In this review, we will explore the impact of hyperglycemia upon critical cellular pathways and how nutrition provided in the ICU affects blood glucose. Additionally, important clinical trials to date will be summarized. A practical and comprehensive approach to glucose management in the ICU will be outlined, touching upon important issues such as glucose variability, target population, and hypoglycemia. PMID:26595046

  14. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    perfluorooctane sulfonic acid/mL plasma was associated with 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-28.3%) higher insulin concentration, 12.0% (95% CI, 2.4%-22.4%) higher β-cell activity, 17.6% (95% CI, 5.8%-30.8%) higher insulin resistance, and 8.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-16.5%) higher triglyceride concentrations, and...... an increase of 10 ng perfluorooctanoic acid/mL plasma was associated with 71.6% (95% CI, 2.4%-187.5%) higher insulin concentration, 67.5% (95% CI, 5.5%-166.0%) higher β-cell function, 73.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-202.0%) higher insulin resistance, and 76.2% (95% CI, 22.8%-153.0%) higher triglyceride......Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness...

  15. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  16. Fibrinogen titer and glycemic status in women using contraceptives

    Objective: To assess the coagulation and glycemic status in Pakistani women using contraceptives. Design: The study was conducted prospectively on 70 women and compared with 10 age-matched controls. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Karachi. Period of study was 18 month. Subjects and Methods: Eighty women aged between 20-45 years selected from low socioeconomic class and poor family background were categorized in control (n=10) and oral and injectable contraceptive users (n = 70). The contraceptives used were tablet Lofemenal, injection Norigest and Norplant implant. Their blood was tested for fibrinogen titer and random blood glucose. Results: There was no appreciable difference either in fibrinogen titer or plasma glucose levels in injectable users as compared to controls, but increased incidence of high fibrinogen titer and borderline blood glucose was observed in oral contraceptive users 25% and 20 % respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that long-term use of oral contraceptives (> 3 years) might increase the thrombotic tendency and elevate the plasma glucose levels especially in women above 30 years of age. (author)

  17. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use. PMID:20664730

  18. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  19. Establishment of normal reference ranges for glycemic variability in Chinese subjects using continuous glucose monitoring

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Glycemic variability is increasingly recognized as an important issue in diabetes management. However, the lack of normative values may limit its applicability in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to establish preliminary normal reference ranges for glycemic variability by analyzing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data obtained from healthy Chinese adults. Material/Methods Three-day CGM data were obtained from 434 healthy adults at 10 academic hospitals throughout China. Glycemic variability was calculated as the 24-hour mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and standard deviations (SD) of blood glucose readings. Results 434 healthy subjects (male 213, female 221; age 43±14, 20–69 years old; BMI 21.8±1.7 kg/m2, 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) completed the study. MAGE and SD values for the 434 healthy subjects were 1.73 (1.08) mmol/L and 0.75 (0.42) mmol/L [median (interquartile range)], respectively. In both men and women, MAGE and SD tended to increase with age. Neither MAGE nor SD showed a significant difference between men and women. Values for both parameters were non-normally distributed within the population. The 95th percentiles of MAGE and SD were 3.86 and 1.40 mmol/L, respectively. These values were adopted as the upper limits of normal. Conclusions MAGE <3.9 mmol/L and SD <1.4 mmol/L are recommended as the normal reference ranges for glycemic variability in Chinese adults. The values established in this study may facilitate the adoption of glycemic variability as a metric of overall glycemic control in diabetes. PMID:21169911

  20. Coalbed methane and tight gas no longer unconventional resources

    Unconventional gas refers to natural gas contained in difficult-to-produce formations that require special drilling and completion techniques to achieve commercial production. It includes tight gas, coal seams, organic shales, and gas hydrates. Canada's vast unconventional gas resource is becoming an increasingly important part of the country's gas supply. The emergence of unconventional gas production in Canada over the past several years has made the unconventional increasingly conventional in terms of industry activity. It was suggested that in order to realize the potential for unconventional gas in Canada, all stakeholders should engage to ensure the development is environmentally responsible. Unconventional gas accounts for nearly one third of U.S. gas production. It also accounts for nearly 5 Bcf per day and growing. The impetus to this sudden growth has been the gradual and increasing contribution of tight sands and limes to Canadian production, which accounts for more than 4 Bcf per day. Coalbed methane (CBM) is at 0.5 Bcf per day and growing. In response to expectations that CBM will reach 2 to 3 Bcf per day over the next 2 decades, Canadian producers are placing more emphasis on unconventional resource plays, including organic shales and gas hydrates. As such, significant growth of unconventional gas is anticipated. This growth will be facilitated by the adoption of U.S..-developed technologies and new Canadian technologies. It was suggested that research and development will be key to unlocking the unconventional gas potential. It was also suggested that the already existing, strong regulatory structure should continue in order to accommodate this growth in a sustainable manner. figs

  1. Global Coal Trade. From Tightness to Oversupply

    Over the past four years, international coal trade has been reshaped by China's surging imports. China, which was still a net exporter in 2008, became the world's first coal importer in 2011, taking over the position that Japan has occupied for three decades. Its imports have continued their rising trend and reached a record level in 2012, despite the country's economic slowdown. China imported 289 million tons of coal in 2012, up 30% over 2011. It now accounts for 23% of global imports. Although China is the world's largest coal producer, several factors have contributed to the sudden rise in its imports, including the higher cost of domestic coal relative to international prices and bottlenecks in transporting domestic coal to south-eastern provinces. More recently, another event shook the international coal business: the United States have been back on the market. The collapse of U.S. gas prices, to $4/million Btu in 2011 and even $2.75/million Btu in 2012, linked with the 'shale gas revolution', has made coal uncompetitive in the electricity sector, its main outlet on the U.S. market. U.S. coal demand dropped 4% in 2011 and 11% in 2012. The reduction in domestic demand has forced U.S. miners to look for overseas outlets. Their exports surged by 31% in 2011 and 16% in 2012. They reached 112 million tons in 2012, more than twice the level of 2009. The United States, which almost disappeared from the international steam coal market in the 2000's, have regained a larger share of the total coal export market, 9% in 2012, against 6% in 2009. These developments, although not directly linked, have a huge impact on the global market and pricing of coal. Chinese imports have helped the market to quickly recover from its low level of 2008-2009. The speed and magnitude of China's coal imports even shifts the market from a sluggish to a tight situation. Prices started to rise after their collapse in the second half of 2008 caused by the economic and financial crisis

  2. Effects of tight versus non tight control of metabolic acidosis on early renal function after kidney transplantation

    Etezadi Farhad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the optimal strategy for intra-operative fluid replacement therapy in renal transplantation surgery. Since infusion of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer seems to be safer than other buffer compounds (lactate, gluconate, acetatethat indirectly convert into it within the liver, We hypothesized tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of sodium bicarbonate may improve early post-operative renal function in renal transplant recipients. Methods 120 patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group A, bicarbonate was infused intra-operatively according to Base Excess (BE measurements to achieve the normal values of BE (−5 to +5 mEq/L. In group B, infusion of bicarbonate was allowed only in case of severe metabolic acidosis (BE ≤ −15 mEq/L or bicarbonate ≤ 10 mEq/L or PH ≤ 7.15. Minute ventilation was adjusted to keep PaCO2 within the normal range. Primary end-point was sampling of serum creatinine level in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days for statistical comparison between groups. Secondary objectives were comparison of cumulative urine volumes in the first 24 h of post-operative period and serum BUN levels which were obtained in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days. Results In group A, all of consecutive serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in comparison with group B. With regard to secondary outcomes, no significant difference between groups was observed. Conclusion Intra-operative tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate in renal transplant recipients may improve early post-operative renal function.

  3. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  4. Carbohydrate Provision in the Era of Tight Glucose Control

    Miller, Keith R.; Lawson, Christy M; Smith, Vance L.; HARBRECHT, BRIAN G

    2011-01-01

    Glycemic control in the critically ill patient has remained a controversial issue over the last decade. Several large trials, with widely varying results, have generated significant interest in defining the optimal target for blood-glucose control necessary for improving care while minimizing morbidity. Nutritional support has evolved into an additional area of critical care where appropriate practices have been associated with improved patient outcomes. Carbohydrate provision can impact bloo...

  5. Wage Formation, Regional Migration and Local Labour Market Tightness

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre; Røed, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that local labour market tightness affects local wage setting as well as individuals' migration decisions. But how should we measure local labour market tightness? In this paper we show that the common practice of using the local rate of unemployment as the tightness indicator may be misplaced. Instead, we propose a human capital adjusted outflow rate from unemployment that can be computed on the basis of micro register data. This outflow rate performs better than tra...

  6. Glycemic responses to maize flour stiff porridges prepared using local recipes in Malawi.

    Mlotha, Vincent; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Kasapila, William; Siyame, Edwin W P; Masamba, Kingsley

    2016-03-01

    Glycemic index is defined as the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve of a 50 g carbohydrate portion of a test food expressed as a percent of the response to the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food taken by the same subject. This study investigated glycemic index of maize stiff porridges consumed as staple food in Malawi and a large majority of other countries in sub-Saharan Africa to identify areas for improvement in consumer diets. Stiff porridges were prepared using flour from whole maize, maize grits, and fermented maize grits. The porridges were served to 11 healthy volunteers for 3 weeks, with two serving sessions a week. Glucose was served as a reference food during weekly serving sessions. Results from descriptive analysis revealed that glycemic responses varied across subjects and porridge types. Porridge prepared from fermented maize grits had moderate glycemic index of 65.49 and was comparable in nutrient composition and sensory characteristics with the other test porridges. Glycemic indices of the porridges prepared from whole maize flour and grits were high at 94.06 and 109.64, respectively, attributed to the effect of traditional maize flour processing, preparation, and cooking methods used. The study also calculated glyaemic load of the porridges and drew recommendations to inform diet planning and modifications for healthy and diabetic individuals. PMID:27004122

  7. A randomized controlled trial to prevent glycemic relapse in longitudinal diabetes care: Study protocol (NCT00362193

    Davis Dianne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a common disease with self-management a key aspect of care. Large prospective trials have shown that maintaining glycated hemoglobin less than 7% greatly reduces complications but translating this level of control into everyday clinical practice can be difficult. Intensive improvement programs are successful in attaining control in patients with type 2 diabetes, however, many patients experience glycemic relapse once returned to routine care. This early relapse is, in part, due to decreased adherence in self-management behaviors. Objective This paper describes the design of the Glycemic Relapse Prevention study. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal frequency of maintenance intervention needed to prevent glycemic relapse. The primary endpoint is glycemic relapse, which is defined as glycated hemoglobin greater than 8% and an increase of 1% from baseline. Methods The intervention consists of telephonic contact by a nurse practitioner with a referral to a dietitian if indicated. This intervention was designed to provide early identification of self-care problems, understanding the rationale behind the self-care lapse and problem solve to find a negotiated solution. A total of 164 patients were randomized to routine care (least intensive, routine care with phone contact every three months (moderate intensity or routine care with phone contact every month (most intensive. Conclusion The baseline patient characteristics are similar across the treatment arms. Intervention fidelity analysis showed excellent reproducibility. This study will provide insight into the important but poorly understood area of glycemic relapse prevention.

  8. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  9. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  10. High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index.

  11. Epigenetic Changes in Endothelial Progenitors as a Possible Cellular Basis for Glycemic Memory in Diabetic Vascular Complications

    Poojitha Rajasekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular complications of diabetes significantly impact the quality of life and mortality in diabetic patients. Extensive evidence from various human clinical trials has clearly established that a period of poor glycemic control early in the disease process carries negative consequences, such as an increase in the development and progression of vascular complications that becomes evident many years later. Importantly, intensive glycemic control established later in the disease process cannot reverse or slow down the onset or progression of diabetic vasculopathy. This has been named the glycemic memory phenomenon. Scientists have successfully modelled glycemic memory using various in vitro and in vivo systems. This review emphasizes that oxidative stress and accumulation of advanced glycation end products are key factors driving glycemic memory in endothelial cells. Furthermore, various epigenetic marks have been proposed to closely associate with vascular glycemic memory. In addition, we comment on the importance of endothelial progenitors and their role as endogenous vasoreparative cells that are negatively impacted by the diabetic milieu and may constitute a “carrier” of glycemic memory. Considering the potential of endothelial progenitor-based cytotherapies, future studies on their glycemic memory are warranted to develop epigenetics-based therapeutics targeting diabetic vascular complications.

  12. Localization of Tight Closure in Two-Dimensional Rings

    Kamran Divaani-Aazar; Massoud Tousi

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that tight closure commutes with localization in any two-dimensional ring of prime characteristic if either is a Nagata ring or possesses a weak test element. Moreover, it is proved that tight closure commutes with localization at height one prime ideals in any ring of prime characteristic.

  13. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multi

  14. Construction of Multivariate Tight Framelet Packets Associated with Dilation Matrix

    Firdous A Shah; Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for constructing multivariate tight framelet packets associated with an arbitrary dilation matrix using unitary extension principles.We also prove how to construct various tight frames for L2(Rd) by replac-ing some mother framelets.

  15. Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications

    Zhuang, Xiaosheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.

  16. Glycemic profile and prebiotic potential "in vitro" of bread with yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius flour

    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elaborate bread with yacon flour at two different levels (6% and 11% and to analyze their proximate composition, their glycemic indices and their prebiotic potentials in vitro. Bread with 6% and 11% of yacon flour presented, simultaneously, low and moderate glycemic index. As for the prebiotic potentials, it was evident the presence of probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus. The results showed that, the addition of yacon flour on bread rendered products from low to moderate GI, with prebiotic potential, low fat and high fiber contents, according to the Brazilian food legislation.

  17. Effect of the Glycemic Index of Carbohydrates on Acne vulgaris

    Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Peter Petocz; Karola S. Stockmann; Fiona S. Atkinson; Choi, James Y. J.; Stephen Lee; Reynolds, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Acne vulgaris may be improved by dietary factors that increase insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that a low-glycemic index diet would improve facial acne severity and insulin sensitivity. Fifty-eight adolescent males (mean age ± standard deviation 16.5 ± 1.0 y and body mass index 23.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were alternately allocated to high or low glycemic index diets. Severity of inflammatory lesions on the face, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis modeling assessment of insulin resistance), androgen...

  18. You Are What You Eat: RCTs show a low glycemic index diet improves facial acne

    Kazemi, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    An evidence-based literature review was conducted in order to identify human clinical trials that assess the effect of a low glycemic index diet on facial acne severity (Acne vulgaris). Of the twenty-one studies identified, three met the inclusion criteria of randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a primary endpoint of changes in number and severity of acne lesions and were included for final analysis.7-9 During the trials, mean glycemic load in control groups ranged from 157 to 20...

  19. Dietary Behaviors Predict Glycemic Control in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Volkening, Lisa K.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Nansel, Tonja; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Wysocki, Tim; Laffel, Lori M. B.; ,

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between dietary adherence and glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 119 youth aged 9–14 years (mean ± SD 12.1 ± 1.6 years) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (5.4 ± 3.1 years). Dietary adherence was assessed using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile diet domain. Higher score defined greater dietary adherence. Glycemic control was determined by A1C. RESULTS—Dietary adherenc...

  20. Improved recovery from prolonged exercise following the consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrate meals

    Stevenson, Emma; McComb, Gareth; Oram, Chris; Williams, Clyde

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the glycemic index (GI) of post-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake on endurance capacity and the metabolic responses during exercise the following day. Nine active males participated in two trials in a randomised crossover design. The experimental protocol was completed over two days. On day 1, subjects completed a 90 min treadmill run at 70% VO2 max (R1). Thereafter, they were supplied with a diet consisting of either high glycemic index (HGI) or lo...

  1. Giant stretchability and reversibility of tightly wound helical carbon nanotubes.

    Wu, Jianyang; He, Jianying; Odegard, Gregory M; Nagao, Shijo; Zheng, Quanshui; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2013-09-18

    There is a surging interest in 3D graphitic nanostructures which possess outstanding properties enabling them to be prime candidates for a new generation of nanodevices and energy-absorbing materials. Here we study the stretching instability and reversibility of tightly wound helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) by atomistic simulations. The intercoil van der Waals (vdW) interaction-induced flattening of HCNT walls prior to loading is constrained by the defects coordinated for the curvature formation of helices. The HCNTs exhibit extensive stretchability in the range from 400% to 1000% as a result of two distinct deformation mechanisms depending on the HCNT size. For small HCNTs tremendous deformation is achieved by domino-type partial fracture events, whereas for large HCNTs this is accomplished by stepwise buckling of coils. The formation and fracture of edge-closed graphene ribbons occur at lower temperatures, while at elevated temperatures the highly distributed fracture realizes a phenomenal stretchability. The results of cyclic stretching-reversing simulations of large HCNTs display pronounced hysteresis loops, which produce large energy dissipation via full recovery of buckling and vdW bondings. This study provides physical insights into the origins of high ductility and superior reversibility of hybrid CNT structures. PMID:24016308

  2. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta......BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight......%BF), and waist circumference (DeltaWC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates. Significant GI x sex x physical activity interactions for DeltaBW, Delta%BF, and DeltaWC were observed, and the associations in the sedentary women were particularly positive. No significant associations with GI...

  3. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models. Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52–0.92; P = 0.01). The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients. PMID:27258511

  4. Subchannel analysis of 37-rod tight-lattice bundle experiments for reduced-moderation water reactor

    R and D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance of tight-lattice fuel bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with utilities, reactor vendors and universities from 2002. The RMWR realizes a high conversion ratio larger than 0.1 for sustainable energy supply through plutonium multiple recycling based on the well-experienced LWR technologies. The reactor core comprises tight-lattice fuel assemblies with gap clearance of around 1.0 mm to reduce the water volume ratio to achieve the high conversion ratio. A problem of utmost importance from a thermal-hydraulic point of view is the coolability of the tight-lattice assembly with such a small gap width. JAERI has been carrying out experimental study to investigate the system parameter effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance and to confirm the feasibility of the core. In the present study, the subchannel analysis code NASCA was applied to 37-rod tight-lattice bundle experiments. The NASCA can give good predictions of critical power for the gap width of 1.3 mm while the prediction accuracy decreases for the gap width of 1.0 mm. To improve the prediction accuracy, the code will be modified to take the effect of film thickness distribution around fuel rods on boiling transition. (author)

  5. Taking a Low Glycemic Index Multi-Nutrient Supplement as Breakfast Improves Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Di Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a −0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval, −0.38% to −0.07%, p = 0.004, while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005. The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032 due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007. These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM.

  6. Taking a low glycemic index multi-nutrient supplement as breakfast improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Li, Di; Zhang, Peiwen; Guo, Honghui; Ling, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI) multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a -0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval), -0.38% to -0.07%, p = 0.004), while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005). The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032) due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007). These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM. PMID:25514391

  7. On tight spans and tropical polytopes for directed distances

    Hirai, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    An extension $(V,d)$ of a metric space $(S,\\mu)$ is a metric space with $S \\subseteq V$ and $d|_S = \\mu$, and is said to be tight if there is no other extension $(V,d')$ of $(S,\\mu)$ with $d' \\leq d$. Isbell and Dress independently found that every tight extension is isometrically embedded into a certain metrized polyhedral complex associated with $(S,\\mu)$, called the tight span. This paper develops an analogous theory for directed metrics, which are "not necessarily symmetric" distance functions satisfying the triangle inequality. We introduce a directed version of the tight span and show that it has such a universal embedding property for tight extensions. Also we newly introduce another natural class of extensions, called cyclically tight extensions, and show that (a fiber of) the tropical polytope, introduced by Develin and Sturmfels, has a universal embedding property for cyclically tight extensions. As an application, we prove the following directed version of tree metric theorem: directed metric $\\mu$...

  8. The combination of colesevelam with sitagliptin enhances glycemic control in diabetic ZDF rat model

    Shang, Quan; Liu, Matthew K; Saumoy, Monica;

    2012-01-01

    with SIT extends the half life of COL-induced GLP-1A and benefits preservation of the islets that delay the development of diabetes and improve glycemic control. This study suggests that the combined therapy (COL+SIT) is more effective than either drug alone for reducing glucose levels in diabetes....

  9. Glycemic index treatment using Japanese foods in a girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    Kumada, Tomohiro; Hiejima, Ikuko; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hayashi, Anri; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-05-01

    We introduced a low glycemic index treatment using Japanese ethnic foods to a 13-year-old girl with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome caused by tuberous sclerosis complex. She had previously refused the modified Atkins diet within 2 weeks of diet treatment because of its restrictiveness. The low glycemic index treatment was implemented by limiting the daily carbohydrate intake to 50 g of foods with a glycemic index of less than 50 relative to that of glucose, which included udon, soba, and unpolished Japonica rice with natto. One month after the initiation of the diet therapy, the clusters of tonic seizures for 30 to 60 minutes during sleep were reduced from two or three times per week to once or twice per month, and the frequent myoclonic seizures in the awake state disappeared. She has been on the diet therapy for more than 1 year, and the efficacy of the diet has been sustained. Low glycemic index treatment should be considered for patients with medication-resistant epilepsy who cannot tolerate restrictive diet therapies. Japanese ethnic foods can be used for this diet therapy. PMID:23583057

  10. Correlation between glycemic variability and gastroesophageal reflux in adolescentswith type 1 diabetes mellitus

    I L Alimova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate an impact of glycemic variability on the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods. We enrolled 33 patients with T1DM aged from 12 to 17 years. 24-h pH-monitoring was performed with “Gas- troskan 24” system (Istok-Sistema, Fryazino; 24-h continuous glucose monitoring utilized CGMS MMT-7310 (Medtronic Minimed, USA with subsequent night-time analysis.Results. As compared to stable night-time glycemia controls (SD <2.0 mmol/L, patients with higher night-time glycemic variability (SD>2.0 mmol/L showed longer period of esophageal acidification (17% [2–58]; p<0.001, higher incidence of acid reflux events with duration above 5 min (2 ev. [1-10]; p<0.001, longer period of most protracted acid reflux event (63 min [5–132]; p<0.001, as well as higher prevalence of pathologic acid GER events (76.4%; χ2=17.11; p<0.001 during night-time. Increase in glycemic in- stability positively correlated with incidence and severity of acid GER events. 6-8 months follow-up supported these findings. Conclusion. Glycemic variability in adolescents with T1DM is a significant risk factor for development of GERD with hypomotor dys- function according to pH-monitoring.

  11. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1...

  12. INTRAPERITONEAL INSTILLATION OF BUPIVACAINE AND GLYCEMIC LEVELS IN LAPROSCOPIC SURGERIES: A DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO - CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Suresh Chander

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical stress is associated with hormonal changes. Hyperglycemia is an easily measurable factor to quantify stress. Intraoperative stress can be due to pain or surgical manipulation. We made an attempt to see the glycemic response in laparoscopic patients by intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine vs placebo. OBJECT IVES: To observe the response of intraperitoneal instillation of Bupivacaine vs placebo on glycemic levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS : A prospective randomized double blind, placebo - controlled study was conducted in the department of Anaesthesiology, Gandhi Hos pital, Secunderabad. Fifty patients were randomly selected to be enrolled in this study who were scheduled for laproscopic surgery. All patients were of ASA I - II physical status. Study group consisted of 25 patients receiving intraperitoneal bupivacaine 2 mg/kg (Group B and the control group consisted of 25 patients receiving 20 ml of normal saline as placebo (Group C. Blood sugar levels were measured at baseline and at interval of 30 min and 90 min after incision. Mean blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded at baseline and and every 15 min from incision to 90 min. RESULT S : There is no significant difference in the glycemic levels in both groups. CONCLUSION: Stress during laproscopic cholecystectomy and appendicectomy may not be high enough to cause glycemic derangement. However, the study group is small and needs further studies to substantiate this

  13. A Low-Glycemic Diet Lifestyle Intervention Improves Fat Utilization during Exercise in Older Obese Humans

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Cook, Marc A;

    2013-01-01

    -glycemic (HiGIX) diets. Changes in indirect calorimetry (VO2 ; VCO2 ) were assessed at rest, during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and during submaximal exercise (walking: 65% VO2 max, 200 kcal energy expenditure). Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) was measured by (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

  14. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  15. The Optimization of Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Peracute Stroke

    Grogoryan I.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to determine an optimal method of glycemic control in patients with cerebrovascular accident and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods. 43 patients with insulin and type 2 diabetes mellitus were included into the study. The patients were divided into two groups: the patients of the first group (n=23 had continuous insulin infusion within not less than 24 h, the patients of the second one (n=20 — subcutaneous insulin injections. Results. The patients of both groups had statistically significant difference of glycemic indexes in 24 h, and furthermore, the control group had high variability of glycemic indexes. Continuous insulin infusion compared to discrete subcutaneous injections provides gradual glycemia decline up to target values and more stable retention of glycemia within the given range that increases intensive insulin therapy safety. It allows to consider the method of intravenous insulin administration to be optimal for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in peracute stroke.

  16. Experience and acceptability of diets of varying protein content and glycemic index in an obese cohort

    McConnon, A; Horgan, G W; Lawton, C;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To investigate acceptability and tolerability of diets of different protein and glycemic index (GI) content aimed at weight maintenance following a phase of rapid weight loss, as part of a large pan-European dietary intervention trial.Subjects/Methods:The Diogenes study (www...

  17. The Effect of Pre-Exercise Carbohydrate Feeding with Different Glycemic Index on Endurance Exercise Capacity

    N. Salarkia

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is known that feeding with carbohydrate (CHO during exercise improves endurance performance, the effects of glycemic index (GI of carbohydrate intake are less clear. This study was carried out to assess the effect of glycemic index of pre-exercise carbohydrate feeding on endurance exercise capacity. In a randomized clinical trial 52 endurance – trained men with mean age 21.7 ± 3 years, weight 69.3 ± 9 kg, height 178.4 ± 2 cm and BMI 22.6 ± 2 were studied. Subjects performed exercise treadmill at 70% VO2max after ingestion: Lentil, a low glycemic index; potato, a high glycemic index; glucose and water (as a control one hour before exercise. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after test meal and 30 minutes after exercise. To assess aerobic capacity VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake was measured at the end of the exercise trial. Endurance time was found to be longer after lentil than after the potato, glucose and control respectively (P < 0.05. At the end of exercise, the glucose group and control both gave lower plasma glucose concentrations. Changes of VO2max in lentil. Potato, glucose and control group which were not statistically significant. This study showed that a low GI meal eaten before an event increases endurance capacity during exercise. Furthermore, the low GI meal was found to maintain glucose at higher concentrations during the later stages of exercise.

  18. Dietary glycemic index and carbohydrate in relation to early age-related macular degeneration

    Little is known about the association between dietary carbohydrates and cataract in nondiabetic persons. The aim was to test whether recent dietary carbohydrate intakes or glycemic index (GI; a measure of carbohydrate intake quality) was associated with the presence of cortical or nuclear opacities....

  19. Adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in relation with glycemic control in type 2 diabetics

    Aniebetabasi S. Obot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes, though the mechanism of association is still uncertain. The adiponectin levels and lipid profile in relation to glycemic control were investigated in type 2 diabetics. Methods: Forty two diabetic subjects (35-64 years and 33 age-matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited into this case control study. Socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric indices and blood pressure were obtained. Total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein, (HDL, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were estimated using colorimetric methods, atherogenic index (AI was calculated, while serum adiponectin was determined by ELISA method. Results: Adiponectin levels of type 2 diabetics were not significantly different from the non-diabetics studied (p>0.05. Higher TG levels were observed in diabetics with poor glycemic control compared with those with good glycemic control (p0.05. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics do not have lower adiponectin levels. Gender, duration of diabetes and glycemic control does not seem to exert any influence on adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin may be associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis through its effects on HDL cholesterol metabolism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 563-570

  20. Tight projections of frames on infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    Jasper, John

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the frames on an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space that can be projected to a tight frame for an infinite dimensional subspace. A result of Casazza and Leon states that an arbitrary frame for a 2N- or (2N-1)-dimensional Hilbert space can be projected to a tight frame for an N-dimensional subspace. Surprisingly, we demonstrate a large class of frames for infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces which cannot be projected to a tight frame for any infinite dimensional subspace.

  1. Comparative evaluation of several parameters of glycemic homeostasis in patients with functional pituitary adenomas

    Miroslava Rostislavovna Mikityuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate glycemic homeostasis in patients with acromegaly and hyperprolactinaemia due to functional pituitary adenoma.Materials and Methods. We enrolled 48 patients with somatotropinoma (Group 1, 19 patients with somatomammotropinoma (Group 2 and 24 patients with prolactinoma (Group 3 with no history of glycemic disorders. Median age was 48.63±9.98 years; median disease duration was 13.1±6.9 years. The comparison group was composed of overweight or obese patients (n=75. We conducted a comparative analysis of glycemic parameters (Glc0, immunoreactive insulin, HOMA2_S%, HOMA2_B% и HOMA2_IR, Ssum and S under isolated segments of the glycemic curve. We also tested their correlation with plasma levels of growth hormone, prolactin and IGF-1.Results. We detected hyperinsulinemia (>20 μU/mL in 35.1% of participants from Group 1, 33.3% and 25% from groups 2 and 3, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between glycemic parameters of the study groups, though patients were mildly insulin resistant (HOMA2_IR 1.88 to 2.38 units independantly from tumour secretory activity. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized by significantly higher fasting blood glucose levels vs. comparison group (though still within the reference values, and glucose homeostasis was maintained with lower activity of pancreatic β-cells. Average Ssumanalysis showed lower glucose tolerance in groups 1 and 2 vs. Group 3. Median S values under isolated glycemic curve segments were significantly higher than in comparison group. Plasma levels of growth hormone did not correlate with Ssum and S parameters in groups 1 and 2. There was a linear correlation between Ssum and plasma IGF-1 levels in patients from Group 1 (r=0.45; p=0.006. We also noted that Ssum had a non-linear correlation with plasma prolactin levels in patients from Group 3 (r=0.41; p<0.05.Conclusion. Postprandial area under the glycemic curve has positive linear association with

  2. Impact of lifestyle modification on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Nandita B Sanghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current treatment guidelines support the role of lifestyle modification, in terms of increasing the quantity and quality of physical activity to achieve target glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: To assess the effect of structured exercise training and unstructured physical activity interventions on glycemic control. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized six-month exercise intervention study conducted with previously inactive 279 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Before randomization, all enrolled T2DM participants (n: 300; 30 to 60 year old, having diabetes for more than a year with HbA1c levels of 6.5% or higher entered a one-month run-in phase to reduce dropout and maintain adherence. Results: A recommendation to increase physical activity was beneficial (0.14% HbA1c reduction; P = 0.12, but was not bringing significantly declines in HbA1c, whereas, structured exercise training is associated with a significant HbA1c decline of 0.59%. ( P = 0.030. In a subgroup analysis limited to participants with a baseline HbA1c value > 7%, both the unstructured (0. 48%; P = 0.04 and structured exercise training (0.77%; P < 0.01 groups experienced significant decline in HbA1c Vs the control, whereas among participants with baseline hemoglobin A1c values less than 7%, significant reduction occurred only in the structured exercise training group. Changes in blood pressure; total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein and the atherogenic index factors did not statistically significantly differ within (baseline to follow-up and among groups. Conclusion: Supervised structured training was more efficacious than unstructured activity in achieving declines in HbA1c. Although both structured and unstructured training provide benefits, only the former was associated with significant reductions in HbA1c levels. Therefore, T2DM patients should be stimulated to

  3. Tight Planar Contact Manifolds with Vanishing Heegaard Floer Contact Invariants

    Conway, James; Kaloti, Amey; Kulkarni, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we exhibit infinite families of tight non-fillable contact manifolds supported by planar open books with vanishing Heegaard Floer contact invariants. Moreover, we also exhibit an infinite such family where the supported manifold is hyperbolic.

  4. Limiting enclosures. Classification of enclosures according to their tightness

    A classification of limiting enclosures according to their tightness is given. This can applied to enclosures or series of enclosures intended for work on radioactive products, toxic or dangerous products, materials sensitive to atmospheric components and work in sterile environment

  5. Multi-scale glycemic variability: a link to gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes.

    Xingran Cui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM accelerates brain aging and cognitive decline. Complex interactions between hyperglycemia, glycemic variability and brain aging remain unresolved. This study investigated the relationship between glycemic variability at multiple time scales, brain volumes and cognition in type 2 DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-three older adults with and 26 without type 2 DM completed 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring, cognitive tests and anatomical MRI. We described a new analysis of continuous glucose monitoring, termed Multi-Scale glycemic variability (Multi-Scale GV, to examine glycemic variability at multiple time scales. Specifically, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition was used to identify five unique ultradian glycemic variability cycles (GVC1-5 that modulate serum glucose with periods ranging from 0.5-12 hrs. RESULTS: Type 2 DM subjects demonstrated greater variability in GVC3-5 (period 2.0-12 hrs than controls (P<0.0001, during the day as well as during the night. Multi-Scale GV was related to conventional markers of glycemic variability (e.g. standard deviation and mean glycemic excursions, but demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity to conventional markers, and was associated with worse long-term glycemic control (e.g. fasting glucose and HbA1c. Across all subjects, those with greater glycemic variability within higher frequency cycles (GVC1-3; 0.5-2.0 hrs had less gray matter within the limbic system and temporo-parietal lobes (e.g. cingulum, insular, hippocampus, and exhibited worse cognitive performance. Specifically within those with type 2 DM, greater glycemic variability in GVC2-3 was associated with worse learning and memory scores. Greater variability in GVC5 was associated with longer DM duration and more depression. These relationships were independent of HbA1c and hypoglycemic episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 DM is associated with dysregulation of glycemic variability over multiple

  6. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  7. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  8. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Božić Marija; Hentova-Senćanin Paraskeva; Branković Aleksandra; Marjanović Ivan; Jocić Đorđević Jasmina; Senćanin Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary ope...

  9. Tightness-looseness across the 50 united states.

    Harrington, Jesse R; Gelfand, Michele J

    2014-06-01

    This research demonstrates wide variation in tightness-looseness (the strength of punishment and degree of latitude/permissiveness) at the state level in the United States, as well as its association with a variety of ecological and historical factors, psychological characteristics, and state-level outcomes. Consistent with theory and past research, ecological and man-made threats--such as a higher incidence of natural disasters, greater disease prevalence, fewer natural resources, and greater degree of external threat--predicted increased tightness at the state level. Tightness is also associated with higher trait conscientiousness and lower trait openness, as well as a wide array of outcomes at the state level. Compared with loose states, tight states have higher levels of social stability, including lowered drug and alcohol use, lower rates of homelessness, and lower social disorganization. However, tight states also have higher incarceration rates, greater discrimination and inequality, lower creativity, and lower happiness relative to loose states. In all, tightness-looseness provides a parsimonious explanation of the wide variation we see across the 50 states of the United States of America. PMID:24843116

  10. Conservative tightly-coupled simulations of stochastic multiscale systems

    Taverniers, Søren; Pigarov, Alexander Y.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    Multiphysics problems often involve components whose macroscopic dynamics is driven by microscopic random fluctuations. The fidelity of simulations of such systems depends on their ability to propagate these random fluctuations throughout a computational domain, including subdomains represented by deterministic solvers. When the constituent processes take place in nonoverlapping subdomains, system behavior can be modeled via a domain-decomposition approach that couples separate components at the interfaces between these subdomains. Its coupling algorithm has to maintain a stable and efficient numerical time integration even at high noise strength. We propose a conservative domain-decomposition algorithm in which tight coupling is achieved by employing either Picard's or Newton's iterative method. Coupled diffusion equations, one of which has a Gaussian white-noise source term, provide a computational testbed for analysis of these two coupling strategies. Fully-converged ("implicit") coupling with Newton's method typically outperforms its Picard counterpart, especially at high noise levels. This is because the number of Newton iterations scales linearly with the amplitude of the Gaussian noise, while the number of Picard iterations can scale superlinearly. At large time intervals between two subsequent inter-solver communications, the solution error for single-iteration ("explicit") Picard's coupling can be several orders of magnitude higher than that for implicit coupling. Increasing the explicit coupling's communication frequency reduces this difference, but the resulting increase in computational cost can make it less efficient than implicit coupling at similar levels of solution error, depending on the communication frequency of the latter and the noise strength. This trend carries over into higher dimensions, although at high noise strength explicit coupling may be the only computationally viable option.

  11. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  12. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  13. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    Wiebe Natasha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34 compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806. One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively. No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are

  14. Effects of sildenafil on lipid profile and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    Haedar Abdulhafith Al-biati

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We have provided the first evidence that sildenafil therapy improve glycemic control, lipid profile and body mass index in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1048-1051

  15. Association between hormonal contraceptive use and glycemic severity in women suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh.

    Sarram, Tasira

    2015-01-01

    With increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, prevalence of contraceptive use is also in rise in Bangladesh. This quantitative study was designed with the objectives to estimate the proportion of hormonal contraceptive users and non-users among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and observe the glycemic level in relation to Hormonal Contraceptive use. The findings suggested no role of hormonal contraceptive in altering glycemic status in patients with gestational diabe...

  16. Prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients

    Agarwal, Akshay A.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.; Deshmukh, Yeshwant A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Despite the availability of efficacious anti-diabetic drugs, which act by different mechanisms to reduce the blood-glucose, the majority of people with diabetes on anti-diabetic drug therapy, have poor glycemic control and diabetic vascular complications. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study the prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients attending tertiary care teaching hospital in Navi Mumbai. Materials and...

  17. Supported Telemonitoring and Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes: the Telescot Diabetes Pragmatic Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Wild, Sarah; Hanley, Janet; Lewis, Stephanie; McKnight, John; McCloughan, Catherine; Padfield, Paul; Parker, Richard; Paterson, Mary; Pinnock, Hilary; Sheikh, Aziz; McKinstry, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose among people with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin does not appear to be effective in improving glycemic control. We investigated whether health professional review of telemetrically transmitted self-monitored glucose results in improved glycemic control in people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.Methods and Findings We performed a randomized, parallel, investigator-blind controlled trial with centralised randomization in fami...

  18. Evaluation of critical heat flux of tight lattice core with subchannel analysis code NASCA

    Reduced-Moderation Water reactor (RMWR) is a light water breeder reactor developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The RMWR comprises tight lattice fuel assemblies with gap clearance of around 1.0 mm to reduce water volume ratio to achieve a high conversion ratio. It is important to estimate the thermal hydraulic safety margin of the tight lattice core of the RMWR. In the present study, the boiling transition (BT) prediction performance of the subchannel analysis code NASCA developed for the current BWR cores was assessed for series of tight lattice critical heat flux (CHF) experiments performed in JAERI. The test section was a 7-rod bundle with rod diameter of 12.3 mm, rod gap of 1.0 mm and heated length of 1.8m. Axial power distribution was flat. With a simple subchannel model, the code overestimates the critical power in the high mass velocity region, although the predicted critical powers in the low mass velocity region were in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted BT subchannel position differed from the measured one, since the amounts of liquid film in subchannels were not adequately predicted. To improve the prediction accuracy, a fine subchannel model was applied. The result implies that the use of the fine subchannel model can improve the critical power prediction in the high mass velocity region. It can also improve BT position prediction. (author)

  19. Tight coupling UFMArcGIS for simulating inundation depth in densely area

    S. H. Kang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of hydrological models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. This paper presents a tight coupling approach within a GIS environment that is achieved by integrating the urban flood model with the macro language of GIS. Such an approach affords an uncomplicated way to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic simulation process of hydrological modeling. The tight coupling approach is illustrated by UFMArcGIS (Urban Flood Model with ArcGIS, which is a realization of an urban flood model integrated with the VBA (visual basic of application language of ArcGIS. Within this model, major stages of model structures are created from the initial parameter input and transformation of datasets, intermediate maps are then visualized, and the results are finally presented in various graphical formats in their geographic context. This approach provides a convenient and single environment in which users can visually interact with the model, e.g. by adjusting parameters while simultaneously observing the corresponding results. This significantly facilitates users in the exploratory data analysis and decision-making stages in terms of the model applications.

  20. Tight coupling of Na+/K+-ATPase with glycolysis demonstrated in permeabilized rat cardiomyocytes.

    Mervi Sepp

    Full Text Available The effective integrated organization of processes in cardiac cells is achieved, in part, by the functional compartmentation of energy transfer processes. Earlier, using permeabilized cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated the existence of tight coupling between some of cardiomyocyte ATPases and glycolysis in rat. In this work, we studied contribution of two membrane ATPases and whether they are coupled to glycolysis--sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA and plasmalemma Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA. While SERCA activity was minor in this preparation in the absence of calcium, major role of NKA was revealed accounting to ∼30% of the total ATPase activity which demonstrates that permeabilized cell preparation can be used to study this pump. To elucidate the contribution of NKA in the pool of ATPases, a series of kinetic measurements was performed in cells where NKA had been inhibited by 2 mM ouabain. In these cells, we recorded: ADP- and ATP-kinetics of respiration, competition for ADP between mitochondria and pyruvate kinase (PK, ADP-kinetics of endogenous PK, and ATP-kinetics of total ATPases. The experimental data was analyzed using a series of mathematical models with varying compartmentation levels. The results show that NKA is tightly coupled to glycolysis with undetectable flux of ATP between mitochondria and NKA. Such tight coupling of NKA to PK is in line with its increased importance in the pathological states of the heart when the substrate preference shifts to glucose.

  1. The Association of Binge Eating Disorder with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Fatih Canan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether a comorbidity with BED would affect glycemic control in these patients. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. The participants were assessed for eating disorders by a psychiatrist. Blood samples were drawn and HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were measured. Results: Of the 82 subjects, 27 (34.1% met the criteria for BED. No other types of eating disorders were detected. HbA1c was significantly higher in individuals with BED (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that BED is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients and it impairs glycemic control. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes should be assessed carefully for eating disorders. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 26-7

  2. Improving Glycemic Control and Insulin Ordering Efficiency for Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes Through Carbohydrate Counting.

    Pearson, Kristina K; Reiland, Sarah A; Meara, John G O; Brown, Julie K; Fedraw, Leslie A; Mapes, David L

    2016-01-01

    Glycemic control in hospitalized patients is challenging but important for optimal outcomes. Insulin dosing through carbohydrate counting may address patient, provider, and institutional factors that complicate hospital glycemic management. On two surgical units at a tertiary care teaching hospital, we pilot tested postmeal insulin dosing based on carbohydrate counting (plus basal insulin) rather than the current process of ordering scheduled premeal insulin without knowledge of the patient's consumption. Analysis assessed hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, insulin orders, and nurse and provider satisfaction and confidence. On general surgery, mean glucose level improved from 188 to 137 mg/dl (p nurses (preintervention, 72%; postintervention, 100%), and cardiovascular surgery nurses (preintervention, 69%; postintervention, 84%). Confidence in insulin dose accuracy improved for providers (preintervention, 50%; postintervention, 100%), general surgery nurses (preintervention, 59%; postintervention, 100%), and cardiovascular surgery nurses (preintervention, 48%; postintervention, 84%). Carbohydrate counting is effective and efficient and improved staff satisfaction and confidence in hospital mealtime insulin dosing. PMID:26164007

  3. Impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on quantitative glycemic traits reveals mechanistic heterogeneity

    Dimas, Antigone S; Lagou, Vasiliki; Barker, Adam;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci and indices of proinsulin...... processing, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 non-diabetic subjects with basal measures, and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We employed additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age and BMI, followed by fixed-effects inverse variance meta-analyses. Cluster....... The final group contained twenty risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition....

  4. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Shinnosuke Murakami; Yasuaki Goto; Kyo Ito; Shinya Hayasaka; Shigeo Kurihara; Tomoyoshi Soga; Masaru Tomita; Shinji Fukuda

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysi...

  5. Association between Responsible Pet Ownership and Glycemic Control in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes

    Maranda, Louise; Gupta, Olga T.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) a chronic characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency requires conscientious patient self-management to maintain glucose control within a normal range. Family cohesion and adaptability, positive coping strategies, social support and adequate self-regulatory behavior are found to favorably influence glycemic control. Our hypothesis was that the responsible care of a companion animal is associated with these positive attributes and correlated with the success...

  6. Lipoprotein (a) in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relation to LDL:HDL ratio and glycemic control

    Singla, Seema; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Kaur, Gurdeep; Kaur, Habir; Kaur, Jasbinder; Jaswal, Shivani

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] concentrations are predictive of coronary artery disease (CAD). Type 2 diabetes mellitus also leads to dyslipidemia, like elevated triglyceride levels and low HDL levels, which are known risk factors for CAD. This study was designed to investigate the levels of Lp (a) in type 2 diabetic patients and their association with LDL: HDL ratio and glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 60 patients of type 2 diabetes and 50 age and s...

  7. Metformin regulates glycemic homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an NO donor

    Ivan Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of metformin on nitric oxide bioavailability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM regarding glycemic homeostasis, and to investigate a correlation between metformin dosage and NO levels in vivo.Materials and Methods. Two groups – primary and control – were assembled for the clinical section of this study. Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM on metformin therapy were included to the primary group, while drug-naïve T2DM patients were enrolled as control subjects. Glycemic parameters and NO bioavailability was tested in both groups prior to and after the follow-up period. Experimental section was dedicated to the elucidation of potential dose-dependent effects of metformin on NO bioavailability. Mice were intraperitoneally infused with metformin at 0.5; 1.1; 5.6 mg per subject. Tissue detection of NO was performed with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC iron complexes to form mononitrosyl iron compounds (MIC with paramagnetic properties. Control rodents were intraperitoneally infused with metformin without spin trapping.Results. We found nitrite and methaemoglobin (a marker for NO bioavailability to increase in parallel along with glycemic compensation in the primary but not control group. In vivo rodent models showed linear correlation between accumulation of DETC/MIC and dose of metformin, as well as formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes, known as endogenous NO transporters.Conclusion. Our data suggests that metformin benefits glycemic homeostasis in T2DM as an NO donor via formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes.

  8. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber cons...

  9. Sputum Glucose and Glycemic Control in Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Cowley, Elise S.; Newman, Dianne K.; Kato, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobi...

  10. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additio...

  11. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  12. Glycemic Control, Coping, and Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    Luyckx, Koen; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines how active coping and withdrawal, psychological (internalizing and externalizing) symptoms, and glycemic control (A1C values) influence each other across time in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred and nine adolescents participated in a four-wave longitudinal study spanning four years (mean age at Time 1 was 13.77). Patients were visited at home and completed questionnaires measuring coping and psychological symptoms. The tre...

  13. Glycemic control of type 2 diabetic patients after short-term zinc supplementation

    Oh, Hyun-Mee; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether a short-term zinc supplementation contributes to beneficial changes in glycemic control among type 2 diabetic patients. Seventy-six diabetic subjects and 72 normal adults participated in this study. Subjects were divided into supplemented and control groups. Forty-four diabetic patients and 34 normal subjects were supplemented with 50 mg zinc daily as zinc gluconate for 4 weeks. Zinc status was assessed from fasting plasma levels and urinary exc...

  14. Diabetes knowledge and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Niessen, Louis W; Seissler, Jochen; Ferrari, Uta; Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Anwar; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aims To explore the association between knowledge on diabetes and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 515 patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Trained interviewers were used to collect data on socioeconomic status, time since the onset of diabetes, co-morbidities, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, knowledge and perceptions about the causes, management, and c...

  15. Poor glycemic control as a reason for referral of diabetes patients to specialists in Israel

    Fogelman, Yacov; Karkabi, Khaled; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2016-01-01

    Aims/introduction: Family physicians face the dilemma of when to refer patients with diabetes to specialists. This study examined attitudes of family physicians to referring patients with poor glucose control to diabetes specialists.Materials and methods: At continuous medical education courses, family physicians were asked to respond anonymously, as to whether they generally manage the diabetes of their patients, and specifically those with poor glycemic control (HbA1c>9.0%).Results: Of 4...

  16. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Sonestedt, Emily; David E Laaksonen; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF) and the glycemic index (GI), with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective...

  17. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Valéria Cristina de Faria; João Carlos Bouzas Marins; Gustavo Antônio de Oliveira; Samuel de Souza Sales; Fernando Fonseca dos Reis; Juscélia Cristina Pereira; Luciana Moreira Lima

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI) and low GI (LGI), and two were performed in th...

  18. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load

    Erica M Schulte; Avena, Nicole M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University (Study One) and ...

  19. Predictors of suboptimal glycemic control for hospitalized patients with diabetes: Targets for clinical action

    Bender, M; Smith, TC; Thompson, J.; Koucheki, A; Holdy, K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Suboptimal glycemic control (SGC) puts hospitalized patients with diabetes at risk for poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to quantify factors with predictive capacity to identify patients at risk for SGC during hospitalization. Methods: 32 baseline and demographic variables were extracted from the electronic records of 23,100 patients with diabetes hospitalized between 2009 and 2012. The rate of blood glucose values between 70 and 180 mg/dL was calculated for each patient...

  20. Dietary Glycemic Load and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Study

    Higginbotham, Susan; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Giovannucci, Edward; Buring, Julie E.; Liu, Simin

    2004-01-01

    Although diet is believed to influence colorectal cancer risk, the long-term effects of a diet with a high glycemic load are unclear. The growing recognition that colorectal cancer may be promoted by hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance suggests that a diet inducing high blood glucose levels and an elevated insulin response may contribute to a metabolic environment conducive to tumor growth. We prospectively followed a cohort of 38 451 women for an average of 7.9 years and identified 174 w...

  1. Circuit Resistance Exercise Improves Glycemic Control and Adipokines in Females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Nam Hwoeh Yeo; Young Jun Kim; Hye-Jeong Lee 167; Dukkuy Kim; Ki Ok Shin; Jin Hee Woo; Sunghwun Kang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate whether circuit resistance exercise (CE) improves glycemic control and adipokine levels in comparison with walking exercise (WE) in 15 adult postmenopausal Korean females with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The participants were randomly assigned to either the CE or WE group. Subjects exercised for 1 h, three times per week for 12 weeks. The parameters measured were body composition, respiratory rate, blood glucose, insulin and adipokines. The body compositi...

  2. Claudin heterogeneity and control of lung tight junctions.

    Koval, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells interconnected by tight junctions provide a barrier to the free diffusion of solutes into airspaces. Transmembrane tight junction proteins known as claudins are essential for epithelial barrier function. Claudins are regulated through interactions with each other that are coordinated with other transmembrane tight junction proteins and cytosolic scaffold proteins. Of the 14 claudins expressed by the alveolar epithelium, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-18 are the most prominent; each confers unique properties to alveolar barrier function. In particular, a protective role for claudin-4 in preventing lung injury has emerged. By contrast, lung diseases that affect claudin expression and impair barrier function, including alcoholic lung syndrome and sepsis, prime the lung for pulmonary edema. Thus, approaches to restore and/or augment lung claudin expression provide potential targets for promoting healthy barrier function. PMID:23072447

  3. Tight Oklahoma gas sands remain an attractive play

    The Cherokee tight gas sands of Oklahoma remain an attractive play because of improvements in drilling and completion practices and actions by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) that allow separate allowables for new wells. The expired federal tax credits for tight gas wells have not been the only reason for increased activity. Since decontrol of most regulated gas pricing and since 1986, the number of wells drilled and gas production per well have been increasing in the cherokee area while overall drilling in Oklahoma has decreased. These conclusions are based on wells as categorized by permit date and not by the spud, completion, or first production date. A few wells outside but adjacent to the Cherokee area may have been included, although, their impact on the conclusions is considered nominal. The paper discusses the tight gas credit, proration units, the concept of separate allowables, costs, completion efficiency, and the economic outlook for this area

  4. Potential mechanisms mediating improved glycemic control after bariatric/metabolic surgery.

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Murata, Satoshi; Tani, Masaji; Tani, Tohru

    2016-03-01

    Conservative medical treatment for morbid obesity generally fails to sustain weight loss. On the other hand, surgical operations, so-called bariatric surgery, have evolved due to their long-term effects. The global increase in the overweight population and the introduction of laparoscopic surgery have resulted in the use of bariatric surgery spreading quickly worldwide in recent years. Recent clinical evidence suggests that bariatric surgery not only reduces body weight, but also improves secondary serious diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, in so-called metabolic surgery. Moreover, several potential mechanisms mediating the improvement in glycemic control after bariatric/metabolic surgery have been proposed based on the animal and human studies. These mechanisms include changes in the levels of gastrointestinal hormones, bacterial flora, bile acids, intestinal gluconeogenesis and gastrointestinal motility as well as adipose tissue and inflammatory mediators after surgery. The mechanisms underlying improved glycemic control are expected to accelerate the promotion of both metabolic and bariatric surgery. This article describes the current status of bariatric surgery worldwide and in Japan, reviews the accumulated data for weight loss and diabetic improvements after surgery and discusses the potential mechanisms mediating improved glycemic control. PMID:25700844

  5. Leukocyte peroxidase and leptin: an associated link of glycemic tolerance and bronchial asthma?

    Sergio Parco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sergio ParcoImmunopathology Unit, Laboratory of the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Recent observations suggest the presence of an interaction between leptin and the inflammatory system during bronchial asthma. Although there is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and children, little is yet known about the role of serum leptin, as a potential mediator for bronchial epithelial homeostasis, and intraleukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO, a hemoprotein with a molecular weight of 140 kDa, expression of the inflammatory system, in asthmatic children. Glycemic tolerance is an important pathogenetic element in developing type 2 mellitus diabetes and a confirmed predictor of incident asthma-like symptoms in adults. This work is aimed at assessing a possible correlation between basal leukocyte myeloperoxidase levels, basal leptin and insulin-glycemic tolerance in obese children. Thirty obese children aged between 7 and 15 years were examined. The analyzed data showed a normal response to the insulinemic stimulus in children of both sexes whose basal leptin and MPO values, expressed as MPO intracellular index, werewithin the normal range.Keywords: leptin, myeloperoxidase, glycemic tolerance, asthma

  6. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer. PMID:24934069

  7. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    Sung Woo Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Objective: To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE and coronary heart disease (CHD in an outpatient population. Methods: 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Results: Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Conclusion: Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  8. Impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on quantitative glycemic traits reveals mechanistic heterogeneity.

    Dimas, Antigone S; Lagou, Vasiliki; Barker, Adam; Knowles, Joshua W; Mägi, Reedik; Hivert, Marie-France; Benazzo, Andrea; Rybin, Denis; Jackson, Anne U; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Ci; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Grarup, Niels; Abbasi, Fahim A; Assimes, Themistocles L; Hao, Ke; Yang, Xia; Lecoeur, Cécile; Barroso, Inês; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Chines, Peter S; Erdos, Michael R; Graessler, Jurgen; Kovacs, Peter; Morken, Mario A; Narisu, Narisu; Payne, Felicity; Stancakova, Alena; Swift, Amy J; Tönjes, Anke; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Schwarz, Peter E H; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Smith, Ulf; Boehnke, Michael; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Quertemous, Thomas; Lind, Lars; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Walker, Mark; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Meigs, James B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Dupuis, Josée; Watanabe, Richard M; Florez, Jose C; Ingelsson, Erik; McCarthy, Mark I; Prokopenko, Inga

    2014-06-01

    Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci, and indices of proinsulin processing, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 nondiabetic subjects with basal measures and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We used additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age, and BMI, followed by fixed-effects, inverse-variance meta-analyses. Cluster analyses grouped risk loci into five major categories based on their relationship to these continuous glycemic phenotypes. The first cluster (PPARG, KLF14, IRS1, GCKR) was characterized by primary effects on insulin sensitivity. The second cluster (MTNR1B, GCK) featured risk alleles associated with reduced insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia. ARAP1 constituted a third cluster characterized by defects in insulin processing. A fourth cluster (TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B) was defined by loci influencing insulin processing and secretion without a detectable change in fasting glucose levels. The final group contained 20 risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition. PMID:24296717

  9. Available carbohydrates, glycemic load, and pancreatic cancer: is there a link?

    Meinhold, Cari L; Dodd, Kevin W; Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Shikany, James M; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Hayes, Richard B; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2010-06-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been linked to pancreatic cancer risk in case-control studies, but prospective studies have shown mostly null results. The authors investigated the associations of glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake with pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Dietary intake was assessed by using a self-administered questionnaire. Between 1998 and 2006 (median follow-up = 6.5 years), 266 incident, confirmed pancreatic cancers were identified among 109,175 participants. Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were adjusted for sex, smoking, body mass index, and total energy. Overall, elevated risks for pancreatic cancer were observed in the 90th versus 10th percentile of glycemic load (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.00), available carbohydrate (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.06), and sucrose (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.89) intake. The positive association for available carbohydrate intake was observed during the first 4 years of follow-up (HR(cancer risk associated with high available carbohydrate and low fat intake may be capturing dietary changes associated with subclinical disease. PMID:20452999

  10. Type 2 diabetes and glycemic response to grapes or grape products.

    Zunino, Susanj

    2009-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 7% of the population in the United States and is characterized by decreased disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues due to insulin resistance and overproduction of glucose by the liver, defects in pancreatic beta-cell function, and decreased beta-cell mass. Obesity, decreased physical exercise, and consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and load are major predisposing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The GI is used to evaluate the rise in blood glucose levels in response to food. The GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food. The glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. Individuals with diabetes are advised to maintain a diet of low-GL foods, because low-GL diets improve diabetes symptoms. Grapes have a mean GI and GL in the low range. Little research has been performed with grapes and/or grape products to determine the glycemic response either alone or with a meal. Grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving beta-cell function, and protecting against beta-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics. PMID:19625702

  11. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27311001

  12. Association between Responsible Pet Ownership and Glycemic Control in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Maranda, Louise; Gupta, Olga T

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) a chronic characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency requires conscientious patient self-management to maintain glucose control within a normal range. Family cohesion and adaptability, positive coping strategies, social support and adequate self-regulatory behavior are found to favorably influence glycemic control. Our hypothesis was that the responsible care of a companion animal is associated with these positive attributes and correlated with the successful management of a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. We recruited 223 youths between 9 and 19 years of age from the Pediatric Diabetes clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, reviewed the status of their glycemic control (using three consecutive A1c values) and asked them questions about the presence of a pet at home, and their level of involvement with its care. Multivariate analyses show that children who care actively for one or more pets at home are 2.5 times more likely to have control over their glycemic levels than children who do not care for a pet, adjusting for duration of disease, socio-economic status, age and self-management [1.1 to 5.8], pWald = 0.032. A separate model involving the care of a petdog only yielded comparable results (ORa = 2.6 [1.1 to 5.9], pWald = 0.023). PMID:27104736

  13. Impact of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Variants on Quantitative Glycemic Traits Reveals Mechanistic Heterogeneity

    Dimas, Antigone S.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Barker, Adam; Knowles, Joshua W.; Mägi, Reedik; Hivert, Marie-France; Benazzo, Andrea; Rybin, Denis; Jackson, Anne U.; Stringham, Heather M.; Song, Ci; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Grarup, Niels; Abbasi, Fahim A.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Hao, Ke; Yang, Xia; Lecoeur, Cécile; Barroso, Inês; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Chines, Peter S.; Erdos, Michael R.; Graessler, Jurgen; Kovacs, Peter; Morken, Mario A.; Narisu, Narisu; Payne, Felicity; Stancakova, Alena; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Smith, Ulf; Boehnke, Michael; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Quertemous, Thomas; Lind, Lars; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Walker, Mark; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Spranger, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Meigs, James B.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Dupuis, Josée; Watanabe, Richard M.; Florez, Jose C.; Ingelsson, Erik; McCarthy, Mark I.; Prokopenko, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci, and indices of proinsulin processing, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 nondiabetic subjects with basal measures and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We used additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age, and BMI, followed by fixed-effects, inverse-variance meta-analyses. Cluster analyses grouped risk loci into five major categories based on their relationship to these continuous glycemic phenotypes. The first cluster (PPARG, KLF14, IRS1, GCKR) was characterized by primary effects on insulin sensitivity. The second cluster (MTNR1B, GCK) featured risk alleles associated with reduced insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia. ARAP1 constituted a third cluster characterized by defects in insulin processing. A fourth cluster (TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B) was defined by loci influencing insulin processing and secretion without a detectable change in fasting glucose levels. The final group contained 20 risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition. PMID:24296717

  14. Boundary conditions for arbitrarily shaped and tightly focused laser pulses in electromagnetic codes

    Thiele, Illia; Skupin, Stefan; Nuter, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    Investigation of laser matter interaction with electromagnetic codes requires to implement sources for the electromagnetic fields. A way to do so is to prescribe the fields at the numerical box boundaries in order to achieve the desired fields inside the numerical box. Here we show that the often used paraxial approximation can lead to unexpected field profiles with strong impact on the laser matter interaction results. We propose an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the required laser boundary conditions consistent with the Maxwell's equations for arbitrarily shaped, tightly focused laser pulses.

  15. Vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional based tight binding

    Rüger, Robert; van Lenthe, Erik; Heine, Thomas; Visscher, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We report a time-dependent density functional based tight-binding (TD-DFTB) scheme for the calculation of UV/Vis spectra, explicitly taking into account the excitation of nuclear vibrations via the harmonic approximation. The theory of vibrationally resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy is first summarized from the viewpoint of TD-DFTB. The method is benchmarked against time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for strongly dipole allowed excitations in various aromatic and polar molecules. Using the recent 3ob:freq parameter set of Elstner's group, excellent agreement with TD-DFT calculations using local functionals was achieved.

  16. Tight focusing of plane waves from micro-fabricated spherical mirrors.

    Goldwin, J; Hinds, E A

    2008-10-27

    We derive a formula for the light field of a monochromatic plane wave that is truncated and reflected by a spherical mirror. Within the scalar field approximation, our formula is valid even for deep mirrors, where the aperture radius approaches the radius of curvature. We apply this result to micro-fabricated mirrors whose size scales are in the range of tens to hundreds of wavelengths, and show that sub-wavelength focusing (full-width at half-maximum intensity) can be achieved. This opens up the possibility of scalable arrays of tightly focused optical dipole traps without the need for high-performance optical systems. PMID:18958062

  17. Tight focusing of plane waves from micro-fabricated spherical mirrors

    Goldwin, J.; Hinds, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a formula for the light field of a monochromatic plane wave that is truncated and reflected by a spherical mirror. Our formula is valid even for deep mirrors, where the aperture radius approaches the radius of curvature. We apply this result to micro-fabricated mirrors whose size scales are in the range of tens to hundreds of wavelengths, and show that sub-wavelength spot sizes can be achieved. This opens up the possibility of scalable arrays of tightly focused optical dipole traps ...

  18. Tight focusing of plane waves from micro-fabricated spherical mirrors

    Goldwin, J

    2008-01-01

    We derive a formula for the light field of a monochromatic plane wave that is truncated and reflected by a spherical mirror. Our formula is valid even for deep mirrors, where the aperture radius approaches the radius of curvature. We apply this result to micro-fabricated mirrors whose size scales are in the range of tens to hundreds of wavelengths, and show that sub-wavelength spot sizes can be achieved. This opens up the possibility of scalable arrays of tightly focused optical dipole traps without the need for high-performance optical systems.

  19. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  20. Invisibility in non-Hermitian tight-binding lattices

    Reflectionless defects in Hermitian tight-binding lattices, synthesized by the intertwining operator technique of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, are generally not invisible and time-of-flight measurements could reveal the existence of the defects. Here it is shown that, in a certain class of non-Hermitian tight-binding lattices with complex hopping amplitudes, defects in the lattice can appear fully invisible to an outside observer. The synthesized non-Hermitian lattices with invisible defects possess a real-valued energy spectrum; however, they lack parity-time (PT) symmetry, which does not play any role in the present work.

  1. Parameter design and optimization of tight-lattice rod bundles

    Thin rod bundles with tight lattice are arranged according to the equilateral triangle grid, as the proportion of fuel is large, and the power density of core is high. Based on the analysis of the performance of core, the ABV-6M reactor is taken as the example, and two objective functions, power density and flow rate of coolant are proposed for optimization calculation. Diameter and pitch of rod are optimized by using GA method respectively. The results, which are considered to be safety in security checking, show that tight lattice is effective for improving the power density and other performances of the reactor core. (author)

  2. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study

    Annunziata Nusca; Angelo Lauria Pantano; Rosetta Melfi; Claudio Proscia; Ernesto Maddaloni; Rocco Contuzzi; Fabio Mangiacapra; Andrea Palermo; Silvia Manfrini; Paolo Pozzilli; Germano Di Sciascio

    2015-01-01

    Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous g...

  3. Evaluation of the glycemic index of some cooked variety of rice products in Nigeria

    G. O. Wordu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI is an important parameter of food quality which compares the hyperglycemic effect of a tested meal with pure glucose. The glycomic index of different varieties of rice (Oryza sativa such as white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were determined. A group of 22 participants with the mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 24 to 62 ± 1.43 years, 63.42 ± 10.50 kg, 1.70 ± 0.0 m and 21.90 ± 2.74 kgm-2 were respectively selected for the study. The mean fasting blood glucose level of the participants was 84.81 ± 4.37 mgdl-1. The mean blood glucose level at 30 and 60 min after the oral administration of 75 g glucose were 147.43 ± 11.67 and 125.95 ± 9.30 mgdl-1, respectively. The mean glycemic response of pure glucose at 30 and 60 min were 62.62 ± 11.4 and 41.14 ± 8.932 mgdl-1 respectively and hence, higher glycemic response for the pure glucose was obtained at 30 min. To the participants different varieties of cooked vice (white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice boiled containing 75 g digestible carbohydrate were administered, the peak blood glucose response was obtained at 30 min. The mean glycemic response of white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were 41.71 ± 6.17, 37.72 ± 5.11 and 35.05 ± 3.77 mgdl-1, respectively. The glycemic responses after the consumption of cooked rice sample containing 75 g digestible carbohydrate, showed significant difference (P > 0.05 between cooked white rice and brown rice, cooked brown rice and parboiled rice and cooked white rice and parboiled rice. The mean GI values of cooked white rice, brown rice and parboiled rice were 66.61 ± 9.86, 60.24 ± 8.16 and 55.97 ± 6.01, respectively. Based on these GI values, it can be suggested that among the three varieties of cooked rice, the parboiled rice is a better choice for diabetes patients.

  4. Local thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight 7-rod bundles

    Cheng, X. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Research Centre Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: chengxu@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu, Y.Q. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Road 800, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2009-10-15

    Advanced water-cooled reactor concepts with tight lattices have been proposed worldwide to improve the fuel utilization and the economic competitiveness. In the present work, experimental investigations were performed on thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight hexagonal 7-rod bundles under both single-phase and two-phase conditions. Freon-12 was used as working fluid due to its convenient operating parameters. Tests were carried out under both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. Rod surface temperatures are measured at a fixed axial elevation and in various circumferential positions. Test data with different radial power distributions are analyzed. Measured surface temperatures of unheated rods are used for the assessment of and comparison with numerical codes. In addition, numerical simulation using sub-channel analysis code MATRA and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS-10 is carried out to understand the experimental data and to assess the validity of these codes in the prediction of flow and heat transfer behaviour in tight rod bundle geometries. Numerical results are compared with experimental data. A good agreement between the measured temperatures on the unheated rod surface and the CFD calculation is obtained. Both sub-channel analysis and CFD calculation indicates that the turbulent mixing in the tight rod bundle is significantly stronger than that computed with a well established correlation.

  5. Scattering induced current in a tight-binding band

    Bruneau, Laurent; Pillet, Claude-Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the single band tight-binding approximation, we consider the transport properties of an electron in a homogeneous static electric field. We show that repeated interactions of the electron with two-level systems in thermal equilibrium suppress the Bloch oscillations and induce a steady current, the statistical properties of which we study.

  6. Si Tight-Binding Parameters from Genetic Algorithm Fitting

    Klimeck, G.; Bowen, R.; Boykin, T.; Salazar-Lazaro, C.; Cwik, T.; Stoica, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical simulations of carrier transport in Si require an accurate model of the complicated Si bandstructure. Tight-binding models are an attractive method of choice since they bear the full electronic structure symmetry in them and they can discretize a realistic device on an atomic scale.

  7. Tables of the existence of equiangular tight frames

    Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2015-01-01

    A Grassmannian frame is a collection of unit vectors which are optimally incoherent. The most accessible (and perhaps most beautiful) of Grassmannian frames are equiangular tight frames (ETFs); indeed, there are infinite families of known ETFs, whereas only finitely many non-ETF Grassmannian frames are known to date. This paper surveys every known construction of ETFs and tabulates existence for sufficiently small dimensions.

  8. Limiting enclosures. Classification of enclosures according to their tightness

    The aim of this standard is the classification of limiting enclosures accoding to their tightness. Application is made on enclosures or enclosures lines used for works on radioactive materials, toxic or dangerous chemicals, materials sensitive to atmospheric components or requiring a steril atmosphere

  9. Practical aspects of implementing tight glucose control in the ICU

    Vogelzang, Mathijs; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review The outcomes of intervention studies implementing intensive insulin therapy aimed at tight glucose control (TGC) are yet not conclusive. There is concern about an increasing incidence of hypoglycemic episodes. Normoglycemia is not easy to obtain in a 'real-life' ICU setting. To fac

  10. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response

    Augustin, Livia S A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A;

    2015-01-01

    of diets otherwise understood as healthy, complementing additional ways of characterizing carbohydrate foods, such as fiber and whole grain content. Diets of low GI and GL were considered particularly important in individuals with insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of diabetes...

  11. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Kamuhabwa AR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary R Kamuhabwa, Emmanuel CharlesUnit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients' information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients' records.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5% of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1% as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence

  12. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  13. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  14. Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North American tight geologic formations

    Schneising, Oliver; Burrows, John P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Buchwitz, Michael; Reuter, Maximilian; BOVENSMANN Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a massive growth in the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs to exploit formerly inaccessible or unprofitable energy resources in rock formations with low permeability. In North America, these unconventional domestic sources of natural gas and oil provide an opportunity to achieve energy self-sufficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when displacing coal as a source of energy in power plants. However, fu...

  15. The Effect of Basal Analog Insulin on the Glycemic Variability in Type 2 Diabetics

    Soner Cander

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin detemir and glargine on glycemic variability as determined by capillary blood glucose measurements in Type 2 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Material and Method: A total of 64 insulin-naive type 2 diabetics with a HbA1c level of 7.5%-10% were included in the study. The patients were randomized into 3 groups according to the basal insulin analog started; Group 1 (n=22 was started on once-daily detemir, Group 2 (n=22 twice-daily detemir, and Group 3 (n=20 insulin glargine. Basal insulin doses were titrated according to the morning/evening fasting capillary blood glucose levels. Standard deviations of the 8-point intraday fasting and postprandial blood glucose values were compared. Results: The fasting blood glucose intraday standard deviation values showed an improvement of 22.4% in Group 1, 21.4% in Group 2, and 26.4% in Group 3, while the intraday standard deviation for the postprandial values showed an improvement of 14.4%, 15.2%, and 38.7%, respectively (p>0.05. The standard deviation values did not show statistical significance when the groups were compared with each other. Baseline HbA1c values and insulin doses negatively correlated with the glycemic variability. Dicussion: Basal insulin added to treatment in Type 2 diabetics provided an improvement of 14.4% to 38.7% in glycemic variability. There was no significant difference between insulin glargine and detemir regarding this effect. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 33-38

  16. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  17. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Bahmani, Fereshteh; Kia, Mahsa; Soleimani, Alireza; Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge, data on the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are scarce. The current study was done to determine the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control and lipid concentrations in patients with DN. This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 60 patients with DN were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg of selenium supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) daily for 12 weeks. Blood sampling was performed for the quantification of glycemic indicators and lipid profiles at the onset of the study and after 12 weeks of intervention. Selenium supplementation for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated B cell function (HOMA-B) (P = 0.009) and a significant rise in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Taking selenium supplements had no significant effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and lipid profiles compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 12 weeks among patients with DN had beneficial effects on plasma GPx, serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B, while it did not affect FPG, QUICKI, and lipid profiles. PMID:26686847

  18. Correlation of DNA damage in type 2 diabetes to glycemic control

    Sohair I Salem, Safinaz E El-Toukhy, Gamila S M El-Saeed, Maha El-

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can damage cellular macromolecules. The aim of the study was to detect oxidative DNA damage in type 2 diabetic patients and to correlate it with glycemic control.Aim of work: to assess the percentage of DNA damage in patients with type 2 diabetes and the relation with glycemic control and lipid profile.Patients and methods: The present work included 28 diabetic patients as well as 25 age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as control. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE was used to assess DNA damage in 28 patients with type 2 diabetes and 25 age and sex matched healthy controls. Moreover, glycemic as well as lipid profiles were also estimated in those subjects.Results: The percent of DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher in diabetic patients (45.1±9.2 compared to healthy controls (3.70± 0.85 (p<0.001. The percent of DNA damage correlated positively with BMI, fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001 . However, there was no significant difference in percent of DNA damage between hypertensive patients (36.2 ±4.6 and non hypertensive patients (37.2±4.6. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between DNA damage and body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic patients have more oxidative DNA damage than normal controls and this damage increase with poor diabetic control, obesity and hyperlipidemia. Thus, DNA damage in the peripheral blood of diabetic patients assessed by comet assay can be applied as a new and non expensive technique for monitoring patients with type-2 diabetes.

  19. A tightly inducible riboswitch system in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Akai, Hideto; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hess, Wolfgang R; Watanabe, Satoru

    2016-07-14

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms that serve as experimental model organisms for the study of photosynthesis, environmental stress responses, and the production of biofuels. Genetic tools for bioengineering have been developed as a result of such studies. However, there is still room for improvement for the tight control of experimental protein expression in these microorganisms. Here, we describe an expression system controlled by a theophylline-responsive riboswitch that we have constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We demonstrate that, in response to different theophylline concentrations, this riboswitch can tightly control green fluorescence protein expression in Synechocystis. Thus, this system is useful as a tool for genetic engineering and the synthetic biology of cyanobacteria. PMID:27250662

  20. Tightness, weak compactness of nonlinear expectations and application to CLT

    Peng, Shi-Ge

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a notion of tightness for a family of nonlinear expectations and show that the tightness can be applied to obtain weak compactness in a framework of nonlinear expectation space. This criterion is very useful for obtaining the weak convergence for a sequence of nonlinear expectations, which is a equivalent to the so-called convergence in distribution, or in law for a sequence of random variables in a nonlinear expectation space. We use the above result to give a new proof to the central limit theorem under a sublinear expectation space. The method can be also applied to prove the convergence of some numerical schemes for degenerate fully nonlinear PDEs.

  1. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change. PMID:21617077

  2. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: tight linkage to chromosome 2q.

    Fink, J K; Rainer, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S. M.; Kume, A.; Hedera, P; Albin, R.; Mathay, J.; Girbach, L.; Varvil, T; Otterud, B; Leppert, M

    1996-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosom...

  3. Polyphase equiangular tight frames and abelian generalized quadrangles

    Fickus, Matthew; Jasper, John; Mixon, Dustin G.; Peterson, Jesse D.; Watson, Cody E.

    2016-01-01

    An equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a type of optimal packing of lines in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. ETFs arise in various applications, such as waveform design for wireless communication, compressed sensing, quantum information theory and algebraic coding theory. In a recent paper, signature matrices of ETFs were constructed from abelian distance regular covers of complete graphs. We extend this work, constructing ETF synthesis operators from abelian generalized quadrangles, and vic...

  4. Hepatic tight junctions:From viral entry to cancer metastasis

    Nikki; P; Lee; John; M; Luk

    2010-01-01

    The tight junction (TJ) is a critical cellular component for maintenance of tissue integrity, cellular interactions and cell-cell communications, and physiologically functions as the "great wall" against external agents and the surrounding hostile environment. During the host-pathogen evolution, viruses somehow found the key to unlock the gate for their entry into cells and to exploit and exhaust the host cells. In the liver, an array of TJ molecules is localized along the bile canaliculi forming the blood-...

  5. Tight binding description of the STM image of molecular chains

    Calev, Yoel; Cohen, Hezy; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Nitzan, Abraham; Porath, Danny

    2004-01-01

    A tight binding model for scanning tunneling microscopy images of a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface is described. The model is similar in spirit to that used to analyze conduction along molecular wires connecting two metal leads and makes it possible to relate these two measurements and the information that may be gleaned from the corresponding results. In particular, the dependence of molecular conduction properties along and across a molecular chain on the chain length, intersite elect...

  6. Tightly knit : spreading processes in empirical temporal networks

    Karimi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    We live in a tightly knit world. Our emotions, desires, perceptions and decisions are interlinked in our interactions with others. We are constantly influencing our surroundings and being influenced by others. In this thesis, we unfold some aspects of social and economical interactions by studying empirical datasets. We project these interactions into a network representation to gain insights on how socio-economic systems form and function and how they change over time. Specifically, this the...

  7. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond vortex laser pulse

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V.

    2010-01-01

    This letter is the first demonstration of material modification using tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex beams. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with the polarization-singularity beam converter described in Ref [1] and then focused using moderate and high numerical aperture optics (viz., NA = 0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glasses. By controlling the pulse energy we consistently machine high-quality micron-size ring-shaped structures with less than...

  8. Materials processing with tightly focused femtosecond vortex laser beams

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V.

    2010-01-01

    This letter is the first demonstration of material modification using tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex beams. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with the polarization-singularity beam converter described in Ref [1] and then focused using moderate and high numerical aperture optics (viz., NA = 0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glasses. By controlling the pulse energy we consistently machine high-quality micron-size ring-shaped structures with less than...

  9. Non-Hermitian tight-binding network engineering

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a simple method to engineer a tight-binding quantum network based on proper coupling to an auxiliary non-Hermitian cluster. In particular, it is shown that effective complex non-Hermitian hopping rates can be realized with only complex on-site energies in the network. Three applications of the Hamiltonian engineering method are presented: the synthesis of a nearly transparent defect in an Hermitian linear lattice; the realization of the Fano-Anderson model with complex coupling; an...

  10. Tight-binding study of bilayer graphene Josephson junctions

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Using highly efficient simulations of the tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes model we solved self-consistently for the pair correlation and the Josephson current in a Superconducting-Bilayer graphene-Superconducting Josephson junction. Different doping levels for the non-superconducting link are considered in the short and long junction regime. Self-consistent results for the pair correlation and superconducting current resemble those reported previously for single layer graphene except in th...

  11. Nonlinear filtering for ultra-tight gnss/ins integration

    Fernandez Prades, Carles; Closas, Pau; Vilà Valls, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of ultra--tight GNSS/INS integration. We propose a new approach, deriving the direct relation between Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) measurements and synchronization parameters, used in the trilateration algorithm to compute the position of the receiver. We take into account the IMU's eventual biased behavior by introducing it into the state representation. We use a recently--developed, square-root derivative--free Gaussian nonlinear filter to solve the estim...

  12. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Božić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 20 healthy controls (all male. Intraocular pressure was measured without a necktie, 3 minutes after placing a tight necktie and 3 minutes after loosening it. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups. The intraocular pressure measurements were subjected to paired t - test. The value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A possible correlation between the age of subjects and intraocular pressure values was analyzed using linear regression (Pearson′. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in intraocular pressure readings in all three measurements between two tested groups (p<0.05. When analyzed within groups, statistical significance in intraocular pressure readings was found after loosening the necktie (<0.05. No correlation between the age of subjects and increased intraocular pressure was found in either tested group of subjects after the necktie had been tightened (r2=0.006, p=0.70 for primary open angle patients, r2=0.07, p=0.22 for healthy controls. Conclusion. Wearing a tight necktie for a limited period of time during the day could be considered as a possible risk factor for glaucoma development.

  13. Tight-binding parameterization for photonic band gap materials

    Lidorikis, E.; Sigalas, M. M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    1998-01-01

    The ideas of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method, well known from the study of electrons, is extended to the classical wave case. The Mie resonances of the isolated scatterer in the classical wave case, are analogous to the localized eigenstates in the electronic case. The matrix elements of the two-dimensional tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian are obtained by fitting to ab initio results. The transferability of the TB model is tested by reproducing accurately the band struct...

  14. Tight-binding parameters for charge transfer along DNA

    Hawke, L. G.D.; Kalosakas, G.; Simserides, C.

    2009-01-01

    We systematically examine all the tight-binding parameters pertinent to charge transfer along DNA. The $\\pi$ molecular structure of the four DNA bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) is investigated by using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with a recently introduced parametrization. The HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions and energies of DNA bases are discussed and then used for calculating the corresponding wavefunctions of the two B-DNA base-pairs (adenine-thymine and gua...

  15. Tight-binding modeling of charge migration in DNA devices

    Cuniberti, G.; Macia, E.; Rodriguez, A.; R.A. Römer

    2007-01-01

    Long range charge transfer experiments in DNA oligomers and the subsequently measured -- and very diverse -- transport response of DNA wires in solid state experiments exemplifies the need for a thorough theoretical understanding of charge migration in DNA-based natural and artificial materials. Here we present a review of tight-binding models for DNA conduction which have the intrinsic merit of containing more structural information than plain rate-equation models while still retaining suffi...

  16. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W;

    2015-01-01

    24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients......, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40-0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure of...

  17. Reductions in Regimen Distress Are Associated With Improved Management and Glycemic Control Over Time

    Hessler, Danielle; Fisher, Lawrence; Glasgow, Russell E; Strycker, Lisa A.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Arean, Patricia A.; Masharani, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among regimen distress (RD), self-management, and glycemic control were undertaken to explore mechanisms of operation among these variables. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a behavioral randomized control trial (RCT) to reduce RD, 392 adults with type 2 diabetes were assessed for RD, diet, exercise, medication adherence, and HbA1c at baseline and at 4 and 12 months. Associations among RD, self-management, and HbA1c were examined in cross-...

  18. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Amaka Odenigbo; Jamshid Rahimi; Michael Ngadi; Somaia Amer; Arif Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘G...

  19. Maternal dietary glycemic intake during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects

    Yazdy, Mahsa M.; MITCHELL, ALLEN A.; Liu, Simin; Werler, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    High sugar intake has been linked to fetal anomalies in the presence and absence of insulin resistance. Using dietary data collected in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study, we examined whether high dietary glycemic index (dGI) or load (dGL) increased the risk of birth defects. Non-diabetic mothers of 1,921 cases and 704 controls were interviewed within six months after delivery (1988–1998) about pregnancy events and exposures, including a 99-item food frequency questi...

  20. Perioperative Glycemic Control in Plastic Surgery: Review and Discussion of an Institutional Protocol.

    Dortch, John D; Eck, Dustin L; Ladlie, Beth; TerKonda, Sarvam P

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a well-known risk factor for surgical morbidity such as wound healing, infection, and prolonged hospitalization. This association has been reported for a number of surgical subspecialties, including plastic surgery. Specialty-specific guidelines have become increasingly available in the literature. Currently, glucose management guidelines for plastic surgery are lacking. Recognizing that multiple approaches exist for perioperative glucose, protocol-based models provide the necessary structure and guidance for approaching glycemic control. In this article, we review the influence of diabetes on outcomes in plastic surgery patients and propose a practical approach to perioperative blood glucose management based on current Endocrine Society and Mayo Clinic institutional guidelines. PMID:27301370

  1. Nursing home patients with diabetes: Prevalence, drug treatment and glycemic control

    Andreassen, Lillan Mo; Sandberg, Sverre; Kristensen, Gunn Berit Berge; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Kjome, Reidun Lisbet Skeide

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Determine prevalence of diabetes, and describe use of blood glucose lowering (BGL) drugs and glycemic control in Norwegian nursing homes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we collected details of BGL drugs, capillary blood glucose measurements (CBGM) in the last four weeks and HbA1c measurements in the last 12 months from the medical records of patients with diabetes, within a population of 742 long-term care patients from 19 randomly selected nursing homes in Western Norway. De...

  2. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1

    Jensen, Majken K; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Franz, Mary;

    2006-01-01

    : The aim was to examine whether the intake of whole grains, bran, and germ is related to homocysteine, plasma markers of glycemic control (fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, C-peptide, and leptin), lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol), and inflammation (C......-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and interleukin 6). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of the relations of whole grains, bran, and germ intakes with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation in 938 healthy men and women. RESULTS: Whole-grain intake was inversely associated...... with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control. Compared with participants in the bottom quintile of whole-grain intake, participants in the highest quintile had 17%, 14%, 14%, and 11% lower concentrations of homocysteine (P

  3. Existing approaches to tight rock laboratory petrophysics: a critical review

    A review of the existing methods for tight rock porosity, saturation, and permeability determination was performed taking into account that these methods should be applicable for Bazhenov formation evaluation. The following methods were considered: Archimedes mercury immersion; mercury displacement; caliper; helium pycnometry on crushed samples; nuclear magnetic resonance; modified retort method; modified Dean-Stark extraction; pulse decay method; and pressure decay test on crushed samples. The applicability of the pressure decay test on a crushed sample for Bazhenov formation evaluation is checked experimentally with the SMP-200 commercial permeameter. All the above listed methods were combined into five protocols for tight rock petrophysical evaluation. These protocols were analyzed and compared according to the following criteria: accuracy of the results; usage experience; time of measurements; easiness of interpretation; reliability and safety; price. The obtained results revealed that the most effective protocol is the one that includes pressure pulse on a core plug for permeability determination, He pycnometry and modified retort analysis on crushed samples for porosity and saturation determination. As there were cases when the proposed protocol was less effective vs. other protocols, a special scheme was suggested in order to choose the most effective protocol for tight rock petrophysical properties evaluation in definite conditions

  4. Tight junction modulation by chitosan nanoparticles: comparison with chitosan solution.

    Vllasaliu, Driton; Exposito-Harris, Ruth; Heras, Angeles; Casettari, Luca; Garnett, Martin; Illum, Lisbeth; Stolnik, Snow

    2010-11-15

    Present work investigates the potential of chitosan nanoparticles, formulated by the ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate (TPP), to open the cellular tight junctions and in doing so, improve the permeability of model macromolecules. A comparison is made with chitosan solution at equivalent concentrations. Initial work assessed cytotoxicity (through MTS and LDH assays) of chitosan nanoparticles and solutions on Calu-3 cells. Subsequently, a concentration of chitosan nanoparticles and solution exhibiting minimal toxicity was used to investigate the effect on TEER and macromolecular permeability across filter-cultured Calu-3 monolayer. Chitosan nanoparticles and solution were also tested for their effect on the distribution of the tight junction protein, zonnula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Chitosan nanoparticles produced a sharp and reversible decrease in TEER and increased the permeability of two FITC-dextrans (FDs), FD4 (MW 4 kDa) and FD10 (MW 10 kDa), with effects of a similar magnitude to chitosan solution. Chitosan nanoparticles produced changes in ZO-1 distribution similar to chitosan solution, indicating a tight junction effect. While there was no improvement in permeability with chitosan nanoparticles compared to solution, nanoparticles provide the potential for drug incorporation, and hence the possibility for providing controlled drug release and protection from enzymatic degradation. PMID:20727955

  5. Effect of tighter glycemic control on cardiac function, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in heart failure patients with type 2 diabetes

    Nielsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj; Wiggers, Henrik; Thomsen, Henrik Holm;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF), the optimal glycemic target is uncertain, and evidence-based data are lacking. Therefore, we performed a randomized study on the effect of optimized glycemic control on left ventricular function, exercise capacity, muscle...

  6. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Thompson Sharon V; Winham Donna M; Hutchins Andrea M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14) or diet/exercise (n = 3) aged 35–70 years participated in the ran...

  7. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content. PMID

  8. Diet, Inflammation, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Sarah Y. Nowlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a growing national health problem affecting 35% of adults ≥20 years of age in the United States. Recently, diabetes has been categorized as an inflammatory disease, sharing many of the adverse outcomes as those reported from cardiovascular disease. Medical nutrition therapy is recommended for the treatment of diabetes; however, these recommendations have not been updated to target the inflammatory component, which can be affected by diet and lifestyle. To assess the current state of evidence for which dietary programs contain the most anti-inflammatory and glycemic control properties for patients with T2D, we conducted an integrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to May 2012 yielded 786 articles. The final 16 studies met the selection criteria including randomized control trials, quasiexperimental, or cross-sectional studies that compared varying diets and measured inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean and DASH diets along with several low-fat diets were associated with lower inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated the most clinically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Information on best dietary guidelines for inflammation and glycemic control in individuals with T2D is lacking. Continued research is warranted.

  9. Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index.

    Shukla, Kamini; Srivastava, Sarita

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop finger millet incorporated noodles for diabetic patients. Finger millet variety VL-149 was taken. The finger millet flour and refined wheat flour (RWF) were evaluated for nutrient composition. The finger millet flour (FMF) was blended in various proportions (30 to 50%) in refined wheat flour and used for the preparation of noodles. Control consisted of RWF noodles. Sensory quality and nutrient composition of finger millet noodles was evaluated. The 30% finger millet incorporated noodles were selected best on the basis of sensory evaluation. Noodles in that proportion along with control were evaluated for glycemic response. Nutrient composition of noodles showed that 50% finger millet incorporated noodles contained highest amount of crude fat (1.15%), total ash (1.40%), crude fiber (1.28%), carbohydrate (78.54%), physiological energy (351.36 kcal), insoluble dietary fiber (5.45%), soluble dietary fiber (3.71%), iron (5.58%) and calcium (88.39%), respectively. However, control RWF noodles contained highest amount of starch (63.02%), amylose (8.72%) and amylopectin (54.29%). The glycemic index (GI) of 30% finger millet incorporated noodles (best selected by sensory evaluation) was observed significantly lower (45.13) than control noodles (62.59). It was found that finger millet flour incorporated noodles were found nutritious and showed hypoglycemic effect. PMID:24587528

  10. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  11. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  12. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  13. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  14. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  15. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  16. Highly extended high density filaments in tight focusing geometry in water: from femtoseconds to microseconds

    Potemkin, F. V.; Mareev, E. I.; Podshivalov, A. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2015-05-01

    We report a new regime of filamentation in water in tight focusing geometry, very similar to the so-called superfilamentation seen in air. In this regime there is no observable conical emission and multiple small-scale filaments, but instead a single continuous plasma channel is formed. To achieve this specific regime the principal requirement is the usage of tight focusing and supercritical power of laser radiation. Together they guarantee extremely high intensity in the microvolume in water (˜1014 W cm-2) and clamp the energy in the ultra-thin (approximately several microns) channel with a uniform plasma density distribution in it. Each point of the ‘superfilament’ becomes a center of spherical shock wave generation. The overlapped shock waves transform into one cylindrical shock wave. At low energies, a single spherical shock wave is generated from the laser beam waist, and its radius tends toward saturation as energy increases. At higher energies, a long stable contrast cylindrical shock wave is generated, whose length increases logarithmically with laser pulse energy. The linear absorption decreases the incoming energy delivered to the focal spot, which dramatically complicates the filament formation, especially in the case of loose focusing. Aberrations added to the optical scheme lead to multiple dotted plasma sources for shock wave formation, spaced along the axis of pulse propagation. Increasing the laser energy launches the filaments at each of the dots, whose overlapping leads to enhancing the length of the whole filament and therefore the shock impact on the material.

  17. The NEPTUN experiments on LOCA thermal-hydraulics for tight-lattice PWRs

    The NEPTUN test facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being used to provide a broad data base for the validation of thermal-hydraulics codes used in predicting the reflooding behaviour of a tight-lattice PWR (light water highb conversion reactor, LWHCR). The present paper gives a description of the facility and the matrix to be covered in the experimental program. Results are presented from a number of forced-feed, bottom-reflooding experiments, comparisons being made with (a) measurements carried out earlier for standard-PWR geometry and (b) the results of a calculational benchmark exercise conducted in the framework of a Swiss/German LWHCR-development agreement. Rewetting for the tight, hexagonal-geometry (p/d = 1.13) NEPTUN-III test bundle has been found to occur in all tests carried out to date, in which reasonably LWHCR-representative values for the various thermal-hydraulics parameters are used. Results of the calculational benchmark exercise have confirmed the need for further code development efforts for achieving reliable predictions of LWHCR reflooding behaviour. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  18. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    Snippe, Corijn H.C.; Meinders, T.

    2007-01-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure...

  19. Tight Lower Bounds on Envy-Free Makespan Approximation

    Fiat, Amos

    2012-01-01

    In this work we give a tight lower bound on makespan approximations for envy-free allocation mechanism dedicated to scheduling tasks on unrelated machines. Specifically, we show that no mechanism exists that can guarantee an envy-free allocation of jobs to $m$ machines with a makespan of less than a factor of $O(\\log m)$ of the minimal makespan. Combined with previous results, this paper definitively proves that the optimal algorithm for obtaining a minimal makespan for any envy-free division can at best approximate the makespan to a factor of $O(\\log m)$.

  20. Containment leak-tightness enhancement at VVER 440 NPPs

    The hermetic compartments of VVER 440 NPPs fulfil the function of the containment used at NPPs all over the word. The purpose of the containment is to protect the NPP personal against radioactive impact as well as to prevent radioactive leakage to the environment during a lost of coolant accident. Leak-tightness enhancement in NPPs with VVER 440/213 and VVER 440/230 reactors is an important safety issue. New procedures, measures and methods were adopted at NPPs in Mochovce, J. Bohunice, Dukovany and Paks for leak identification and sealing works performed by VUEZ Levice. (authors)

  1. Role of the tight junction protein claudin-6

    Stier, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the influence of the TJ protein claudin-2 (Cld-6) on the transepithelial water transport in MDCK-C7 cells was investigated. It has been shown that Cld-6 overexpression in mouse causes a strong trans-epidermal water loss and thereby leads to death shortly after birth. The kidney cell line MDCK-C7 grows confluent and single-layered, forms TJ and serves as a model for a tight epithelium. The MDCK-C7 cells were stably transfected with Cld-6 cDNA (C7-Cld-6), the same cells transfect...

  2. Solving MAX-2-SAT Above a Tight Lower Bound

    Gutin, Gregory; Szeider, Stefan; Yeo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We present an exact algorithm that decides in time $m^{O(1)} + 2^{O(k^2)}$ whether a given set of $m$ binary clauses admits a truth assignment that satisfies at least $(3m+k)/4$ clauses. Thus \\textsc{Max-2-Sat} is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized above the tight lower bound $3m/4$. Our algorithm is based on a polynomial-time data reduction procedure that reduces a problem instance to an equivalent one with $O(k^2)$ variables.

  3. Tcf7l2 is Tightly Controlled During Myelin Formation

    Fu, Hui; Kesari, Santosh; Cai, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Recent, studies have shown that Tcf7l2, an important transcription factor in Wnt pathway, plays critical roles in oligodendrocyte development. In this article we report a study showing that Tcf7l2 is under tight regulation during myelin formation. We have found that during early development, Tcf7l2 mRNA appears much earlier than the protein, suggesting a regulation at the translational level. We induced demyelination in a mouse model by a dietary toxin, where remyelination followed after a fe...

  4. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse.

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-10-15

    In this Letter we present the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of material modification using tightly focused single femtosecond laser vortex pulses. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with a polarization-singularity beam converter based on light propagation in a uniaxial anisotropic medium and then focused using moderate- and high-NA optics (viz., NA=0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glass. By controlling the pulse energy, we consistently machine micrometer-size ring-shaped structures with <100nm uniform groove thickness. PMID:20967085

  5. Process for tightly sealing nuclear reactor fuel rods

    This invention refers to a process for pressurising and tightly sealing fuel rods used in nuclear reactors. The fuel rods utilised in commercial nuclear reactors are usually composed of a zircaloy tubular cladding of around 15 mm in diameter and up to 5 m long, filled with fuel pellets maintained in place by end plugs sealed on each end of the cladding. The main purpose of the invention is to promote a process using laser beam welding equipment to seal the end plugs on the fuel rods, drill a pressurising hole in one of the end plugs and hermetically seal the hole after the fuel rod has been placed under pressure

  6. Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with superconducting TF coils

    Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coils has been proposed. A center solenoid coil system and an inboard blanket were discarded. The key point was how to find the engineering design solution of the TF coil system with the high field and high current density. The coil system with the center post radius of less than 1 m can generate the maximum field of ∼ 20 T. This coil system causes a compact reactor concept, where the plasma major and minor radii of 3.75 m and 1.9 m, respectively and the fusion power of 1.8 GW. (author)

  7. Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with superconducting TF coils

    Tight aspect ratio tokamak power reactor with super-conducting toroidal field (TF) coils has been proposed. A center solenoid coil system and an inboard blanket were discarded. The key point was how to find the engineering design solution of the TF coil system with the high and high current density. The coil system with the center post radius of less than 1 m can generate the maximum field of ∼20 T. This coil system causes, a compact reactor concept, where the plasma major and minor radii o 3.75 m and 1.9 m, respectively and the fusion power of 1.8 GW. (author)

  8. Point Line Cover: The Easy Kernel is Essentially Tight

    Kratsch, S.; PHILIP, G; S Ray

    2013-01-01

    The input to the NP-hard Point Line Cover problem (PLC) consists of a set $P$ of $n$ points on the plane and a positive integer $k$, and the question is whether there exists a set of at most $k$ lines which pass through all points in $P$. A simple polynomial-time reduction reduces any input to one with at most $k^2$ points. We show that this is essentially tight under standard assumptions. More precisely, unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to its third level, there is no polynomial-tim...

  9. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond vortex laser pulse

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-01-01

    This letter is the first demonstration of material modification using tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex beams. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with the polarization-singularity beam converter described in Ref [1] and then focused using moderate and high numerical aperture optics (viz., NA = 0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glasses. By controlling the pulse energy we consistently machine high-quality micron-size ring-shaped structures with less than 100 nm uniform groove thickness.

  10. Materials processing with tightly focused femtosecond vortex laser beams

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-01-01

    This letter is the first demonstration of material modification using tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex beams. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with the polarization-singularity beam converter described in Ref [1] and then focused using moderate and high numerical aperture optics (viz., NA = 0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glasses. By controlling the pulse energy we consistently machine high-quality micron-size ring-shaped structures with less than 100 nm uniform groove thickness.

  11. A characterization of tight and dual generalized translation invariant frames

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    We present results concerning generalized translation invariant (GTI) systems on a second countable locally compact abelian group G. These are systems with a family of generators {gj, P}jεJ, pεPJ ⊂ L2(G), where J is a countable index set, and Pj, j ε J are certain measure spaces. Furthermore, for...... systems form tight frames, and when two GTI Bessel systems form dual frames for L2(G). In particular, this offers a unified approach to the theory of discrete and continuous frames and, e.g., yields well known results for discrete and continuous Gabor and wavelet systems....

  12. Tight-binding approach to strain-dependent DNA electronics

    Malakooti, Sadeq; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Small mechanical strain perturbations are considered in calculations of the poly(G)-poly(C) DNA molecular electronic structure, using a tight-binding framework in conjunction with the theories of Slater-Koster and linear elasticity. Results reveal a strain-induced band gap for DNA which is linearly dependent on the induced strain. Local density of states calculations expose that the contribution of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in the charge transport mechanism is significantly enhanced relative to the backbones when DNA is compressed. Transport investigations also disclose a strain-induced metal-semiconductor transition for the DNA molecule, which suggests possible potential uses for sensing applications.

  13. 心血管疾病风险与食物血糖指数和血糖负荷相关性分析%Correlation analysis of cardiovascular disease risk, food glycemic index and glycemic load

    刘晓燕; 杨彬婕; 何晓健; 陈昌海; 张丹

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore and analyze the correlation between cardiovascular disease risk, food glycemic index and glycemic load correlation.MethodSelected 2137 cases of 50~70 years old general physical examination as the research objects in our hospital check-up from January 2007 to January 2009 by followed-up 5 years, statistical study cases complicated with cardiovascular disease, and analyzed the possible inlfuencing factors.ResultThere were medical examination of 65 cases complicated with cardiovascular disease in 2137 cases in the 5 years, through a single factor chi-square test shows that, high glycemic load, high glycemic index, obesity, smoking, drinking, and negative emotions could easily induce cardiovascular disease, after multiple Logistic regression analysis for risk factors from big to small respectively was glycemic index (OR=20.950,P=0.000), high glycemic load (OR=6.716,P=0.000), obesity (OR=2.808,P=0.000) and alcohol (OR=1.683,P=0.00).ConclusionFood glycemic index and glycemic load can be used as a blood glucose reaction after eating two important indexes, the introduction of concept of glycemic index and glycemic load food to eating healthy education can improve human glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipid, insulin resistance and break traditional food exchange and to prevent cardiovascular complications, such as worthy of further popularization and application in clinic.%目的:探究并分析心血管疾病风险与食物血糖指数和血糖负荷的相关性。方法选取2007年1月至2009年1月2137例于本院体检的50~70岁体检者为研究对象。随访5年,统计研究对象并发心血管疾病的例数,并对可能的影响因素进行分析。结果随访结束后,2137例体检者中65例并发心血管疾病,单因素χ2检验显示:高血糖负荷、高血糖指数、肥胖、吸烟、饮酒和负性情绪等因素易诱发心血管疾病,多因素Logistic回归分析得到危险因素由大至小分

  14. Markers of beta cell failure predict poor glycemic response to GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes

    Jones, Angus G; McDonald, Timothy J; Shields, Beverley M; Hill, Anita V; Hyde, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget A; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether clinical characteristics and simple biomarkers of beta cell failure are associated with individual variation in glycemic response to GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods We prospectively studied 620 participants with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥58mmol/mol (7.5%) commencing GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy as part of their usual diabetes care and assessed response to therapy over 6 months. We assessed the association between baseline clinical measurements associated with beta cell failure and glycemic response (HbA1c change 0 to 6 months, primary outcome) with change in weight (0 to 6 months) as a secondary outcome using linear regression and ANOVA with adjustment for baseline HbA1c and co-treatment change. Results Reduced glycemic response to GLP-1R agonists was associated with longer duration diabetes, insulin co-treatment, lower fasting C-peptide, lower post meal urine C-peptide creatinine ratio and positive GAD or IA2 islet autoantibodies (p≤0.01 for all). Participants with positive autoantibodies or severe insulin deficiency (fasting C-peptide ≤0.25nmol/L) had markedly reduced glycemic response to GLP-1RA therapy (autoantibodies: mean HbA1c change -5.2 vs -15.2 mmol/mol (-0.5 vs -1.4%), p=0.005 C-peptide diabetes. PMID:26242184

  15. Do eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes

    Due, Pernille; de Beaufort, Carine; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab;

    2013-01-01

    . The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: Across countries in the HSBC survey...

  16. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    Scott, Robert A.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E.; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Yengo, Loic; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V.; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tonu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M.; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Willems, Sara M.; Chines, Peter S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M.; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F.; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A.; An, Ping; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Hallmans, Goeran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B.; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Kovacs, Peter; Lindstrom, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H.; Basart, Hanneke V.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Morris, Andrew D.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Beilby, John P.; Koerner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S.; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D.; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josee; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B.; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L.; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Florez, Jose C.; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes ri

  17. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  18. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P;

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes...

  19. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. IMPACC: A Tightly Integrated MPI+OpenACC Framework Exploiting Shared Memory Parallelism

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We propose IMPACC, an MPI+OpenACC framework for heterogeneous accelerator clusters. IMPACC tightly integrates MPI and OpenACC, while exploiting the shared memory parallelism in the target system. IMPACC dynamically adapts the input MPI+OpenACC applications on the target heterogeneous accelerator clusters to fully exploit target system-specific features. IMPACC provides the programmers with the unified virtual address space, automatic NUMA-friendly task-device mapping, efficient integrated communication routines, seamless streamlining of asynchronous executions, and transparent memory sharing. We have implemented IMPACC and evaluated its performance using three heterogeneous accelerator systems, including Titan supercomputer. Results show that IMPACC can achieve easier programming, higher performance, and better scalability than the current MPI+OpenACC model.

  2. A Tight Lattice, Epithermal Core Design for the Integral PWR

    An 8-year core design for an epithermal, water-cooled reactor has been developed based upon assessments of nuclear reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics and economics. An integral vessel configuration is adopted and self-supporting wire-wrap fuel is employed for the tight lattice of the epithermal core. A streaming path is incorporated in each assembly to ensure a negative void coefficient. A whole-core MCNP simulation of the tight core shows a negative void coefficient for any burnup with positive KEFF. The VIPRETM code has been used to calculate the critical heat flux (CHF) by means of an appropriate wire-wrap CHF correlation, specifically introduced in the source code. Economically, the high fuel enrichment (14% w/o 235U) and the very long core life (8 ys) lead to high lifetime-levelized unit fuel cycle cost (in mills/kWhre). However, both operation and maintenance and capital-related expenditures strongly benefited from the higher electric output per unit volume, which yielded quite small lifetime-levelized unit capital and operation and maintenance costs for the overall plant. Financing costs are included and an estimate is provided for the total lifetime-levelized unit cost of the epithermal core, which is about 20% lower than that of a more open lattice thermal spectrum core fitting into the same core envelope and with 4-year lifetime. (authors)

  3. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers.

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  4. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production

  5. The Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of the Foods with Different Glycemic Indices on Blood Glucose and Serum Free Fatty Acids in Cycling, Male Athletes

    Asadi, J. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Carbohydrates are considered as the major source of energy in physical activity. Studies show that consumption of carbohydrate foods before exercise can balance blood glucose and free fatty acids and increase athletes’ performance. In this study , we compared the effect of three kinds of foods with different glycemic indices on blood glucose (BG and serum free fatty acids (FFA in cycling ,male athletes. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial, 21 members of national cycling team randomly allocated to three equal groups of glucose (low glycemic index ، lentil (low glycemic index and potato (high glycemic index. First, Fasting blood samples (5ml were obtained to measure BG and FFA . Then the subjects were asked to eat their foods. After 45 mins of rest, they pedaled with maximal oxygen consumption VO2max for two hours and again their blood samples were taken to compare with the levels of before interventions. Results: Glucose consumption resulted in a significant decrease in FFA level after 2 hours of pedaling (P = 0.01 but no significant change in BG level. Plasma glucose was higher after eating lentil than that of potato (P<0.05, but it was not true for FFA level of both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results, the pre-exercise use of low glycemic index (lentil compared to high glycemic index (potato can better lead to increased blood glucose during exercise. Keywords: Glycemic Index; Blood Glucose; Serum Free Fatty Acids; Cyclists

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

    2004-12-10

    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are

  8. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  9. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  10. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Di Pierro F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate.Methods and results: Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol® in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.Conclusion: Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.Keywords: berberine, silymarin, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes

  11. The impact of measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control in the critically ill--a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Krinsley, James S; Bruns, David E; Boyd, James C

    2015-03-01

    The role of blood glucose (BG) measurement frequency on the domains of glycemic control is not well defined. This Monte Carlo mathematical simulation of glycemic control in a cohort of critically ill patients modeled sets of 100 patients with simulated BG-measuring devices having 5 levels of measurement imprecision, using 2 published insulin infusion protocols, for 200 hours, with 3 different BG-measurement intervals-15 minutes (Q15'), 1 hour (Q1h), and 2 hours (Q2h)-resulting in 1,100,000 BG measurements for 3000 simulated patients. The model varied insulin sensitivity, initial BG value and rate of gluconeogenesis. The primary outcomes included rates of hyperglycemia (BG > 180 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (BG glucose variability (within-patient coefficient of variation [CV] > 20%), and time in range (BG ranges 80-150 mg/dL and 80-180 mg/dL). Percentages of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia at both thresholds, and patients with elevated glucose variability as well as time outside glycemic targets were substantially higher in simulations with measurement interval Q2h compared to those with measurement interval Q1h and moderately higher in simulations with Q1h than in those with Q15'. Higher measurement frequency mitigated the deleterious effect of high measurement imprecision, defined as CV ≥ 15%. This Monte Carlo simulation suggests that glycemic control in critically ill patients is more optimal with a BG measurement interval no longer than 1h, with further benefit obtained with use of measurement interval of 15'. These findings have important implications for the development of glycemic control standards. PMID:25568143

  12. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  13. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  14. Glycemic control and nerve conduction abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Graf, R J; Halter, J B; Pfeifer, M A; Halar, E; Brozovich, F; Porte, D

    1981-03-01

    The influence of therapy of hyperglycemia on the progression of diabetic neuropathy is unclear. We studied variables of glycemia and motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity in a group of 18 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects before and after institution of diabetes therapy. Diabetes therapy significantly reduced variables of glycemia after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Conduction velocity of the median motor nerve was improved from baseline at each time tested during treatment. In addition, peroneal and tibial motor nerve conduction velocities improved in patients whose levels of hyperglycemia were lowered. Moreover, extent of improvement of conduction velocity of some motor nerves was related to the degree of reduction of hyperglycemia. Sensory nerve conduction velocity was not altered by diabetes therapy. These findings support the hypothesis of a metabolic component to diabetic neuropathy and suggest that optimal glycemic control may be beneficial to patients with this disorder. PMID:7013592

  15. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI. PMID:25766808

  16. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    disposition index, a measure of compensatory pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity, in subjects representing the entire range of the glucose tolerance continuum. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of subjects (N = 313) with heterogeneous age, sex, BMI, and glycemic control...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  17. Diabetes and tuberculosis: a review of the role of optimal glycemic control

    Niazi Asfandyar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries shoulder most of the burden of diabetes and tuberculosis. These diseases often coexist. Suboptimal control of diabetes predisposes the patient to tuberculosis, and is one of the common causes of poor response to anti-tubercular treatment. Tuberculosis also affects diabetes by causing hyperglycemia and causing impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance is one of the major risk factors for developing diabetes. The drugs used to treat tuberculosis (especially rifampicin and isoniazid interact with oral anti-diabetic drugs and may lead to suboptimal glycemic control. Similarly some of the newer oral anti-diabetic drugs may interact with anti-tuberculosis drugs and lower their efficacy. Therefore diabetes and tuberculosis interact with each other at multiple levels – each exacerbating the other. Management of patients with concomitant tuberculosis and diabetes differs from that of either disease alone. This article reviews the association between diabetes and tuberculosis and suggests appropriate management for these conditions.

  18. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    Li, Zhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Jin, Zhu-Qiu, E-mail: zhu-qiu.jin@sdstate.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  19. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  20. CIRCUIT RESISTANCE EXERCISE IMPROVES GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND ADIPOKINES IN FEMALES WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Nam Hwoeh Yeo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate whether circuit resistance exercise (CE improves glycemic control and adipokine levels in comparison with walking exercise (WE in 15 adult postmenopausal Korean females with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The participants were randomly assigned to either the CE or WE group. Subjects exercised for 1 h, three times per week for 12 weeks. The parameters measured were body composition, respiratory rate, blood glucose, insulin and adipokines. The body composition of the CE group showed a significant reduction (all p < 0.05 in body weight, body mass index (BMI, and percentage of body fat and a significant increase in muscle mass. Respiratory function was also significantly increased in the CE group. Additionally, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c changed favorably in the CE group, as were the concentrations of adipokines such as retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4 (p < 0.05, adiponectin (p < 0.01, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 (p < 0.01. In addition, significant correlations with CE were evident for homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and glucose (r = 0.69, p < 0.001, muscle mass and glucose (r = 0.45, p < 0.05, and muscle mass and HbA1c (r = 0.39, p < 0.05. The beneficial effects of CE include the development of muscle mass, which effectively increases glucose use and reduces the amount of insulin required. Thus, our results suggest that CE improves glycemic control and adipokines resulting from incrementally increased muscle mass and reductions of body weight, BMI and percentage of body fat for T2DM postmenopausal Korean women

  1. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  2. Tight-binding lattices with an oscillating imaginary gauge field

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    We consider non-Hermitian dynamics of a quantum particle hopping on a one-dimensional tight-binding lattice made of N sites with asymmetric hopping rates induced by a time-periodic oscillating imaginary gauge field. A deeply different behavior is found depending on the lattice topology. While in a linear chain (open boundary conditions) an oscillating field can lead to a complex quasienergy spectrum via a multiple parametric resonance; in a ring topology (Born-von Karman periodic boundary conditions) an entirely real quasienergy spectrum can be found and the dynamics is pseudo-Hermitian. In the large-N limit, parametric instability and pseudo-Hermitian dynamics in the two different lattice topologies are physically explained on the basis of a simple picture of wave-packet propagation.

  3. Tight focusing of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses

    Hua Li-Min; Chen Bao-Suan; Chen Zi-Yang; Pu Ji-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the tight focusing properties of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses. Based on Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction integral, the expressions for the electric field, the velocity of the femtosecond light pulse and the total angular momentum of focused pluses are derived. The numerical calculations are also given to illustrate the intensity distribution, phase contour, the group velocity variation and the total angular momentum near the focus. It finds that near the focus the femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulse can travel at various group speeds, that is, slower or faster than light speed in vacuum, depending on the numerical aperture of the focusing objective system. Moreover, it also studies the influence of the numerical aperture of the focusing objective and the time duration of the elliptically polarised vortex light pulse on the total angular momentum distribution in the focused field.

  4. Tight focusing of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses

    This paper studies the tight focusing properties of femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulses. Based on Richards—Wolf vectorial diffraction integral, the expressions for the electric field, the velocity of the femtosecond light pulse and the total angular momentum of focused pluses are derived. The numerical calculations are also given to illustrate the intensity distribution, phase contour, the group velocity variation and the total angular momentum near the focus. It finds that near the focus the femtosecond elliptically polarised vortex light pulse can travel at various group speeds, that is, slower or faster than light speed in vacuum, depending on the numerical aperture of the focusing objective system. Moreover, it also studies the influence of the numerical aperture of the focusing objective and the time duration of the elliptically polarised vortex light pulse on the total angular momentum distribution in the focused field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Tight-binding study of bilayer graphene Josephson junctions

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-11-01

    Using highly efficient simulations of the tight-binding Bogoliubov-de-Gennes model, we solved self-consistently for the pair correlation and the Josephson current in a superconducting-bilayer graphene-superconducting Josephson junction. Different doping levels for the non-superconducting link are considered in the short- and long-junction regimes. Self-consistent results for the pair correlation and superconducting current resemble those reported previously for single-layer graphene except at the Dirac point, where remarkable differences in the proximity effect are found, as well as a suppression of the superconducting current in the long-junction regime. Inversion symmetry is broken by considering a potential difference between the layers and we found that the supercurrent can be switched if the junction length is larger than the Fermi length.

  6. Quantifying tight-gas sandstone permeability via critical path analysis

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Skaggs, Todd H.

    2016-06-01

    Rock permeability has been actively investigated over the past several decades by the geosciences community. However, its accurate estimation still presents significant technical challenges, particularly in spatially complex rocks. In this short communication, we apply critical path analysis (CPA) to estimate permeability in porous rocks from measured mercury intrusion porosimetry and electrical conductivity data. Theoretical estimations of various CPA-based models are then compared to experimental measurements using eighteen tight-gas sandstones. Except for two of the samples, we find permeability estimations performed with the Skaggs model (assuming pore diameter independent of its length) more accurate than other models, within a factor of two of the measured permeabilities. We discuss some plausible sources of the uncertainties.

  7. Tight-binding approach to penta-graphene

    Stauber, T.; Beltrán, J. I.; Schliemann, J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an effective tight-binding model to discuss penta-graphene and present an analytical solution. This model only involves the π-orbitals of the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and reproduces the two highest valence bands. By introducing energy-dependent hopping elements, originating from the elimination of the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, also the two lowest conduction bands can be well approximated - but only after the inclusion of a Hubbard onsite interaction as well as of assisted hopping terms. The eigenfunctions can be approximated analytically for the effective model without energy-dependent hopping elements and the optical absorption is discussed. We find large isotropic absorption ranging from 7.5% up to 24% for transitions at the Γ-point. PMID:26940279

  8. Critical heat flux in tubes and tight hexagonal rod lattices

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in small-diameter tubes and in tight hexagonal 7-rod and 37-rod bundles was investigated in the KRISTA test facility, using Freon 12 as the working fluid. The measurements in tubes showed that the influence of the tube diameter on CHF cannot be described as suggested by earlier publications with sufficient accuracy. CHF in bundles is lower than in tubes under comparable conditions. The influence of spacers (grid spacers, wire wraps) on CHF was found to be governed by local steam qualities. A comparison of the test results with some CHF prediction methods showed that the look-up table method reproduces the test results in circular tubes most accurately. Combined with CHF look-up tables, subchannel analysis and Ahmad's fluid-to-fluid scaling law, Freon experiments have proven to be a suitable tool for CHF prediction in water-cooled rod bundles. (orig.)

  9. Tight-binding parameters for charge transfer along DNA

    Hawke, L G D; Simserides, C

    2009-01-01

    We systematically examine all the tight-binding parameters pertinent to charge transfer along DNA. The $\\pi$ molecular structure of the four DNA bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) is investigated by using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with a recently introduced parametrization. The HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions and energies of DNA bases are discussed and then used for calculating the corresponding wavefunctions of the two B-DNA base-pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine). The obtained HOMO and LUMO energies of the bases are in good agreement with available experimental values. Our results are then used for estimating the complete set of charge transfer parameters between neighboring bases and also between successive base-pairs, considering all possible combinations between them, for both electrons and holes. The calculated microscopic quantities can be used in mesoscopic theoretical models of electron or hole transfer along the DNA double helix, as they provide the necessar...

  10. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  11. Cadmium Level, Glycemic Control, and Indices of Renal Function in Treated Type II Diabetics: Implications for Polluted Environments.

    Anetor, John I; Uche, Chukwuemelie Z; Ayita, Emmanuel B; Adedapo, Solomon K; Adeleye, Jokotade O; Anetor, Gloria O; Akinlade, Sola K

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has recently emerged as a major concern not only in environmental toxicology but also in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its complications. Conflicting data aside, these studies have not been examined in a clinical population undergoing management as well as possible modulation by the prominent metabolic antagonist of Cd such as zinc (Zn). This study examined the relationship between cadmium levels, glycemic control, and renal pathology in established type II diabetic patients with focus on populations exposed to modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs). Sixty-five participants, consisting of 45 type-2 diabetics and 20 non-diabetics were enrolled for the study, mean age 61.51 ± 5.27 years. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was used to classify them into three sub-groups: (A) good glycemic control (44.4%), (B) fair glycemic control (24.4%), and (C) poor glycemic control (31.1%). Plasma levels of glucose, Cd, Zn, HbA1c, creatinine, urinary creatinine, microalbuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were determined in all participants using standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose was higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics (p = 0.000) as well as Zn level, though not significantly. Interestingly, Cd level, Cd/Zn ratio, and urinary creatinine were significantly lower in diabetics than in non-diabetics. The group with poor glycemic control (C) had significantly higher Cd level compared to the one with good glycemic control (group A). The renal function revealed that microalbuminuria and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics, while eGFR was found to be similar in both diabetics and non-diabetics. UACR inversely correlated with Cd level, while plasma creatinine level positively correlated with Cd but not significantly. Correlation between Cd and HbA1c revealed non-significant inverse correlation (r = -0.007; p > 0.05), while Zn showed a

  12. Poor glycemic control of diabetes mellitus is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.

    Juhyun Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level: a no-DM (DM- group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC group (HbA1c <6.5%; and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC group (HbA1c ≥6.5%. For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5% and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC group (HbA1c ≥7.5%.Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7% had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7% had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD (P = 0.037 and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031 among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001 and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016 also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001 but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7 diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376. However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048.Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.

  13. Interaction of sleep quality and sleep duration on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Tang Yunzhao; Meng lingling; Li Daiqing; Yang Min; Zhu Yanjuan; Li Chenguang; Jiang Zhenhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Copious evidence from epidemiological and laboratory studies has revealed that sleep status is associated with glucose intolerance,insulin resistance,thus increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.The aim of this study was to reveal the interaction of sleep quality and sleep quantity on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods From May 2013 to May 2014,a total of 551 type 2 diabetes patients in Tianjin Metabolic Diseases Hospital were enrolled.Blood samples were taken to measure glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c),and all the patients completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep status."Good sleep quality" was defined as PQSI <5,"average sleep quality" was defined as PQSI 6-8,and "poor sleep quality" was defined as PQSI >8.Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c >7%.Sleep quantity was categorized as <6,6-8,and >8 hours/night.Short sleep time was defined as sleep duration <6 hours/night.Results In the poor glycemic control group,the rate of patients who had insufficient sleep was much higher than that in the other group (x2=11.16,P=0.037).The rate of poor sleep quality in poor glycemic control group was much greater than that in the average control group (x2=9.79,P=0.007).After adjusted by gender,age,body mass index,and disease duration,the adjusted PSQI score's OR was 1.048 (95% CI 1.007-1.092,P=0.023) for HbA1c level.The sleep duration's OR was 0.464 (95% CI 0.236-0.912,P=0.026) for HbA1c level.One-way analysis of variance showed that the poor sleep quality group had the highest homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P <0.01).Conclusions Inadequate sleep,in both quality and quantity,should be regarded as a plausible risk factor for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.Poor sleep might bring much more serious insulin resistance and could be the reason for bad glycemic control.A good night's sleep should be seen as a critical

  14. Walking behaviour and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: seasonal and gender differences-Study design and methods

    Strachan Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high glucose levels typically occurring among adults with type 2 diabetes contribute to blood vessel injury and complications such as blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, and stroke. Higher physical activity levels are associated with improved glycemic control, as measured by hemoglobin A1C. A 1% absolute increase in A1C is associated with an 18% increased risk for heart disease or stroke. Among Canadians with type 2 diabetes, we postulate that declines in walking associated with colder temperatures and inclement weather may contribute to annual post-winter increases in A1C levels. Methods During this prospective cohort study being conducted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 100 men and 100 women with type 2 diabetes will undergo four assessments (once per season over a one-year period of observation. These assessments include (1 use of a pedometer with a concealed viewing window for a two-week period to measure walking (2 a study centre visit during which venous blood is sampled for A1C, anthropometrics are assessed, and questionnaires are completed for measurement of other factors that may influence walking and/or A1C (e.g. food frequency, depressive symptomology, medications. The relationship between spring-fall A1C difference and winter-summer difference in steps/day will be examined through multivariate linear regression models adjusted for possible confounding. Interpretation of findings by researchers in conjunction with potential knowledge "users" (e.g. health professionals, patient groups will guide knowledge translation efforts. Discussion Although we cannot alter weather patterns to favour active lifestyles, we can design treatment strategies that take seasonal and weather-related variations into account. For example, demonstration of seasonal variation of A1C levels among Canadian men and women with T2D and greater understanding of its determinants could lead to (1 targeting physical activity levels to remain

  15. Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas

    Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 – 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 – 58 dynes/cm and 14 – 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs

  16. A nonlinear magnetic helicity model of a tight aspect ratio bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive

    Theoretical and computational analyses of bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive (OFCD) have been developed using a nonlinear magnetic helicity model. Assuming a rigid current profile, the conditions for optimal tokamak steady-state operation are derived and are shown to agree with the results of computer calculations. Generalized limit formulae for the toroidal plasma beta and bootstrap current fraction are also obtained. The results of the analyses indicate that steady-state bootstrapped tokamak operation with high toroidal plasma beta can best be achieved in tight aspect ratio A → 1 reactors with OFCD supplying as much as a quarter of the total toroidal plasma current. (author)

  17. Economic Analysis of a Telemedicine Intervention to Improve Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Illustration of a Novel Analytic Method

    Mason, James M.; Young, Robert J.; John P. New; J. Martin Gibson; Andrew F. Long; Tina Gambling; Tim Friede

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective: An economic analysis of telemedicine support to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, illustrating the use of an analytic framework that efficiently combines telemedicine program findings with published estimates of treatment cost effectiveness. Method: The Pro-Active Call Centre Treatment Support (PACCTS) trial compared tailored, protocol-driven call-center support with usual care as methods to manage glycemic control in 591 patients wi...

  18. The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetic patients

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.......To evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetic patients and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control....

  19. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

    Yu-Mi Lee; Se-A Kim; In-Kyu Lee; Jung-Guk Kim; Keun-Gyu Park; Ji-Yun Jeong; Jae-Han Jeon; Ji-Yeon Shin; Duk-Hee Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Materials and Methods P...

  20. Absorption-limited and phase-matched high harmonic generation in the tight focusing regime

    High harmonic generation (HHG) at a high repetition rate requires tight focusing of the moderate peak power driving pulses. So far the conversion efficiencies that have been achieved in this regime are orders of magnitude behind the values that have been demonstrated with loose focusing of high energy (high peak power) lasers. In this contribution, we discuss the scaling laws for the main physical quantities of HHG and in particular analyze the limiting effects: dephasing, absorption and plasma defocusing. It turns out that phase-matched and absorption-limited HHG can be achieved even for very small focal spot sizes using a target gas provided with an adequately high density. Experimentally, we investigate HHG in a gas jet of argon, krypton and xenon. By analyzing the pressure dependence we are able to disentangle the dephasing and absorption effects and prove that the generated high order harmonics are phase-matched and absorption-limited. The obtained conversion efficiency is as high as 8 × 10−6 for the 17th harmonic generated in xenon and 1.4 × 10−6 for the 27th harmonic generated in argon. Our findings pave the way for highly efficient harmonic generation at megahertz repetition rates. (papers)

  1. Balanced sparse model for tight frames in compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Yunsong Liu

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing has shown to be promising to accelerate magnetic resonance imaging. In this new technology, magnetic resonance images are usually reconstructed by enforcing its sparsity in sparse image reconstruction models, including both synthesis and analysis models. The synthesis model assumes that an image is a sparse combination of atom signals while the analysis model assumes that an image is sparse after the application of an analysis operator. Balanced model is a new sparse model that bridges analysis and synthesis models by introducing a penalty term on the distance of frame coefficients to the range of the analysis operator. In this paper, we study the performance of the balanced model in tight frame based compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging and propose a new efficient numerical algorithm to solve the optimization problem. By tuning the balancing parameter, the new model achieves solutions of three models. It is found that the balanced model has a comparable performance with the analysis model. Besides, both of them achieve better results than the synthesis model no matter what value the balancing parameter is. Experiment shows that our proposed numerical algorithm constrained split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm for balanced model (C-SALSA-B converges faster than previously proposed algorithms accelerated proximal algorithm (APG and alternating directional method of multipliers for balanced model (ADMM-B.

  2. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  3. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  4. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin-metformin.

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  5. THE EFFECT OF TELE-MONITORING ON EXERCISE TRAINING ADHERENCE, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES

    Tracy Marios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We used tele-monitoring to attempt to improve exercise adherence (number of hours of exercise completed, peak VO2, HbA1c% and quality of life in an unsupervised, home based exercise program in people with type II diabetes, a cost analysis was also conducted. Thirty-nine patients with type II diabetes were randomized to tele-monitoring (TELE or control (CON groups. All patients were asked to complete 6 months exercise training and complete an exercise activity diary. The TELE group was instructed to record their exercise heart rates using a monitor and received weekly telephone calls from an exercise physiologist. Six TELE patients and seven CON patients did not complete the 6 month testing. TELE patients completed a mean weekly volume of 138 minutes, moderate intensity exercise, while CON patients completed 58 minutes weekly (p < 0.02. Neither group achieved the American Heart Association statement guideline for weekly exercise volume of 150 minutes. TELE patients improved peak VO2 (5.5 %, but neither group improved HbA1c% or quality of life. The CON group showed a 4.9% reduction in peak VO2. While tele-monitored patients completed more hours of exercise and demonstrated improved peak VO2 compared to controls, the exercise volume completed was insufficient to improve glycemic control. There is the potential via tele-monitoring to enable people with diabetes to meet exercise training guidelines.

  6. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Glycemic control improves with physical activity, but the optimal exercise mode is unknown. Objective: To determine whether interval-based exercise improves postprandial glucose tolerance and free-living glycemia more than oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise...... of slow and fast walking); 2) continuous-walking (CW); 3) Control (CON). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to match mean VO2 between exercise sessions (∼75% VO2peak). Main Outcome Measures: A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT; 450 kcal, 55% carbohydrate) with stable glucose isotopic...... tracers was provided after each intervention and glucose kinetics were measured during the following 4 hours. Free-living glycemic control was assessed for ∼32 hours following the MMTT using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Results: VO2 was well-matched between the exercise interventions. IW decreased...

  7. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tönu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Rayner, Nigel W; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S; Willems, Sara M; Chines, Peter S; Jackson, Anne U; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Forouhi, Nita G; Loos, Ruth J F; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerard R; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H; Basart, Hanneke V; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Boehm, Bernhard O; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Hovingh, G Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Morris, Andrew D; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A; Beilby, John P; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Florez, Jose C; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have raised the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional follow-up of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control. PMID:22885924

  8. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways.

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J; Evans, David M; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Morris, Andrew P; Rayner, Nigel W; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S; Willems, Sara M; Chines, Peter S; Jackson, Anne U; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Forouhi, Nita G; Loos, Ruth J F; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerard R; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H; Basart, Hanneke V; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Boehm, Bernhard O; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Hovingh, G Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Morris, Andrew D; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A; Beilby, John P; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Florez, Jose C; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-09-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes risk (q < 0.05). Loci influencing fasting insulin concentration showed association with lipid levels and fat distribution, suggesting impact on insulin resistance. Gene-based analyses identified further biologically plausible loci, suggesting that additional loci beyond those reaching genome-wide significance are likely to represent real associations. This conclusion is supported by an excess of directionally consistent and nominally significant signals between discovery and follow-up studies. Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control. PMID:22885924

  9. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Targeting the Kidney to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus

    Bays, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Although hyperglycemia is a key therapeutic focus in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), many patients experience sub-optimal glycemic control. Current glucose-lowering agents involve the targeting of various body organs. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors target the kidney, reduce renal glucose reabsorption, and increase urinary glucose elimination, thus lowering glucose blood levels. This review examines some of the key efficacy and safety d...

  11. Comparison of Ranolazine and Trimetazidine on Glycemic Status in Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Sandhiya, Selvarajan; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Pillai, Ajith Ananthakrishna; George, Melvin; Jayaraman, Balachander; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death around the globe and diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk equivalent. Ranolazine, an anti anginal drug has been found to reduce Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetes patients with chronic angina. However the effect of another antianginal drug trimetazidine, on glycemic status is not clear.

  12. Pulmonary function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their association with glycemic control and duration of the disease

    Shah, Swati H; Pranali Sonawane; Pradeep Nahar; Savita Vaidya; Sundeep Salvi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) have been poorly characterized. Some authors have reported normal pulmonary functions and even concluded that spirometry is not at all necessary in diabetic patients. Some studies have shown abnormal respiratory parameters in patients of DM. Moreover, the duration of DM and glycemic control have varied impact on the pulmonary functions. Aims and Objectives: The study was undertaken to analyze the pulmonary function parameters in di...

  13. The Effect of Aqua Extract of Saffron with Resistance Training on Glycemic Indexes of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    SA Hosseini; H Nik bakht; MA Azarbayjani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: According to the proven effectiveness of saffron resistance and physical activity on diabetes, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycemic indexes of saffron combined with resistance training on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 36 adult male rats. After induction of diabetes, the rats were randomly divided into four equal groups, resistance exercise (five days a week, for six da...

  14. Effect of fruit restriction on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes – a randomized trial

    Christensen, Allan S; Viggers, Lone; Hasselström, Kjeld; Gregersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical nutrition therapy is recognized as an important treatment option in type 2 diabetes. Most guidelines recommend eating a diet with a high intake of fiber-rich food including fruit. This is based on the many positive effects of fruit on human health. However some health professionals have concerns that fruit intake has a negative impact on glycemic control and therefore recommend restricting the fruit intake. We found no studies addressing this important clinical question. Th...

  15. Effects of Encapsulated Propolis on Blood Glycemic Control, Lipid Metabolism, and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Yajing Li; Minli Chen; Hongzhuan Xuan; Fuliang Hu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the encapsulated propolis on blood glycemic control, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The animal characteristics and biological assays of body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin act index (IAI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured and euglycemic hyperinsulinemi...

  16. Association of glycemic variability and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Zheng Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose variability is one of components of the dysglycemia in diabetes and may play an important role in development of diabetic vascular complications. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between glycemic variability determined by a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In 344 T2DM patients with chest pain, coronary angiography revealed CAD (coronary stenosis ≥ 50% luminal diameter narrowing in 252 patients and 92 patients without CAD. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. All participants' CGM parameters and biochemical characteristics were measured at baseline. Results Diabetic patients with CAD were older, and more were male and cigarette smokers compared with the controls. Levels of the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE (3.7 ± 1.4 mmol/L vs. 3.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L, p 1c (HbA1c, hs-CRP and total cholesterol (TC. Multivariate analysis indicated that age (p 1c (p = 0.022 and hs-CRP (p = 0.005 were independent determinants for Gensini score. Logistic regression analysis revealed that MAGE ≥ 3.4 mmol/L was an independent predictor for CAD. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for MAGE (0.618, p = 0.001 was superior to that for HbA1c (0.554, p = 0.129. Conclusions The intraday glycemic variability is associated with the presence and severity of CAD in patients with T2DM. Effects of glycemic excursions on vascular complications should not be neglected in diabetes.

  17. Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes.MethodsIn a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study.ResultsAt the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%, glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%, and malondialdehyde (37.21% levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82% and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36% in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05. Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups.ConclusionInulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Severe Type 2 Diabetes Induces Reversible Modifications of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Which are Ameliorate by Glycemic Control

    De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Bruzzese, Giuseppe; Crimi, Ettore; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Liguori, Antonio; Brongo, Sergio; Barbieri, Michelangela; Picascia, Antonietta; Schiano, Concetta; Sommese, Linda; Ferrara, Nicola; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) play a critical role in neovascularization and endothelial repair. There is a growing evidence that hyperglycemia related to Diabetes Mellitus (DM) decreases EPC number and function so promoting vascular complications. Aim of the Study This study investigated whether an intensive glycemic control regimen in Type 2 DM can increase the number of EPCs and restores their function. Methods Sixty-two patients with Type 2 DM were studied. Patients were tested at baseline and after 3 months of an intensive regimen of glycemic control. The Type 2 DM group was compared to control group of subjects without diabetes. Patients with Type 2 DM (mean age 58.2±5.4 years, 25.6% women, disease duration of 15.4±6.3 years) had a baseline HgA1c of 8.7±0.5% and lower EPC levels (CD34+/KDR+) in comparison to healthy controls (p<0.01). Results The intensive glycemic control regimen (HgA1c decreased to 6.2±0.3%) was coupled with a significant increase of EPC levels (mean of 18%, p<0.04 vs. baseline) and number of EPCs CFUs (p<0.05 vs. baseline). Conclusion This study confirms that number and bioactivity of EPCs are reduced in patients with Type 2 DM and, most importantly, that the intensive glycemic control in Type 2 DM promotes EPC improvement both in their number and in bioactivity. PMID:27426095

  19. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Ahmadi, S.; Z Tabibi; A Mashhadi; P Eshraghi; F Faroughi; Ahmadi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15) and control group (15)....

  20. Treatment satisfaction and glycemic control in young Type 1 diabetic patients in transition from pediatric health care: CSII versus MDI.

    Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Petrizzo, Michela; Improta, Maria Rosaria; Brancario, Clementina; Castaldo, Filomena; Olita, Laura; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) may have any advantage over multiple daily injections (MDI) on glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in young patients with Type 1 diabetes in transition to an adult diabetes center. The study population consisted of 125 patients on MDI; 38 out of the 43 patients considered eligible for CSII completed the study and the 82 remaining on MDI served as control group. Glycemic control and treatment satisfaction [diabetes treatment satisfaction questionnaire (DTSQ)] were evaluated in all patients at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the two groups were well matched for demographic characteristics and glycemic control. DTSQ score was lower in CSII group (21.1 ± 8.8 vs. 25.1 ± 7.1, P = 0.011). After 12 weeks, a similar decrease in HbA1C was observed in both groups [difference -0.3 % (95 % CI-0.6 to 0.1, P = 0.847)]. Mean amplitude glucose excursions,blood glucose standard deviation, and overall hypoglycemia were significantly reduced in CSII group. DTSQ overall score increased in CSII and decreased in MDI (difference between groups = 9.9, 95 % CI 8.0-12.0, P<0.001), while perceived hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia decreased in CSII compared with MDI (difference:-2.5 and -2.0, respectively, P<0.001 for both). Among young Type 1 diabetic patients in transition from Pediatrics,CSII showed a similar efficacy in reducing HbA1c compared with MDI, with less hypoglycemia and glycemic excursions, and was better in improving overall treatment satisfaction and the rate of perceived hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. PMID:24078410

  1. Peri-procedural Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Coronary Angiography with Possible Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Amoroso, Nicholas S.; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D.; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z.; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J.; Sedlis, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-procedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, peri-procedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to coronary angiography with possible PCI on peri-procedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n=86) or...

  2. Dietary Fiber, Magnesium, and Glycemic Load Alter Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii12

    Hopping, Beth N.; Erber, Eva; Grandinetti, Andrew; Verheus, Martijn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary fiber, magnesium (Mg), and glycemic load (GL) on diabetes was examined in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort. The 75,512 Caucasian, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian participants aged 45–75 y at baseline completed a FFQ. After 14 y of follow-up, 8587 incident diabetes cases were identified through self-reports and health plans. We applied Cox regression stratified for age at cohort entry and adjusted for ethnicity, BMI, physical activity, education, a...

  3. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Deborah Foote; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Glynis P. Ross; Tania P. Markovic; Jimmy Chun Yu Louie

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL) of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high) on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assess...

  4. Assessment of the nutritional quality of cookies with low glycemic value in the city of Rosario, Argentina

    Emilce Elina Llopart; Maria Paula Pérez; Daniela Borda-Bossana; Lucrecia López-Marenghini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cookies constitute a varied group of farinaceous products. Their consumption is widespread and they can be considered one of products that families consume. Some cookies belong within the group of functional food, thus are allowed to be eaten by people with special dietary needs, such as patients with diabetes. The main goal of this publication was to asses, by using the nutrition labeling, the amount of fat, saturated fatty acids and sodium contained in low glycemic value cooki...

  5. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    糟谷, 憲明; 太田, 昌一郎; 髙波, 嘉一; Kawai, Yukari; 井上, 裕; 村田, 勇; 金本, 郁男

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non?drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  6. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity

    KASUYA, NORIAKI; Ohta, Shoichiro; TAKANAMI, YOSHIKAZU; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; MURATA, ISAMU; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to ric...

  7. Effect of a low glycemic load on body composition and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) in overweight and obese subjects

    A. L. Armendáriz-Anguiano; A. Jiménez-Cruz; M. Bacardí-Gascón; L. Hurtado-Ayala

    2011-01-01

    bjective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different glycemic load diets on biochemical data and body composition, in overweight and obese subjects, during a 6-month period. Research design and methods: This study was an experimental, randomized, parallel design. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical data were measured at baseline at 3 and at 6 months. All subjects completed 3-day dietary intake diaries at the baseline period and during the third and the sixth months....

  8. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  9. Testing underground tanks for leak tightness at LLNL

    Two types of tank systems are present at the Livermore Site: tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel (forty-three systems), and tanks or sumps and associated piping for the retention of potentially contaminated wastewater (forty systems). The fuel systems were tested using commercially available test methods: Petro-Tite, Hunter Leak Lokator, Ezy-Chek, and Associated Environmental Systems (A.E.S.). In contrast to fuel tank systems, wastewater systems have containers that are predominantly open at the top and not readily testable. Therefore, a project to test and evaluate all available testing methods was initiated and completed. The commercial method Tank Auditor was determined to be appropriate for testing open-top tanks and sumps and this was the method used to test the majority of the open-top containers. Of the 81 tanks tested, 61 were found to be leak tight, 9 were shown to have leaks, and 11 yielded inconclusive results. Two tanks have not yet been tested because of operational constraints; they are sheduled to be tested within the next two months. Schedules are being developed for the retesting of tanks and for remedial actions

  10. Toward tight gamma-ray burst luminosity relations

    Qi, Shi

    2011-01-01

    The large scatters of luminosity relations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been one of the most important reasons that prevent the extensive applications of GRBs in cosmology. Many efforts have been made to seek tight luminosity relations. With the latest sample of 116 GRBs, we investigated 6 two-dimensional (2D) correlations and 14 derived three-dimensional (3D) correlations of GRBs to explore the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic scatters of the luminosity relations of GRBs. We found the 3D correlation of $E_{\\mathrm{peak}}$--$\\tau_{\\mathrm{RT}}$--$L$ to be significantly tighter (at $2 \\sigma$ confidence level) than its corresponding 2D correlations, i.e., the $E_{\\mathrm{peak}}$--$L$ and $\\tau_{\\mathrm{RT}}$--$L$ correlation. In addition, the coefficients before the logarithms of $E_{\\mathrm{peak}}$ and $\\tau_{\\mathrm{RT}}$ in the $E_{\\mathrm{peak}}$--$\\tau_{\\mathrm{RT}}$--$L$ correlation are almost exactly opposite to each other. Inputting this situation as a prior reduces the relation to $L \\propto...

  11. TOWARD TIGHT GAMMA-RAY BURST LUMINOSITY RELATIONS

    The large scatters of luminosity relations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been one of the most important reasons preventing the extensive application of GRBs in cosmology. Many efforts have been made to seek tight luminosity relations. With the latest sample of 116 GRBs with measured redshift and spectral parameters, we investigate 6 two-dimensional (2D) correlations and 14 derived three-dimensional (3D) correlations of GRBs to explore the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic scatters of the luminosity relations of GRBs. We find the 3D correlation of Epeak-τRT-L to be evidently tighter (at the 2σ confidence level) than its corresponding 2D correlations, i.e., the Epeak-L and τRT-L correlations. In addition, the coefficients before the logarithms of Epeak and τRT in the Epeak-τRT-L correlation are almost exact opposites of each other. Inputting this situation as a prior reduces the relation to L∝(E'peak/τRT')0.842±0.064, where E'peak and τ'RT denote the peak energy and minimum rise time in the GRB rest frame. We discuss how our findings can be interpreted/understood in the framework of the definition of the luminosity (energy released in units of time). Our argument about the connection between the luminosity relations of GRBs and the definition of the luminosity provides a clear direction for exploring tighter luminosity relations of GRBs in the future.

  12. Estimating achievement from fame

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  13. EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D REPLETION ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN WITH PREDIABETES AND HYPOVITAMINOSIS D

    Barengolts, Elena; Manickam, Buvana; Eisenberg, Yuval; Akbar, Arfana; Kukreja, Subhash; Ciubotaru, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Objective This double blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated 12 months high dose vitamin D2 supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity, secretion and glycemic status. Methods African American men with prediabetes (A1C 5.7 – 6.4%), hypovitaminosis D (25OHD 5 – 29 ng/ml), and prevalent medical problems were supplemented with vitamin D3 (400 IU/day) and then randomized to weekly placebo or vitamin D2 (50,000 IU). The primary outcome was the change in oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS, from oral glucose tolerance test) after 12 months of treatment. Secondary outcomes included other glycemic indices, A1C and incident diabetes. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in vitamin D-supplemented (n = 87) and placebo (n = 86) subjects completing the trial with average concentrations 14.4 ng/ml, 362 and 6.1% for 25OHD, OGIS and A1C, respectively. After 12 months vitamin D-supplemented group had a change in serum 25OHD +35 vs +6 ng/ml for placebo, pvitamin D subgroup (31.6%) than placebo (8.3%) returned to normal glucose tolerance, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.13). Conclusion The trial does not provide evidence that 12 months of high-dose D2 repletion improves clinically relevant glycemic outcomes in subjects with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D (NCT01375660). PMID:25716637

  14. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Evaluation of glycemic control, quality of life and psychological characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Yuliya Andreevna Shishkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify psychological characteristics associated with better glycemic control and higher quality of life (QoL in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and Methods. The study included 140 T1DM patients (47 males aged 18 to 28 years. Assessment of the QoL and associated emotional state (ES was performed by validated localized questionnaires, supplemented with the inventories for evaluation of psychological characteristics. Based on the acquired data we performed a trilateral analysis of glycemic control, QoL and ES, followed by testing of these parameters for correlation with certain psychological characteristics, including disease attitude, mindfulness, self-attitude and self-assessment, coping strategies, autoregulation parameters and the locus of control.Results. In the studied sample, better glycemic control was associated with higher QoL and more favourable ES. We also identified several psychological characteristics associated with an improvement in all three primary parameters, namely: higher level of mindfulness, internal locus of control and ergopathic attitude.Conclusion. The diagnostic inventory for QoL and ES evaluation used in the present study may be helpful for psychological testing in patients with T1DM.

  16. THE EFFECTS OF POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND OF NON-SURGICAL PERIODONTAL THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Cornelia OANȚĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the diabetic status and severity of the periodontal involvement, and also of the non-surgical periodontal therapy on the periodontal status of patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and method: The study was conducted on 21 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study group and 10 systemically healthy subjects (control group. We examined: the degree of glycemic control (by measuring the glycated hemoglobin, the periodontal and oral hygiene parameters at the baseline and 4 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after the periodontal treatment (scaling and root planning. Results and discussion: Subjects with a poor glycemic control presented a higher percentage of sites with attachment loss, significantly higher amounts of bacterial plaque, sub-gingival calculus and gingival bleeding - when compared with the control group or with subjects with good or moderated glycemic control. In the same group, a rapid recurrence of the deep periodontal pockets was observed after 12 months. Conclusions: A prolonged poor control of glycemia and the time elapsed from the debut of diabetes were closely related with its complications. The comparison between the diabetes and the control groups demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the periodontal disease.

  17. Trend analysis of the correlation of amino acid plasma profile with glycemic status in Saudi diabetic patients

    Fahad A. Al-Abbasi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of amino acids in diabetes mellitus and its metabolic traits have been suggested previously; however, studied to a very limited scale in the Saudi patient population. Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were included in the current clinical study. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution. Blood samples were drawn and assayed for glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. General biochemical markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatinine kinase (CK, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were assessed. Serum amino acids of different categories (essential, semi-essential and metabolic indicator amino acids were assessed. Correlation co-efficient between each amino acid and serum glucose level was calculated. The current study showed positive correlation between amino acid level and glucose serum concentration in male while it showed negative correlation in female Saudi diabetic patients. Male patients had significantly higher methionine concentration parallel to their glycemic status. Metabolic indicator amino acids significantly changed in concordance with the glycemic status of female patients more than in male patients. In conclusion, serum amino acid is positively correlated with glycemic status in Saudi male diabetic patients while negatively correlated in female patients. Yet, further study would be recommended to utilize serum amino acid profile as surrogate parameter for the metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus.

  18. An examination of the possibility of lowering the glycemic index of oat and barley flakes by minimal processing.

    Granfeldt, Y; Eliasson, A C; Björck, I

    2000-09-01

    Differences in glycemic responses to various starchy foods are related to differences in the rate of starch digestion and absorption. In this study, the importance of the degree of gelatinization and the product thickness for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to rolled oats and barley were studied in healthy subjects (5 men and 5 women). Thick (1.0 mm) rolled oats were made from raw or preheated (roasted or steamed) kernels. In addition, thin (0.5 mm) rolled oats were made from roasted or roasted and steamed (processed under conditions simulating commercial production) oat kernels. Finally, steamed rolled barley kernels (0.5 or 1.0 mm) were prepared. All thin flakes elicited high glucose and insulin responses [glycemic index (GI), 88-118; insulinemic index (II), 84-102], not significantly different from white wheat bread (P: > 0.05). In contrast, all varieties of thick oat flakes gave significantly lower metabolic responses (GI, 70-78; II, 58-77) than the reference bread (P: barley flakes, however, gave high glucose and insulin responses (GI, 94; II, 84), probably because the botanical structure underwent more destruction than the corresponding oat flakes. We conclude that minimal processing of oat and barley flakes had a relatively minor effect on GI features compared with the more extensive commercial processing. One exception was thick oat flakes, which in contrast to the corresponding barley flakes, had a low GI. PMID:10958814

  19. Effect of Probiotics on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials.

    Yuting Ruan

    Full Text Available Previous clinical trials indicate that probiotic consumption may improve blood glucose control, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent.To investigate the effects of probiotics on glycemic control in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrial.gov through October 2014.Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and expressed as mean differences (MD with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic and quantified (I2.Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included, in which 17 fasting blood glucose (n = 1105, 11 fasting plasma insulin (n = 788, 8 homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (n = 635 comparisons were reported. Probiotic consumption, compared with placebo, significantly reduced fasting glucose (MD = -0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI 0.56, 0.06; p = 0.02, fasting plasma insulin (MD = -1.29 μU/mL; 95% CI -2.17, -0.41; p = 0.004, and HOMA-IR (MD = 0.48; 95% CI -0.83, -0.13; p = 0.007.Probiotic consumption may improve glycemic control modestly. Modification of gut microbiota by probiotic supplementation may be a method for preventing and control hyperglycemia in clinical practice.

  20. The impact of low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in Native Americans

    Khairi S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Shafaq Khairi,1 Babak Torabi Sagvand,2 Syed Kamal Nasser3 1Southeastern Regional Physician Services, Lumberton, NC, 2Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 3Southeastern Regional Medical Center, Lumberton, NC, USA Abstract: Many studies have shown that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is a safe and effective intervention to improve glycemic control. However, published data are limited regarding the use of carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in the Native Americans, in a real-world clinical practice setting. We evaluated the efficacy of an LCD on 50 obese Native Americans with either type 2 DM or impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG in a primary care/obesity medicine practice. The primary intervention was an LCD defined as an intake of <20 g of carbohydrates per day. The intervention involved providing an educational handout and behavioral counseling assisted by a dedicated weight loss coordinator. We evaluated the effects of this intervention on hemoglobin A1c, body weight, blood pressure, and lipid parameters. The subjects were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. The subjects underwent additional safety and counseling visits throughout the study. Subjects were considered completers if they had baseline and 6-month measurements. The mean age was 55.0±10.9 years, and 66.7% were female. Subjects had significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.4%±0.9%, in subjects with DM, P<0.0001, fasting blood glucose (-15±4.9 mg/dL, in subjects with IFG, P<0.0001, and body mass index (-4.0±1.7 kg/m2, P<0.0001. An LCD can lead to clinically and statistically significant improvement in glycemic control and body weight among obese subjects with type 2 DM or IFG over a 6-month period. The results suggest that carbohydrate restriction can be an effective real-world intervention in a primarily Native American clinical practice. However, further studies are needed

  1. Effects of zinc and multimineral vitamin supplementation on glycemic and lipid control in adult diabetes

    Priyanka Gunasekara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Gunasekara1, Manjula Hettiarachchi2, Chandrani Liyanage2, Sarath Lekamwasam21Coronary Care Unit, Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri LankaAims: To evaluate the effects of zinc with or without other antioxidants on blood glucose, lipid profile, and serum creatinine in adult diabetics on long-term follow-up.Materials and methods: Patients (n = 96 were randomly allocated to three groups: group A (n = 29 was supplemented with oral zinc sulfate (22 mg/day and multivitamin/mineral (zinc+MVM preparation; group B (n = 31 was given the same preparation without zinc (MVM; and group C (n = 36 was given a matching placebo for a period of 4 months in a single-blinded study. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after 4 months of supplementation to assess blood glucose (fasting and postprandial and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C% and serum levels of zinc, creatinine, and lipids.Results: The zinc+MVM group had a mean change of fasting blood sugar -0.33 mmol/L (standard error of the mean 0.21 mmol/L and was significant (P = 0.05 when compared with the other two groups (mean change in the MVM group +0.19 (0.31 mmol/L and +0.43 (0.23 mmol/L in the control group, respectively. The HbA1C% level reduced significantly, irrespective of the baseline level, in zinc+MVM-supplemented individuals. In the other two groups, the change of HbA1C% level was not significant. Serum lipid levels reduced significantly in the zinc+MVM and MVM groups.Conclusions: Zinc+MVM supplementation showed beneficial effects in the metabolic control of adult diabetics in addition to elevating their serum zinc level. Zinc supplementation improved glycemic control measured by HbA1C% and fasting and postprandial glucose. Furthermore, zinc supplementation lowered serum cholesterol and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio.Keywords: zinc, multivitamin mineral supplementation, diabetes, glycemic control

  2. Role of community pharmacists in improving knowledge and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes

    R Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the role of the community pharmacists in improving knowledge and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes residing in villages of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were interviewed, of whom 39 subjects were included in the study. The literate and chronic diabetic patients were included in the study and illiterate, children below 12 years of age, pregnant women, nursing mothers and subjects with any other chronic disorders were excluded from the study. The subjects were interviewed and divided randomly into two groups. There were 20 subjects in the control group and 19 in the intervention group. The study protocol was explained to all the participants, and written informed consent was obtained from them. Before the initiation of the study, the subjects were interviewedfor 20-40 min to educate them about diabetes. Subjects in the intervention group received continuous counselling and medical advice to improve their awareness about the disease and drugs. During the study period, the Diabetes Care Profile (a questionnaire developed by J.J. Fitzgerald of the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan was performed to each subject. The interval between visits was 2 months. All the values are expressed in mean ± standard deviation. Results: The intervention group showed better progress in the recovery of diabetics because of the continuous counselling and monitoring. There were significant changes in Diabetes Care Profile subscale scores in both the control and the intervention groups at the end of the study, viz. 1.8 ± 4.52 to 2.75 ± 6.62 and 3.10 ± 3.23 to 1.53 ± 2.66. Similarly, the knowledge test score was found to be increased in the intervention group compared with the baseline values (8.53 ± 1.81 to 12.16 ± 1.34. Conclusions: At the end of the study period, the patients of the intervention group had very good glycemic

  3. On the achievable rate of stationary fading channels

    Dörpinghaus, Meik

    2011-01-01

    This volumes discusses various aspects regarding the capacity/achievable data rate of stationary Rayleigh fading channels. First, it analyses bounds on the achievable data rate with zero-mean proper Gaussian input symbols, which are capacity achieving in the coherent case, i.e., in case of perfect channel knowledge at the receiver. These bounds are tight in the sense that the difference between the upper and the lower bound is bounded for all SNRs. The lower bound converges to the coherent capacity for asymptotically small channel dynamics. Furthermore, these bounds are extended to the case of

  4. Sub-nanoscale surface ruggedness provides a water-tight seal for exposed regions in soluble protein structure.

    Erica Schulz

    Full Text Available Soluble proteins must maintain backbone hydrogen bonds (BHBs water-tight to ensure structural integrity. This protection is often achieved by burying the BHBs or wrapping them through intermolecular associations. On the other hand, water has low coordination resilience, with loss of hydrogen-bonding partnerships carrying significant thermodynamic cost. Thus, a core problem in structural biology is whether natural design actually exploits the water coordination stiffness to seal the backbone in regions that are exposed to the solvent. This work explores the molecular design features that make this type of seal operative, focusing on the side-chain arrangements that shield the protein backbone. We show that an efficient sealing is achieved by adapting the sub-nanoscale surface topography to the stringency of water coordination: an exposed BHB may be kept dry if the local concave curvature is small enough to impede formation of the coordination shell of a penetrating water molecule. Examination of an exhaustive database of uncomplexed proteins reveals that exposed BHBs invariably occur within such sub-nanoscale cavities in native folds, while this level of local ruggedness is absent in other regions. By contrast, BHB exposure in misfolded proteins occurs with larger local curvature promoting backbone hydration and consequently, structure disruption. These findings unravel physical constraints fitting a spatially dependent least-action for water coordination, introduce a molecular design concept, and herald the advent of water-tight peptide-based materials with sufficient backbone exposure to remain flexible.

  5. The importance of glycemic load of the diet in the development of cancer 

    Katarzyna Dudziak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of cancer involves not only appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy and rehabilitation, but also diet aimed at prevention of the process of cachexia. Postprandial hyperglycemia exerts a significant effect on the growth and proliferation of tumor cells. It promotes formation of a number of metabolic changes in every tissue of the organism. Chronic postprandial hyperglycemia, occurring in type 2 diabetes, enhances all these changes. Although the results of epidemiological studies on the relationship between the overall risk of cancer development, or tumors in different parts of the organism, are heterogeneous, most of them indicate that the risk increases with an increase in glycemic load of the examined population’s diets. Researchers also suggest a beneficial effect of limiting the amount of easily assimilable carbohydrate in the diet to stabilize the disease and for better tolerance of chemoor radiation therapy. However, further studies are required.

  6. Social Support Groups in the Maintenance of Glycemic Control after Community-Based Intervention

    Claire Townsend Ing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Partners in Care (PIC, a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME, is effective at improving participants’ glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes. Participants were then randomized to either a 3-month, 6-session SSG or a control group. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, and diabetes self-management knowledge and behaviors were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results indicated significant improvements in HbA1c, diabetes-related self-management knowledge, and behaviors from baseline to 3-month assessment. However, no differences between the SSG and control group from 3-month to 6-month assessment suggest that all participants were able to maintain initial improvements. The SSG group had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 3-month to 6-month assessment while the control group did not. Study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  7. Alexithymia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of anxiety, depression, and glycemic control

    Avci, Dilek; Kelleci, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with type 2 DM and the factors affecting it. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 patients with type 2 DM. Study data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) results. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Pear-son’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the patients, 37.7% were determined to have alexithymia. A significant relationship was determined between alexithymia and HbA1c, depression, and anxiety. According to binary logistic regression analyses, alexithymia was 2.63 times higher among those who were in a paid employment than those who were not, 2.09 times higher among those whose HbA1c levels were ≥7.0% than those whose HbA1c levels were <7.0%, 3.77 times higher among those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≥11 than those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≤10, and 2.57 times higher among those whose depression subscale scores were ≥8 than those whose depression subscale scores were ≤7. Conclusion In this study, it was determined that two out of every five patients with DM had alexithymia. Therefore, their treatment should be arranged to include mental health care services. PMID:27499615

  8. Mobile phone diabetes project led to improved glycemic control and net savings for Chicago plan participants.

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J; Chou, Chia-Hung; Nocon, Robert S; Chin, Marshall H; Peek, Monica E

    2014-02-01

    Even with the best health care available, patients with chronic illnesses typically spend no more than a few hours a year in a health care setting, while their outcomes are largely determined by their activities during the remaining 5,000 waking hours of the year. As a widely available, low-cost technology, mobile phones are a promising tool to use in engaging patients in behavior change and facilitating self-care between visits. We examined the impact of a six-month mobile health (mHealth) demonstration project among adults with diabetes who belonged to an academic medical center's employee health plan. In addition to pre-post improvements in glycemic control (p=0.01) and patients' satisfaction with overall care (p=0.04), we observed a net cost savings of 8.8 percent. Those early results suggest that mHealth programs can support health care organizations' pursuit of the triple aim of improving patients' experiences with care, improving population health, and reducing the per capita cost of health care PMID:24493770

  9. A high-glycemic meal pattern elicited increased subjective appetite sensations in overweight and obese women.

    Arumugam, Visalakshi; Lee, Jung-Sheng; Nowak, Janice K; Pohle, Rachael J; Nyrop, Jessica E; Leddy, John J; Pelkman, Christine L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of variations in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on subjective satiety in overweight and obese women. We altered the ingestion rate of a glucose beverage to model the postprandial effects of high- and low-glycemic meals. Fourteen women were tested in a within-subjects' design with two conditions: (1) Rapid, with a large glucose beverage consumed with breakfast and lunch and (2) Slow, with the same volume of glucose beverage consumed in eight portions (one with each meal, and the remaining seven at 20-min intervals after each meal). Meals were identical in the two conditions. Subjective appetitive sensations were measured with visual analog scales before and after meals, and hourly after each meal until 5 pm. Serum glucose and insulin were measured at similar time points. Subjects reported higher ratings of hunger and prospective consumption in the Rapid versus Slow condition at 4h after breakfast and several hours after lunch. Serum glucose was more strongly correlated with the appetitive ratings in the Rapid than the Slow condition, and explained more of the variance (20-31%) than insulin (2-4%). The results of this study support the glucostatic theory linking dynamic changes in blood glucose with appetitive sensations. PMID:17714828

  10. Moderate Intensity Training Impact on the Inflammatory Status and Glycemic Profiles in NOD Mice

    Roberto Codella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse represents a well-established experimental model analogous to human type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D as it is characterized by progressive autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Experiments were designed to investigate the impact of moderate-intensity training on T1D immunomodulation and inflammation. Under a chronic exercise regime, NOD mice were trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks (12 m/min for 30 min, 5 d/wk while age-matched, control animals were left untrained. Prior to and upon completion of the training period, fed plasma glucose and immunological soluble factors were monitored. Both groups showed deteriorated glycemic profiles throughout the study although trained mice tended to be more compensated than controls after 10 weeks of training. An exercise-induced weight loss was detected in the trained mice with respect to the controls from week 6. After 12 weeks, IL-6 and MIP-1β were decreased in the trained animals compared to their baseline values and versus controls, although not significantly. Morphometric analysis of pancreata revealed the presence of larger infiltrates along with decreased α-cells areas in the control mice compared to trained mice. Exercise may exert positive immunomodulation of systemic functions with respect to both T1D and inflammation, but only in a stringent therapeutic window.

  11. Efficacy of insulin lispro in improving glycemic control in gestational diabetes

    M C Deepaklal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the safety and efficacy of insulin lispro in improving glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a single center on 201 gestational women with diabetes. Subjects who received insulin lispro performed blood glucose self-monitoring and recorded the readings in the fasting state and 1 h after each meal. At each contact (in person or telephonic contact, the insulin dose was adjusted based on the readings measured. A total of 53 subjects also recorded glucose levels post-partum. Pregnancy and post-delivery glucose level and insulin requirements of these 53 patients were compared. Results: Analysis of glucose levels both fasting and post-prandial glucose levels revealed that after using insulin lispro, the number of episodes of post-prandial hyperglycemia (1 h plasma glucose >120 mg/dL was minimal and so was the incidence of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia was defined as a blood sugar value of. There was neither any congenital abnormality except for a poorly formed pinna in the right ear of one baby nor any post-partum complications of note. Conclusion: Insulin lispro is an effective and safe treatment option in gestational diabetes.

  12. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  13. Variability of glycemic and insulin response to a standard meal, within and between healthy subjects

    Sandra Hirsch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To test the variability within and between subject of glycemic response test following the ingestion of a standard food. Material and methods: Glucose and insulin response of a standard meal (white bread was performed in ten healthy volunteers and repeated under identical conditions for 6 times. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured in the fasted state and over the 180 min following commencement of consumption of the foods The Area Under the Curve (AUC for glucose and insulin was calculated for the values above baseline for the 3hour period following the standard meal. Within and between coefficient of variation was calculated. Results: The total intra-individual variation of the gAUC was 51.8% range 24.9 to 91.4%. The inter-individual variation of the gAUC in the complete study was 75.2% . The total intra-individual variation of the iAUC was 51.9%. ranged: 7.7 to 103%. The inter-individual variation in the complete study was 86%. Conclusion: Glucose and insulin response to a reference food has low reliability, therefore limits its clinical utility for individual dietary prescription.

  14. Prevalence of microalbuminuria with relation to glycemic control in type-2 diabetic patients in Karachi

    Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycaemia. Diabetic nephropathy is a consequence of long standing diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria predicts progression to diabetic nephropathy. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in relation to duration of diabetes, BMI, Serum Creatinine and HbA1c in an ethnic group of Type 2 diabetes mellitus residing in Karachi. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a community diabetic centre, located at Garden East Karachi from July to December 2007. One hundred known Type 2 diabetic patients with age 30 - 70 years were included in the study. Informed consent and a structured questionnaire of each patient were recorded. Fasting venous blood and morning urine sample was collected for analysis of creatinine, HbA1c and microalbuminuria respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. Pearson correlation was applied to observe association of microalbuminuria with different parameters. All p-values 7%) or heredity factors. Screening for microalbuminuria and HbA1c test should be done in both newly and already diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients as an early marker of renal dysfunction and glycemic control. (author)

  15. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization. PMID:26514289

  16. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of microwaved and conventionally baked pound cake.

    Sánchez-Pardo, María Elena; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2007-09-01

    The present study compares the effect of baking process (microwave vs conventional oven) on starch bioavailability in fresh pound cake crumbs and in crumbs from pound cake stored for 8 days. Proximal chemical analysis, resistant starch (RS), retrograded starch (RS3) and starch hydrolysis index (HI) were evaluated. The empirical formula suggested by Granfeldt was used to determine the predicted glycemic index (pGI). Pound cake, one of Mexico's major bread products, was selected for analysis because the quality defects often associated with microwave baking might be reduced with the use of high-fat, high-moisture, batted dough. Differences in product moisture, RS and RS3 were observed in fresh microwave-baked and conventionally baked pound cake. RS3 increased significantly in conventionally baked products stored for 8 days at room temperature, whereas no significantly changes in RS3 were observed in the microwaved product. HI values for freshly baked and stored microwaved product were 59 and 62%, respectively (P > 0.05), whereas the HI value for the conventionally baked product decreased significantly after 8 days of storage. A pound cake with the desired HI and GI characteristics might be obtained by adjusting the microwave baking process. PMID:17661177

  17. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    NONE

    1997-11-19

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  18. Pores in the epidermis: aquaporins and tight junctions.

    Brandner, J M

    2007-12-01

    Water homeostasis of the epidermis is important for the appearance and physical properties of the skin, as well as for water balance in the body. It depends on several factors, e.g. barrier quality, uptake of water into the epidermis, concentration of water-retaining humectants, and external humidity. Aquaporins (AQPs) are pores in the plasmamembranes of cells. Monomeric AQPs form barrel-like structures that are primarily water selective, some AQPs also transport glycerol and possibly other small solutes. In the epidermis, AQP3 is the predominant AQP. It is localized mainly in basal but also in suprabasal layers of the epidermis and is permeable for water as well as for glycerol, a humectant. Mice deficient in AQP3 exhibit reduced stratum corneum (SC) hydration and impaired SC barrier recovery after SC removal. In skin diseases associated with elevated transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and reduced SC hydration, altered expression of AQP3 was shown. Tight junctions (TJ) are cell-cell junctions, which play a central role in sealing the intercellular space of cell sheets and thereby establishing a paracellular barrier. Within the TJ, pores are postulated to exist, which allow the controlled diffusion of water and solutes via the paracellular pathway. In the epidermis, TJ structures were demonstrated in the stratum granulosum whereas TJ proteins were found in all viable layers. Mice which overexpress or are deficient of key-proteins of TJ die soon after birth because of a tremendous TEWL. In various skin diseases that are accompanied by elevated TEWL and reduced skin hydration, staining patterns of TJ proteins are altered. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of AQPs and TJ in the water homeostasis of the epidermis. PMID:18489380

  19. Profiles and Factors Associated with Poor Glycemic Control Among Inpatients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 as a Primary Diagnosis in a Teaching Hospital

    Ismail, Aniza; Suddin, Leny Suzana; Sulong, Saperi; Ahmed, Zafar; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Sukor, Norlela

    2016-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus is a growing health problem in most countries. In Malaysia, there was an increase in prevalence over the years. This makes diabetes also a growing concern in Malaysia, which warrants strengthening of the prevention and control programme. Aims: This paper aims to describe the profiles of diabetes mellitus type 2 in tertiary setting and to identify the risk factors for high level of HbA1c among the study population. The findings will give a glimpse on current status of diabetes in our country and may reflect the achievement of the country in combating this disease. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in UKM Medical Centre. Methods and Material: Medical records of patient with E11 ICD-10 code were collected using Case Report Form. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis done of mean and median while test of association were done using Spearman correlation and logistic regression. Results: The results showed that majority of inpatients of DMT2 showed mean age of 58.8 + 12.6 years and most were males (56.7%) with secondary level of education (41.7%). Median duration of disease was 12.0 + 11.0 years with median HbA1c level of 8.9 ± 4.4%. Only small proportion of patients achieved the desired level of HbA1c <6.5% (21.3%) and significant association was found with tertiary level of education [AOR = 0.10, 95%CI = 0.01-0.96] and with type of anti-diabetic therapy [AOR = 15.90, 95%CI=1;2.03-124.30]. Conclusions: In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 2 inpatients still showed unsatisfactory glycemic control and holistic approach using health education should be advocated continuously in the future in view of education being one of the predictors for the good HbA1c outcome. PMID:27385874

  20. Ukrainian WWER-type NPP units. Methodological basement, results of cladding tightness inspection

    In the overview report the generalized results of cladding tightness inspection are reviewed for all Ukrainian WWER-type NPP units. Brief analysis of cladding tightness inspection methodology is drawn. Approaches of Ukrainian NPPs are generalized from the viewpoint of use of widened inspection sample analysis. (author)

  1. An efficient magnetic tight-binding method for transition metals and alloys

    Barreteau, Cyrille; Spanjaard, Daniel; Desjonquères, Marie-Catherine

    An efficient parameterized self-consistent tight-binding model for transition metals using s, p and d valence atomic orbitals as a basis set is presented. The parameters of our tight-binding model for pure elements are determined from a fit to bulk ab-initio calculations. A very simple procedure ...... magneto-crystalline anisotropy. Several examples are discussed....

  2. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires...

  3. Phase coherence in tight-binding models with nonrandom long-range hopping

    Balagurov, DB; Malyshev, VA; Adame, FD

    2004-01-01

    The density of states, even for a perfectly ordered tight-binding model, can exhibit a tail-like feature at the top of the band, provided the hopping integral falls off in space slowly enough. We apply the coherent potential approximation to study the eigenstates of a tight-binding Hamiltonian with

  4. The tiling C*-algebra viewed as a tight inverse semigroup algebra

    Exel, Ruy; Gonçalves, Daniel; Starling, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We realize Kellendonk'?s C*-algebra of an aperiodic tiling as the tight C*-algebra of the inverse semigroup associated to the tiling, thus providing further evidence that the tight C*-algebra is a good candidate to be the natural associative algebra to go along with an inverse semigroup.

  5. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  6. GPU-based Iterative Cone Beam CT Reconstruction Using Tight Frame Regularization

    Jia, Xun; Lou, Yifei; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    X-ray imaging dose from serial cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans raises a clinical concern in most image guided radiation therapy procedures. It is the goal of this paper to develop a fast GPU-based algorithm to reconstruct high quality CBCT images from undersampled and noisy projection data so as to lower the imaging dose. For this purpose, we have developed an iterative tight frame (TF) based CBCT reconstruction algorithm. A condition that a real CBCT image has a sparse representation under a TF basis is imposed in the iteration process as regularization to the solution. To speed up the computation, a multi-grid method is employed. Our GPU implementation has achieved high computational efficiency and a CBCT image of resolution 512x512x70 can be reconstructed in about ~139 sec. We have tested our algorithm on a digital NCAT phantom and a physical Catphan phantom. It is found that our TF-based algorithm leads to much higher CBCT quality than those obtained from a conventional FDK algorithm in the context of undersamp...

  7. Inertial Aided Kinematic GPS Cycle Slip Detection and Correction for GPS/INS Tightly Coupled System

    HAN Houzeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the navigation performance and robustness, a GPS/INS tightly coupled model has been developed, the INS related bias and ionospheric errors were compensated and corrected, the impact of combination observations on cycle slip detection was investigated, and four combinations with the characteristics of longer wavelength, smaller noise and lower ionosphere effect were determined, then an innovative inertial aided adaptive cycle slip detection and correction algorithm based on the selected combination observations was presented, and the impact of INS positioning errors on cycle slip detection has been investigated, the probability of false alarm and success rate of cycle slip correction were utilized to enhance the integrity of cycle slip detection and correction, a new threshold determination criterion was provided to achieve robust cycle slip detection and correction. At last, a field test was utilized to verify and evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, multi-cycle slips and GPS gap scenarios were simulated, the results show that the scheme works effectively as long as the complete GPS data outage period is less than 20 second, the performance degrades as the outage period becomes longer; while during the partial data outage durations, the proposed scheme can fix the cycle slips correctly for the simulated 90 second partial outage due to the improved positioning accuracy, a total of 170 dense cycle slips (1 slip per 5 epochswere introduced, it shows that all introduced cycle slips are successfully detected and the true fixing rate reaches 99.41%.

  8. Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses.

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Zukauskas, Albertas; Bickauskaite, Gabija; Gadonas, Roaldas; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2010-05-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano-structuring of photo-resists is systematically studied at the close-to-dielectric- breakdown irradiance. It is demonstrated that avalanche absorption is playing a major part in free electron generation and chemical bond breaking at these conditions. The steps of photo-initiation and chemical bond breaking in propagation of polymerization are altered as compared with photo-polymerization at low-irradiance and one-photon stereo-lithography. The avalanche dominates radical generation and promotion of polymerization at tight focusing and a high approximately TW/cm(2) irradiance. The rates of electron generation by two-photon absorption and avalanche are calculated for the experimental conditions. Simulation results are corroborated by 3D polymerization in three resists with different photo-initiators at two different wavelengths and pulse durations. The smallest feature sizes of 3D polymerized logpile structures are consistent with spectral dependencies of the two photon nonlinearities. Implications of these findings for achieving sub-100 nm resolution in 3D structuring of photo-polymers are presented. PMID:20588875

  9. Achieving Sustainable Value Planning For Malaysian Public Projects

    Muhammad Faudzi; Mahbub Rohana; Nawawi Abdul Hadi; Abidin Nazirah Zainul

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is the central development issue in the modern economy. Through sustainable development, quality of life can be improved or maintained over time. Since Malaysia is targeting to become a high-income nation by the year 2020, financial investment in public projects should be planned comprehensively so that it will generate immediate and long-term benefits to the country and the people. Within the currently tight financial environment, achieving value for money in public spending i...

  10. An ultra-wide bandwidth-based range/GPS tight integration approach for relative positioning in vehicular ad hoc networks

    Shen, Feng; Wayn Cheong, Joon; Dempster, Andrew G.

    2015-04-01

    Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems, such as collision warning. However, commercial global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, cooperative positioning (CP) techniques, through sharing the GNSS measurements between vehicles, can improve the performance of relative positioning in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In this paper, while assuming there are no obstacles between vehicles, a new enhanced tightly coupled CP technique is presented by adding ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB)-based inter-vehicular range measurements. In the proposed CP method, each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and the inter-vehicular range measurements. Based on analytical and experimental results, in the full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP method outperforms the INS-aided tight CP method, tight CP method, and DGPS by 11%, 15%, and 24%, respectively; in the GPS outage scenario, the performance improvement achieves 60%, 65%, and 73%, respectively.

  11. On-line air-tightness and insertion loss simultaneous detection method of high air-tightness fiber optic penetration connector

    Zhang, Jingchuan; Yang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    The high air-tightness multicore fiber optic penetration connector is a core component for the optical fiber sensing and communication technologies applied in the space environment simulator under the vacuum thermal environment. High air-tightness and insertion loss are the two key indexes of the fiber optic penetration connector. The air-tightness and insertion loss on-line synchronous detection method was proposed. First, established hardware-in-the-loop testing platform by using the vacuum pumping system, the vacuum vessel, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector and optical time-domain reflectmeter, then, described the air tightness and insertion loss on-line detection principle, finally, designed a detection test scheme and air-tightness and insertion loss were tested. Experimental results indicate that the leakage rate is lower than 1.0×10-7Pa•L/S, the minimum of which is1.0×10-10Pa•L/S and the insertion loss at wave length window 1550 nm is +/-0.07db, which is less than +/-0.1db. It can lay the data basis for the design of opto-mechanical combination and later period fine processing.

  12. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

    Lyon Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2, participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT00935350.

  13. Educational leadership in Singapore: Tight coupling, sustainability, scalability, and succession

    Dimmock, C; Tan, CY

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that - along with socio-cultural factors - are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this paper is to explicate system-wide school leadership factors that contribute to Singapore's educational success. Design/methodology/approach: The pa...

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

    McDonald Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and its agonists are under assessment in treatment of type 2 diabetes, by virtue of their antidiabetic actions, which include stimulation of insulin secretion, inhibition of glucagon release, and delay of gastric emptying. We examined the potential of GLP-1 to improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes with no endogenous insulin secretion. Methods Dose-finding studies were carried out to establish mid range doses for delay of gastric emptying indicated by postponement of pancreatic polypeptide responses after meals. The selected dose of 0.63 micrograms/kg GLP-1 was administered before breakfast and lunch in 8-hour studies in hospital to establish the efficacy and safety of GLP-1. In outside-hospital studies, GLP-1 or vehicle was self-administered double-blind before meals with usual insulin for five consecutive days by five males and three females with well-controlled C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetes. Capillary blood glucose values were self-monitored before meals, at 30 and 60 min after breakfast and supper, and at bedtime. Breakfast tests with GLP-1 were conducted on the day before and on the day after 5-day studies. Paired t-tests and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results In 8-hour studies time-averaged incremental (delta areas under the curves(AUC for plasma glucose through 8 hours were decreased by GLP-1 compared to vehicle (3.2 ± 0.9, mean ± se, vs 5.4 ± 0.8 mmol/l, p Conclusion We have demonstrated that subcutaneous GLP-1 can improve glucose control in type 1 diabetes without adverse effects when self-administered before meals with usual insulin during established intensive insulin treatment programs.

  15. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load.

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL. The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating.Cross-sectional.University (Study One and community (Study Two.120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two.In Study One, participants (n = 120 completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two.In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings.The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption appear to be particularly associated with

  16. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  17. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  18. Letrozole vs estradiol valerate induced PCOS in rats: glycemic, oxidative and inflammatory status assessment.

    Dăneasă, Alexandra; Cucolaş, Cristina; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Olteanu, Diana; Orăsan, Remus; Filip, Gabriela A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate glycemic, oxidative/antioxidative and inflammatory status in letrozole and estradiol valerate induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) models. Sixty adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: L (0.2 mg letrozole/0.5 ml carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), daily for 30 days), the control group CL, EV (one i.m. injection of 5 mg EV/0.5 ml sesame oil) and its corresponding control group CEV. After 30 days, ovarian morphology was assessed through ultrasound, serum free testosterone was determined, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood, muscle, liver and periovarian adipose tissue (POAT) were collected for oxidative/antioxidative and inflammatory status evaluation. Free testosterone was increased only in the L group, while fasting glycemia was higher in the EV group. Both L and EV led to a significantly decreased level of muscle malondialehyde (MDA) and liver glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, while in POAT, MDA level diminished and GPx activity increased. The only difference between the two protocols was in muscle, where after L administration, GPx activity was significantly lower. Implementation of both protocols resulted in an increased expression of pNFKB in muscle, liver and POAT. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) increased in liver and POAT after L administration, while in the EV group, MCP1 and STAT3 decreased in POAT. Our study shows that both protocols are characterized by an inflammatory environment in the usually insulin resistant tissues of human PCOS, without generating oxidative stress. In addition, EV has mild metabolic effects and unexpected interference with MCP1 expression in POAT, which require further investigation. PMID:26792865

  19. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF and the glycemic index (GI, with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.

  20. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range, glycemic threshold and pathogenesis.

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Reece, E Albert; Wang, Fang; Yang, Peixin

    2015-04-15

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age (18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3 million American women have diabetes mellitus, and it has been estimated that this number will double by 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is a significant public health problem that increases the risk for structural birth defects affecting both maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most common types of human structural birth defects associated with PGD are congenital heart defects and central nervous system defects. However, diabetes can induce birth defects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rate of birth defects increases linearly with the degree of maternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor that mediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal care and glycemic control are effective means to reduce birth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reduce the incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seen in the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal models have revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress, which activates cellular stress signalling leading to dysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosis in the target organs, including the neural tube and embryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor 3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in the developing neural tube leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2 gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acid abrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces the formation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin, which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway or ER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birth defects. PMID:25897357

  1. Improving glycemic and cholesterol control through an integrated approach incorporating colesevelam – a clinical perspective

    Ronald B Goldberg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald B GoldbergDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Bile sequestrants have been used for almost 50 years to lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. The advent of colesevelam in 2000 provided a more tolerable add-on LDL-C-lowering agent with an excellent safety record and with likely benefit for coronary heart disease events. Colesevelam lowers LDL-C approximately 15%, and has an additive effect when combined with statin or non-statin lipid-modifying agents. It also tends to increase triglyceride levels. The discovery that bile sequestrants also lower glucose levels led to definitive large-scale clinical trials testing the effect of colesevelam as a dual antihyperglycemic agent with LDL-C-lowering properties in type 2 diabetic subjects on metformin-, sulfonylurea- or insulin-based therapy with inadequate glycemic control. Colesevelam was found to lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c by approximately 0.5% compared to placebo over the 16- to 26-week period, and had similar effects on the lipid profile in these diabetic subjects, as had previously been demonstrated in non-diabetic individuals. Colesevelam was well tolerated, with constipation being the most common adverse effect, and did not cause weight gain or excessive hypoglycemia. Colesevelam thus combines antihyperglycemic action with LDL-C-lowering properties, and should be useful in the management of type 2 diabetes.Keywords: colesevelam, treatment, hyperglycemia, LDL-cholesterol

  2. Impact of symptomatic hypoglycemia on medication adherence, patient satisfaction with treatment, and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Walz L

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lotta Walz,1,3 Billie Pettersson,2,3 Ulf Rosenqvist,4 Anna Deleskog,3,5 Gunilla Journath,6 Per Wändell7 1Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 2Center for Medical Technology Assessment, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Merck Sharp and Dohme (Sweden AB, Sollentuna, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Motala Hospital, Motala, 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, 6Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 7Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Centre for Family Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of symptomatic hypoglycemia on medication adherence, satisfaction with treatment, and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes based on the treatment goals stated in the Swedish national guidelines. Methods: This cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out between January and August 2009 in 430 consecutive primary health care patients on stable doses of metformin and sulfonylureas for at least 6 months. The patients completed questionnaires covering their experiences of low blood glucose and adherence, as well as barriers to and satisfaction with drug treatment (using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Physicians collected the data from medical records. Results: Patients who experienced moderate or worse symptoms of hypoglycemia reported poorer adherence to medication (46% versus 67%; P<0.01 and were more likely to perceive barriers such as “bothered by medication side effects” (36% versus 14%; P<0.001 compared with patients with no or mild symptoms. Patients with moderate or worse symptoms of hypoglycemia were less satisfied with their treatment than those with no or mild symptoms as determined by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-Global satisfaction (67.0 versus 71.2; P<0.05. Overall, achievement of target glycated hemoglobin

  3. Terrestrial tight oil reservoir characteristics and Graded Resource Assessment in China

    Wang, Shejiao; Wu, Xiaozhi; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    The success of shale/tight plays and the advanced exploitation technology applied in North America have triggered interest in exploring and exploiting tight oil in China. Due to the increased support of exploration and exploitation,great progress has been made in Erdos basin, Songliao basin, Junggar basin, Santanghu basin, Bohai Bay basin, Qaidam Basin, and Sichuan basin currently. China's first tight oil field has been found in Erdos basin in 2015, called xinanbian oil field, with over one hundred million tons oil reserves and one million tons of production scale. Several hundred million tons of tight oil reserve has been found in other basins, showing a great potential in China. Tight oil in China mainly developed in terrestrial sedimentary environment. According to the relations of source rock and reservoir, the source-reservoir combination of tight oil can be divided into three types, which are bottom generating and top storing tight oil,self- generating and self-storing tight oil,top generating and bottom storing tight oil. The self- generating and self-storing tight oil is the main type discovered at present. This type of tight oil has following characteristics:(1) The formation and distribution of tight oil are controlled by high quality source rocks. Terrestrial tight oil source rocks in China are mainly formed in the deep to half deep lacustrine facies. The lithology includes dark mudstone, shale, argillaceous limestone and dolomite. These source rocks with thickness between 20m-150m, kerogen type mostly I-II, and peak oil generation thermal maturity(Ro 0.6-1.4%), have great hydrocarbon generating potential. Most discovered tight oil is distributed in the area of TOC greater than 2 %.( 2) the reservoir with strong heterogeneity is very tight. In these low porosity and permeability reservoir,the resources distribution is controlled by the physical property. Tight sandstone, carbonate and hybrid sedimentary rocks are three main tight reservoir types in

  4. Improved glycemic control by acarbose therapy in hypertensive diabetic patients: effects on blood pressure and hormonal parameters

    Rosenbaum P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 44 hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects previously treated by diet associated or not with sulfonylurea to assess the effects of acarbose-induced glycemic control on blood pressure (BP and hormonal parameters. Before randomization and after a 22-week treatment period (100 to 300 mg/day, the subjects were submitted to a standard meal test and to 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM and had plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, insulin, proinsulin and leptin levels determined. Weight loss was found only in the acarbose-treated group (75.1 ± 11.6 to 73.1 ± 11.6 kg, P<0.01. Glycosylated hemoglobin decreased only in the acarbose group (6.4 ± 1.7 to 5.6 ± 1.9%, P<0.05. Fasting proinsulin decreased only in the acarbose group (23.4 ± 19.3 to 14.3 ± 13.6 pmol/l, P<0.05, while leptin decreased in both (placebo group: 26.3 ± 6.1 to 23.3 ± 9.4 and acarbose group: 25.0 ± 5.5 to 22.7 ± 7.9 ng/ml, P<0.05. When the subset of acarbose-treated patients who improved glycemic control was considered, significant reductions in diurnal systolic, diastolic and mean BP (102.3 ± 6.0 to 99.0 ± 6.6 mmHg, P<0.05 were found. Acarbose monotherapy or combined with sulfonylurea was effective in improving glycemic control in hypertensive diabetic patients. Acarbose-induced improvement in metabolic control may reduce BP in these patients. Our data did not suggest a direct action of acarbose on insulin resistance or leptin levels.

  5. A study of sociodemographic clinical and glycemic control factors associated with co-morbid depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Hritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes affects 9.2% of adults in India. About 8-16% of its population also suffer from depression. Both diseases pose a serious health challenge at individual and system level. The prevalence of depression in diabetes is much higher than in the general population. Undiagnosed and untreated depression puts people at higher morbidity and mortality risk. Aim: To study the prevalence of depression in diabetes and to identify associated risk factors. Settings and Design: Case control study carried out in an outpatient setting of a tertiary hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine type 2 diabetes patients and 91 healthy controls formed the subjects of the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained on seven parameters. Comprehensive clinical data were obtained by means of standard procedures. Blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured to assess glycemic control. Data of diabetic patients and controls as well as that of depressed and nondepressed diabetics were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 42.2% of diabetes patients and only 4.39% of controls had depression. About 19% of diabetics had peripheral neuropathy but had much higher neuropathic symptoms. Depression was not related to any sociodemographic or clinical factors but was strongly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent in diabetes. Physical symptoms mask depression. Special attention needs to be paid to diagnose depression in diabetes and treat it appropriately along with effective glycemic control. Diabetes patients need to be treated collaboratively by physicians and psychiatrists.

  6. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  7. Association between poor glycemic control, impaired sleep quality, and increased arterial thickening in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Koichiro Yoda

    Full Text Available Poor sleep quality is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the association between glycemic control and objective sleep architecture and its influence on arteriosclerosis in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study examined the association of objective sleep architecture with both glycemic control and arteriosclerosis in type-2 DM patients.Cross-sectional study in vascular laboratory.The subjects were 63 type-2 DM inpatients (M/F, 32/31; age, 57.5±13.1 without taking any sleeping promoting drug and chronic kidney disease. We examined objective sleep architecture by single-channel electroencephalography and arteriosclerosis by carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT.HbA1c was associated significantly in a negative manner with REM sleep latency (interval between sleep-onset and the first REM period (β=-0.280, p=0.033, but not with other measurements of sleep quality. REM sleep latency associated significantly in a positive manner with log delta power (the marker of deep sleep during that period (β=0.544, p=0.001. In the model including variables univariately correlated with CA-IMT (REM sleep latency, age, DM duration, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c as independent variables, REM sleep latency (β=-0.232, p=0.038, but not HbA1c were significantly associated with CA-IMT. When log delta power was included in place of REM sleep latency, log delta power (β=-0.257, p=0.023 emerged as a significant factor associated with CA-IMT.In type-2 DM patients, poor glycemic control was independently associated with poor quality of sleep as represented by decrease of REM sleep latency which might be responsible for increased CA-IMT, a relevant marker for arterial wall thickening.

  8. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J.A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL an...

  9. Quality of life and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the impact of an education intervention

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh1,*, Mofida M Kamal2,*, Mohamed D El-Bourgy2,*, Sherine G Mohamed2,*1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Health Administration and Behavioral Sciences, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; *All authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To assess quality of life (QoL and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to investigate the impact of an educational program.Methods: A quasiexperimental study with nonrandomized experimental and control groups was conducted in which a total of 503 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed a questionnaire using the Diabetes Quality of Life Instrument for Youth. Adolescents were then assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was subjected to four 120-minute sessions of an educational program over a period of 4 months. Extracted medical chart data included the duration of diabetes, insulin dosage, and most recent hemoglobin A1c levels. Analysis of covariance was used to detect the impact of intervention.Results: The overall mean QoL score (% was 76.51 ± 9.79, with good QoL in 38% of all adolescents. Poorer QoL was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001, more hospital admissions in the last 6 months (P = 0.006, higher levels of depression (P < 0.001, poor self-esteem (P < 0.001, and poor self-efficacy (P < 0.001. There was significant deterioration in all domains of QoL in the experimental group after intervention. However, this deterioration was significantly less severe than in the control group. Between-group effects on total knowledge, adherence to exercise, glucose monitoring, treatment, self-efficacy, family contribution to management, glycemic control, and satisfaction with life were significantly in favor of the experimental group

  10. Diabetes Problem Solving by Youths with Type 1 Diabetes and their Caregivers: Measurement, Validation, and Longitudinal Associations with Glycemic Control

    Wysocki, Tim; Iannotti, Ronald; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori; Hood, Korey; Anderson, Barbara; Chen, Rusan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This article introduces a new measure of problem-solving skills of youths with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and adult caregivers in correcting glycemic fluctuations. Methods The Diabetes Problem Solving Interview (DPSI), a structured interview, was validated during a pilot study of a behavioral intervention. DPSI data and measures of diabetes management were obtained at baseline from 114 youths (ages 9–14.5) and 109 caregivers. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured quarterly over ...

  11. Impact of Glycemic and Blood Pressure Variability on Surrogate Measures of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Di Flaviani, Alessandra; Picconi, Fabiana; Di Stefano, Paola; Giordani, Ilaria; Malandrucco, Ilaria; Maggio, Paola; Palazzo, Paola; Sgreccia, Fabrizio; Peraldo, Carlo; Farina, Fabrizio; Frajese, Gaetano; Frontoni, Simona

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The effect of glycemic variability (GV) on cardiovascular risk has not been fully clarified in type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effect of GV, blood pressure (BP), and oxidative stress on intima-media thickness (IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and sympathovagal balance (low frequency [LF]/high frequency [HF] ratio) in 26 type 2 diabetic patients (diabetes duration 4.41 ± 4.81 years; HbA1c 6.70 ± 1.25%) receiving diet and/or metformin treatment...

  12. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    Malik Vasanti S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and decreasing physical activity. Specifically, a high GI diet adversely impacts metabolism and appetite control regulation, and notably confers substantially greater risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers among overweight and obese individuals (P

  13. Symmetry Feature and Construction for the 3-Band Tight Framelets with Prescribed Properties

    Jianjun Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction approach for the 3-band tight wavelet frames by factorization of paraunitary matrix is developed. Several necessary constraints on the filter lengths and symmetric features of wavelet frames are investigated starting at the constructed paraunitary matrix. The matrix is a symmetric extension of the polyphase matrix corresponding to 3-band tight wavelet frames. Further, the parameterizations of 3-band tight wavelet frames with 3N+1 filter lengths are established. Examples of framelets with symmetry/antisymmetry and Sobolev exponent are computed by appropriately choosing the parameters in the scheme.

  14. State vector evolution localized over the edges of a square tight-binding lattice

    He Liang-Ming; Shi Duan-Wen

    2009-01-01

    We study the time evolution of a state vector in a square tight-binding lattice, focusing on its evolution localized over the system surfaces. In this tight-binding lattice, the energy of atomic orbital centred at surface site is different from that at the interior (bulky) site by an energy shift U. It is shown that for the state vector initially localized on a surface, there exists an exponential law (y = aex/b + yo) determined by the absolute value of the energy shift, \\U\\, which describes the transition of the state evolving on the square tight-binding lattice, from delocalized over the whole lattice to localized over the surfaces.

  15. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of epithelial tight junction reveals an unexpected cluster of synaptic molecules

    Tang Vivian W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zonula occludens, also known as the tight junction, is a specialized cell-cell interaction characterized by membrane "kisses" between epithelial cells. A cytoplasmic plaque of ~100 nm corresponding to a meshwork of densely packed proteins underlies the tight junction membrane domain. Due to its enormous size and difficulties in obtaining a biochemically pure fraction, the molecular composition of the tight junction remains largely unknown. Results A novel biochemical purification protocol has been developed to isolate tight junction protein complexes from cultured human epithelial cells. After identification of proteins by mass spectroscopy and fingerprint analysis, candidate proteins are scored and assessed individually. A simple algorithm has been devised to incorporate transmembrane domains and protein modification sites for scoring membrane proteins. Using this new scoring system, a total of 912 proteins have been identified. These 912 hits are analyzed using a bioinformatics approach to bin the hits in 4 categories: configuration, molecular function, cellular function, and specialized process. Prominent clusters of proteins related to the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic have been identified. Weaker clusters of proteins associated with cell growth, cell migration, translation, and transcription are also found. However, the strongest clusters belong to synaptic proteins and signaling molecules. Localization studies of key components of synaptic transmission have confirmed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins at the tight junction domain. To correlate proteomics data with structure, the tight junction has been examined using electron microscopy. This has revealed many novel structures including end-on cytoskeletal attachments, vesicles fusing/budding at the tight junction membrane domain, secreted substances encased between the tight junction kisses, endocytosis of tight junction

  16. Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight, so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight , so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

  17. Self-flip Technique of the TightRope RT Button for Soft-Tissue Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Harato, Kengo; Niki, Yasuo; Toyoda, Takashi; Kamata, Yusaku; Masumoto, Ko; Otani, Toshiro; Suda, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    The TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a suspensory device for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, there is a potential risk of the button being pulled too far off the lateral femoral cortex into the soft tissue because the adjustable loop is long. The purpose of this article is to present an easy and safe technique for self-flip. As to the preparation of the graft, we draw the first line in the loop of the TightRope RT at the same length as the femoral tunnel, and we draw the second line 7 mm longer than the length of the femoral tunnel as a self-flip line. Concerning passing of the graft, the side sutures are pulled from the lateral side. We stop pulling the sutures just at the self-flip line by holding the graft at the tibial end. The side suture is inclined to the medial side with strong pulling of the suture at full extension of the knee. Then the surgeon pulls the tibial end of the graft to feel a secure positioning of the button on the lateral femoral cortex. Although it has limitations, the present technique is easy and certainly helps surgeons achieve appropriate positioning of the button. PMID:27462539

  18. Hemisphericity and student achievement.

    Yeap, L L

    1989-10-01

    Hemispheric preference, the newest element of learning style, refers to the tendency of a person to use one side of the brain to perceive and function more than the other. The objective of the study was to investigate the psychological domain of learning styles in terms of the hemispheric patterns of Singapore Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels, namely Normal (low achievers), Express (average achievers), and Special (high achievers). Using the Cognitive Laterality Battery (Gordon, 1986) to measure the students' hemispheric dominance, the study found that it is in the psychological domain of the students' learning styles, in terms of their hemispheric dominance that the Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels are distinctly different. PMID:2583937

  19. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz SS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D, early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. Keywords: combination therapy, dapagliflozin, metformin

  20. Empirical tight-binding modeling of ordered and disordered semiconductor structures; Empirische Tight-Binding-Modellierung geordneter und ungeordneter Halbleiterstrukturen

    Mourad, Daniel

    2010-11-30

    In this thesis, we investigate the electronic and optical properties of pure as well as of substitutionally alloyed II-VI and III-V bulk semiconductors and corresponding semiconductor quantum dots by means of an empirical tight-binding (TB) model. In the case of the alloyed systems of the type A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}, where A and B are the pure compound semiconductor materials, we study the influence of the disorder by means of several extensions of the TB model with different levels of sophistication. Our methods range from rather simple mean-field approaches (virtual crystal approximation, VCA) over a dynamical mean-field approach (coherent potential approximation, CPA) up to calculations where substitutional disorder is incorporated on a finite ensemble of microscopically distinct configurations. In the first part of this thesis, we cover the necessary fundamentals in order to properly introduce the TB model of our choice, the effective bond-orbital model (EBOM). In this model, one s- and three p-orbitals per spin direction are localized on the sites of the underlying Bravais lattice. The matrix elements between these orbitals are treated as free parameters in order to reproduce the properties of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction and can then be used in supercell calculations in order to model mixed bulk materials or pure as well as mixed quantum dots. Part II of this thesis deals with unalloyed systems. Here, we use the EBOM in combination with configuration interaction calculations for the investigation of the electronic and optical properties of truncated pyramidal GaN quantum dots embedded in AlN with an underlying zincblende structure. Furthermore, we develop a parametrization of the EBOM for materials with a wurtzite structure, which allows for a fit of one conduction and three valence bands per spin direction throughout the whole Brillouin zone of the hexagonal system. In Part III, we focus on the influence of alloying on the electronic