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Sample records for achieve glycaemic control

  1. Targeting intensive glycaemic control versus targeting conventional glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian; Almdal, Thomas P; Vaag, Allan; Hemmingsen, Christina; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality compared to the background population. Observational studies report an association between reduced blood glucose and reduced risk of both micro- and macrovascular complications in patients ...... with T2D. Our previous systematic review of intensive glycaemic control versus conventional glycaemic control was based on 20 randomised clinical trials that randomised 29 ,986 participants with T2D. We now report our updated review....

  2. Patient factors and glycaemic control--associations and explanatory power

    Rogvi, S; Tapager, I; Almdal, T P;

    2012-01-01

    associated with older age, higher education, higher patient activation, lower diabetes-related emotional distress, better diet and exercise behaviours, lower body mass index, shorter duration of disease and knowledge of HbA(1c) targets (P ...AIMS: To investigate the association between glycaemic control and patient socio-demographics, activation level, diabetes-related distress, assessment of care, knowledge of target HbA(1c), and self-management behaviours, and to determine to what extent these factors explain the variance in HbA(1c...... and behaviour, specific treatment modalities and glycaemic control. Knowledge of treatment goals, achieving patient activation in coping with diabetes, and lowering disease-related emotional stress are important patient education goals. However, the large unexplained component of HbA(1c) variance highlights...

  3. Patient characteristics do not predict poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care

    Goudswaard, AN; Stolk, RP; Zuithoff, P; Rutten, GEHM

    2004-01-01

    Many diabetic patients in general practice do not achieve good glycaemic control. The aim of this study was to assess which characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care predict poor glycaemic control (HbA(1c) greater than or equal to7%). Data were collected from the medical re

  4. Diabetic patients’ perspectives on the challenges of glycaemic control

    Oladele V. Adeniyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The factors affecting the control of diabetes are complex and varied. However, little is documented in the literature on the overall knowledge of diabetic patients about glycaemic control. This study explored the patients’ perspectives on the challenges of glycaemic control.Methods: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen purposively selected diabetic patients with HBA1c ≥ 9% at Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa. The interviews were conducted in the isiXhosa language and were audiotaped. Two experienced qualitative researchers independently transcribed and translated the interviews.Thematic content analysis was conducted.Results: Three main themes emerged: overall knowledge of diabetes and treatment targets, factors affecting the control of diabetes and how glycaemic control could be improved.The majority of the participants demonstrated poor knowledge of treatment targets for diabetes. The majority of the participants reported that lack of money affected their control of diabetes. Some of the participants reported that the nearest clinics do not have doctors; hence,they are compelled to travel long distances to see doctors.Conclusion: Poverty, lack of knowledge and access to doctors affect the control of diabetes in the rural communities of Mthatha, South Africa. The government should address recruitment and retention of doctors in primary health care.

  5. Glycaemic control: The role of nutritional intake, postprandial glycaemia, nutrition therapy adherence, and diabetes complications

    Pinto, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analysed the associations between several clinical and psychometric variables that can determine glycaemic control: nutritional intake, barriers to nutrition therapy adherence, postprandial glycaemia, and diabetes complications perception. A group of 66 patients previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited and categorized into patients with HbA1c below 7% (proper glycaemic control) and patients with HbA1c of 7% or above (poor glycaemic control). All subje...

  6. The glucose triad and its role in comprehensive glycaemic control: current status, future management

    Ceriello, A.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes across the world has been described as a global pandemic. Despite significant efforts to limit both the increase in the number of cases and the long-term impact on morbidity and mortality, the total number of people with diabetes is projected to continue to rise and most patients still fail to achieve adequate glycaemic control. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes requires an understanding of the relationships between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasti...

  7. Glycaemic control status among type 2 diabetic patients and the role of their diabetes coping behaviours: a clinic-based study in Tripoli, Libya

    Ashur, Sana Taher; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Bosseri, Soad; Fah, Tong Seng; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2016-01-01

    Background Achieving good glycaemic control is important in diabetes management. However, poor glycaemic control is widely reported. This article assessed the prevalence of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control among Libyans with type 2 diabetes and examined the relative contribution of diabetes coping behaviours to their glycaemic control status. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2013 in a large diabetes centre in Tripoli. The study included 523 respondents. Diabetes coping behaviours were measured using the revised version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (SDSCA) and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8©), while glycaemic control status was based on the HbA1c level. Results Mean HbA1c was 8.9 (±2.1), and of the 523 patients, only 114 (21.8%) attained the glycaemic control target of HbAc1 of less than 7.0%. Females (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.03–2.91), patients on insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.05–3.54), patients on insulin (OR=3.14, 95% CI=1.66–6.03), and low-medication adherents (OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.36–3.73) were more likely to have uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control, while exercise contributed to glycaemic control status as a protective factor (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.77–0.94). Conclusion The findings from this study showed the considerable burden of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control in one of the largest diabetes care settings in Libya. Medication adherence as well as exercise promotion programs would help in reducing the magnitude of poor glycaemic control. PMID:27005896

  8. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    J. N. Seheult

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia. The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose.

  9. Insulin analogues: have they changed insulin treatment and improved glycaemic control?

    Madsbad, Sten

    have not been able to show any improvement in overall glycaemic control with the fast-acting analogues. A reduced post-prandial increase in blood glucose has been found in all studies, whereas between 3 and 5 h after the meal and during the night an increased blood glucose level is the normal course...... hypoglycaemia. Surprisingly, the new fast-acting analogues have not achieved the expected commercial success, which emphasises the need for new strategies for basal insulin supplementation, exercise, diet and blood glucose monitoring....

  10. The glucose triad and its role in comprehensive glycaemic control: current status, future management.

    Ceriello, A

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes across the world has been described as a global pandemic. Despite significant efforts to limit both the increase in the number of cases and the long-term impact on morbidity and mortality, the total number of people with diabetes is projected to continue to rise and most patients still fail to achieve adequate glycaemic control. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes requires an understanding of the relationships between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose (the glucose triad), and how these change during development and progression of the disease. Early and sustained control of glycaemia remains important in the management of type 2 diabetes. The contribution of postprandial glucose levels to overall glycaemic control and the role of postprandial glucose targets in disease management are currently debated. However, many patients do not reach HbA(1C) targets set according to published guidelines. As recent data suggest, if driving HbA(1C) down to lower target levels is not the answer, what other factors involved in glucose homeostasis can or should be targeted? Has the time come to change the treatment paradigm to include awareness of the components of the glucose triad, the existence of glucose variability and their potential influence on the choice of pharmacological treatment? It is becomingly increasingly clear that physicians are likely to have to consider plasma glucose levels both after the overnight fast and after meals as well as the variability of glucose levels, in order to achieve optimal glycaemic control for each patient. When antidiabetic therapy is initiated, physicians may need to consider selection of agents that target both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia. PMID:20860758

  11. Low glycaemic index diet in pregnancy to prevent macrosomia (ROLO study): randomised control trial

    Walsh, Jennifer M.; Ciara A. McGowan; Mahony, Rhona; Foley, Michael E.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if a low glycaemic index diet in pregnancy could reduce the incidence of macrosomia in an at risk group. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Maternity hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Participants 800 women without diabetes, all in their second pregnancy between January 2007 to January 2011, having previously delivered an infant weighing greater than 4 kg. Intervention Women were randomised to receive no dietary intervention or start on a low glycaemic index diet fr...

  12. The Role of Dietary Protein and Fat in Glycaemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for Intensive Diabetes Management

    Paterson, Megan; Bell, Kirstine J.; O’Connell, Susan M.; Smart, Carmel E.; Shafat, Amir; King, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A primary focus of the management of type 1 diabetes has been on matching prandial insulin therapy with carbohydrate amount consumed. However, even with the introduction of more flexible intensive insulin regimes, people with type 1 diabetes still struggle to achieve optimal glycaemic control. More recently, dietary fat and protein have been recognised as having a significant impact on postprandial blood glucose levels. Fat and protein independently increase the postprandial glucose excursion...

  13. The Role of Dietary Protein and Fat in Glycaemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for Intensive Diabetes Management.

    Paterson, Megan; Bell, Kirstine J; O'Connell, Susan M; Smart, Carmel E; Shafat, Amir; King, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    A primary focus of the management of type 1 diabetes has been on matching prandial insulin therapy with carbohydrate amount consumed. However, even with the introduction of more flexible intensive insulin regimes, people with type 1 diabetes still struggle to achieve optimal glycaemic control. More recently, dietary fat and protein have been recognised as having a significant impact on postprandial blood glucose levels. Fat and protein independently increase the postprandial glucose excursions and together their effect is additive. This article reviews how the fat and protein in a meal impact the postprandial glycaemic response and discusses practical approaches to managing this in clinical practice. These insights have significant implications for patient education, mealtime insulin dose calculations and dosing strategies. PMID:26202844

  14. Intensive glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian Nyfeldt; Vaag, Allan; Almdal, Thomas; Hemmingsen, Christina; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of targeting intensive glycaemic control versus conventional glycaemic control on all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, microvascular complications, and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  15. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Emmanuel Mwila Musenge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol. Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence.

  16. Impact of glycaemic control on the effect of direct renin inhibition in the AVOID study

    Persson, Frederik; Lewis, Julia B; Lewis, Edmund J; Rossing, Peter; Hollenberg, Norman K; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induces development and progression of microvascular complications in diabetes. A direct link between high glucose levels and intrarenal renin-angiotensin activation has been demonstrated. This post-hoc analysis assessed the influence of baseline glycaemic control on the reduction ...... albuminuria with aliskiren or placebo added to losartan in the Aliskiren in the EValuation of PrOteinuria In Diabetes (AVOID) study....

  17. Daily energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

    John Joseph Valletta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Encouraging daily physical activity improves cardiorespiratory fitness and many cardiovascular risk factors. However, increasing physical activity often creates a challenge for people with type 1 diabetes, because of difficulties maintaining euglycemia in the face of altered food intake and adjustments to insulin doses. Our aim was to examine the triangular relationship between glucose control measured by continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (TEE recorded by a multi-sensory monitoring device, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, in free-living subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three individuals (12 women with type 1 diabetes who were free from micro- and macrovascular complications were recruited. TEE and glucose control were monitored simultaneously for up to 12 days, using a multi-sensory device and CGMS respectively. CRF was recorded as V02 max from a maximal treadmill test with the Bruce protocol. RESULTS: Subjects (mean±SD were aged 37±11 years, with BMI = 26.5±5.1 kg.m⁻², HbA1c = 7.7±1.3% (61±14 mmol/mol and V02 max (ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹  = 39.9±8.4 (range 22.4-58.6. TEE (36.3±5.5 kcal.kg⁻¹.day⁻¹ was strongly associated with CRF(39.9±8.4 ml.min⁻¹.kg⁻¹ independently of sex (r = 0.63, p<0.01. However, neither TEE (r = -0.20, p = 0.36 nor CRF (r = -0.20, p = 0.39; adjusted for sex, were significantly associated with mean glycaemia measured by CGMS. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy expenditure (due to a more active lifestyle are associated with increased cardiorespiratory fitness, but not necessarily better glycaemic control. Since increased levels of energy expenditure and good glycaemic control are both needed to protect against diabetes-related complications our data suggest they need to be achieved independently.

  18. Effects of improved glycaemic control on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in type II diabetes.

    McBain, A M; Brown, I R; Menzies, D G; Campbell, I W

    1988-01-01

    Poorly controlled type II diabetic patients with hypomagnesaemia, hypermagnesuria, and hypercalciuria were allocated to treatment with either metformin or glipizide, to determine the effects on some indices of mineral metabolism. Despite comparable improvement in glycaemic control, assessed by glucose and haemoglobin A1, there were significant differences between the two groups in the handling of magnesium. Patients receiving metformin showed a reduction in magnesium excretion but remained hy...

  19. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    included patients with Type 1 diabetes aged = 21 years, having been diagnosed = 1 year earlier. Primary outcome was diabetes-related distress (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress and depressive symptoms (Symptom Check List -90-R/Global Severity Index......A1c was unchanged. Conclusions Support groups are able to reduce diabetes-related and psychological distress 1 year after the intervention for patients with both good and poor glycaemic control displaying high levels of distress. Although patients with severely high levels of diabetes......-related distress might need more extensive therapeutic interventions to further reduce their level of distress. Further, interventions that target specific self-management problems are needed for patients with poor glycaemic control to help them accomplish lower levels of HbA1c. Moreover, healthcare providers must...

  20. Clinical and histological effect of a low glycaemic load diet in treatment of acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Hong, Jong Soo; Jung, Jae Yoon; Park, Mi Sun; Suh, Dae Hun

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary factors, specifically glycaemic load, may be involved in the pathogenesis of acne. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and histological effects on acne lesions of a low glycaemic load diet. A total of 32 patients with mild to moderate acne were randomly assigned to either a low glycaemic load diet or a control group diet, and completed a 10-week, parallel dietary intervention trial. Results indicate successful lowering of the glycaemic load. Subjects within the low glycaemic group demonstrated significant clinical improvement in the number of both non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne lesions. Histopathological examination of skin samples revealed several characteristics, including reduced size of sebaceous glands, decreased inflammation, and reduced expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, and interleukin-8 in the low glycaemic load group. A reduction in glycaemic load of the diet for 10 weeks resulted in improvements in acne. PMID:22678562

  1. Glycaemic Responses to Corn Meals in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic Controls

    Akinola Dada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dietary modification in association with life style changes is important in the management of the diabetes. Cereals account for as much as 77% of total caloric consumption in most African diets. Corn which is the largest cultivated cereal crop in Nigeria is prepared as a meal in many forms. The objective of this study was to assess the glycaemic responses to different preparations of corn meals. Material and Method: The design was a quasi-experimental with a total of 32 participants, 16 subjects with type diabetes and 16 age-and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. After an overnight fast, the participants were given corn meals to eat and had their blood sample collected every 30 minutes for over a 2 hour period for the assessment of blood sugar level and estimation of glycaemic responses. This was repeated weekly till the glycaemic index (GI and plasma sugar level response to the different test corn meal preparation, such as boiled corn, roasted corn, pap and cornflakes had been assessed. Results: All the different corn meal preparations had high GI, with corn flakes having the highest GI and pap the lowest. The GI for the corn meals in the non-diabetic were; pap 71.7±14.4%, roasted corn 76.5±14.9%, boiled corn 82.2±14.9% and cornflakes 88.1±14.4%. Discussion: Methods of preparing a meal from corn affect glycaemic response. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 79-82

  2. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P cognition appear to be domain specific. On balance, it would appear that the low-GI high-GL breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast. PMID:21736777

  3. Increased coronary intervention rate among diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control: A cross-sectional study

    Çetin, Süha; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Barındık, Nadir; İmren, Ersin; Peker, Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between glycaemic control and coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is controversial. In the current cross-sectional study, we addressed the relationship between Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values and the need for revascularization among diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 301 consecutive patients with known T2DM (age 61.8±10.1 years, 46.2% women) requiring coronary angiography due to CAD symptoms were included. T2DM patients we...

  4. Glycaemic control of Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice early in the 21st century

    McKnight, J A; Wild, S H; Lamb, M J E;

    2015-01-01

    diabetes from the following countries (or regions): Western Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, Champagne-Ardenne (France), Germany, Epirus, Thessaly and Thessaloniki (Greece), Galway (Ireland), several Italian regions, Latvia, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Otago (New Zealand), Norway, Northern Ireland......AIMS: Improving glycaemic control in people with Type 1 diabetes is known to reduce complications. Our aim was to compare glycaemic control among people with Type 1 diabetes using data gathered in regional or national registries. METHODS: Data were obtained for children and/or adults with Type 1...... of people using insulin pumps varied between the 12 sources with data available. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that there are substantial variations in glycaemic control among people with Type 1 diabetes between the data sources and that there is room for improvement in all populations, especially...

  5. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  6. A Novel Multidisciplinary Intervention for Long-Term Weight Loss and Glycaemic Control in Obese Patients with Diabetes

    Anna Lih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity and diabetes are difficult to treat in public clinics. We sought to determine the effectiveness of the Metabolic Rehabilitation Program (MRP in achieving long-term weight loss and improving glycaemic control versus “best practice” diabetes clinic (DC in obese patients using a retrospective cohort study. Methods. Patients with diabetes and BMI > 30 kg/m2 who attended the MRP, which consisted of supervised exercise and intense allied health integration, or the DC were selected. Primary outcomes were improvements in weight and glycaemia with secondary outcomes of improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile at 12 and 30 months. Results. Baseline characteristics of both cohorts (40 MRP and 40 DC patients were similar at baseline other than age (63 in MRP versus 68 years in DC, P=0.002. At 12 months, MRP patients lost 7.65 ± 1.74 kg versus 1.76 ± 2.60 kg in the DC group (P<0.0001 and 9.70 ± 2.13 kg versus 0.98 ± 2.65 kg at 30 months (P<0.0001. Similarly, MRP patients had significant absolute reductions in %HbA1c at 30 months versus the DC group (−0.86 ± 0.31% versus 0.12% ± 0.33%, P<0.038, with nonsignificant improvements in lipids and blood pressure in MRP patients. Conclusion. Further research is needed to establish the MRP as an effective strategy for achieving sustained weight loss and improving glycaemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Glycaemic control, treatment satisfaction and quality of lifein type 2 diabetes patients in Greece: The PANORAMA studyGreek results

    Iraklis Avramopoulos; Alexandros Moulis; Nikos Nikas

    2015-01-01

    AIM To provide an update on glycaemic control inEuropean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).We present the Greek population data of the study.METHODS: An observational multicenter, cross-sectionalstudy evaluating glycaemic control and a range of otherclinical and biological measures as well as quality of life(QoL) and treatment satisfaction in 375 patients withT2DM enrolled by 25 primary care sites from Greece.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 63.5years and the male/female ratio 48.9%/51.1%. 79.7%of the patients exerted none or light physical activity,82.4% were overweight or obese and 32.9% did notmeet HbA1c target of less than 7.0% (53 mmol/mol).Patients reported high satisfaction to continue withtreatment, high satisfaction with administered treatmentand increased willingness to recommend treatmentto others (mean Diabetes Treatment SatisfactionQuestionnaire score 29.1 ± 5.6). However, 80% of thepatients reported that their QoL would be better withoutdiabetes. Finally, the most challenging parameterreported was the lack of freedom to eat and drink.CONCLUSION: This analysis of the Greek Panoramastudy results showed that a considerable percentageof T2DM patients in Greece do not achieve glycaemictarget levels, despite the favourably reported patientsatisfaction from administered therapy. Additionally, themajority of primary care T2DM patients in Greece depictthe negative effect of the disease in their QoL.

  8. Diabetes with poor glycaemic control does not promote atherosclerosis in genetically modified hypercholesterolaemic minipigs

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Bjørklund, Martin M; Mortensen, Martin B;

    2015-01-01

    creatinine levels were unaffected. Diabetes failed to increase atherosclerosis in any of the vessels examined. The plaque burden in the aorta and right coronary artery was comparable between the groups, and was even reduced in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary and iliofemoral arteries in the......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but whether there is a direct and independent role for impaired glucose control in atherogenesis remains uncertain. We investigated whether diabetes with poor glycaemic control would accelerate...... atherogenesis in a novel pig model of atherosclerosis, the D374Y-PCSK9 (+) transgenic minipig. METHODS: Nineteen minipigs were fed a cholesterol-enriched, high-fat diet; ten of these pigs were injected with streptozotocin to generate a model of diabetes. Restricted feeding was implemented to control the pigs...

  9. Cross-sectional relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-2)

    Kleefstra, N; Ubink-Veltmaat, LJ; Houweling, ST; Groenier, KH; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, HJG

    2005-01-01

    Background: To describe the relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life (HRQOL) in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a shared-care diabetes project HRQOL was assessed. A total of 1664 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified in 32 primary healthcare p

  10. Glycaemic Control among Patients with Diabetes in Primary Care Clinics in Jamaica, 1995 and 2012

    MA Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the quality of care received by patients with diabetes in public primary care clinics in 2012 with that reported in 1995. Methods: Patient records were audited at six randomly selected Type III health centres in the South East Health Region of Jamaica. The 2012 audit data were compared with published data from a similar audit conducted in 1995. Quality of care measures included timely screening tests and counselling of the patients. Fasting and postprandial glucose tests were used to assess glycaemic control. Results: Two hundred and forty-two patient records were analysed in 2012, and 185 in 1995. In 2012, 88% of patients were weighed within the last year compared with 43% in 1995. Advice on physical activity increased from 1% to 60% and on dietary practices from 6% to 79%. No patient had done the HBA1C in 1995 compared to 38% in 2012. In 1995, 66% had blood glucose measured at a laboratory during the last year while in 2012, 60% had a laboratory test and 90% were tested at the clinic by glucometer. Blood pressure control increased from 19% in 1995 to 41% in 2012 (p < 0.001. Poor glucose control was recorded among 61% of patients in 1995 compared with 68% in 2012. Conclusions: There was no improvement in glycaemic control. Health providers and patients must work together to improve patient outcomes. This will involve closer patient monitoring, treatment intensification where indicated, and the adoption of lifestyle practices that can lead to better control.

  11. Recreational drug use in type 1 diabetes: an invisible accomplice to poor glycaemic control?

    Lee, P; Greenfield, J R; Gilbert, K; Campbell, L V

    2012-02-01

    Recreational drug use during 'rave' parties is increasingly popular, but the impact of recreational drug use in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is not known. We determined the self-reported pattern and effects of recreational/illicit drug use in Australians with T1D people by inviting people with T1D to participate in an anonymous online/paper survey of drug use, through national radio broadcast and online/hospital advertising. Of the people with T1D who responded to our survey, more than three quarters reported having used recreational/illicit drug, but few people had informed health professionals about drug use. Drug use was associated with worse glycaemic control and higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. Medical awareness of common, currently underreported, drug use in young people with T1D is essential. It offers the possibility of helping such patients improve related suboptimal metabolic control. PMID:22356493

  12. A study to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Parminder K. Dhillon

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The study showed that vitamin D supplementation improves the glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 466-472

  13. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide for overweight adult patients with type 1 diabetes and insufficient glycaemic control (Lira-1)

    Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Hansen, Tanja Stenbæk;

    2016-01-01

    hypoglycaemia, near-normoglycaemia, and hyperglycaemia, plasma fasting glucose, mean glucose, and cholesterol. Efficacy analyses were calculated by use of a mixed model, whereby a patient's data are used as long as the patient is in the study. The safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population......Background The combination of insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist therapy improves glycaemic control, induces weight loss, and reduces insulin dose needed in type 2 diabetes. We assessed the efficacy and safety of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide as an add-on therapy...... to insulin for overweight adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at Steno Diabetes Center (Gentofte, Denmark). Patients aged 18 years or older with type 1 diabetes, insufficient glycaemic control (HbA1c >8% [64 mmol/mol]), and...

  14. Suboptimal glycaemic and blood pressure control and screening for diabetic complications in adult ambulatory diabetic patients in Uganda: a retrospective study from a developing country

    Kibirige,Davis; Atuhe, David; Sebunya, Robert; Mwebaze, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, Sub Saharan Africa is faced with a substantial burden from diabetes mellitus. In most of the African countries, screening for diabetes related complications and control of blood pressure and glycaemic levels is often suboptimal. The study aimed at assessing the extent of optimal glycaemic and blood pressure control and the frequency of screening for diabetic complications in adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Methods This was a retrospective study of 250 medical...

  15. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment in patients with type-1 diabetes and persistent inadequate glycaemic control. A randomized study

    Lund, Søren Søgaard; Tarnow, Lise; Astrup, Anne Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite intensive insulin treatment, many patients with type-1 diabetes (T1DM) have longstanding inadequate glycaemic control. Metformin is an oral hypoglycaemic agent that improves insulin action in patients with type-2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of a one-year treatment with....... Thereafter, patients were randomized (baseline) to treatment with either metformin (1 g twice daily) or placebo for 12 months (double-masked). Patients continued ongoing insulin therapy and their usual outpatient clinical care. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA(1c) after one year of treatment. At...... metformin versus placebo in patients with T1DM and persistent poor glycaemic control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred patients with T1DM, preserved hypoglycaemic awareness and HaemoglobinA(1c) (HbA(1c)) > or = 8.5% during the year before enrolment entered a one-month run-in on placebo treatment...

  16. Ischaemic heart disease and glycaemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus by questionnaire method

    Background: Various tests like Echocardiogram, Nuclear scan, Electron-beam computed tomography, Coronary angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography are available for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). But most of these are expensive, invasive and cannot be afforded in developing countries. An attempt was made to study sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of non-invasive technique like questionnaire method and compared with traditional clinical evaluation. This study compared diagnosis of angina made with the Rose uestionnaire to diagnosis by physician in type-2 diabetes mellitus and the effect of glycaemic control. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done from March 2005 to March 2006. Cases were collected from outpatients and inpatients visiting RL Jalappa hospital and SNR Hospital attached to Sri Devraj Urs Medical College Kolar, Karnataka, India. Glycosylated haemoglobin levels were estimated. Data on Rose questionnaire angina and physician diagnosed angina were collected and compared between groups of well controlled diabetics, poorly controlled diabetics and controls. The 12 lead Electrocardiogram was used to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The Rose questionnaire had 63.63% sensitivity, 97.5% specificity, 73% positive predictive value, and 96% negative predictive value. This study also showed the occurrence of IHD was higher in the poorly controlled diabetics (16.3%) as compared to well controlled diabetic patients (6%) and controls (5%) which were significant. Conclusions: The questionnaire diagnosis showed good sensitivity and high specificity as compared with diagnosis by physicians. The questionnaire method can be frequently used and incorporated in cardiovascular risk assessment and epidemiologic screening programs. (author)

  17. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Glycaemic Control and Serum Metabolite Profiles in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    Greiner, Thomas U.; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Orešič, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes is preceded by dysregulated serum metabolite profiles, but the origin of these metabolic changes is unknown. The gut microbiota affects host metabolism and changes in its composition contribute to several immune-mediated diseases; however, it is not known whether the gut microbiota is involved in the early metabolic disturbances in progression to type 1 diabetes. We rederived non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as germ free to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic autoimmunity and to directly investigate whether the metabolic profiles associated with the development of type 1 diabetes can be modulated by the gut microbiota. The absence of a gut microbiota in NOD mice did not affect the overall diabetes incidence but resulted in increased insulitis and levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 12; these changes were counterbalanced by improved peripheral glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we observed a markedly increased variation in blood glucose levels in the absence of a microbiota in NOD mice that did not progress to diabetes. Additionally, germ-free NOD mice had a metabolite profile similar to that of pre-diabetic children. Our data suggest that germ-free NOD mice have reduced glycaemic control and dysregulated immunologic and metabolic responses. PMID:25390735

  18. Periodontal treatment to improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients: study protocol of the randomized, controlled DIAPERIO trial

    Bou Christophe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontitis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative bacteria leading to destruction of tissues supporting the teeth. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown increased frequency, extent and severity of periodontitis among diabetic adults. More recently, some controlled clinical trials have also suggested that periodontal treatment could improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients. However current evidence does not provide sufficient information on which to confidently base any clinical recommendations. The main objective of this clinical trial is to assess whether periodontal treatment could lead to a decrease in glycated haemoglobin levels in metabolically unbalanced diabetic patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Methods The DIAPERIO trial is an open-label, 13-week follow-up, randomized, controlled trial. The total target sample size is planned at 150 participants, with a balanced (1:1 treatment allocation (immediate treatment vs delayed treatment. Periodontal treatment will include full mouth non-surgical scaling and root planing, systemic antibiotherapy, local antiseptics (chlorhexidine 0.12% and oral health instructions. The primary outcome will be the difference in change of HbA1c between the two groups after the 13-weeks' follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be the difference in change of fructosamine levels and quality of life between the two groups. Discussion The DIAPERIO trial will provide insight into the question of whether periodontal treatment could lead to an improvement in glycaemic control in metabolically unbalanced diabetic patients suffering from periodontitis. The results of this trial will help to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians and a draft framework for designing national health policies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15334496

  19. Implementation and evaluation of the SPRINT protocol for tight glycaemic control in critically ill patients: a clinical practice change

    Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey; Le Compte, Aaron; Lonergan, Timothy; Willacy, Michael; Wong, Xing-Wei; Lin, Jessica; Lotz, Thomas; Lee, Dominic; Hann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Stress-induced hyperglycaemia is prevalent in critical care. Control of blood glucose levels to within a 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L range or below 7.75 mmol/L can reduce mortality and improve clinical outcomes. The Specialised Relative Insulin Nutrition Tables (SPRINT) protocol is a simple wheel-based system that modulates insulin and nutritional inputs for tight glycaemic control. Methods SPRINT was implemented as a clinical practice change in a general intensive care unit (ICU). The obj...

  20. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Overgaard, Kristian; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2), non-active T2D patients (n = 10) and matc...

  1. The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Srichaikul, K.; Kendall, C W C; Sievenpiper, J. L.; Abdulnour, S.; Mirrahimi, A.; Meneses, C.; Nishi, S; He, X.; Lee, S.; So, Y.T.; A Esfahani; Mitchell, S.; Parker, T. L.; Vidgen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sugar has been suggested to promote obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), yet fruit, despite containing sugars, may also have a low glycaemic index (GI) and all fruits are generally recommended for good health. We therefore assessed the effect of fruit with special emphasis on low GI fruit intake in type 2 diabetes. Methods This secondary analysis involved 152 type 2 diabetic participants treated with glucose-lowering agents who completed either 6 months of high ...

  2. Associations between patient characteristics, social relations, diabetes management, quality of life, glycaemic control and emotional burden in type 1 diabetes

    Joensen, Lene E; Almdal, Thomas P; Willaing, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The objective was to investigate associations between emotional burden and a number of individual variables: patient characteristics, social relations, diabetes management in everyday life, generic quality of life and glycaemic control, including determining to what extend these variables...... associated with high emotional burden in type-1 diabetes. These findings may call for an expansion of the effort to decrease the emotional burden of diabetes for those who are heavily burdened. Future research should explore the causality of the explored associations as well as potential subgroup differences...

  3. Glycaemic Responses to Corn Meals in Type 2 Diabetics and Non-Diabetic Controls

    Akinola Dada; Anthonia Ogbera; Sunday Ogundele; Olufemi Fasanmade; Augustine Ohwovoriole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary modification in association with life style changes is important in the management of the diabetes. Cereals account for as much as 77% of total caloric consumption in most African diets. Corn which is the largest cultivated cereal crop in Nigeria is prepared as a meal in many forms. The objective of this study was to assess the glycaemic responses to different preparations of corn meals. Material and Method: The design was a quasi-experimental with a total of 32 participan...

  4. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C.; England, Clare Y.; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled tri...

  5. Mechanisms behind the superior effects of interval vs continuous training on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H.;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: By use of a parallel and partly crossover randomised, controlled trial design we sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the advantageous effects of interval walking training (IWT) compared with continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control in individuals with...... type 2 diabetes, no exogenous insulin treatment) were allocated to three groups: a control group (CON, n = 8), an IWT group (n = 12) and an energy expenditure-matched CWT group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed free-living training, five sessions per week (60 min/session). A three...... expenditure-matched CWT. These results suggest that training with alternating intensity, and not just training volume and mean intensity, is a key determinant of changes in whole body glucose disposal in individuals with type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials (NCT01234155)....

  6. Fatores associados à interrupção de tratamento anti-retroviral Factors associated to glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Daniel Panarotto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as variáveis que influenciam no controle glicêmico de indivíduos diabéticos tipo 2 que freqüentam um serviço de saúde terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado através de revisão de prontuários dos pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Diabetes da Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Avaliamos os pacientes quanto ao controle glicêmico e metabólico e os subdividimos em compensados e descompensados segundo à hemoglobina glicada no início e no final do período avaliado. Analisamos os fatores associados ao controle glicêmico. RESULTADOS: Incluímos na análise 73 pacientes. Em média, observamos que houve melhora de parâmetros relacionados com o controle glicêmico, pressórico e lipídico no período médio de 20 meses de tratamento. No início do acompanhamento, 25% estavam com hemoglobina glicada OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the factors influencing blood glucose control of type 2 diabetic patients attended at a tertiary health care center. METHODS: A retrospective study by review of medical records of patients who attended the Diabetes Clinic at the University of Caxias do Sul was carried out. Patients were evaluated for glycaemic and metabolic control and divided according to glycated hemoglobin at the beginning and end of the period in question, in compensated and not compensated. The factors associated with glycaemic control were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy three patients were included in the analysis. On the average, improvement of parameters related to glycaemic, pressure and lipid control during the average of 20 months of treatment was observed. In the beginning of the follow-up period, 25% of patients had glycated hemoglobin < 7%, 22.7% had LDL cholesterol < 100mg/dL, 8.7% had systolic blood pressure < 130 mmHg and diastolic < 80 mmHg and no patients had all parameters meeting the recommended goals. At the last visit the percentages were, 42.3%, 37.5%, 30.2% and 9.6% respectively. In the multivariate

  7. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Overgaard, Kristian; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2), non-active T2D patients (n = 10) and matched (52 yrs±2) healthy controls (CON) (n = 13) exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT) a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01), end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04) and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04) were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β) were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI) was significantly increased (p = 0.03). During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03), 30 (p = 0.03) and 120 min (p = 0.03) and at -10 (p = 0.003) and 0 min (p = 0.003) with an additional improvement (p = 0.03) of its 1st phase (30 min) area under curve (AUC). Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02) corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  8. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Søren Møller Madsen

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2, non-active T2D patients (n = 10 and matched (52 yrs±2 healthy controls (CON (n = 13 exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01, end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04 and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04 were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI was significantly increased (p = 0.03. During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03, 30 (p = 0.03 and 120 min (p = 0.03 and at -10 (p = 0.003 and 0 min (p = 0.003 with an additional improvement (p = 0.03 of its 1st phase (30 min area under curve (AUC. Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02 corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  9. Diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the association between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

    Bastelaar, K.M. van; Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.T.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether diabetes-specific emotional distress mediates the relationship between depression and glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of a depression in diabetes screening st

  10. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia.

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 1 2 . Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3 . Methods\\/Design We propose a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet vs. no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of fetal macrosomia. Secundigravid women whose first baby was macrosomic, defined as a birth weight greater than 4000 g will be recruited at their first antenatal visit. Patients will be randomised into two arms, a control arm which will receive no dietary intervention and a diet arm which will be commenced on a low glycaemic index diet. The primary outcome measure will be the mean birth weight centiles and ponderal indices in each group. Discussion Altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be valuable in the management of pregnancies where there has been a history of fetal macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women. This randomised control trial will investigate whether or not a low glycaemic index diet can affect this recurrence risk. Current Controlled Trials Registration Number ISRCTN54392969

  11. Intensive multifactorial treatment modifies the effect of family history of diabetes on glycaemic control in people with Type 2 diabetes

    Eliraqi, G M; Vistisen, D; Lauritzen, T;

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether intensive multifactorial treatment can reverse the predisposed adverse phenotype of people with Type 2 diabetes who have a family history of diabetes. Methods Data from the randomized controlled trial ADDITION-Denmark were used. A total of 1441 newly diagnosed patients...... with diabetes (598 with family history of diabetes) were randomized to intensive treatment or routine care. Family history of diabetes was defined as having one parent and/or sibling with diabetes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the changes in risk factors (BMI, waist circumference, blood...... the adverse effects of family history of diabetes on glycaemic control. The effect of this improvement on long-term diabetic complications warrants further investigation....

  12. Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial

    Mary K. Horan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnaires on weight, physical activity, breastfeeding, supplement use, food label reading and dietary habits were completed. Results: The intervention group had significantly greater weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum than the control group (1.3 vs. 0.1 kg, p = 0.022. The intervention group reported greater numbers following a low glycaemic index diet (p < 0.001 and reading food labels (p = 0.032 and had a lower glycaemic load (GL (128 vs. 145, p = 0.014 but not GI (55 vs. 55, p = 0.809 than controls. Conclusions: Low GI dietary interventions in pregnancy result in improved health-behaviours and continued reported compliance at 3 months postpartum possibly through lower dietary GL as a result of portion control. Greater levels of weight loss from pre-pregnancy to 3 months postpartum in the intervention group may have important positive implications for overweight and obesity.

  13. Automated bolus advisor control and usability study (ABACUS: does use of an insulin bolus advisor improve glycaemic control in patients failing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI therapy? [NCT01460446

    Cavan David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with T1DM and insulin-treated T2DM often do not follow and/or adjust their insulin regimens as needed. Key contributors to treatment non-adherence are fear of hypoglycaemia, difficulty and lack of self-efficacy associated with insulin dose determination. Because manual calculation of insulin boluses is both complex and time consuming, people may rely on empirical estimates, which can result in persistent hypoglycaemia and/or hyperglycaemia. Use of automated bolus advisors (BA has been shown to help insulin pump users to more accurately meet prandial insulin dosage requirements, improve postprandial glycaemic excursions, and achieve optimal glycaemic control with an increased time within optimal range. Use of a BA containing an early algorithm based on sliding scales for insulin dosing has also been shown to improve HbA1c levels in people treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI. We designed a study to determine if use of an automated BA can improve clinical and psychosocial outcomes in people treated with MDI. Methods/design The Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS is a 6-month, prospective, randomised, multi-centre, multi-national trial to determine if automated BA use improves glycaemic control as measured by a change in HbA1c in people using MDI with elevated HbA1c levels (#62;7.5%. A total of 226 T1DM and T2DM participants will be recruited. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of 90 participants, which will provide #62;80% power to detect a mean difference of 0.5%, with SD of 0.9%, using a one-sided 5% t-test, with 5% significance level. Other measures of glycaemic control, self-care behaviours and psychosocial issues will also be assessed. Discussion It is critical that healthcare providers utilise available technologies that both facilitate effective glucose management and address concerns about safety and lifestyle. Automated BAs may help people using MDI to

  14. Effects of diabetes self-management education on glycaemic control in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    To evaluate the effect of diabetes self-management education (DSME) on glycaemic control (HbA1c) in Pakistani children suffering from type-1 diabetes mellitus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Diabetic OPD of National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from April to September 2009. Methodology: Sixty children with a mean age of 9.94 years with type-1 Diabetes mellitus (T1DM) were selected conveniently from the diabetic OPD. The patients along with their parents/caregivers attended a modular series of diabetes self-management education program consisting of 2 sessions. Customized program was designed to educate children regarding general information about the disease, basic insulin therapy, planning for hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, activity, traveling and basic nutritional management. It was conducted by a multidisciplinary paediatric diabetes team including an endocrinologist, general paediatrician, nutritionist and diabetic nurse. The educational sessions were followed by monthly revision exercises. HbA1c levels were measured at baseline and after 3 months and compared using paired sample t-test. Results: Out of a total of 60 patients, 50 completed the trial. There was a significant decrease in the HbA1c levels after the DSME program. The mean pre- and post intervention HbA1c levels were 9.67 +- 0.65 and 8.49 +- 0.53 respectively with a p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: In the studied group, DSME programs helped to improve glycaemic control. It should be an integral part of patient treatment in diabetic care setups. (author)

  15. Predicting self-care practices and glycaemic control using health belief model (HBM) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes in Malaysia

    Aris, Aishairma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The practice of diabetes self-care plays an important role in glycaemic control. However, not all patients with insulin-treated diabetes engage in their self-care activities. Although there is evidence that self-care practices in patients with insulin-treated diabetes can be understood and predicted by health beliefs proposed by Health Belief Model (HBM), little is known about adult patients due to several methodological weaknesses of previous studies. Furthermore, knowledge is la...

  16. Random blood glucose may be used to assess long-term glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural African clinical setting

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Nordin, Lovisa S; Rasmussen, Niclas S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of random blood glucose (RBG) on good glycaemic control among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a rural African setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional study at St. Francis' Hospital in eastern Zambia. RBG and HbA1c were measured during one.......7%; specificity = 70.8%; positive predictive value = 62.2%; negative predictive value = 82.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Random blood glucose could possibly be used to assess glycaemic control among patients with type 2 DM in rural settings of sub-Saharan Africa........24-0.32, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with HbA1c among the patients with type 2 DM. Based on ROC analysis (AUC = 0.80, SE = 0.05), RBG ≤7.5 mmol/l was determined as the optimal cut-off value for good glycaemic control (HbA1c <7.0% [53 mmol/mol]) among patients with type 2 DM (sensitivity = 76...

  17. Determinants for inadequate glycaemic control in Chinese patients with mild-to-moderate type 2 diabetes on oral antidiabetic drugs alone

    ZHANG Shao-ling; CHEN Zong-cun; YAN Li; CHEN Li-hong; CHENG Hua; JI Li-nong

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevalence of inadequate glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)remains high. We assessed glycaemic control in the real-life practice among people with T2DM in metropolises in China who were treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) alone and to determine factors associated with inadequate giycaemic control in this population.Methods An observational, cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted in 16 metropolitan medical centers.People with T2DM who had been followed-up before the index visit which occurred from January to September 2007 were included in the study. All subjects were ≥30 years of age at the time of T2DM diagnosis and had received monotherapy or combination therapy of OAD for at least 6 months. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records. The main study outcome was the inadequate glucose control rate, which was calculated by the proportion of patients with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5% detected on the index visit.Results In this cohort of 455 patients with T2DM whose mean age was 60.6 years and mean disease duration was 6.1 years, 45.5% had inadequate glycaemic control. The mean (SD) HbA1c was 6.7% (1.3). Multivariate Logistic regression showed that physical inactivity, disease duration >10 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, low homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) index, less frequency of medical visit and hypertriglyceridaemia were independent determinants of inadequate glycaemic control. Higher incidence of self-reported hypoglycemia experience (47.1% vs. 34.8%, P=0.008) and more fear of hypoglycemia quantified by Worry subscaie of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey (HFS) Ⅱ were happened in subjects with good glycemic control.Conclusion Approximately one half of these outpatients with T2DM from the metropolitan medical centers in China had inadequate glycaemic control treated with OAD alone, which raises the need for more effective educational and

  18. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Prevents Iron Overload While Improving Glycaemic Control and Antioxidant Protection in Insulin-Resistant Psammomys obesus.

    Lazourgui, Mohamed Amine; El-Aoufi, Salima; Labsi, Moussa; Maouche, Boubekeur

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the anti-diabetic preventive activity of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance (IR), Psammomys obesus (Po). IR was induced by feeding a standard laboratory diet (SD). CoQ10 oil suspension was orally administered at 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day along with SD for 9 months. Anthropometric parameters, namely, total body weight gain (BWG) and the relative weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined. Blood glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), total antioxidant status (TAS), iron, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) were evaluated. NO2 (-) level was also assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) culture supernatants. Our results show that CoQ10 supplementation significantly improved blood glucose, insulin, QUICKI, TAS, iron and MDA, but influenced neither NO2 (-) levels nor the anthropometric parameters. These findings support the hypothesis that CoQ10 would exert an anti-diabetic activity by improving both glycaemic control and antioxidant protection. The most marked effect of CoQ10 observed in this study concerns the regulation of iron levels, which may carry significant preventive importance. PMID:26779622

  19. Automated optimal glycaemic control using a physiology based pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic model

    Schaller, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    After decades of research, Automated Glucose Control (AGC) is still out of reach for everyday control of blood glucose. The inter- and intra-individual variability of glucose dynamics largely arising from variability in insulin absorption, distribution, and action, and related physiological lag-times remain a core problem in the development of suitable control algorithms. Over the years, model predictive control (MPC) has established itself as the gold standard in AGC systems in research. Mod...

  20. Nurse-led implementation of an insulin-infusion protocol in a general intensive care unit: improved glycaemic control with increased costs and risk of hypoglycaemia signals need for algorithm revision

    Bull Eva M

    2008-01-01

    for improved glycaemic control within our ICU. This might be achieved through an improved algorithm and continued efforts to increase nurses' confidence and skills in achieving SGC.

  1. Improved postprandial glycaemic control with insulin Aspart in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin

    Rosenfalck, A M; Thorsby, P; Kjems, L;

    2000-01-01

    The effect on postprandial blood glucose control of an immediately pre-meal injection of the rapid acting insulin analogue Aspart (IAsp) was compared with that of human insulin Actrapid injected immediately or 30 minutes before a test meal in insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with residual...... that the improved glucose control previously demonstrated with insulin Aspart compared to human insulin in healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients also applies to insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients....

  2. Is poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients a risk factor of myopia?

    Jacobsen, N.; Jensen, H.; Lund-Andersen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), insulin dosage and myopia in diabetic patients. Methods: All type 1 diabetic patients aged 16-26 years [mean age 22.0, standard deviation (SD) 2.9] attending the eye clinic at Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, in 1995-1997 were included in the study (n = 393). The following data were...... considerably higher than in the background Danish population. Poor metabolic control of glucose is a suggested risk factor of myopia. The study suggests that myopia may be regarded as a complication of hyperglycaemia in diabetes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  3. Improving glycaemic control and life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A randomised, controlled intervention study using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method in triads of adolescents, parents and health care providers integrated into routine paediatric outpatient clinics

    Thorsteinsson, Birger; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hommel, Eva;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord between adolescents and parents. Adolescent-parent conflicts are thus...... a barrier for health care providers (HCPs) to overcome in their attempts to involve both adolescents and parents in improvement of glycaemic control. Evidence-based interventions that involve all three parties (i.e., adolescents, parents and HCPs) and are integrated into routine outpatient clinic visits...... diabetes (HbA1c > 8.0%) and their parents from 2 Danish hospitals and randomise into GSD-Y or control groups. During an 8-12 month period, the GSD-Y group will complete 8 outpatient GSD-Y visits, and the control group will completes an equal number of standard visits. The primary outcome is HbA1c...

  4. Impact of ethnicity on progress of glycaemic control in 131 935 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide observational study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register

    Svensson, Ann-Marie; Rosengren, Annika; Zethelius, Björn; Eliasson, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Studies on ethnic disparities in glycaemic control have been contradictory, and compromised by excessively broad categories of ethnicity and inadequate adjustment for socioeconomic differences. We aimed to study the effect of ethnicity on glycaemic control in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting We used nationwide data (mainly from primary care) from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (2002–2011) to identify patients with newly diagnosed (within 12 months) type 2 diabetes. Participants We included 131 935 patients (with 713 495 appointments), representing 10 ethnic groups, who were followed up to 10 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures Progress of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for up to 10 years was examined. Mixed models were used to correlate ethnicity with HbA1c (mmol/mol). The effect of glycaemic disparities was examined by assessing the risk of developing albuminuria. The impact of ethnicity was compared to that of income, education and physical activity. Results Immigrants, particularly those of non-Western origin, received glucose-lowering therapy earlier, had 30% more appointments but displayed poorer glycaemic control (2–5 mmol/mol higher HbA1c than native Swedes). Probability of therapy failure was 28–111% higher for non-Western groups than for native Swedes. High-income Western groups remained below the target-level of HbA1c for 4–5 years, whereas non-Western populations never reached the target level. These disparities translated into 51–92% higher risk of developing albuminuria. The impact of ethnicity was greater than the effect of income and education, and equal to the effect of physical activity. Conclusions Despite earlier pharmacological treatment and more frequent appointments, immigrants of non-Western origin display poorer glycaemic control and this is mirrored in a higher risk of developing albuminuria. PMID:26048210

  5. Effect of insulin lispro on glycaemic control in Chinese diabetic patients receiving twice-daily regimens of insulin

    Chan Wing Bun 陈颖斌; Chow Chun Chung 周振中; Yeung Vincent Tok Fai 杨铎辉; Chan Juliana Chung Ngor 陈重娥; So Wing Yee 苏咏仪; Cockram Clive Stewart

    2004-01-01

    @@ Insulin lispro is an insulin analogue that has the advantages of being fast-acting, convenient, and less likely to lead to hypoglycaemic episodes. Previous studies have proven its value in treating both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes both alone and in combination with different treatment regimens.1,2 However, diabetes is heterogeneous and differs in etiology and clinical characteristics in different ethnic groups. Even with the same insulin treatment, different diets will produce different glycaemic profiles. Diet patterns differ between different ethnic groups. Traditional oriental foods are characterized by a higher proportion of carbohydrates and a lower proportion of fat compared to Caucasian diets. To date, there has been no study on the use of insulin lispro in Chinese diabetic patients. Whether the Chinese dietary pattern will affect the efficacy of insulin lispro treatment remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted this trial to assess the efficacy of insulin lispro treatment in Chinese patients.

  6. The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups.

    Emadian, Amir; Andrews, Rob C; England, Clare Y; Wallace, Victoria; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-11-28

    Weight loss is crucial for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It remains unclear which dietary intervention is best for optimising glycaemic control, or whether weight loss itself is the main reason behind observed improvements. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary interventions on glycaemic control in overweight and obese adults with T2DM when controlling for weight loss between dietary interventions. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) was conducted. Electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science databases were conducted. Inclusion criteria included RCT with minimum 6 months duration, with participants having BMI≥25·0 kg/m2, a diagnosis of T2DM using HbA1c, and no statistically significant difference in mean weight loss at the end point of intervention between dietary arms. Results showed that eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Only four RCT indicated the benefit of a particular dietary intervention over another in improving HbA1c levels, including the Mediterranean, vegan and low glycaemic index (GI) diets. However the findings from one of the four studies showing a significant benefit are questionable because of failure to control for diabetes medications and poor adherence to the prescribed diets. In conclusion there is currently insufficient evidence to suggest that any particular diet is superior in treating overweight and obese patients with T2DM. Although the Mediterranean, vegan and low-GI diets appear to be promising, further research that controls for weight loss and the effects of diabetes medications in larger samples is needed. PMID:26411958

  7. Maternal Diet and Weight at 3 Months Postpartum Following a Pregnancy Intervention with a Low Glycaemic Index Diet: Results from the ROLO Randomised Control Trial

    Mary K. Horan; Ciara A. McGowan; Gibney, Eileen R; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of being overweight at a later time period, particularly when there is excessive gestational weight gain. There remains a paucity of data into the effect of low glycaemic index (GI) pregnancy interventions postpartum. Aim: To examine the impact of a low glycaemic index diet during pregnancy on maternal diet 3 months postpartum. Methodology: This analysis examined the diet, weight and lifestyle of 460 participants of the ROLO study 3 months postpartum. Questionnair...

  8. Self-monitoring of blood glucose improved glycaemic control and 10-year coronary heart disease risk profile of type 2 diabetic patients

    Ezenwaka Chidum; JonesLeCointe Altheia; Dimgba Agbai; Okali Fidelis; Skinner Teppany; Rodriguez Martina; Extavour Rian; Davis Verdine; Spencer Alida; Mayers Hasina

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate over the overall benefits of self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients is still continuing.We aimed to assess the difference in glycaemic control and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk levels of experimental type 2 diabetes patients provided with facilities for self-monitoring blood glucose and their counterparts without such facilities.Methods Sixty-one patients who had no prior experience in using glucometers were studied as intervention (n=30) and control (n=31) groups.The intervention group was trained in self-monitoring of blood glucose and documentation.Baseline blood glucose and fasting blood glucose were measured and the intervention patients were provided with glucometers and advised to self-monitor their fasting and postprandial blood glucose over six months.The 10-year CHD risk levels were determined with the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study-derived risk engine calculator.Results The age and diabetes duration were similar in the two groups (P >0.05).The majority of the patients were unemployed or retired females with only a primary level education.After 3 months,the haemogolbin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the control patients remained unchanged ((7.8±0.3)% vs.(7.9±0.4)%,P >0.05) whereas the HbA1c levels of the intervention patients were significantly reduced from the baseline at three ((9.6±0.3)% vs.(7.8±0.3)%,P <0.001) and six ((9.2±0.4)% vs.(7.5±0.3)%,P <0.001) months.Interestingly,while the 10-year CHD risk level of the control group remained unchanged after three months,that of the intervention group was remarkably reduced at three and six months from the baseline level ((7.4±1.3)% vs.(4.5±0.9)%,P=0.056).Conclusion Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients significantly improved glycaemic control and the CHD risk profile,suggesting that type 2 diabetes patients will potentially benefit from inclusion of glucose meters and testing strips in their health-care package.

  9. Efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycaemic control in type II diabetic patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Telgi, Ravishankar Lingesha; Tandon, Vaibhav; Tangade, Pradeep Shankar; Tirth, Amit; Kumar, Sumit; Yadav, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes and periodontal disease are two common diseases with high prevalence rates. Recent evidence has shown a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Sixty subjects aged 35-45 years with blood sugar controlled by oral hypoglycaemic agents were randomly divided equally among 3 groups: group A (scaling, mouthw...

  10. Tight glycaemic control is a key factor in wound healing enhancement strategies in an experimental diabetes mellitus model.

    O'Sullivan, J B

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of impaired wound healing. The aim of this study was to establish a glucose-controlled diabetic wound healing model. METHOD: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control group (C), Diabetic Non-glucose Controlled group (DNC) and Diabetic glucose Controlled group (DC). RESULTS: Glucose control was achieved using Insulman Rapid (average daily glucose level <10 mmol\\/L). 18 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a dorsal skin wound incision and 10 days later were killed. Fresh and fixed wound tensile strength, hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor beta-1 levels were improved in the DC group when compared to the DNC group. The quantity of fibroblasts present was similar in each group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the impact that diabetes has on acute wound healing and suggests that wound modulating agents must be tested in both the tightly glucose-controlled as well as the poorly glucose-controlled diabetic animal models prior to proceeding with translational clinical studies.

  11. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  12. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  13. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Mary K. Horan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI, remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142 and intervention group (n = 138, who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  14. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to intense sweeteners and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 1136, 1444, 4299), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to intense sweeteners and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations, and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation. The...... sweeteners, which should replace sugars in foods and beverages in order to obtain the claimed effects. The Panel considers that intense sweeteners are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects....

  16. A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of milk with differing glycaemic properties on sleep among toddlers: a randomised controlled trial

    Misra, Snigdha; Khor, Geok L; Mitchell, Peter; Haque, Samsul; Benton, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep is important for children as it directly impacts their mental and physical development. Sleep is not only influenced by the timing but also the macronutrient (carbohydrate and protein) content of meals. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) describe the quality of carbohydrates in a food and the burden of these foods on the body’s blood glucose response. Diets with a high GI/GL may increase the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The p...

  17. The cross-sectional associations between sense of coherence and diabetic microvascular complications, glycaemic control, and patients' conceptions of type 1 diabetes

    Saraheimo Markku

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC has been associated with various self-care behaviours in the general population. As the management of type 1 diabetes heavily relies on self-management, the SOC concept could also prove important in this population. This paper is a report of a study conducted among patients with type 1 diabetes to assess the associations between SOC and glycaemic control, microvascular complications, and patients' conceptions of their disease. Methods Altogether 1,264 adult patients (45% men, age range 18-82 years with type 1 diabetes participated in this cross-sectional study. SOC was evaluated using a 13-item SOC questionnaire. Standardized assays were used to determine HbA1c. Nephropathy status was based on albumin excretion rate and retinal laser-treatment was used as an indication of severe retinopathy. Patients' subjective conceptions of diabetes were studied using a questionnaire. Results Higher SOC scores, reflecting stronger SOC, were associated with lower HbA1c values. Strong SOC was independently associated with reaching the HbA1c level 1c, weak SOC was associated with the presence of nephropathy among men, but not women. No associations were observed between SOC and severe retinopathy. Four dimensions describing patients' conceptions of HbA1c, complications, diabetes control and hypoglycaemia were formed from the diabetes questionnaire. Weak SOC was independently associated with worse subjective conceptions in the dimensions of HbA1c and hypoglycaemia. Furthermore among men, an association between weak SOC and the complications factor was observed. Conclusion Interventions to improve patients' SOC, if available, could improve patients' metabolic control and therefore also reduce the incidence of diabetic complications.

  18. Achieving optimal diabetic control in adolescence: the continuing enigma.

    McConnell, E M; Harper, R; Campbell, M; Nelson, J K

    2001-01-01

    The transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood is a difficult stage, particularly for patients with type 1 diabetes. The yearning for autonomy and independence, as well as the hormonal changes around the time of puberty, can manifest in poor glycaemic control. The focus on diet and weight increases the prevalence of eating disorders, compounding the difficulties in supervising diabetes patients. This can be exacerbated by the realisation that hyperglycaemia induces weight loss and the use of this knowledge to further manipulate diabetes control to gain a desired body image. The management of adolescents with type 1 diabetes is therefore challenging and requires close collaboration between psychological medicine and diabetes teams. This review describes the difficulties frequently encountered, with a description of four cases illustrating these points. Case 1 demonstrates the problem of needle phobia in a newly diagnosed patient with type 1 diabetes leading to persistent hyperglycaemia, the recognition of weight loss associated with this and the development of bulimia. The patient's overall management was further complicated by risk-taking behaviour. By the age of 24 years, she has developed diabetic retinopathy and autonomic neuropathy and continues to partake in risk-taking behaviour. Case 2 illustrates how the lack of parental support shortly after the development of type 1 diabetes led to poor glycaemic control and how teenagers often omit insulin to accommodate lifestyle and risk-taking behaviour. Case 3 further exemplifies the difficulty in managing patients with needle phobia and the fear of hypoglycaemia. Case 4 adds further weight to the need for parental support and the impact of deleterious life events on glycaemic control by manipulation of insulin dosage. PMID:11241893

  19. Comparative evaluation of glipizide and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds as monotherapy and combination therapy on glycaemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Amandeep Singh

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Monotherapy with fenugreek produced significant improvement in glycaemic control and dyslipidaemia. Glipizide monotherapy was more efficacious in controlling FBG and HbA1c levels than fenugreek monotherapy or in combination with fenugreek; glipizide monotherapy had no effect on lipid profile whereas fenugreek monotherapy was more efficacious in controlling dyslipidaemia than in combination with glipizide. Both drugs as monotherapy or in combination were well-tolerated by the patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 942-950

  20. A comparative evaluation of the glycaemic potential of commercial breads consumed in South East Asia.

    Ranawana, Viren; Henry, C Jeya K

    2013-03-01

    Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-east Asia. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen types of breads representing the most popular brands and types were evaluated. The results showed that white and enriched white breads had a greater glycaemic potential than wholemeal breads (rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content >450 mg of glucose/g of sample). The lowest glycaemic potential was observed for wholegrain breads (RDS content breads such as pandan bread, milk bread and corn loaf was also examined. Whist the data show that South-east Asian breads have notably differential effects on glycaemia, it highlights the need to formulate Asian dietary guidelines for bread which will enable better food choice and glycaemic control. PMID:22888982

  1. Major diabetes-related vascular events do not improve glycaemic control in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic individuals

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Grauslund, Jakob; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Green, Anders; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Nybo, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It is known that sudden serious events alter life styles related to treatment efficiency, as for example in cancer patients. However, it has not been specifically addressed if a first-time diabetes-related clinical event has impact on glycaemic regulation. We therefore assessed this in a...... population-based cohort of patients with long-term type 1 diabetes. Methods: This study was based on a cohort of type 1 diabetes patients with at least 20 years duration of diabetes. Of the 460 patients from the original cohort still alive at 1 January 1994, all patients with a major first-time diabetes...... of the patients. Only a minority worsened or improved their regulation, and in all groups only non-significant changes were seen. Conclusions: Surprisingly, complication-related events did not improve glycaemic regulation in long-term type 1 diabetes patients. This is in contrast with the experience...

  2. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Jacinta Byrne; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old inf...

  3. Unchanged gene expression of glycogen synthase in muscle from patients with NIDDM following sulphonylurea-induced improvement of glycaemic control

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Bjørbaek, C; Pedersen, O

    1995-01-01

    treatment. Ten obese patients with NIDDM were studied before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a weight-maintaining diet in combination with the sulphonylurea gliclazide. Gliclazide treatment was associated with significant reductions in HbA1C (p=0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (p=0.005) as well as...... metabolism (p=0.02) was demonstrated in teh gliclazide-treated patients when compared to pre-treatment values. In biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis muscle during insulin infusion, the half-maximal activation of glycogen synthase was achieved at a significantly lower concentration of the allosteric...... activator glucose 6-phosphate (p=0.01). However, despite significant increases in both insulin-stimulated non-oxidative glucose metabolism and muscle glycogen synthase activation in gliclazide-treated patients no changes were found in levels of glycogen synthase mRNA or immunoreactive protein in muscle. In...

  4. Control theory: history, mathematical achievements and perspectives

    Fernández Cara, Enrique; Zuazua Iriondo, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    These notes are devoted to present some of the mathematical milestones of Control Theory. To do that, we first overview its origins and some of the main mathematical achievements. Then, we discuss the main domains of Sciences and Technologies where Control Theory arises and applies. This forces us to address modelling issues and to distinguish between the two main control theoretical approaches, controllability and optimal control, discussing the advantages and drawbacks of ...

  5. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126-234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  6. Glycaemic response to quality protein maize grits.

    Panlasigui, Leonora N; Bayaga, Cecile L T; Barrios, Erniel B; Cochon, Kim L

    2010-01-01

    Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI) of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control bread and three test foods were given on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick at time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and analyzed for glucose concentrations. Results. The computed incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC) varies significantly across test foods (P corn grits has a lower glycaemic response compared to milled rice and the rice-corn grits mixture, which may be related in part to differences in their dietary fibre composition and physicochemical characteristics. Pure QPM corn grits may be a more health beneficial food for diabetic and hyperlipidemic individuals. PMID:20862364

  7. A randomised control trial of low glycaemic index carbohydrate diet versus no dietary intervention in the prevention of recurrence of macrosomia.

    Walsh, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Maternal weight and maternal weight gain during pregnancy exert a significant influence on infant birth weight and the incidence of macrosomia. Fetal macrosomia is associated with an increase in both adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome, and also confers a future risk of childhood obesity. Studies have shown that a low glycaemic diet is associated with lower birth weights, however these studies have been small and not randomised 12. Fetal macrosomia recurs in a second pregnancy in one third of women, and maternal weight influences this recurrence risk 3.

  8. The DiGEM trial protocol – a randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on glycaemic control of different strategies of blood glucose self-monitoring in people with type 2 diabetes [ISRCTN47464659

    Goyder Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We do not yet know how to use blood glucose self-monitoring (BGSM most effectively in the self-management of type 2 diabetes treated with oral medication. Training in monitoring may be most effective in improving glycaemic control and well being when results are linked to behavioural change. Methods/design DiGEM is a three arm randomised parallel group trial set in UK general practices. A total of 450 patients with type 2 diabetes managed with lifestyle or oral glucose lowering medication are included. The trial compares effectiveness of three strategies for monitoring glycaemic control over 12 months (1 a control group with three monthly HbA1c measurements; interpreted with nurse-practitioner; (2 A self-testing of blood glucose group; interpreted with nurse- practitioner to inform adjustment of medication in addition to 1; (3 A self-monitoring of blood glucose group with personal use of results to interpret results in relation to lifestyle changes in addition to 1 and 2. The trial has an 80% power at a 5% level of significance to detect a difference in change in the primary outcome, HbA1c of 0.5% between groups, allowing for an attrition rate of 10%. Secondary outcome measures include health service costs, well-being, and the intervention effect in sub-groups defined by duration of diabetes, current management, health status at baseline and co-morbidity. A mediation analysis will explore the extent to which changes in beliefs about self-management of diabetes between experimental groups leads to changes in outcomes in accordance with the Common Sense Model of illness. The study is open and has recruited more than half the target sample. The trial is expected to report in 2007. Discussion The DiGEM intervention and trial design address weaknesses of previous research by use of a sample size with power to detect a clinically significant change in HbA1c, recruitment from a well-characterised primary care population, definition

  9. Achievements of schistosomiasis control in China

    Yuan Hongchang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of schistosomiasis has been spectacularly successful in terms of controlling endemicity and severity of the disease during the last 50 years. It can be categorized into two stages. From 1955 through 1980, the transmission-control strategy had been widely and successfully carried out. By the end of 1980, the epidemic of schistosomiasis was successfully circumscribed in certain core regions including areas at the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River and some mountainous areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, where control of schistosomiasis had been demonstrated to be very difficult to be sustained. Therefore, since 1980, schistosomiasis control in China has been modified to employ a stepwise strategy, based on which morbidity control has been given priorities and if possible transmission control has been pursued. However, since snail-ridden areas remain unchanged so far, reinfections occur frequently. This necessitates a maintenance phase to consolidate the achievements in the control of schistosomiasis. In the mean time, we are challenged with some environmental, social and economical changes in terms of controlling schistosomiasis. Successfully controlling schistosomiasis in China is still a long-term task but will be achieved without doubt along with the economic development and the promotion of living and cultural standard of people.

  10. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia. PMID:25716365

  11. Efficacy of the sibutramine in the insulin resistance and glycaemic control of obese patients / Eficacia de la sibutramina en la resistencia insulínica y el control glucémico de pacientes obesos

    Pereira LRL

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper compared the effects of the sibutramine and of the metformin in the patients' obesity bearers insulin resistance. Methods: They were appraised 16 subjects obese with IMC above 30 Kg/m2, during 6 months and divided in two groups. The patients, before they begin the study, they were submitted to an evaluation anthropometric, clinic and laboratorial. All the patients received an individualized alimentary plan, respecting the total energy expense daily. Results: At the end of the study, it was observed that the plasmatic concentrations of insulin suffered reduction of 12,1% (sibutramine and 20,7% (metformin, and the values of HOMA also suffered reduction of 11,2% and 23,5%, respectively in the group sibutramine and metformin. In compensation, the patients of the group sibutramine obtained more satisfactory results than the group metformin in the reduction of the corporal weight and in IMC.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the sibutramine, when compared to the metformin, it presents good results in the patients' glycaemic control, mainly in the insulin values and HOMA. The sibutramine, when prescribed in a rational way, an important therapeutic tool can be considered in the control of the diabetes type 2 and others adjunct pathology, however it should always be used simultaneous with an agent antidiabetic in those patient ones.

  12. Glycaemic Response to Quality Protein Maize Grits

    Leonora N. Panlasigui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control bread and three test foods were given on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick at time intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and analyzed for glucose concentrations. Results. The computed incremental area under the glucose response curve (IAUC varies significantly across test foods (P<.0379 with the pure QPM grits yielding the lowest IAUC relative to the control by 46.38. Resulting GI values of the test foods (bootstrapped were 80.36 (SEM 14.24, 119.78 (SEM 18.81, and 93.17 (SEM 27.27 for pure QPM grits, milled rice, and rice-QPM grits mixture, respectively. Conclusion. Pure QPM corn grits has a lower glycaemic response compared to milled rice and the rice-corn grits mixture, which may be related in part to differences in their dietary fibre composition and physicochemical characteristics. Pure QPM corn grits may be a more health beneficial food for diabetic and hyperlipidemic individuals.

  13. Comparative evaluation of voglibose versus pioglitazone on glycaemic control and lipid profile in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on glimepiride and metformin in punjabi population

    Amita Jindal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM is a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Due to progressive nature of type 2 DM, dual / triple drug therapy produce additive effects, less side effects and allows the use of submaximal doses of individual agents. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of voglibose in comparison to pioglitazone on glycaemic and lipid profile as an add-on drug in patients with DM whose glycaemic status was uncontrolled with glimepiride and metformin. Methods: The present study was open, randomized parallel group comparison of two active treatment groups over a six months period. Sixty patients of either sex in the age group of 30-75 years, suffering from type 2 DM, with FBG> 126 mg/dl and HbA1c between 7- 10 % were selected at random. The effect of voglibose and pioglitazone were observed on various parameters i.e. FBG, PPBG, HbA1c and lipid profile (Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL. Results: At the end of 6 months it was observed that though both pioglitazone and voglibose reduced FBG, PPBG and HbA1C significantly but pioglitazone caused a significantly greater percentage change in FBG as well as in PPBG whereas the difference in mean percentage change in HbA1C was not significant. Also, fall in total cholesterol, TG, LDL and VLDL was significantly greater with pioglitazone than voglibose. Few side effects were observed with voglibose and not with pioglitazone. Conclusions: Though pioglitazone and voglibose were equally effective in lowering HbA1C levels yet pioglitazone showed better results in improving FBG, PPBG and lipid profile as compared to voglibose. Pioglitazone had minimal side effects as compared to voglibose. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 160-167

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    Jane McEneny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA- related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P=0.088, and significantly in HDL2(P=0.003 and HDL3(P=0.005. When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%, serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was 0.05. This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk.

  15. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Eakin Elizabeth G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address issues of maintenance and broad population reach. Telephone-delivered interventions have the potential to address these gaps. Methods/Design Using a two-arm randomised controlled design, this study will evaluate an 18-month, telephone-delivered, behavioural weight loss intervention focussing on physical activity, diet and behavioural therapy, versus usual care, with follow-up at 24 months. Three-hundred adult participants, aged 20-75 years, with type 2 diabetes, will be recruited from 10 general practices via electronic medical records search. The Social-Cognitive Theory driven intervention involves a six-month intensive phase (4 weekly calls and 11 fortnightly calls and a 12-month maintenance phase (one call per month. Primary outcomes, assessed at 6, 18 and 24 months, are: weight loss, physical activity, and glycaemic control (HbA1c, with weight loss and physical activity also measured at 12 months. Incremental cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Study recruitment began in February 2009, with final data collection expected by February 2013. Discussion This is the first study to evaluate the telephone as the primary method of delivering a behavioural weight loss intervention in type 2 diabetes. The evaluation of maintenance outcomes (6 months following the end of intervention, the use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity, and the inclusion of a cost-effectiveness analysis will advance the science of broad reach approaches to weight

  16. Concurrent management of postprandial glycaemia and nutrient intake using glycaemic glucose equivalents, food composition data and computer-assisted meal design.

    Monro, J A; Williams, M

    2000-06-01

    A computer system, called SERVE-NZ Nutririon Management System, for use in diabetes management, addresses the problem of concurrently controlling postprandial glycaemic response and nutrient intake in meals containing a number of foods, is described. It converts the weight and relative glycaemic potency of each food to its content of glycaemic glucose equivalents (GGE) - the amount of glucose theoretically inducing the same blood glucose response as would the specified quantity of food. Glycaemic glucose equivalents in a meal can be simply obtained by adding the GGE content of all foods in the meal to give a figure for the maximal glycaemic impact of the meal. Glycaemic glucose equivalents may be calculated using food composition databases that include available carbohydrate, common standard measure weights and glycaemic index values. If GGE is treated as a nutrient, an output of the total nutrient profile of a food or meal, and its glycaemic impact as GGE, can be obtained simultaneously. Application of a nutritional software system incorporating GGE values to management of glycaemic loadings and nutrient intakes over five meals within a day is demonstrated. The system may be a useful aid in self-management of glycaemia, as it will identify quantities of foods that can be consumed without exceeding the predetermined glucose tolerances of individuals. The graphical presentation of GGE and nutrient composition of meals may be a useful visual aid in educating clients with diabetes. The GGE values on food labels would provide easily understood guidance, not obtained from glycaemic index values, to the maximum number of items or quantity of a food that an individual should eat at a time. In its present basic form the calculation of GGE is most likely to slightly overestimate glycaemic impact, so it presents a worst-case prediction. PMID:24394390

  17. Multifaceted Determinants for Achieving Glycemic Control

    Chan, Juliana C N; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; Baik, Sei Hyun; Chantelot, Jean-Marc; Ferreira, Sandra R.G.; Hancu, Nicolae; Ilkova, Hasan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Aschner, Pablo; . .

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practice in developing regions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for achieving A1C

  18. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  19. Glycaemic Response to Quality Protein Maize Grits

    Cochon, Kim L.; Barrios, Erniel B.; Panlasigui, Leonora N.; Cecile L. T. Bayaga

    2010-01-01

    Background. Carbohydrates have varied rates of digestion and absorption that induces different hormonal and metabolic responses in the body. Given the abundance of carbohydrate sources in the Philippines, the determination of the glycaemic index (GI) of local foods may prove beneficial in promoting health and decreasing the risk of diabetes in the country. Methods. The GI of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) grits, milled rice, and the mixture of these two food items were determined in ten female s...

  20. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pcoconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response. PMID:27102847

  1. 地特胰岛素联合二甲双胍、那格列奈在门诊血糖控制不佳2型糖尿病患者中的应用%The Application of the Union of Insulin Detemir with Metformin & Nateglinide in Treating Poorly Glycaemic Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Out-patient

    伍华; 陈敏; 邵丽香; 李卫平; 谢乃强

    2013-01-01

    combined insulin detemir therapies;38 cases of the control group, average age 45±8.9, 22 males and16 females were given combined isophane insulin. The treatment lasted for 12 weeks. Results After treatment, for the treatment group, the fasting glucose level decreased from (9.9±1.3)mmol/L to(6.9±0.9)mmol/L, postprandial glycated hemoglobin level from (12.2±2.2)mmol/L to(8.4±0.7)mmol/L, hypoglycemia from (8.8±0.5)%to(6.6±0.9)%;For the control group, the fasting glucose level decreased from (9.8±1.2)mmol/L to (7.0±0.8)mmol/L,postprandial glycated hemoglobin level from (12.5±2.3)mmol/L to (8.5±0.6)mmol/L, hypoglycemia from(8.7±0.6)%to (6.7±0.8)%. After treatment of 12 weeks, there were signiifcant statistical differences for the fasting blood glucose level, 2-hr postprandial blood glucose level and glycated hemoglobin value (HbA1c) before and after treatment(P<0.05). there were 5 cases of hypoglycemia for the treatment group, 11 cases for the contrast group;2 cases of expulsion for treatment group(3/40,7.5%), 5 cases for contrast group(5/38, 13.8%). The body mass index of contrast groups is up, but no statistical difference with that of treatment group. Conclusions The scheme of uniting insulin detemir with metformin and nateglinide has advantages of improving the achievement rate of glycaemic control, little impact on patients’ weight, low incidence of hypoglycemia, safe usage, convenience and good clients’ compliance.

  2. Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning.

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Hoyle, Emily; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Dye, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption. PMID:21605502

  3. Co-localisation of the Kir6.2/SUR1 channel complex with glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide expression in human ileal cells and implications for glycaemic control in new onset type 1 diabetes

    Nielsen, Lotte B; Ploug, Kenneth B; Swift, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The ATP-dependent K+-channel (K(ATP)) is critical for glucose sensing and normal glucagon and insulin secretion from pancreatic endocrine alpha- and beta-cells. Gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells are also glucose-sensing cells secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose...... on glucose-sensing tissues in vivo that may affect the overall glycaemic control in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for expression and co-localisation studies. Meal-stimulated C-peptide test was carried out in...... 12 month study period (coefficient = 0.42%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Kir6.2 and SUR1 co-localise in the gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells. The hyperactive Glu23Lys variant of the K(ATP) channel subunit Kir6.2 may cause defective glucose sensing in several tissues and impaired glycaemic control...

  4. Food intake and dietary glycaemic index in free-living adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Alexandra M. Johnstone; MacRury, Sandra M.; Megson, Ian L; Prakash Abraham; Donald W M Pearson; Lobley, Gerald E.; Claire Fyfe; Grietje Holtrop; Susan C. McGeoch

    2011-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review concluded that low glycaemic index (GI) diets are beneficial in glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are limited UK data regarding the dietary GI in free-living adults with and without T2DM. We measured the energy and macronutrient intake and the dietary GI in a group (n = 19) of individuals with diet controlled T2DM and a group (n = 19) without diabetes, matched for age, BMI and gender. Subjects completed a three-day weighed diet...

  5. Twice- rather than once-daily basal insulin is associated with better glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 months after skills-based structured education in insulin self-management

    Hopkinson, H. E.; Jacques, R. M.; Gardner, K. J.; Amiel, S. A.; Mansell, P

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the relationship between basal insulin regimen and glycaemic outcomes 12 months after skills-based structured education in the UK Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme for Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Method: Retrospective analysis of data from 892 DAFNE participants from 11 UK centres. Results: Mean HbA1c 12 months after DAFNE was lower in those using twice- rather than once-daily basal insulin after correcting for differences in baseline HbA1c, age an...

  6. Diabetes: glycaemic control in type 2

    Srinivasan, Bala; Taub, Nick; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is now seen as a progressive disorder of glucose metabolism; it affects about 5% of the population worldwide, over 85% of whom have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia (the metabolic syndrome), which are powerful predictors of CVD.Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which glucose levels rise over time, with or without treatment and irrespective of the type of treatment given. This rise may lead to microvascular an...

  7. Effect of incorporating legume flour into semolina spaghetti on its cooking quality and glycaemic impact measured in vitro.

    Chillo, Stefania; Monro, J A; Mishra, S; Henry, C J

    2010-03-01

    Spaghetti is a favoured carbohydrate source because of its low glycaemic impact. The protein quality of semolina spaghetti is not ideal, however, and could be improved by including legume flour. We investigated whether incorporating legume flour in spaghetti, to improve its nutritional value, would affect its cooking quality and glycaemic impact. Four types of spaghetti containing 10% of either mung bean, soya bean, red lentil or chickpea flour were made and compared with a spaghetti control made only of durum semolina. Cooking quality was determined as the optimal cooking time (OCT), cooking loss (CL), dry matter (DM), swelling index, colour, hardness and adhesiveness. The spaghetti samples with legume flour were similar to one another and to the control in values of OCT, DM, swelling index, colour, CL, hardness and adhesiveness. Glycaemic impact of the samples was measured in vitro as release of rapidly available carbohydrate and slowly available carbohydrate during pancreatic digestion. The glycaemic index (GI) of the spaghetti samples was estimated by calculation, using data obtained for a reference food of known GI (shredded wheat horizontal line an extrusion-cooked wheat-only product). The shredded wheat underwent rapid parabolic digestion, and the near linear phase during which most of the starch was digested was completed between 20 and 60 min digestion. In contrast, the digestion of spaghetti was much slower and progressed almost linearly to completion. All spaghetti samples, moreover, were similarly susceptible to digestion, and compared with the wheat reference were all significantly lower in terms of relative glycaemic impact. We conclude that the incorporation of 10% legume flour in spaghetti to improve its nutritional value does not affect its cooking quality or increase its glycaemic impact. PMID:20113187

  8. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  9. Glycaemic Response in Relation to Gastric Emptying and Satiety in Health and Disease

    Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fibre and whole grains are recommended to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Low glycaemic index foods that are rich in fibre are recommended to control blood glucose levels. Gastric emptying, together with other factors, regulate the postprandial blood glucose response. A delay in the gastric emptying rate (GER) leads to a lower postprandial blood glucose concentration. However, 30-50% of diabetes patients have delayed gastric emptying.The aims of these studies were to evalu...

  10. Evaluating compliance to a low glycaemic index (GI) diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    Atiomo William; Riley Paddy; Read Anna; Egan Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A low Glycaemic Index (GI) diet may decrease some long-term health risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) such as endometrial cancer. This study was performed to assess compliance to a low GI diet in women with PCOS. Food diaries prospectively collected over 6 months from women on a low GI diet or healthy eating diet were analysed retrospectively. The women were recruited for a pilot randomised control trial investigating whether a low GI diet decreased the risk of Endo...

  11. Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.

    Donduran, S; Hamulu, F; Cetinkalp, S; Colak, B; Horozoğlu, N; Tüzün, M

    1999-12-01

    An adequate diet provides good metabolic control in diabetics. Since 1981 when Jenkins showed that complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly and raise blood glucose less than simple sugars, many studies have been performed in this field. In this study, seven kinds of carbohydrate-rich food were compared with glucose in 52 Type 2 diabetic patients and 31 normal volunteers. The subject consumed either macaroni, white rice, potatoes, tarhana soup (tarhana includes wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato and green pepper), noodle soup, white or whole wheat bread, or glucose at one-week intervals after an overnight fast. The glycaemic index (GI) of each food was calculated from the area under its glycaemic response curve (AUC) expressed as a percentage of the mean response to glucose. The results showed that the foods ranked from the highest to the lowest GI as follows: white bread; whole wheat bread; macaroni; tarhana soup; white rice; potatoes; noodle soup. PMID:10728183

  12. Sleep disorders in Pregnancy: Glycaemic implications.

    Kumar, K V S Hari

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy. Sleep disorders lead to adverse cardio-metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Pregnancy poses an enormous burden on the homeostasis of the women with alteration in many physiological functions. The sleep disorders during pregnancy lead to adverse foeto-maternal outcomes with long term cardiovascular implications. In this article, I review the pathophysiology of sleep disorders during pregnancy and their glycaemic implications. PMID:27582156

  13. Extra-glycaemic properties of empagliflozin.

    Solini, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex and multifaceted disease requiring an individualized approach. A special attention, in treating the patients, should be devoted to the presence of comorbidities like overweight or obesity and arterial hypertension. Among the available anti-hyperglycaemic agents, several are associated with side effects like hypoglycaemia and weight gain. An increasing interest is reported in sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, a relatively novel class of glucose-lowering drugs that act independently of insulin, provide benefits beyond glucose-lowering actions and show a better tolerability compared with traditional medications for type 2 diabetes. This review tries to offer a balanced view on the main extra-glycaemic effects of empagliflozin, also mentioning clinical data obtained with other sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors; the role of the proximal tubule in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy and the potential nehroprotection exerted by this compound are also briefly discussed. PMID:25994513

  14. Achieving Control of Lesion Growth in CNS with Minimal Damage

    Raja, Mathankumar

    2012-01-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist which minimizes system damage while achieving control of lesion growth.

  15. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  16. Overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load of habitual diet and risk of heart disease

    Grau, Katrine; Tetens, Inge; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S;

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that diets with high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) increase the risk of heart disease. Design Overall GI and GL were assessed from 7 d diet records or diet history interviews. Setting Information on hospitalization and death due to CVD and CHD was...... obtained from the National Register of Cause of Death and the National Register of Patients. Subjects In total 3959 adult Danes were – depending on time of entry – followed for 6–25 years until 31 December 1999. Results Overall GI was inversely associated with heart disease in men. The hazard ratios (95...... % CI) for the 10th and 90th GI percentiles compared with the median were 1·38 (1·13, 1·68) and 0·90 (0·76, 1·07) for CVD morbidity, 1·45 (1·05, 1·99) and 0·81 (0·62, 1·06) for CVD mortality, and 1·31 (0·97, 1·76) and 0·65 (0·51, 0·84) for CHD morbidity. In male subjects GL was not associated with...

  17. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of a selection of popular foods consumed in Hong Kong.

    Lok, Kris Y; Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Li, Liz; Leung, Grace; Woo, Jean; Lightowler, Helen J; Henry, C Jeya K

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values for a variety of foods that are commonly consumed in Hong Kong and expand on the international GI table of Chinese foods. Fasted healthy subjects were given 50 g of available carbohydrate servings of a glucose reference, which was tested twice, and test foods of various brands of noodles (n 5), instant cereals (n 3) and breads (n 2), which were tested once, on separate occasions. For each test food, tests were repeated in ten healthy subjects. Capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick samples in fasting subjects ( - 5, 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. The GI of each test food was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) of each test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC for the reference food. GL was calculated as the product of the test food's GI and the amount of available carbohydrate in a reference serving size. The majority of GI values of foods tested were medium (a GI value of 56-69) to high (a GI value of 70 or more) and compared well with previously published values. More importantly, our dataset provides GI values of ten foods previously untested and presents values for foods commonly consumed in Hong Kong. PMID:19781121

  18. Targeting intensive glycaemic control versus targeting conventional glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) exhibit an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality compared to the background population. Observational studies report a relationship between reduced blood glucose and reduced risk of both micro- and macrovascular complications in patients...

  19. 牙周基础治疗对2型糖尿病相关性牙周炎患者血糖控制的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of periodontal treatment on glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic associated periodontitis patients

    刘彩云; 孙剑; 孟杨; 曾宪涛; 周静; 庞光明

    2012-01-01

    目的 系统评价牙周基础治疗对2型糖尿病相关性牙周炎患者血糖控制的影响,探讨牙周基础治疗在糖尿病治疗中的具体作用.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆对照试验注册中心、Medline、EMbase、SIGLE、GreyNet、NTIS、中国生物医学文献数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库、中国期刊全文数据库和万方数据库,查找有关牙周基础治疗对糖尿病血糖控制影响的研究.检索时限均为1991-2011年4月31日.均由2名评价者独立选择试验、提取资料和评估方法学质量,然后采用RevMan 5.1软件对资料进行Meta分析.纳入7个研究,共计471例受试患者.结果 牙周基础治疗能明显降低2型糖尿病相关性牙周炎患者糖化血红蛋白的水平,组间差异有统计学意义(95%CI:-0.94~-0.22,P=0.001).治疗组牙周袋探诊深度低于对照组,组间差异也有统计学意义(95%CI:-2.26~-0.69,P=0.0002).结论 牙周基础治疗有利于2型糖尿病相关性牙周炎患者总体血糖水平的控制.%Objective To evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic associated periodontitis patients, and explore the role of periodontal therapy in the treatment of diabetes. Methods Studies of periodontal therapy on glycaemic control in diabetic patients were searched in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central), Medline, Embase, SIGLE, GreyNet, NTIS, CBMdisc, VIP, CNKI and Wanfang data from 1991 to April 31, 2011. The studies' selection, extraction and evaluation were performed by two reviewers independently, and meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.1 software. A total of 7 studies involving 471 participants were included in the review. Results Periodontal treatment could lead to a significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin level. The difference between the groups was significant (95% CI: -0.94 to -0.22, P= 0.001). And the periodontal probing depth in the treatment group was

  20. Glycaemic indices and non-traditional biochemical cardiovascular disease markers in a diabetic population in Nigeria

    Objective: To determine the frequency of hyperfibrinogenaemia, elevated C-reactive protein, hyperuricaemia and elevated lipoprotein A in a clinic population of patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with healthy controls; and determine the interrelationship between fasting plasma glucose levels and indices of long-term glycaemic control (fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin) in DM. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, from April to June 2009. Methodology: A total of 200 patients with type 2 DM and 100 age and gender matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Glycaemic control was assessed using fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycosylated haemoglobin levels. The non-traditional risk factors studied included C-reactive protein (CRP), Lipoprotein a (Lpa), serum uric acid (SUA), microalbuminuria and fibrinogen. Mann-whitney, chi-square and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis as applicable. Results: Hyperfibrinoginaemia, elevated CRP, LPa, microalbuminuria and hyperuricaemia were present in 3.5%, 65%, 12%, 6% and 57% respectively in type 2 DM. The mean levels of these CV risk factors were significantly higher in subjects with type 2 DM than that of the control subject. There was a positive and significant correlation between HbA1c and FBS (r=0.46, p=0.0001) and HbA1c and fructosamine (r=0.49, p=0.0001). All studied CVS risk factors were related to indices of glycaemic control which were found to be interrelated. Fasting blood glucose significantly correlated with both HbA1c and fructosamine but HbA1c showed better correlation to FPG than fructosamine (r=0.51 vs. 0.32). Conclusion: Glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose but not fructosamine are significantly associated with microalbuminuria, fibrinogen SUA and CRP in type 2 DM. HbA1c was found to be better than fructosamine in

  1. One-year sustained glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal plus meal-time insulin: the EDITION 1 12-month randomized trial, including 6-month extension

    Riddle, M C; Yki-Järvinen, H; Bolli, G B; Ziemen, M; Muehlen-Bartmer, I; Cissokho, S; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the maintenance of efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) versus glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using basal plus meal-time insulin for 12 months in the EDITION 1 trial. Methods EDITION 1 was a multicentre, randomized, open-label, two-arm, phase IIIa study. Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment period continued to receive Gla-300 or Gla-100, as previously randomized, once daily for a further 6-month open-label extension phase. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, insulin dose, hypoglycaemic events and body weight were assessed. Results Of 807 participants enrolled in the initial phase, 89% (359/404) assigned to Gla-300 and 88% (355/403) assigned to Gla-100 completed 12 months. Glycaemic control was sustained in both groups (mean HbA1c: Gla-300, 7.24%; Gla-100, 7.42%), with more sustained HbA1c reduction for Gla-300 at 12 months: least squares mean difference Gla-300 vs Gla-100: HbA1c −0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.30 to −0.05]%. The mean daily basal insulin dose at 12 months was 1.03 U/kg for Gla-300 and 0.90 U/kg for Gla-100. Lower percentages of participants had ≥1 confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemic event with Gla-300 than Gla-100 at any time of day [24 h; 86 vs 92%; relative risk 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99)] and during the night [54 vs 65%; relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.94)], while the annualized rates of such hypoglycaemic events were similar. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were apparent. Conclusion During 12 months of treatment of T2DM requiring basal and meal-time insulin, glycaemic control was better sustained and fewer individuals reported hypoglycaemia with Gla-300 than with Gla-100. The mean basal insulin dose was higher with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, but total numbers of hypoglycaemic events and overall tolerability did not differ between

  2. Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response.

    Jenkins, D J; Wesson, V.; Wolever, T M; Jenkins, A L; Kalmusky, J.; Guidici, S.; Csima, A.; Josse, R.G; Wong, G S

    1988-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To determine the effect on the glycaemic response to bread of the ratio of whole cereal grains to milled flour. DESIGN--Randomised assignment of groups of diabetic volunteers to test and control meals, taken after an overnight fast. Test foods were also analysed for in vitro digestion with human saliva. SETTING--Tertiary care centre. PATIENTS--Groups of six drawn from pool of 16 volunteers with diabetes mellitus (11 men, five women; mean age 64 (SE 3); 10 taking insulin, five...

  3. Parental Behavioural Control and Academic Achievement: Striking the Balance between Control and Involvement

    Kramer, Karen Z.

    2012-01-01

    Using a longitudinal US dataset (N = 6,134) we examine the relationship between parental behavioural control and academic achievement and explore the moderating role of parental involvement and parental warmth. Analyses using multiple hierarchical regression with clustering controls shows that parental behavioural control is negatively associated…

  4. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet. PMID:26857156

  5. Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

    Mitakshara Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 757-761

  6. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    Nielsen, L. B.; Wang, C.; Sorensen, K.;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRN...

  7. Non-glycaemic effects mediated via GLP-1 receptor agonists and the potential for exploiting these for therapeutic benefit

    Vilsbøll, T; Garber, A J

    2012-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) liraglutide and exenatide can improve glycaemic control by stimulating insulin release through pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. GLP-1 receptors are not restricted to the pancreas; therefore, GLP-1 RAs cause additional non-...... GLP-1 RAs in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems has been suggested from animal studies and short-term clinical trials. These effects and other safety aspects of GLP-1 therapy are currently being investigated in ongoing long-term clinical studies.......-glycaemic effects. Preclinical and clinical trial data suggest a multitude of additional beneficial effects related to GLP-1 RA therapy, including improvements in β-cell function, systolic blood pressure and body weight. These effects are of a particular advantage to patients with type 2 diabetes, as most are...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of reducing glycaemic episodes through community pharmacy management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Hendrie, Delia; Miller, Ted R; Woodman, Richard J; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Accessibility, availability and frequent public contact place community pharmacists in an ideal position to provide medically necessary, intensive health education and preventive health services to diabetes patients, thus reducing physician burden. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of reducing glycaemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a pharmacist-led Diabetes Management Education Program (DMEP) compared to standard care. We recruited eight metropolitan community pharmacies in Perth, Western Australia for the study. We paired them based on geographical location and the socioeconomic status of the population served, and then randomly selected one pharmacy in each pair to be in the intervention group, with the other assigned to the control group. We conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the costs and effectiveness of DMEP with standard pharmacy care. Cost per patient of implementing DMEP was AU$394 (US$356) for the 6-month intervention period. Significantly greater reductions in number of hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic episodes occurred in the intervention relative to the control group [OR 0.34 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.52), p = 0.001; OR 0.54 (95 % CI 0.34, 0.86), p = 0.009], respectively, with a net reduction of 1.86 days with glycaemic episodes per patient per month. The cost-effectiveness of DMEP relative to standard pharmacy care was AU$43 (US$39) per day of glycaemic symptoms avoided. Patients with type 2 diabetes in three surveys were willing to pay an average of 1.9 times that amount to avoid a hypoglycaemic day. We conclude that DMEP decreased days with glycaemic symptoms at a reasonable cost. If a larger-scale replication study confirms these findings, widespread adoption of this approach would improve diabetes health without burdening general practitioners. PMID:25257687

  9. Effect of a new insulin treatment regimen on glycaemic control and quality of life of Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during Ramadan fast - an open label, controlled, multicentre, cluster randomised study.

    Shehadeh, N; Maor, Y

    2015-11-01

    We performed a non-inferiority trial comparing insulin detemir (Levemir) and biphasic insulin (NovoMix70) to standard care during Ramadan fast in insulin treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This was an open label, controlled, multicentre, cluster randomised non-inferiority study. Insulin treated T2DM patients from 12 randomly selected primary clinics received Levemir and NovoMix 70 (intervention, n = 127) or standard care according to the American Diabetes Association recommendations (control, n = 118). Insulin dose (intervention) was 60% of the usual, of this 40% was dosed as Levemir at sunrise and 60% as NovoMix 70 before dinner. Insulin was titrated according to daily 4 point self-measured blood glucose (4P-SMBG) levels. The primary outcome was the difference in mean daily 4P-SMBG during days 23-30 of treatment. Mean age was 60.1 (SD 8.9) and 59.4 (SD 10.1) years in the intervention and control respectively. Mean HbA1c was 8.38% (68 mmol/mol) (SD 0.96) and 8.45% (69 mmol/mol) (SD 1.08). Mean BMI was 32.99 (SD 7.05) and 33.08 (SD 7.24), respectively. The intervention was non-inferior to standard care as assessed by mean 4P-SMBG during days 23-30 of treatment [155 (SD 30.76) mg% and 159 (SD 33.24) mg% respectively, p = 0.269]. Adverse event rate was significantly lower in the intervention group [0.04 (SD 0.06) vs. 0.07 (SD 0.11), p = 0.010]. In particular, hypoglycaemia event rate was lower in the intervention group [0.00 (SD 0.01) vs. 0.01 (SD 0.03), p ≤ 0.001]. To conclude, treatment with Levemir and NovoMix 70 was non-inferior to standard care in this heterogeneous group of patients and was associated with less adverse events. PMID:26234442

  10. The effect of motivational interviewing on glycaemic control and perceived competence of diabetes self-management in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus after attending a group education programme: a randomised controlled trial

    Rosenbek Minet, L K; Wagner, L; Lønvig, E M;

    2011-01-01

    education programme, 349 patients were randomised to either a usual care control group or an intervention group, which received up to five individual counselling sessions in 1 year based on MI, in addition to usual care. A randomised parallel design was used and open-label allocation was done by random...... permuted blocks, with allocation concealment by sequentially numbered, sealed, opaque envelopes. The primary outcome was glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). Analysis regarding measurements of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and competence of self-management (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale [PAID] and...... programme, and who have well-regulated diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT00555854. FUNDING: The National Board of Health, Funen County, Danish Association of Diabetes, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark and TRYG Fonden....

  11. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  12. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  13. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations.

    Koch, Christiane P

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions. PMID:27143501

  14. Controlling open quantum systems: tools, achievements, and limitations

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge of preserving relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence, which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence of decoherence. Here we review recent advances in optimal control methodology that allow typical tasks in device operation for open quantum systems to be tackled and discuss examples of relaxation-optimized dynamics. Optimal control theory is also a useful tool to exploit the environment for control. We discuss examples and point out possible future extensions.

  15. Controlling open quantum systems: Tools, achievements, and limitations

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge to preserve the relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence...

  16. Effects of dietary protein and glycaemic index on biomarkers of bone turnover in children

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Müller, Martha; Ritz, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it has been debated whether high protein intake compromises bone mineralisation, but no long-term randomised trial has investigated this in children. In the family-based, randomised controlled trial DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity and Genes), we examined the effects of dietary protein and...... glycaemic index (GI) on biomarkers of bone turnover and height in children aged 5-18 years. In two study centres, families with overweight parents were randomly assigned to one of five ad libitum-energy, low-fat (25-30 % energy (E%)) diets for 6 months: low protein/low GI; low protein/high GI; high protein....../low GI; high protein/high GI; control. They received dietary instructions and were provided all foods for free. Children, who were eligible and willing to participate, were included in the study. In the present analyses, we included children with data on plasma osteocalcin or urinary N...

  17. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  18. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  19. Achieving Fine-grained Access Control in Virtual Organisations

    Zhang, Nien Fan; Yao, L.; Nenadic, A.; Chin, J.; Goble, C.; Rector, A.; Chadwick, David W; Otenko, Sassa; Shi, Q.

    2007-01-01

    In a virtual organization environment, where services and data are provided and shared amongorganizations from different administrative domains and protected with dissimilar security policies and measures, there is a need for a flexible authentication framework that supports the use of various authentication methods and tokens. The authentication strengths derived from the authentication methods and tokens should be incorporated into an access-control decision-making process, so that more sen...

  20. Interrelationship of BMI and steroids on glycaemic levels in patient on chemotherapy

    Riyaz Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The present study was done to highlight strict glycaemic control, (FBS <110 and PLBS <140-160 mg/dL. Patient on steroids during the chemotherapy with all these predisposing factors are vulnerable to develop Diabetes. This study is very significant as it outlines the necessity of awareness and precautions to be observed when dealing with patients with raised BMI without diabetes mellitus who are also likely to go in to hyperglycaemic and in extreme cases even ketoacidosis. Patients with high BMI and Prediabetes are prone to develop diabetes. Patient on these chemotherapy drugs like L- Asparginase, Streptozocin and Cytokine interferon and ndash; alpha are associated with drug induced insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 491-494

  1. In type 2 diabetes, randomisation to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss

    Guldbrand, Hans; Dizdar, B.; Bunjaku, B.; Lindström, Torbjörn; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta; Fredrikson, Mats; Östgren, Carl Johan; Nyström, Fredrik H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The study aimed to compare the effects of a 2 year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD), based on four group meetings to achieve compliance. Methods This was a prospective randomised parallel trial involving 61 adults with type 2 diabetes consecutively recruited in primary care and randomised by drawing ballots. Patients that did not speak Swedish could not be recruited. The primary outcomes in this non-blinded study were weight and HbA1c. Pa...

  2. A single supplement of a standardised bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36 % wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle

    Hoggard, Nigel; Cruickshank, Morven; Moar, Kim-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    in T2D. Male volunteers with T2D (n 8; BMI 30 (sd 4) kg/m(2)) controlling their diabetes by diet and lifestyle alone were given a single oral capsule of either 0·47 g standardised bilberry extract (36 % (w/w) anthocyanins) which equates to about 50 g of fresh bilberries or placebo followed by a...

  3. A strategy for achieving manufacturing statistical process control within a highly complex aerospace environment

    Veira, Adryan; Khan, Khurshid; Farrell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy to achieve process control and overcome the previously mentioned industry constraints by changing the company focus to the process as opposed to the product. The strategy strives to achieve process control by identifying and controlling the process parameters that influence process capability followed by the implementation of a process control framework that marries statistical methods with lean business process and change management principles. The reliability ...

  4. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture;

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...

  5. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  6. Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

  7. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  8. A Model of Parental Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control in Academically Gifted Students

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated achievement-oriented parent socialization as it pertains to school avoidance in a sample of gifted students. A serial mediation model examining relationships among parental achievement-oriented psychological control (APC), fear of academic failure, academic amotivation, and school avoidance was tested. The sample included…

  9. Effect of glycaemic status on left ventricular diastolic function in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients

    Diabetes is associated with Left ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction known as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Echocardiography is helpful for the detection of diastolic dysfunction and Echocardiographic screening for asymptomatic diabetic cardiomyopathy should be performed in all asymptomatic diabetic subjects. Identification of diabetic cardiomyopathy should result in the initiation of therapies to prevent the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The objectives of this Descriptive case series was to determine the effect of glycaemic status on left ventricular diastolic function in normotesive type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This study was performed at Cardiology department, PGMI Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from March 2007 to September 2007. Sixty normotesive type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, 20 well control, 20 moderately control and 20 poorly control (Group- 3). Main outcome measures was Left ventricular diastolic function determined by Echocardiography. Results: Out of 60 patients there were 32 (53.3%) males and 28 (46.7%) females. Mean E/A ratio in Group 1 was 1.38.0.29, in Group 2 was 1.16.0.39 and in Group 3 was 0.60.0.15 (p<0.05). IVRT in Group-1 was 91.7.87 mSec, in Group-2 was 100.7.83 mSec and in Group-3 was 109.6.45 mSec (p<0.05). DT in Group 1 was 207.2 +- 12.6 mSec, in Group 2 was 218.11.3 mSec and in Group 3 was 229.7+- 9.52 mSec (p<0.05). Mean Em at mitral annulus in Group-1 was 0.14 +- 0.04 m/Sec, in Group-2 was 0.11+- 0.04 m/Sec and in Group-3 was 0.10 +- 0.03 m/Sec (p=0.002). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was documented in 4 (25%) patients in Group-1, 9 (45%) patients in Group-2 and 16 (80%) patients in Group-3 (p<0.05). There was Strong correlation between HbA1c level and diastolic indexes (p<0.05). Conclusion: Diastolic dysfunction is more frequent in poorly controlled diabetic patients and its severity is correlated with glycaemic control. (author)

  10. Effect of bile acid sequestrants on glycaemic control

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David Peick; Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip Krag

    2012-01-01

    of hypercholesterolaemia: colestipol, cholestyramine and colesevelam. The BAS colestimide/colestilan is used in Japan. Colesevelam was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of T2DM. We plan to provide a systematic review with meta-analysis of the glucose-lowering effect of BASs with the aim...

  11. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control.

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  12. Children's Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318

  13. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children’s mathematics achievement?

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Luis J Fuentes; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A.; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9–12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent’s report); math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock–Johnson test. Additionally, the contrib...

  14. Glycaemic and insulin responses, glycaemic index and insulinaemic index values of rice between three Asian ethnic groups.

    Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S

    2015-04-28

    Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM. PMID:25789978

  15. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents: results from the 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey.

    Jones, Molly; Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of Australian children and adolescents, as well as the major food groups contributing to GL, in the recent 2011-2012 Australian Health Survey. Plausible food intake data from 1876 children and adolescents (51 % boys), collected using a multiple-pass 24-h recall, were analysed. The GI of foods was assigned based on a step-wise published method using values from common GI databases. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dietary GI, GL and contribution to GL by food groups, stratified by age group and sex. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups for BMI, dietary GI and GL, and intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups. Pearson's χ 2 test was used to test for differences between age groups for categorical subject characteristic variables. Mean dietary GI and GL of participants were 55·5 (sd 5·3) and 137·4 (sd 50·8), respectively. The main contributors to dietary GL were starchy foods: breads, cereal-based dishes, breakfast cereals, flours, grains and potatoes accounted for 41 % of total GL. Sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetable juices/drinks, cake-type desserts and sweet biscuits contributed 15 %. No significant difference (at P<0·001) was observed between sexes. In conclusion, Australian children and adolescents appear to consume diets with a lower GI than European children. Exchanging high-GI foods for low-GI alternatives within core and non-core foods may improve diet quality of Australian children and adolescents. PMID:27171604

  16. LOCUS OF CONTROL AS A CORRELATE OF ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE IN IBADAN

    David O. FAKEYE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for means of improving performance and consequently ameliorating declining achievement in English at public examinations have made it imperative for researchers to explore the psychological bases of academic achievement prominent among which is locus of control of learners. Its relationship with learners’ achievement in English. is the focus of this study. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study which attempted to provide answers to three research questions. The participants were 300 SSII students while locus of control scale ( r=.72 and English language achievement test r=.87 were the instruments used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test . Findings revealed that the locus of control of students positively correlates with their English Language achievement(r=.670; but students with internal and external locus of control did not differ significantly in their English Language achievement (t=.513;df=298;P<.05 .Based on these findings, it is recommended that teachers of English should factor learner’ locus of control into their instructional programmes for improved performance.

  17. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Fuentes, Luis J; Pina, Violeta; López-López, Jose A; González-Salinas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control (EC) -attentional focusing (AF) and inhibitory control- to children's mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9-12 year-old. EC components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent's report); math achievement was measured via teacher's report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only AF significantly contributed to the variance of children's mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children's self-regulation abilities in the context of school. PMID:26441758

  18. Systematic review of the effect of processing of whole-grain oat cereals on glycaemic response.

    Tosh, Susan M; Chu, YiFang

    2015-10-28

    Whole-grain oats have been identified as a type of food that blunts blood glucose increase after a meal. However, processing of oats changes the physical characteristics of the grain, which may influence human glycaemic response. Therefore, the effect of different processes on acute postprandial glycaemic response, quantified using glycaemic index (GI) measurements, was investigated in a systematic review. A review of the literature identified twenty publications containing fifty-six individual tests. An additional seventeen unpublished tests were found in an online database. Of the seventy-two measurements included in the review, two were for steel-cut oats, eleven for large-flake oats, seven for quick-cooking (small flake) oats, nine for instant oatmeal and twenty-eight for muesli or granola. One granola measurement was identified as an outlier and was removed from the statistical analysis. In all, fifteen clinical tests were reported for rolled oat porridge that did not specify the type of oats used, and thus the effect of processing could not be assessed. Steel-cut oats (GI=55 (se 2·5)), large-flake oats (GI=53 (se 2·0)) and muesli and granola (GI=56 (se 1·7)) elicited low to medium glycaemic response. Quick-cooking oats and instant oatmeal produced significantly higher glycaemic response (GI=71 (se 2·7) and 75 (se 2·8), respectively) than did muesli and granola or large-flake oatmeal porridge. The analysis establishes that differences in processing protocols and cooking practices modify the glycaemic response to foods made with whole-grain oats. Smaller particle size and increased starch gelatinisation appear to increase the glycaemic response. PMID:26330200

  19. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter. PMID:15587223

  20. Locus of control, interest in schooling, self-efficacy and academic achievement

    Adedeji Tella; Adeyinka Tella; Olufemi Adeniyi

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement is interestingly an important issue; a fundamental premium upon which all teaching-learning activitiesare measured using some criteria of excellence e.g. good academic performance, poor academic performance and academicfailure. This study examined locus of control, interest in schooling and self-efficacy as predictors of academic achievement ofJunior Secondary School Students. The population of the study consisted of 500 students comprising 300 boys and 200 girls.These we...

  1. Perceived Control Mediates the Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Academic Achievement in Adolescence.

    Moè, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the protective role played by perceived control in the relation between depressive symptoms and academic achievement in adolescence. A sample of 218 adolescents aged 11 to 16 filled in questionnaires to assess self-reported depressive symptoms and three factors tied with Perceived Control (PC): self-regulated learning strategies use, effort attribution, and perceived competence. Grade Point Average (GPA) was considered as a measure of academic achievement. A path model showed that the relation between GPA and depressive symptoms is mediated by PC (plearning in planning programmes to prevent and treat depressive symptoms in adolescence. PMID:26377348

  2. Carbohydrate-Rich Foods in the Treatment of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome : Studies of the Importance of the Glycaemic Index and Dietary Fibre

    Järvi, Anette

    2001-01-01

    The glycaemic responses to various carbohydrate-rich foods are partly dependent on the rate at which the carbohydrate is digested and absorbed. The glycaemic index (GI) is a way of ranking foods according to their glycaemic response and is recommended as a useful tool in identifying starch-rich foods that give the most favourable glycaemic response. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether carbohydrate-rich foods with a low GI and a high content of dietary fibre (DF) could have ...

  3. Relationships between Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, Efforts and Academic Achievement among Engineering Students

    Alias Maizam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the affective learning needs namely, self-efficacy and locus of control, learning efforts and academic achievement among engineering students. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on first year engineering students from two technical universities in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and locus of control were assessed using existing instruments while learning efforts were assessed using a specifically designed instrument based on Carbonaro’s model of learning effort. Academic achievement data were based on cumulative grade point average (CGPA obtained from self-report by participants. The findings indicate that females engineering students tend to have higher self-efficacy compared to males while both groups have similar locus of control and invest in similar learning efforts. Only locus of control is found to be related to academic achievement while self-efficacy is found to be related to efforts. In conclusion, locus of control seems to be an important factor in predicting academic achievement among engineering students.

  4. Control of large space structures: Status report on achievements and current problems

    Lyons, M. G.; Aubrun, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives, state-of-the-art, and problems of large space structures control are outlined. The general objectives range from basic deployment and maneuvering, where some vibration modes may be suppressed, to disturbance rejection for very high performance imaging applications. The controls selected generally must produce some combination of eigenvalue/eigenvector and loads modification in order to achieve the mission objectives. An experiment illustrating the dynamic control of a suspended circular plate is described. Analysis methods used in system modelling, signal processing, and process control and monitoring are discussed. Sensor and actuator performance are assessed.

  5. Sensor and software use for the glycaemic management of insulin-treated type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients.

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Abougila, Kamal; Bellary, Srikanth; Collier, Andrew; Franke, Bernd; Jude, Edward B; Rayman, Gerry; Robinson, Anthony; Singh, Baldev M

    2016-05-01

    Lowering glucose levels, while avoiding hypoglycaemia, can be challenging in insulin-treated patients with diabetes. We evaluated the role of ambulatory glucose profile in optimising glycaemic control in this population. Insulin-treated patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were recruited into a prospective, multicentre, 100-day study and randomised to control (n = 28) or intervention (n = 59) groups. The intervention group used ambulatory glucose profile, generated by continuous glucose monitoring, to assess daily glucose levels, whereas the controls relied on capillary glucose testing. Patients were reviewed at days 30 and 45 by the health care professional to adjust insulin therapy. Comparing first and last 2 weeks of the study, ambulatory glucose profile-monitored type 2 diabetes patients (n = 28) showed increased time in euglycaemia (mean ± standard deviation) by 1.4 ± 3.5 h/day (p = 0.0427) associated with reduction in HbA1c from 77 ± 15 to 67 ± 13 mmol/mol (p = 0.0002) without increased hypoglycaemia. Type 1 diabetes patients (n = 25) showed reduction in hypoglycaemia from 1.4 ± 1.7 to 0.8 ± 0.8 h/day (p = 0.0472) associated with a marginal HbA1c decrease from 75 ± 10 to 72 ± 8 mmol/mol (p = 0.0508). Largely similar findings were observed comparing intervention and control groups at end of study. In conclusion, ambulatory glucose profile helps glycaemic management in insulin-treated diabetes patients by increasing time spent in euglycaemia and decreasing HbA1c in type 2 diabetes patients, while reducing hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes patients. PMID:27000105

  6. Malaria vaccine-is it still required? Are vaccine alternatives enough to achieve malaria control?

    Fsadni Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing continuous research towards developing a malaria vaccine, we have still not achieved this target and the malaria parasite continues to kill thousands, especially children in developing countries. However, current control methods have had good results in some countries. Can these control methods be enough or should people still keep hoping for a vaccine? Would eradication of malaria be a possibility if no vaccine remains available?

  7. Evaluating compliance to a low glycaemic index (GI diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Atiomo William

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low Glycaemic Index (GI diet may decrease some long-term health risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS such as endometrial cancer. This study was performed to assess compliance to a low GI diet in women with PCOS. Food diaries prospectively collected over 6 months from women on a low GI diet or healthy eating diet were analysed retrospectively. The women were recruited for a pilot randomised control trial investigating whether a low GI diet decreased the risk of Endometrial Cancer. Nine women with PCOS completed 33 food diaries (17 from women on a low GI diet and 16 from women on a healthy eating diet recording 3023 food items (low GI group:n = 1457; healthy eating group:n = 1566. Data was analysed using Foster-Powell international values inserted into an SPSS database as no scientifically valid established nutrition software was found. The main outcome measures were mean item GI and Glyacemic Load (GL, mean meal GL, percentage high GI foods and mean weight loss. Findings Women allocated the low GI diet had a statistically significant lower GI of food items (33.67 vs 36.91, p Conclusion Women with PCOS on a low GI diet consumed food items with a significantly lower mean GI and GL compared to the healthy eating diet group. Longer term compliance needs evaluation in subsequent studies to ascertain that this translates to reduced long term health risks. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN86420258

  8. Diagnosis, Remediation, and Locus of Control: Effects on Immediate and Retained Achievement and Attitudes.

    Saunders-Harris, Ramona; Yeany, Russell H.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects were assessed for locus of control and experienced either: no diagnosis; diagnosis; or, diagnosis and remediation. Immediate achievement was measured twice during the experiment; retention was measured 30 days later. Findings suggest that diagnostic or diagnostic/remedial instruction is effective in increasing middle school science…

  9. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  10. Locus of control, interest in schooling, self-efficacy and academic achievement

    Adedeji Tella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic achievement is interestingly an important issue; a fundamental premium upon which all teaching-learning activitiesare measured using some criteria of excellence e.g. good academic performance, poor academic performance and academicfailure. This study examined locus of control, interest in schooling and self-efficacy as predictors of academic achievement ofJunior Secondary School Students. The population of the study consisted of 500 students comprising 300 boys and 200 girls.These were selected from twenty-five secondary schools through stratified random techniques. An ex-post facto researchdesign was adopted. Three independents variables (Locus of Control, Interest in schooling and self –efficacy with thedependent variable (academic achievement were measured with relevant standardized instruments. Two research questionswere developed and answered. The results indicate that locus of control, interest in schooling and self efficacy jointly andrelatively contribute significantly to the prediction of academic achievement of the Junior Secondary School Students. Based onthese findings, the need to continuously stimulate the interest of the students and teaching them time management and forteachers to see all the three variables on the study as important and improve them simultaneously was emphasized.

  11. How do different components of Effortful Control contribute to children's mathematics achievement?

    Noelia eSánchez-Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work sought to investigate the specific contribution of two different components of Effortful Control -attentional focusing and inhibitory control- to children’s mathematics achievement. The sample was composed of 142 children aged 9 to 12 years old. Effortful Control components were measured through the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; parent´s report; math achievement was measured via teacher’s report and through the standard Woodcock-Johnson test. Additionally, the contribution of other cognitive and socio-emotional processes was taken into account. Our results showed that only attentional focusing significantly contributed to the variance of children’s mathematics achievement; interestingly, mediational models showed that the relationship between effortful attentional self-regulation and mathematics achievement was mediated by academic peer popularity, as well as by intelligence and study skills. Results are discussed in the light of the current theories on the role of children’ self-regulation abilities in the context of school.

  12. Dot Display Affects Approximate Number System Acuity and Relationships with Mathematical Achievement and Inhibitory Control

    Norris, Jade Eloise; Castronovo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Much research has investigated the relationship between the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement, with continued debate surrounding the existence of such a link. The use of different stimulus displays may account for discrepancies in the findings. Indeed, closer scrutiny of the literature suggests that studies supporting a link between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement in adults have mostly measured the ANS using spatially intermixed displays (e.g. of blue and yellow dots), whereas those failing to replicate a link have primarily used spatially separated dot displays. The current study directly compared ANS acuity when using intermixed or separate dots, investigating how such methodological variation mediated the relationship between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement. ANS acuity was poorer and less reliable when measured with intermixed displays, with performance during both conditions related to inhibitory control. Crucially, mathematical achievement was significantly related to ANS accuracy difference (accuracy on congruent trials minus accuracy on incongruent trials) when measured with intermixed displays, but not with separate displays. The findings indicate that methodological variation affects ANS acuity outcomes, as well as the apparent relationship between the ANS and mathematical achievement. Moreover, the current study highlights the problem of low reliabilities of ANS measures. Further research is required to construct ANS measures with improved reliability, and to understand which processes may be responsible for the increased likelihood of finding a correlation between the ANS and mathematical achievement when using intermixed displays. PMID:27195749

  13. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  14. Prediction and improvement of the maximum achievable damping with collocated control

    Holterman, Jan; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Active damping can be realised robustly through the use of a position actuator, a collocated force sensor, and control based on ‘Integral Force Feedback’ (IFF). Instead of a pure integrator, it is also possible to use a first-order lowpass-filter in the feedback loop (‘leaking IFF’). For both cases, the maximum achievable relative damping for a certain vibration mode can easily be predicted. If the achievable damping is too low, it is possible to improve this by means of ‘crosstalk-compensati...

  15. Breakfast glycaemic index and exercise: combined effects on adolescents' cognition.

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of breakfast glycaemic index (GI) and a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function. Participants were randomly allocated to a high or low GI breakfast group in a mixed research design, where each participant completed two experimental trials (exercise and resting). Forty-two adolescents (12.4±0.5 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial) following consumption of either a high or low GI breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm) was completed 30 min before and 45 min following the exercise. Average heart rate during exercise was 170±15 beats·min(-1). On the complex level of the Stroop test, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast on both the exercise and resting trials, though the improvement was greatest on the exercise trial. However, response times only improved on the resting trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.012). On the 5 letter level of the Sternberg paradigm, response times improved across the morning following the low GI breakfast (regardless of exercise) and only on the exercise trial following the high GI breakfast (p=0.019). The findings of the present study suggest that the combined effects of breakfast GI and exercise in adolescents depend upon the component of cognitive function examined. A low GI breakfast and mid-morning bout of exercise were individually beneficial for response times on the Sternberg paradigm, whereas they conferred additional benefits for response times on the Stroop test. PMID:25446221

  16. Glycaemic index of four commercially available breads in Malaysia.

    Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Abd Talib, Ruzita; Karim, Norimah A; Kamarudin, Nor Azmi; Arshad, Fatimah

    2009-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycaemic index (GI) values of four types of commercially available breads in Malaysia. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women; body mass index, 21.9±1.6 kg/m(2); age, 22.9±1.7 years) participated in this study. The breads tested were multi-grains bread (M-Grains), wholemeal bread (WM), wholemeal bread with oatmeal (WM-Oat) and white bread (WB). The subjects were studied on seven different occasions (four tests for the tested breads and three repeated tests of the reference food) after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve. The GI values were determined according to the standardized methodology. Our results showed that the M-Grains and WM-Oat could be categorized as intermediate GI while the WM and WB breads were high GI foods, respectively. The GI of M-Grains (56±6.2) and WM-Oat (67±6.9) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI = 100) (P food and the GI of WM (85±5.9) and WB (82±6.5) (P > 0.05). Among the tested breads, the GI values of M-Grains and WM-Oat were significantly lower (P foods. PMID:18785052

  17. Feedback control achievements and endeavours in Tore Supra plasma wall interactions control

    Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Grisolia, C.; Gunn, J.; Loarer, T.; Monier-Garbet, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion controlee, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2000-07-01

    Feedback control on the power exhaust repartition will be required in any reactor like tokamak experiments. A review of the experimental studies in Tore Supra is given, where many feedback options have been empirically tried to optimise the edge radiation while staying very close to detachment so as to still insure good ICRF waves coupling. (author)

  18. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions. PMID:23866230

  19. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to blood lipids - 6 years of follow-up in adult Danish men and women

    Oxlund, Anne Lene; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2006-01-01

    : Prospective study with 6 years of follow-up. Overall dietary GI and GL of each participant were assessed from diet history interviews. SETTING: Population-based study. Subjects Three hundred and thirty-five healthy men and women aged 35-65 years selected randomly from a larger sample of Danish adults. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic load (GL) and serum lipids. However, no prospective studies have been performed. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether GI or GL was associated with subsequent changes in serum lipids. DESIGN......: In men GI was directly related to changes in total cholesterol (DeltaTC), regression coefficient (beta) = 0.0044 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0008-0.0081) and GL was positively related to changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (DeltaLDL), beta = 0.1554 (95% CI: 0.0127-0.2982). Furthermore...

  20. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, Plentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response. PMID:25327223

  1. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Arthur F Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...

  2. Controlled delivery achieved with bi-layer matrix devices produced by co-injection moulding

    Vaz, Cláudia M.; Doeveren, P. F. N. M. van; Dias, Gustavo R.; R.L. Reis; Cunha, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design new soy protein-based bi-layered co-injection moulded matrix systems aimed to achieve controlled drug delivery. The devices consisted of a drug-free outer layer (skin) and a drug-containing core. The systems overcame the inherent disadvantage of non-linear release associated with diffusion-controlled single-layer matrix devices by providing additional releasing area with time to compensate for the decreasing release rate. As expected, the bi-layer devices p...

  3. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  4. The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal.

    Mollard, R C; Zykus, A; Luhovyy, B L; Nunez, M F; Wong, C L; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low glycaemic foods; however, their effect on satiation is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake (FI), appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal (4 h later) and on FI at the test meal. Males (n 24, 22·8 kg/m2) received one of four treatments or control. The pulse treatments contained pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas. The control was pasta and tomato sauce (pasta and sauce). FI (satiation) was measured at the treatment meal (0-20 min) and at an ad libitum pizza meal 4 h later. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. At the treatment meal, lentils led to lower FI compared to chickpeas and pasta and sauce, whereas navy beans led to lower FI compared to chickpeas. Also, lentils led to lower cumulative FI compared to pasta and sauce. All pulses led to lower BG peak and cumulative area under the curve (AUC; 0-340 min); however, only chickpeas, lentils and navy beans reduced pre-pizza meal BG AUC (0-260 min) relative to pasta and sauce. Chickpeas led to lower post-pizza meal BG AUC (260-340 min) compared to navy beans and yellow peas. Consumption of pulses in a high-glycaemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycaemic properties alone. PMID:22054112

  5. Contribution of liver nerves, glucagon, and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise in rats

    Dijk, G. van; Balkan, B.; Lindfeldt, J.; Bouws, G.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Ahrén, B.; Steffens, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    The contribution of hepatic sympathetic innervation, glucagon and adrenaline to the glycaemic response to exercise was investigated in rats. Hepatically denervated (LDX) or sham operated (SHAM) rats with permanent catheters were therefore submitted to swimming with or without infusion of somatostati

  6. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  7. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  8. FISCAL POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE FISCAL CONTROL AND ENTITY BEHAVIOR

    Olimpiu GHERMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an actual theme, determined by achievements of tax control in Moldova and its impact on the behaviour of the entity as important elements of fiscal policy. There are examined different methods for differentiating the problem, supplemented by deduction, induction, synthesis, analysis of defining phenomena of fiscal policy and its elements. The methodology used in this study is based on assessments of the theory, studies and interpretations of specialized literature and analyzes the practical activities specific for taxation at national, European and international levels, depending on which some opinions, conclusions and proposals were founded and formulated, to minimize the impact of tax evasion and fraud.

  9. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages. PMID:25373842

  10. Breakfast replacement with a low-glycaemic response liquid formula in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised clinical trial.

    Stenvers, Dirk J; Schouten, Lydia J; Jurgens, Jordy; Endert, Erik; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2014-08-28

    Low-glycaemic index diets reduce glycated Hb (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but require intensive dietary support. Using a liquid meal replacement with a low glycaemic response (GR) may be an alternative dietary approach. In the present study, we investigated whether breakfast replacement with a low-GR liquid meal would reduce postprandial glycaemia and/or improve long-term glycaemia. In the present randomised, controlled, cross-over design, twenty patients with type 2 diabetes consumed either a breakfast replacement consisting of an isoenergetic amount of Glucerna SR or a free-choice breakfast for 3 months. Postprandial AUC levels were measured using continuous glucose measurement at home. After the 3-month dietary period, meal profiles and oral glucose tolerance were assessed in the clinical setting. The low-GR liquid meal replacement reduced the AUC of postprandial glucose excursions at home compared with a free-choice control breakfast (estimated marginal mean 141 (95 % CI 114, 174) v. estimated marginal mean 259 (95 % CI 211, 318) mmol × min/l; P= 0·0002). The low-GR liquid meal replacement also reduced glucose AUC levels in the clinical setting compared with an isoenergetic control breakfast (low GR: median 97 (interquartile range (IQR) 60-188) mmol × min/l; control: median 253 (IQR 162-386) mmol × min/l; Pmeal replacement did not affect fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c or lipid levels, and even slightly reduced oral glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the low-GR liquid meal replacement is a potential dietary approach to reduce postprandial glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, clinical trials into the effects of replacing multiple meals on long-term glycaemia in poorly controlled patients are required before a low-GR liquid meal replacement can be adopted as a dietary approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25091284

  11. Towards a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control

    Soenens, Bart; VANSTEENKISTE, Maarten; Luyten, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that psychologically controlling parenting can be driven by parental concerns in two different domains, that is, interpersonal closeness and achievement. Three studies addressing this hypothesis are presented. Study 1 provides evidence for the validity of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS), a new measure assessing psychological control in these two domains. Study 2 showed that dependency-oriented and achievement-ori...

  12. The interplay of locus of control and academic achievement among Iranian English foreign language learners

    Mahbubeh Yazdanpanah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to look at the relationship between locus of control (LOC orientation and academic achievement (ACH ofuniversity-age English Foreign Language (EFL learners. LOC is the extent to which individuals attribute their achievementseither to external influences such as fate or to their own efforts. The sample for the study included 120 students studyingEnglish literature at the department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics of Shiraz University. They were chosen conveniently,on a voluntary basis, from the sophomores, juniors, and seniors. The instrument used was the revised version of LOCquestionnaire (Rotter, 2003 which identifies orientations of internality or externality. The participants' grade point averageswere the measure of their ACH. A number of statistical analyses such as Pearson product-moment correlation, the regressionanalysis, and the T-tests for the independent samples were performed on the data to achieve the objectives of the study. Thefindings of this study revealed that (a the LOC and the socio-economic status (SES have significant relationships with theuniversity EFL students' ACH (b the LOC is a good predictor of the participants' ACH (c the internals perform at higher levels ofachievement than the externals (d there is a significant difference between mid/high SES-students and low SES-students in LOCorientation (e the external students with a mid/high SES achieve significantly lower averages than the external students with alow SES, but the internal students with a mid/high SES achieve only a little lower averages than the internal students with a lowSES (f the internals' grades for the general and the major courses have significant relationships with their LOC, but this is not sofor the externals (g the age and the year of the study do not have significant relationships with LOC and with ACH (h there isno main difference between male and female participants in LOC orientation (i and finally, there is not a

  13. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. PMID:24916765

  14. Methodology for adding and amending glycaemic index values to a nutrition analysis package.

    Levis, Sharon P

    2011-04-01

    Since its introduction in 1981, the glycaemic index (GI) has been a useful tool for classifying the glycaemic effects of carbohydrate foods. Consumption of a low-GI diet has been associated with a reduced risk of developing CVD, diabetes mellitus and certain cancers. WISP (Tinuviel Software, Llanfechell, Anglesey, UK) is a nutrition software package used for the analysis of food intake records and 24 h recalls. Within its database, WISP contains the GI values of foods based on the International Tables 2002. The aim of the present study is to describe in detail a methodology for adding and amending GI values to the WISP database in a clinical or research setting, using data from the updated International Tables 2008.

  15. The glycaemic outcomes of Cinnamon, a review of the experimental evidence and clinical trials

    Medagama, Arjuna B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cinnamon is currently marketed as a remedy for obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Integrative medicine is a new concept that combines conventional treatment with evidence-based complementary therapies. Aim The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the experimental evidence available for cinnamon in improving glycaemic targets in animal models and humans. Results Insulin receptor auto-phosphorlylation and de-phosphorylation, glucose transport...

  16. METABOLIC PROPERTIES OF RYE PRODUCTS Focusing on insulinaemia, glycaemic profile and appetite regulation in healthy subjects

    Rosén, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) are increasing worldwide. However, disturbances in the metabolic status can be prevented by changing the daily diet towards more whole grains, vegetables, legumes and dairy products. Also the dietary glycaemic- and insulinaemic indices of foods may play a role. Rye products are interesting in this context as they are usually consumed in wholegrain form and have bee...

  17. The influence of maternal glycaemia and dietary glycaemic index on pregnancy outcome in healthy mothers.

    McGowan, Ciara A

    2010-07-01

    Infant birth weight has increased in Ireland in recent years along with levels of childhood overweight and obesity. The present article reviews the current literature on maternal glycaemia and the role of the dietary glycaemic index (GI) and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. It is known that maternal weight and weight gain significantly influence infant birth weight. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal trauma to both mother and infant. Furthermore, macrosomic infants have greater risk of being obese in childhood, adolescence and adulthood compared to normal-sized infants. There is evidence that there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels during pregnancy and fetal growth and size at birth, even when maternal blood glucose levels are within their normal range. Thus, maintaining blood glucose concentrations within normal parameters during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of fetal macrosomia. Maternal diet, and particularly its carbohydrate (CHO) type and content, influences maternal blood glucose concentrations. However, different CHO foods produce different glycaemic responses. The GI was conceived by Jenkins in 1981 as a method for assessing the glycaemic responses of different CHO. Data from clinical studies in healthy pregnant women have documented that consuming a low-GI diet during pregnancy reduces peaks in postprandial glucose levels and normalises infant birth weight. Pregnancy is a physiological condition where the GI may be of particular relevance as glucose is the primary fuel for fetal growth.

  18. Boredom in achievement settings : exploring control-value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Götz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia Marie; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual boredom (i.e., trait achievement boredom). Samples consisted of university students from two different cultural contexts (North America and Germany). In l...

  19. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi; Karami Matin, Behzad; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Ashtarian, Hossein; Jalilian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demogr...

  20. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  1. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  2. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes. PMID:24617026

  3. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  4. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    Have, Mona; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær; Thomsen Ernst, Martin; Fredens, Kjeld; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard; Wedderkopp, Niels; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Gudex, Claire; Grøntved, Anders; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of physical activity (PA) into the classroom may be an effective way of promoting the learning and academic achievement of children at elementary school. This paper describes the research design and methodology of an intervention study examining the effect of classroom-based PA on mathematical achievement, creativity, executive function, body mass index and aerobic fitness. Methods The study was designed as a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting sc...

  5. Children’s Self-Regulation and School Achievement in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Maternal Restrictive Control

    Mirjam eWeis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g. such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children’s behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children’s behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children’s self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children’s behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children’s school achievement.

  6. El difícil camino del control sanitario de la tuberculosis The difficult road to achieve sanitary tuberculosis control

    Carlos Peña M

    2012-12-01

    , que en 2011 concentraba en el 40% de la población nacional el 63% de los casos de tuberculosis. Las tasas en esta población han permanecido sin cambios durante los últimos 6 años. Además, la Región Metropolitana presenta zonas de muy alta incidencia, como son las comunas de Santiago (tasa 71,4 x 100.000, Estación Central (51,9 x 100.000, Independencia (46,8 x 100.000, San Joaquín (41,4 x 100.000 y Recoleta (35,3 x 100.000. Estas zonas pasan a ser prioritarias y requerirán de una intervención sanitaria más intensa y del reforzamiento de los equipos de tuberculosis en la atención primaria para que a través de la colaboración de todo su personal de salud aumenten la pesquisa bacteriológica de la tuberculosis pulmonar bacilífera.Tuberculosis continues to be a worldwide prevalent disease. Chile has established a tuberculosis control program since the earliest 70s which contributed to decrease the annual incidence of tuberculosis by 50% every decade, reaching the rate of 20 per 100.000 inhabitants the year 2000 ("early phase of tuberculosis elimination as a public health problem ". Unfortunately since this time the descent rate is becoming slower and between years 2009-2011 has achieved a stationary rate of13 x 100.000. This deterioration in the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Chile runs in parallel with the successive reductions in the budget assignedfor its control. A higher incidence of tuberculosis in high risk groups (HIVpopulation, migrants, prisoners and elderly people were not responsible for this epidemiologic deterioration. Lack of diagnosis in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients is the most important source ofpersistent community infection. Only 25% of the estimated goal of sputum smear screening among medical consultations in primary care was achieved. Between the years 20062010 193.416 less sputum smear examinations were done. This means that nearly 966 smear positive tuberculosis patients were no identified as we know

  7. The glycaemic index: importance of dietary fibre and other food properties

    Björck, Inger; Elmståhl, Helena

    2003-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that a low-glycaemic-index (GI) diet has a therapeutic as well as a preventive potential in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. The implementation of a low-GI diet, however, will require an extended list of low-GI foods to be available on the market. The tailoring of low-GI bread products offers a particular challenge due to their generally high GI and abundance in the diet. Low-GI bread products can be tailored by, for example, enclosure of ce...

  8. Control Method for Achieving High Power Factor in Single-Phase to Three-Phase Converters without Electrolytic Capacitors

    Yokoyama, Takahiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Haga, Hitoshi; Shibata, Junji

    In this paper, we propose a method for the digital control of IPM motors in order to achieve a high power factor in single-phase to three-phase power converters without reactors or electrolytic capacitors. For achieving the unity power factor under any load condition and any speed condition, we propose a new digital control method that involves the use of a new feedback technique and a new feedforward technique on the source-current regulator side. The proposed digital control system is constructed by using DSP devices. In this paper, we also propose a new method for the compensation of one sampling delay time. The superior performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by experimental results. The experimental results were obtained using 1.5[kW] inverter system, which consists of a vector control system with a 14[μF] dc-link capacitor. The maximum power factor obtained in the experiments was 96.8[%].

  9. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    analysis of the highly non-linear dynamics. Control architectures are investigated and performance in terms of disturbance rejection and reference tracking are investigated under model uncertainty. Classical feed-forward and feedback controller designs are investigated using classical and Quantitative......This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...... Feedback Theory (QFT) designs. Validation of the controller is made on the model with focus on disturbance reduction ability....

  10. Pascal software structures achieve definite control of the 24 MFTF sustaining neutral-beam power supplies

    Precise control of large, complex systems is not assured unless there is known to be no unintended interactions in the control system. The software controlling the sustaining neutral-beam power supplies of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility accomplishes this feat. The software structures comprise some 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code, distributed amoung 10 different tasks. Each task may control any of the 24 power supplies. All the tasks are strictly event-driven, and are not subject to any system mode. Since there is no global information in the software, we know that all the power supplies are controlled independently

  11. Relationship between individual attributional style, self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of Vytautas Magnus University students

    Ruibytė, Laima

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the link between students’ self-esteem, individual attribution style, locus of control and academic achievement for better understanding of students’ learning and adaptation problems. The main purpose of the research was to examine the relationship between the individual attributional style, locus of control and self-esteem, analyse, to analyze how these features of personality were related to future aspirations and how the afore-mentioned features were ...

  12. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  13. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using physic

  14. High-School Students' Need for Cognition, Self-Control Capacity, and School Achievement: Testing a Mediation Hypothesis

    Bertrams, Alex; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control…

  15. A Randomized Controlled Design Investigating the Effects of Classroom-Based Physical Activity on Children's Fluid Intelligence and Achievement

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature shows promising effects of physical activity on children's cognitive outcomes. This study assessed via a randomized, controlled design whether additional curricular physical activity during the school day resulted in gains for children's fluid intelligence and standardized achievement outcomes. Participants were children…

  16. The Effects of Diagnosis, Remediation and Locus of Control on Achievement, Retention, and Attitudes of Middle School Science Students.

    Saunders, Ramona L.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study designed to determine the effects of diagnostic testing followed by prescribed remediation on the immediate and retained science achievement of middle school students, and to determine if effects of treatment were consistent across students' race and locus of control (LOC) levels. Three intact seventh-grade science classes were…

  17. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  18. Different antihyperglycaemic drug effects on glycaemic variability in Type 2 diabetic patients

    Alina Yurievna Babenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM remains an urgent issue. In addition to T2DM treatment strategies, such as glycaemic goals (glucose and glycated haemoglobin – HbА1с among different patient populations, the influence of glycaemic variability (GV on the prognosis of patients with T2DM is also important. According to recent data, GV is associated with cardiovascular complications arising from T2DM. However, although the influence of GV on the development of vascular complications arising from diabetes and underlying mechanisms has been extensively investigated, few studies have investigated the effects of different glucose-lowering medications on GV, and there are even fewer reviews of this topic. This type of analysis is highly relevant, particularly because new classes of antidiabetic medications with potent glucose-dependent insulinotropic effects have been developed. These include groups of drugs that mimic or enhance incretin activity, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 analogues/mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4 inhibitors. A glucose-dependent mechanism suggests that these groups of antidiabetic medications have beneficial effects on GV. Thus, the current study focusses on the comparative analysis of drugs based on their incretin effects (GLP-1 analogues/mimetics and DPP-4 inhibitors and оther antidiabetic medications with regard to GV in the patients with T2DM.

  19. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children's sleep pattern. Methods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high GI in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high GI drink respectively. Results: The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was greater than that of low GI drink. (12.9 +- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7+- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets. Conclusion: NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality. (author)

  20. Improvement of the Bioavailability and Glycaemic Metabolism of Cinnamon Oil in Rats by Liquid Loadable Tablets

    Chunchao Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the bioavailability and glycaemic metabolism of cinnamon oil (CIO carried by liquid-loadable tablets (CIO-LLTs, the carrier of a CIO self-emulsifying formulation (CIO-LS. The results of tests performed to evaluate the physical properties of the CIO-LLT complied with Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010. The release profile suggested that the CIO-LLT preserved the enhancement of in vitro dissolution of cio. After orally administration, the plasma concentration-time profile and pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that a significant increase (P<0.0001 in the Cmax, AUC and F were observed in the CIO-LLT. The blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats (P<0.05, P<0.01, resp., while the level of insulin secretion was markedly elevated in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats (P<0.05. The alloxan-damaged pancreatic β-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the rats were administered with CIO-LLT 45 days later. CIO-LLT could improve the bioavailability and glycaemic metabolism of CIO.

  1. Effect of co-ingestion of amino acids with rice on glycaemic and insulinaemic response.

    Soong, Yean Yean; Lim, Joseph; Sun, Lijuan; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-12-14

    Consumption of high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic response (GR) food such as white rice has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have reported the ability of individual amino acids to reduce GR of carbohydrate-rich foods. Because of the bitter flavour of amino acids, they have rarely been used to reduce GR. We now report the use of a palatable, preformed amino acid mixture in the form of essence of chicken. In all, sixteen healthy male Chinese were served 68 or 136 ml amino acid mixture together with rice, or 15 or 30 min before consumption of white rice. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting and every 15 min after consumption of the meal until 60 min after the consumption of the white rice. Subsequent blood samples were taken at 30-min intervals until 210 min. The co-ingestion of 68 ml of amino acid mixture with white rice produced the best results in reducing the peak blood glucose and GR of white rice without increasing the insulinaemic response. It is postulated that amino acid mixtures prime β-cell insulin secretion and peripheral tissue uptake of glucose. The use of ready-to-drink amino acid mixtures may be a useful strategy for lowering the high-GI rice diets consumed in Asia. PMID:26420496

  2. High Self-Control Predicts More Positive Emotions, Better Engagement, and Higher Achievement in School

    King, Ronnel B.; Gaerlan, Marianne Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    The control-value theory of academic emotions has emerged as a useful framework for studying the antecedents and consequences of different emotions in school. This framework focuses on the role of control-related and value-related appraisals as proximal antecedents of emotions. In this study, we take an individual differences approach to examine…

  3. Implementation and control of electrolysers to achieve high penetrations of renewable power

    Troncoso, E.; Newborough, M. [ITM Power plc, Orkney House, Great Chesterford Court, Great Chesterford, Saffron Walden CB10 1PF (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    The mass deployment of electrolysers, within a power system serving a region of high wind resource, as the enabling mechanism for achieving five key objectives is assessed (that is: a very high installed capacity of wind power plant (WPP); zero wind curtailment during times of low demand; a very high load factor for thermal power plant; an electricity supply of low-carbon intensity; and a hydrogen supply of low-carbon intensity). Three electrolyser implementation cases were simulated for three days characterised mainly by wind availability and emphasis was placed on maximizing the smoothness of the load profile (LF) applied to thermal power plant. If zero-carbon hydrogen is to be produced a daily load factor for thermal power plant of 90% is the upper limit, but load factors of up to 100% are achievable if a carbon intensity of 3kgCO{sub 2}/kgH{sub 2} is permitted. For wind penetrations exceeding approximately 30% of system maximum demand, the electrolyser stock must include implementations close to WPP if curtailment is to be avoided. To achieve very high wind penetrations and very high load factors for thermal power plant requires a large stock of electrolysers - for the system investigated approximately 1.1 MW of electrolyser capacity is required per installed MW of wind power. (author)

  4. Important differences in the durability of glycaemic response among second-line treatment options when added to metformin in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Mamza, Jil; Mehta, Rajnikant; Donnelly, Richard; Idris, Iskandar

    2016-06-01

    Importance There is limited information about the durability of glycaemic control when different oral glucose-lowering therapies (GLTs) are used as add-on treatments to metformin (MET) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective To compare time to treatment failure between different classes of oral GLT when used as second line (add-on) treatments to MET monotherapy at HbA1c ≥ 7.5%. Design, setting and participants A retrospective cohort study on 20,070 patients who were newly treated with a sulphonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor or thiazolidinedione (TZD) following MET therapy failure (2007-2014). Patients' data was sourced from UK General Practices via The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. The risk of dual therapy failure was compared between three treatment groups: MET + SU (reference group, n = 15,508), MET + DPP-4 inhibitor (n = 3,080) and MET + TZD (n = 1,482). Follow-up was until treatment substitution or intensification with a 3rd GLT, or for up to 5 years (totalling 46,430 person-years). Propensity score weighting and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were employed. Main outcomes and measures Risk of dual therapy failure was compared between treatment groups while adjusting for baseline covariates. Results Unadjusted survival analysis showed the incidence of dual therapy failure at 1 year was 15% with SU, 23% with DPP-4 inhibitor and 8% with TZD. Corresponding failure rates at 2 years were 26, 38 and 12%, respectively. Adjusted multivariate models showed that, compared to the SU group, adding a DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.48-1.68), while adding a TZD was associated with a reduced hazard (aHR, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.41-0.50). Baseline parameters associated with an increased hazard of intensification included HbA1c, diabetes duration, gender, smoking status and the use of statins

  5. Operational Engineering of the COLUMBUS Thermal and Environmental Control System: Achievements, Optimizations

    Kohlhase, A. O.; Porth, N.; Doye, J.

    2010-01-01

    After commissioning of the European space-borne science laboratory Columbus, many operational products had to be improved and adapted to changing environmental conditions and new operational experiences. In this paper, we focus on the operational engineering of the Thermal Control as well as on the Environmental Control and Live Support System which are mainly influenced by crew activities, payloads and systems. We present an anomaly handling process how to overcome unexpected anomalies or...

  6. Achievement of control of bronchial asthma at the stage of medical rehabilitation

    Grygus I.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An inspection is conducted 70 patients on intermittent bronchial asthma at the stage of intensifying. The special program of medical rehabilitation, which includes the modified methods of medical physical culture, physical therapy facilities, is offered in permanent establishment. Application of this program brought to the height of size of Asthma Control Test from 17,41±0,35 to 24,03±0,32 points over. Control of flow of disease which did not come at treatment of patients only by medicinal preparations was arrived at in all cases of application of the program of medical rehabilitation.

  7. Achieving closed-loop control simulation of human-artefact interaction: a comparative review

    Van de Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2011-01-01

    To include user interactions in simulations of product use, the most common approach is to couple human subjects to simulation models, using hardware interfaces to close the simulation-control loop. Testing with virtual human models could offer a low-cost addition to evaluation with human subjects.

  8. Prediction and improvement of the maximum achievable damping with collocated control

    Holterman, Jan; Vries, de Theo J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Active damping can be realised robustly through the use of a position actuator, a collocated force sensor, and control based on ‘Integral Force Feedback’ (IFF). Instead of a pure integrator, it is also possible to use a first-order lowpass-filter in the feedback loop (‘leaking IFF’). For both cases,

  9. Achieving control and interoperability through unified model-based systems and software engineering

    Rasmussen, Robert; Ingham, Michel; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Control and interoperation of complex systems is one of the most difficult challenges facing NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. An integrated but diverse array of vehicles, habitats, and supporting facilities, evolving over the long course of the enterprise, must perform ever more complex tasks while moving steadily away from the sphere of ground support and intervention.

  10. Beyond Control of Variables: What Needs to Develop to Achieve Skilled Scientific Thinking?

    Kuhn, Deanna; Iordanou, Kalypso; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice

    2008-01-01

    We identify three aspects of scientific thinking beyond the control-of-variables strategy that we claim are essential for students to master as a foundation for skilled scientific thinking. The first is strategic and involves the ability to coordinate effects of multiple causal influences on an outcome. The second is a mature understanding of the…

  11. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  12. Identification of those most likely to benefit from a low-glycaemic index dietary intervention in pregnancy.

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2014-08-28

    The present study is a secondary analysis of the ROLO study, a randomised control trial of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of fetal macrosomia. The objectives of the present study were to identify which women are most likely to respond to a low-GI dietary intervention in pregnancy with respect to three outcome measures: birth weight; maternal glucose intolerance; gestational weight gain (GWG). In early pregnancy, 372 women had their mid-upper arm circumference recorded and BMI calculated. Concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. At delivery, infant birth weight was recorded and fetal glucose, C-peptide and leptin concentrations were measured in the cord blood. Women who benefited in terms of infant birth weight were shorter, with a lower education level. Those who maintained weight gain within the GWG guidelines were less overweight in both their first and second pregnancies, with no difference being observed in maternal height. Women who at 28 weeks of gestation developed glucose intolerance, despite the low-GI diet, had a higher BMI and higher glucose concentrations in early pregnancy with more insulin resistance. They also had significantly higher-interval pregnancy weight gain. For each analysis, women who responded to the intervention had lower leptin concentrations in early pregnancy than those who did not. These findings suggest that the maternal metabolic environment in early pregnancy is important in determining later risks of excessive weight gain and metabolic disturbance, whereas birth weight is mediated more by genetic factors. It highlights key areas, which warrant further interrogation before future pregnancy intervention studies, in particular, maternal education level and inter-pregnancy weight gain.

  13. Achievement motivation, locus of control and individuality as predictors of participative management in the South African educational environment

    C. A. le Roux; Schmidt, C.; J. M. Schepers

    1997-01-01

    The shift to participative management is considered to be both inevitable and necessary. No study has thus far been reported in the participation literature in terms of predictor variables for participative management. The aim of this study was to investigate whether certain orientations - and in particular, achievement motivation, locus of control and individual vs collective orientations - could be identified that would serve as predictors of an inclination towards participative management....

  14. Establishing Causality Using Longitudinal Hierarchical Linear Modeling: An Illustration Predicting Achievement From Self-Control

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Tsukayama, Eli; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The predictive validity of personality for important life outcomes is well established, but conventional longitudinal analyses cannot rule out the possibility that unmeasured third-variable confounds fully account for the observed relationships. Longitudinal hierarchical linear models (HLM) with time-varying covariates allow each subject to serve as his or her own control, thus eliminating between-individual confounds. HLM also allows the directionality of the causal relationship to be tested...

  15. Role of Project Portfolio Control Techniques in Achieving Efficiency in Project Based Firms

    Karivate, Pattharawan; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    “While project management and program management have traditionally focused on ‘doing work right’, portfolio management is concerned with ‘doing the right work’” (PMI,2006) Nowadays organizations are facing problems with too many projects and having limited resources to execute these projects. Therefore the role of portfolio control is gaining more importance to yield the right balance, mix and number of projects, and also to deal with the challenge of maximizing the value of the portfoli...

  16. Achieving reliable operation of a steam turbine's automatic control and protection system

    Naumov, S. A.; Naumov, A. S.; Shvetsov, D. P.; Krymskii, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The algorithms, procedures, and modules for making expert estimates of the technical state of automatic control and protection systems for different types of turbines by means of the SPIDER mobile computerized automation system are presented. It is shown that owing to high trustworthiness with which the kind and location of hidden defects of units are determined without disassembling them, repair works can be scheduled in the optimal way and the costs for carrying them out can be reduced.

  17. Old ideas to innovate tuberculosis control: preventive treatment to achieve elimination.

    Diel, Roland; Loddenkemper, Robert; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Centis, Rosella; van der Werf, Marieke J; Dara, Masoud; Detjen, Anne; Gondrie, Peter; Reichman, Lee; Blasi, Francesco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2013-09-01

    The introduction of new rapid diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB) and the promising TB drugs pipeline together with the development of a new World Health Organization Strategy post 2015 allows new discussions on how to direct TB control. The European Respiratory Society's European Forum for TB Innovation was created to stimulate discussion on how to best take advantage of old and new opportunities, and advances, to improve TB control and eventually progress towards the elimination of TB. While TB control is aimed at reducing the incidence of TB by early diagnosis and treatment of infectious cases of TB, TB elimination requires focus on sterilising the pool of latently infected individuals, from which future TB cases would be generated. This manuscript describes the three core components that are necessary to implement the elimination strategy fully. 1) Improve diagnosis of latent TB infected individuals. 2) Improve regimens to treat latent TB infection. 3) ensure public health commitment to make both 1) and 2) possible. Old and new evidence is critically described, focusing on the European commitment to reach elimination and on the innovative experiences and best practices available. PMID:23397299

  18. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    Zhao, M. [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W., E-mail: c.w.ong@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Oxidation of steels in liquid lead bismuth: Oxygen control to achieve efficient corrosion protection

    Martinelli, Laure, E-mail: laure.martinelli@cea.f [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jean-Louis, Courouau; Fanny, Balbaud-Celerier [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-05-15

    Hybrid systems dedicated to waste transmutation are constituted of an accelerator generating a high energy proton flux, a spallation target on which the accelerated proton beam impinges to produce neutrons and a subcritical core. The Pb-Bi eutectic liquid alloy is considered as spallation target material due to its suitable nuclear and physical properties. However, liquid metals can be corrosive towards containment materials (austenitic and Fe9Cr alloys). In the case of liquid lead bismuth alloy, one of the protection means considered against the dissolution of the steels is the in situ protection by the formation of an oxide layer at the steels' surface. However, in order to ensure the efficient protection of the steels by an oxide layer, the control and the monitoring of the oxygen content in the Pb-Bi alloy is a major issue. The paper recalls, first, the oxygen chemistry in a lead alloy system, in order to propose the oxygen operating window that complies with both the contamination by lead oxide of the coolant and the corrosion control by the promotion of an oxide film on the structure. Results of tests performed in stagnant lead bismuth at high oxygen concentrations are also presented showing the effect of various operating parameters on the oxidation kinetics and on the nature of the oxide layer. An oxidation mechanism and model are also proposed and compared with experimental data.

  20. Terrestrial rabies control in the European Union: historical achievements and challenges ahead.

    Müller, Thomas; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Wysocki, Patrick; Roumiantzeff, Micha; Freney, Jean; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Vos, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Due to the implementation of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programmes, the European Union (EU) is becoming progressively free of red fox (Vulpes vulpes)-mediated rabies. Over the past three decades, the incidence of rabies had decreased substantially and vast areas of Western and Central Europe have been freed from rabies using this method of controlling an infectious disease in wildlife. Since rabies control is a top priority in the EU, the disease is expected to be eliminated from the animal source in the near future. While responsible authorities may consider the mission of eliminating fox rabies from the EU almost accomplished, there are still issues to be dealt with and challenges to be met that have not yet been in the focus of attention, but could jeopardise the ultimate goal. Among them are increasing illegal movements of animals, maintaining funding support for vaccination campaigns, devising alternative vaccine strategies in neighbouring Eastern European countries and the expanding distribution range of several potential rabies reservoir species in Europe. PMID:25466578

  1. A quantitative integrated assessment of pollution prevention achieved by integrated pollution prevention control licensing.

    Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and

  2. Comparison of glycaemic response to honey and glucose in type 2 diabetes

    Objective: To compare the glycaemic effect of 75 gram and 30 gram of natural honey in a honey tolerance test with that of 75 gram glucose in type 2 diabetics. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Medical College Hospital, Karachi, and comprised 97 type 2 diabetic patients who came to the out-patient department between March and August 2011. The patients were randomly divided into 75 gram honey group (group 1), 30 gram honey group (group 2), and 75 gram glucose group (group 3). Fasting blood samples were obtained as well as after 1 and 2 hour. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 97 participants, 62 (64%) were females and 35 (36%) males.Their ages ranged from 25-68 years. Mean rise in blood glucose after two hours in group 2 was 30 mg/dl; group 1, 85mg/dl, and group 3, 170 mg/dl. The difference was statistically significant (p <0.005). The glucose response was significantly lower at 2 hours in group 2 (p <0.001) compared to group 1 or group 2. A significant difference was also seen in group 1 and 3 (p <0.0001). The plasma glucose level in response to honey peaked at 60 min and showed a rapid decline compared to that of glucose, indicating a lower glycaemic response of honey. A small proportion of patients 3 (10.7%) even showed a glucose lowering effect after low dose of honey. Conclusion: Low dose of honey can be a valuable sugar substitute for patients with diabetes. (author)

  3. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would ...

  4. The glycaemic index of muffins baked with extruded dried bean flour compared to muffins baked with whole wheat flour / Jacqueline Gouws

    Gouws, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Emphasis on using the glycaemic index (GI) in addition to carbohydrate exchange lists has led to a greater variety of foods from which to choose for the diabetic population. Breakfast is regarded as the most important meal of the day and the glycaemic response to lunch can be improved by decreasing the GI of breakfast. However, most conventional breakfast cereals and bread exhibit a high GI. Dried beans have a low GI and various processes such as cooking and canning increase GI...

  5. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  6. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: II. Recent achievements.

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  7. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: II. Recent Achievements[C

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; van Almsick, Andreas; Beffa, Roland; Dietrich, Hansjoerg; Eckes, Peter; Hacker, Erwin; Hain, Ruediger; Strek, Harry John; Stuebler, Hermann; Willms, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    In response to changing market dynamics, the discovery of new herbicides has declined significantly over the past few decades and has only seen a modest upsurge in recent years. Nevertheless, the few introductions have proven to be interesting and have brought useful innovation to the market. In addition, herbicide-tolerant or herbicide-resistant crop technologies have allowed the use of existing nonselective herbicides to be extended into crops. An increasing and now major challenge is being posed by the inexorable increase in biotypes of weeds that are resistant to herbicides. This problem is now at a level that threatens future agricultural productivity and needs to be better understood. If herbicides are to remain sustainable, then it is a must that we adopt diversity in crop rotation and herbicide use as well as increase the use of nonchemical measures to control weeds. Nevertheless, despite the difficulties posed by resistant weeds and increased regulatory hurdles, new screening tools promise to provide an upsurge of potential herbicide leads. Our industry urgently needs to supply agriculture with new, effective resistance-breaking herbicides along with strategies to sustain their utility. PMID:25104721

  8. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  9. Achieving the nitrite pathway using FA inhibition and process control in UASB-SBR system removing nitrogen from landfill leachate

    2010-01-01

    An up-flow sludge blanket(UASB) and sequencing batch reactor(SBR) system was introduced to remove organics and nitrogen from landfill leachate.The synergetic effect of free ammonia(FA) inhibition and process control was used to achieve the nitrite pathway in the SBR.In previous research,inhibition of FA on nitrite oxidizing bacteria(NOB) activity has been revealed and the process control parameters(DO,ORP and pH) exactly indicate the end-point of nitritation.The method was implemented in the SBR achieving stable nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway from landfill leachate.The degree of nitrite accumulation during the nitritation was monitored along with the simultaneous and advanced removal of organics and nitrogen in the UASB-SBR system.The nitrifying bacteria community was quantitatively analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) techniques.Batch tests were carried out to investigate the denitritation kinetics of microbial bacteria in the SBR.Experimental results showed that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved by synergetic effect of FA inhibition and process control.FISH analysis showed the dominant nitrifying bacteria were ammonia-oxidizing β-Proteobacteria. Relationship between nitrite concentration and nitrite reduction rate followed the Monod-type equation.The maximum specific nitrite utilization rate(k) and half-velocity constant(Ks) were calculated as 0.44 gN gVSS-1d-1and 15.8 mg L-1,respectively.

  10. Achievements, current status and prospects for Russian-American cooperation in nuclear material physical protection, control and accounting - 1998

    The process of upgrading the material physical protection, control and accounting systems is an ongoing and long-term process that consists of modernization measuring equipment and methodologies, improving, data exchange and processing technologies, and improving administrative procedures. The positive results that was already achieved form a foundation upon which this collaboration may extend into other new and important areas, such as - the second and third lines of defence, which are directed toward countering illegal trafficking not only in nuclear materials, but in other hazardous substances that constitute a threat to the nuclear sites and national security of the countries

  11. DTC-SVM Based on PI Torque and PI Flux Controllers to Achieve High Performance of Induction Motor

    Hassan Farhan Rashag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental idea of direct torque control of induction machines is investigated in order to emphasize the property produced by a given voltage vector on stator flux and torque variations. The proposed control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM of electrical machines, Improvement model reference adaptive system, real time of stator resistance and estimation of stator flux. The purpose of this control is to minimize electromagnetic torque and flux ripple and minimizing distortion of stator current. In this proposed method, PI torque and PI flux controller are designed to achieve estimated torque and flux with good tracking and fast response with reference torque and there is no steady state error. In addition, design of PI torque and PI flux controller are used to optimize voltages in d-q reference frame that applied to SVM. The simulation Results of proposed DTC-SVM have complete excellent performance in steady and transient states as compared with classical DTC-SVM.

  12. Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects

    Larsen, H. N.; Rasmussen, O. W.; Rasmussen, Peter Have;

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of parboiling and the severity of the process on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, to examine changes in starch structure related to parboiling, which may affect the metabolic responses and digestibility. Design: Nine type 2...... diabetic subjects ingested four test meals: white bread (WB) and three meals of cooked polished rice of the same variety being non-parboiled (NP), mildly traditionally parboiled (TP) and severely pressure parboiled (PP). The participants ingested the test meals (50 g available carbohydrates) on separate...... white bread (626 +/- 80; P <0.001), within rice samples PP tended to be lower than NP (P = 0.07). The glycaemic indices were: NP: 55 +/- 5, TP: 46 +/- 8 and PP: 39 +/- 6, and lower for PP than NP (P <0.05). The insulin responses were similar for the three rice meals, which were all lower than that to...

  13. The effect of using isomaltulose (Palatinose™) to modulate the glycaemic properties of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts that offered identical levels of energy and macro-nutrients, although they differed in GL. Methods Using a repeated-measures, double-blind design, 7...

  14. A Simple Way to Achieve Legible and Local Controllable Patterning for Polymers Based on a Near-Infrared Pulsed Laser.

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Aiming

    2016-01-27

    This study developed a simple way to achieve legible and local controllable patterning for polymers based on a near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser. The polycarbonate-coated nano antimony-doped tin oxide (nano ATO) was designed as a core-shell structure that was tailored to be responsive to a 1064 nm NIR laser. The globular morphology of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO with a diameter of around 2-3 μm was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This core-shell structure combined the excellent photothermal conversion efficiency of nano ATO and the high char (carbon) residue of polycarbonate. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of a polymer-patterning plate after laser irradiation demonstrated that, through local controlled photochromism, the well-defined legible patterns can be fabricated on the polymer surfaces contribute to the synergistic effect consisting of polycarbonate carbonization and nano ATO photothermal conversion. Furthermore, polymers doped with a minimal content of polycarbonate-coated nano ATO can achieve a remarkable patterning effect. This novel laser-patterning approach will have wide promising applications in the field of polymer NIR pulsed-laser patterning. PMID:26717082

  15. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over the course of the preschool period

    CaronAnn CampbellClark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early executive control (EC predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: 1 examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and 2 determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5 and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5 and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively

  16. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  17. Relationship between dyslipidaemia and glycaemic status in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Thambiah, S C; Samsudin, I N; George, E; Zahari Sham, S Y; Lee, H M; Muhamad, M A; Hussei, Z; Mohd Noor, N; Mohamad, M

    2016-08-01

    The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is dramatically increased in diabetic patients due to their atherogenic lipid profile. The severity of CHD in diabetic patients has been found to be directly associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). According to the Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines on diabetes mellitus (DM), HbA1c level less than 6.5% reduces the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Hence, this study aimed to determine the relationship between dyslipidaemia and glycaemic status in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) patients in Hospital Putrajaya, a tertiary endocrine centre in Malaysia. This was a cross sectional, retrospective study of 214 T2DM patients with dyslipidaemia who had visited the endocrine clinic between January 2009 and December 2012. Significant correlations were found between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c with total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL), LDL/HDL ratio and TC/HDL ratio; greater correlation being with HbA1c than FBG. In patients with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, TC, TG, non-HDL and TC/HDL ratio were significantly higher than in patients with HbA1c cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in T2DM patients. PMID:27568669

  18. Impaired vascular function during short-term poor glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetic patients

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Clausen, P;

    2005-01-01

    -dependent dilation) and to nitroglycerin (endothelium-independent dilation). Plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor antigen, adhesion molecules, vascular endothelial growth factor, homocystein and cholesterol were also measured. RESULTS: The median blood glucose levels in the 48 h before the examinations were...

  19. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    Aims To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels. Methods A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample...

  20. Mechanisms of improved glycaemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Dirksen, C; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N;

    2012-01-01

    hepatic insulin sensitivity induced, at least in part, by energy restriction and (2) improved beta cell function associated with an exaggerated postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion owing to the altered transit of nutrients. Later a weight loss induced improvement in peripheral insulin...

  1. Improved glycaemic control decreases inner mitochondrial membrane leak in type 2 diabetes

    Rabøl, R; Højberg, P M V; Almdal, T;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Several mechanisms have been targeted as culprits of weight gain during antihyperglycaemic treatment in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These include reductions in glucosuria, increased food intake from fear of hypoglycaemia, the anabolic effect of insulin, decreased metabolic rate and increased...... efficiency in fuel usage. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial efficiency increases as a result of insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We included ten patients with T2DM (eight males) on oral antidiabetic treatment, median age: 51.5 years (range: 39...... reductions in inner mitochondrial membrane leak and increased efficiency of mitochondria. This change in mitochondrial physiology could contribute to the weight gain seen with antihyperglycaemic treatment....

  2. Intramyocellular triglyceride content in man, influence of sex, obesity and glycaemic control

    Haugaard, Steen B; Mu, Huiling; Vaag, Allan;

    2009-01-01

    obtained in 2 7 obese women (body mass index (BMI) = 35.5 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2) ; mean +/- S.E.M., percentage of body fat (PBF) = 44 +/- 1, n = 7 impaired fasting glucose. n = 7 type 2 diabetes), 20 obese men (BMI = 35.8 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2): PBF = 33 +/- 1, n = 4 impaired-fasting-glucose; n = 6 type 2 diabetes) and...

  3. Body Composition in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes : Aspects of Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity

    Särnblad, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Excessive weight gain has frequently been reported in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, especially in girls. In general, puberty is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity that is further diminished by overweight. The causes and consequences of excessive weight gain in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. The studies described in this thesis addressed body composition in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the relationships between physical activity, energy intake a...

  4. On the Relation of Locus of Control, Social and Cultural Capital and Oral Proficiency Achievement of EFL Students:

    Hamid Ashraf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two areas of difficulty that almost all students might face while learning a second language are speaking and listening skills.  Individuals’ perceptions about the underlying main causes of their lives’ events which is called Locus of Control (LOC, has a great role in their activities as well as the interactions between individuals and socio-cultural environments. This study aims at investigating the relationship between social cultural capital, LOC and oral proficiency (listening and speaking of Iranian EFL learners.  It also aims at examining the relationship between social cultural capital and LOC (internal and external. To meet this end, Social Cultural Capital Questionnaire (Pishghadam, Noghani & Zabihi, 2011 and the Persian version of  LOC questionnaire (Ghonsooly & Elahi, 2010 were administered to a sample of 100 upper intermediate EFL students from some language institutes in Mashhad, Iran. Both male (N=46 and female (N=54 students filled in two questionnaires. The participants’ Grand Point Averages (GPA of their FL Listening and Speaking exams also served as an index of their oral proficiency achievement. The results of the statistical analyses revealed a positive correlation between social cultural capital, LOC, and students’ oral proficiency. The findings also demonstrated a significant relationship between social cultural capital and LOC.Keywords:  Social capital, Cultural capital, Locus of control, Iranian EFL

  5. Overall asthma control achieved with budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy for patients on different treatment steps

    Östlund Ollie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjusting medication for uncontrolled asthma involves selecting one of several options from the same or a higher treatment step outlined in asthma guidelines. We examined the relative benefit of introducing budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy (Symbicort SMART® Turbuhaler® in patients previously prescribed treatments from Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA Steps 2, 3 or 4. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of the results of five large clinical trials (>12000 patients comparing BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy with other treatments categorised by treatment step at study entry. Both current clinical asthma control during the last week of treatment and exacerbations during the study were examined. Results At each GINA treatment step, the proportion of patients achieving target levels of current clinical control were similar or higher with BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy compared with the same or a higher fixed maintenance dose of inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA (plus short-acting β2-agonist [SABA] as reliever, and rates of exacerbations were lower at all treatment steps in BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy versus same maintenance dose ICS/LABA (P Conclusions BUD/FORM maintenance and reliever therapy may be a preferable option for patients on Steps 2 to 4 of asthma guidelines requiring a more effective treatment and, compared with other fixed dose alternatives, is most effective in the higher treatment steps.

  6. The effect of yellow pea protein and fibre on short-term food intake, subjective appetite and glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    Smith, Christopher E; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low-glycaemic foods rich in protein (20-25 %), resistant starch and fibre that suppress appetite and glycaemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the component(s) of yellow peas responsible for these benefits and assess their efficacy as value-added food ingredients. We investigated the effects of 10 or 20 g of isolated yellow pea protein (P10 and P20) or fibre (F10 and F20) on food intake (FI) at an ad libitum pizza meal served at 30 min (Expt 1, n 19) or 120 min (Expt 2, n 20) and blood glucose (BG) and appetite in young, healthy males (20-30 years). In Expt 1, P20 led to lower FI than control (4937 (sem 502) v. 5632 (sem 464) kJ (1180 (sem 120) v. 1346 (sem 111) kcal)) and all other treatments (P yellow peas in the regulation of glycaemia and FI, but its second-meal effects disappear by 2 h post-consumption. PMID:22916818

  7. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  8. Blood pressure telemonitoring is useful to achieve blood pressure control in inadequately treated patients with arterial hypertension.

    Neumann, C L; Menne, J; Rieken, E M; Fischer, N; Weber, M H; Haller, H; Schulz, E G

    2011-12-01

    Failing to reach blood pressure (BP) goals is one of the main problems in hypertension management. Especially in high-risk patients, intensive monitoring including frequently office visits or new techniques to monitor home BP is required. A total of 60 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were included and randomized into a group with telemetric BP monitoring (TBPM) (n=30) and a control group receiving standard care (n=30). During the 3-month study period, patients received in addition to their antihypertensive pre-treatment up to 2 × 300 mg irbesartan to achieve the required target BP. All patients were instructed to measure their BP once daily in the morning. In the TBPM group automatic alerts were generated by the central database server using pre-defined algorithms and patients were subsequently contacted by the physician. At baseline mean 24-h ambulant BP monitoring (ABPM) was 143.3±11.1/82.6±9.9 mm Hg in the TBPM group and 141.4±12.6/82.1±6.5 mm Hg in the standard care group. During treatment mean systolic BP showed a more intensive decrease in the TBPM vs control group (-17.0±11.1 mm Hg vs -9.8±13.7 mm Hg; P=0.032). Patients in the TBPM group had a more pronounced night dipping and a higher reduction of mean pulse pressure than controls (-8.1±5.9 mm Hg vs -2.8±7.4 mm Hg, P=0.004). After 3 months, TBPM-treated patients were given a higher mean daily dose of irbesartan (375±187 mg vs 222±147 mg in controls; P=titration of the antihypertensive agent is possible. The alarm criteria chosen were useful to improve BP control. PMID:21228822

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and contribution to normal cognitive function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to glycaemic carbohydrates and contribution to normal cognitive function. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The Panel considers that the food constituent......, glycaemic carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. Contribution to normal cognitive function is a beneficial physiological effect. Glycaemic carbohydrates contribute to the maintenance of normal brain functions, including...... cognition. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of glycaemic carbohydrates and contribution to normal cognitive function. A daily intake of 130 g of glycaemic carbohydrates has been estimated to cover the glucose requirement of the brain. Such...

  10. Health claims using the term 'sustained energy' are trending but glycaemic response data are being used to support: is this misleading without context?

    Marinangeli, C P F; Harding, S V

    2016-08-01

    One of the most recent food trends is the quest for products that provide 'sustained energy'; a term that is garnering considerable attention within the marketplace. Often, 'sustained energy' health claims are based on a food's post-prandial glycaemic response. However, are generalised health claims regarding 'sustained energy' valid when only supported by glycaemic response data? Without context, the short answer is: probably not. Health claims that link sustained energy to a glycaemic response, or any other attribute of a food or diet, require context to ensure that the public correctly interprets and experiences the claimed effect and is not misled in their quest for healthy foods that impose the desired physiological benefit. PMID:27028560

  11. A further examination of the distinction between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented parental psychological control: Psychometric properties of the DAPCS with French-speaking late adolescents

    Mantzouranis G.; Zimmermann G; Biermann-Mahaim E.; Favez N.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens and colleagues proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity of the French form of the Dependency-orient...

  12. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests. No...... difference in body weight, energy intake or appetite ratings were observed between diets. Both the LF and MUFA diets compared to CTR diet reduced postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia and lowered fasting insulin from month 0 to month 6. Following the 8-week LED period lower levels of the appetite...

  13. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  14. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  15. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  16. Fermentation as a Means of Optimizing the Glycaemic Index - Food Mechanisms and Metabolic Merits with Emphasis on Lactic Acid in Cereal Products

    Östman, Elin

    2003-01-01

    In current recommendations from FAO/WHO, foods that elicit low glycaemic responses and thus have low glycaemic indices (GIs) are advocated. The rationale for this recommendation is that low-GI diets have been shown to reduce risk factors for e.g. type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A major problem in this context is that most important starch rich staple foods in our diet, such as potato and bread products, have high GIs. One important task is, therefore, to identify food factors tha...

  17. What "No Child Left Behind" Leaves behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In…

  18. The Influences of Parental Acceptance and Parental Control on School Adjustment and Academic Achievement for South Korean Children: The Mediation Role of Self-Regulation

    Lee, Jungyoon; Yu, Heekeun; Choi, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parental acceptance, psychological control, and behavioral control on children's school adjustment and academic achievement, as well as the possible mediation effect of children's self-regulation in those processes. To do so, we examined 388 upper-level elementary school students (mean age = 11.38 years) in South…

  19. Sociodemographic patterning of long-term diabetes mellitus control following Japan's 3.11 triple disaster: a retrospective cohort study

    Leppold, Claire; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Nomura, Shuhei; Shimada, Yuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the sociodemographic patterning of changes in glycaemic control of patients with diabetes affected by the 2011 triple disaster in Japan (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident). Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with 404 patients with diabetes at a public hospital in Minamisoma City, Fukushima Prefecture. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to capture changes in glycaemic control postdisaster. Age, sex, urban/rural residency, evacuation status and medication use were also assessed. Results There was an overall deterioration in glycaemic control after the disaster, with the mean HbA1c rising from 6.77% in 2010 to 6.90% in 2012 (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, NGSP). Rural residency was associated with a lower likelihood of deteriorating control (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.84), compared with urban residency. Older age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.98) was also slightly protective against increased HbA1c. Evacuation and sex were not significant predictors. Conclusions Patients with diabetes who were affected by Japan's triple disaster experienced a deterioration in their glycaemic control following the disasters. The extent of this deterioration was mediated by sociodemographic factors, with rural residence and older age protective against the effects of the disaster on glycaemic control. These results may be indicative of underlying social determinants of health in rural Japan. PMID:27388360

  20. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  1. Non-cereal ingredients for the attenuation of glycaemic response to bread: a review of the clinical evidence.

    Stamataki, Nikoleta S; Yanni, Amalia E; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2016-07-13

    Lowering postprandial blood glucose response remains at the forefront of scientific interest, due to emerging evidence of potential health benefits. Although a large variety of commercial bread products is available, specific postprandial effects of different carbohydrate sources in humans have not been elucidated. The purpose of the present review is to critically record the human studies investigating the efficacy of non-cereal based ingredients on the modulation of glycaemic response to bread. The review of the literature revealed that the substitution of refined flours for legume flours is the main alternative strategy for reducing glycaemic response to bread beyond cereal ingredients. The incorporation of fruit-derived ingredients, specific dietary fibre originating from various sources, and the micronutrient enrichment of bread with trivalent chromium constitute novel and promising strategies for the production of low GI breadstuff. In agreement to the above, bakery industry should focus on technological aspects calculating on the suggested approaches in order to obtain health-promoting bread products based on ingredients originating from non-cereal sources. PMID:27248689

  2. Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

  3. Determinants for Achieving the LDL-C Target of Lipid Control for Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Taiwan

    Ho, Li-Ting; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Hsieh, I-Chang; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Li, Yi-Heng; Huang, Lien-Chi; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Fang, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Hung-I; Wu, Chau-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dysl...

  4. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Cognition, Academic Achievement, and Psychosocial Function in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Control Trials

    Lees, Caitlin; Hopkins, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although the effects of aerobic physical activity (APA) on children’s physical health is well characterized, the effect of aerobic physical activity on cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function has not yet been established. This systematic review provides an overview of research elucidating the relationship between aerobic physical activity and children’s cognition, academic achievement, and psychosocial function. Methods A systematic review of English articles w...

  5. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    opinion on the scientific substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. The scope of the applications was proposed to fall under health claims based on newly developed scientific evidence. The Panel considers that the food constituent......, glycaemic carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. Maintenance of normal brain function is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function has already been...

  6. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation. PMID:21933629

  7. Determinants for achieving the LDL-C target of lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in Taiwan.

    Li-Ting Ho

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have clearly established the link between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular consequences. Although it has been a common practice for physicians to prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for patients with dyslipidemia, the achievement rate is still not satisfied in Taiwan. Therefore, the determinants for achieving the LDL-C target needed to be clarified for better healthcare of the patients with dyslipidemia.This registry-type prospective observational study enrolled the patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease (CAD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD from 18 medical centers across Taiwan, and clinically followed them for five years. At every clinical visit, vital signs, clinical endpoints, adverse events, concurrent medications and laboratory specimens were obtained as thoroughly as possible. The lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, liver enzymes, and creatinine phosphokinase were evaluated at baseline, and every year thereafter. The cross sectional observational data was analyzed for this report.Among the 3,486 registered patients, 54% had their LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. By univariate analysis, the patients achieving the LDL-C target were associated with older age, more male sex, taller height, lower blood pressure, more under lipid-lowering therapy, more smoking cessation, more history of CAD, DM, physical activity, but less history of CVD. The multivariate analysis showed statin therapy was the most significant independent determinant for achieving the treatment target, followed by age, history of CAD, diabetes, blood pressure, and sex. However, most patients were on regimens of very-low to low equipotent doses of statins.Although the lipid treatment guideline adherence is improving in recent years, only 54% of the patients with cardiovascular diseases have achieved their LDL-C target in Taiwan

  8. Glycaemic and insulin responses of diabetic patients to traditional Malaysian meals and the effect of guar gum.

    Khalid, B A; Lee, L F; Samad, A H; Ng, M L

    1996-12-01

    The aims of the project were to determine the glycaemic and insulin responses of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients (NIDDM) to 3 traditional Malaysian meals compared to oral glucose, and to determine whether guar gum would affect these responses. Patients with NIDDM were tested with 75 g oral glucose and three common breakfast meals of the three main ethnic groups of Malaysia. When compared with the oral glucose group, significantly by lower blood glucose responses were seen at 90 and 120 minutes post prandial for nasi lemak (pnasi lemak and between 15 and 30 minutes (p<0.03) for mee sup but not with roti telur. With addition of guar gum, there was no significant change of insulin responses with the three meals but a significant increase was seen at 30 minutes (p<0.02) after ingestion of glucose. PMID:24394617

  9. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  10. Design and implementation of remote robotic control system for nuclear power plant application achieved through kinesthetic force feedback model

    The technology of telerobotic control through a universal and transparent Man-Machine Interface is a growing field of robotics research in today's industrial scenario because of its promising application in hazardous and unstructured environments. The joystick, a sophisticated information receiver-translator-transmitter device, serves as a Man-Machine Interface for telerobots. The present paper describes the development paradigms of a remote control system for a planar four degrees-of-freedom joystick following position feed-forward force/torque feedback strategy in a bi-lateral mode. This joystick based control technology is designed to actuate an industrial robot working in nuclear power plant. The remote control system has been illustrated with model, algorithm, electronic hardware and software routines along with experimental results in order to have effective telemanipulation

  11. Tools and Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination: What Do We Need to Achieve a Grand Convergence in Malaria?

    Hemingway, Janet; Shretta, Rima; Wells, Timothy N.C.; Bell, David; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Achee, Nicole; Qi, Gao

    2016-01-01

    Progress made in malaria control during the past decade has prompted increasing global dialogue on malaria elimination and eradication. The product development pipeline for malaria has never been stronger, with promising new tools to detect, treat, and prevent malaria, including innovative diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, vector control products, and improved mechanisms for surveillance and response. There are at least 25 projects in the global malaria vaccine pipeline, as well as 47 medicin...

  12. The information system of learning quality control in higher education institutions: achievements and problems of European universities

    Orekhova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.

  13. Achieving Capacity of Bi-Directional Tandem Collision Network by Joint Medium-Access Control and Channel-Network Coding

    Shum, Kenneth W

    2009-01-01

    In ALOHA-type packetized network, the transmission times of packets follow a stochastic process. In this paper, we advocate a deterministic approach for channel multiple-access. Each user is statically assigned a periodic protocol signal, which takes value either zero or one, and transmit packets whenever the value of the protocol signal is equal to one. On top of this multiple-access protocol, efficient channel coding and network coding schemes are devised. We illustrate the idea by constructing a transmission scheme for the tandem collision network, for both slot-synchronous and slot-asynchronous systems. This cross-layer approach is able to achieve the capacity region when the network is bi-directional.

  14. Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of classroom-based physical activity on math achievement

    Sørensen, Mona Have; Nielsen, Jacob Have; Gejl, Anne Kær;

    2016-01-01

    was a 9-month classroom-based PA program that involved integration of PA into the math lessons delivered by the schools' math teachers. The primary study outcome was change in math achievement, measured by a 45-minute standardized math test. Secondary outcomes were change in executive function (using...... a modified Eriksen flanker task and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) questionnaire filled out by the parents), creativity (using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, TTCT), aerobic fitness (by the Andersen intermittent shuttle-run test) and body mass index. PA during math...... lessons and total PA (including time spent outside school) were assessed using accelerometry. Math teachers used Short Message Service (SMS)-tracking to report on compliance with the PA intervention and on their motivation for implementing PA in math lessons. Parents used SMS-tracking to register...

  15. Students' Emotions for Achievement and Technology Use in Synchronous Hybrid Graduate Programmes: A Control-Value Approach

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using web conferencing) is becoming more common; however, little is known about how students experience emotions in this learning environment. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of emotions, the dual purpose of this study was first to compare synchronous…

  16. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS...

  17. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  18. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from...

  19. Scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality: the Village Malaria Worker project in Cambodia

    Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Socheat Duong; Jimba Masamine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria control has been scaled up in many developing countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Cambodia recently scaled up their Village Malaria Worker (VMW) project by substantially increasing the number of VMWs and expanding the project's health services to include treatment of fever, diarrhoea, and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children under five. This study examined if the scale-up interfered with VMWs' service quality, actions, ...

  20. Utility of indices using C‐peptide levels for indication of insulin therapy to achieve good glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Funakoshi, Shogo; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Fujiwara, Hideya; Fujita, Yoshihito; Ikeda, Kaori; Takahara, Shiho; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Hosokawa, Masaya; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Type 2 diabetes is progressive in that therapy must be altered over time, which is partly as a result of the progressive loss of pancreatic β‐cell function. To elucidate the relationship between residual endogenous insulin secretion and the necessity of insulin therapy to achieve good glycemic control, indices using serum C‐peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) were analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods:  The data of 201 Japanese patients with ...

  1. An Integrated, Multi-Stage, Multi-Scale Framework for Achieving Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification-Control

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil;

    not be able to generate new integrations/combinations of intensified existing equipment. However, to find innovative processes designs, extensions of the current concepts are necessary. Here, process synthesis-intensification using a phenomena based process synthesis method (Lutze et al., 2013) can play......The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, etc., in order to remain competitive through the design and operation of more sustainable chemical and biochemical processes. These required reductions can be addressed through process synthesis......-intensification-control, that is, the efficient use of raw materials (feedstock), the use of sustainable technologies and the design (and control) of processes that directly impact and improves sustainability/LCA factors. The unit operations concept, which has been sufficient until now, is one of the most used for performing...

  2. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation

    Tonkin-Crine, SKG; Anthierens, S.; Hood, K; Yardley, L; Cals, JWL; Francis, NA; Coenen, S; van der Velden, AW; Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Llor, C; Butler, CC; Verheij, TJM; Goossens, H.; P. Little; GRACE INTRO/CHAMP consortium

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixed methods are commonly used in health services research however data are not often integrated to explore complementarity of findings. A triangulation protocol is one approach to integrating such data. A retrospective triangulation protocol was carried out on mixed methods data collected as part of a process evaluation of a trial. The multi-country randomised controlled trial found that a web-based training in communication skills (including use of a patient booklet) and the ...

  3. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Anthierens, Sibyl; Hood, Kerenza; Yardley, Lucy; Cals, Jochen W. L.; Francis, Nick A; Coenen, Samuel; van der Velden, Alike W; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Llor, Carl; Butler, Chris C; Theo J M Verheij; Goossens, Herman; Little, Paul; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixed methods are commonly used in health services research; however, data are not often integrated to explore complementarity of findings. A triangulation protocol is one approach to integrating such data. A retrospective triangulation protocol was carried out on mixed methods data collected as part of a process evaluation of a trial. The multi-country randomised controlled trial found that a web-based training in communication skills (including use of a patient booklet) and the u...

  4. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation

    Tonkin-Crine, SKG; Butler, CC; Anthierens, S.; Hood, K; Yardley, L; Cals, JWL; Francis, NA; Coenen, S; van der Velden, AW; Godycki-Cwirko; Llor, C; Verheij TJM; Goossens, H.; P. Little

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixed methods are commonly used in health services research; however, data are not often integrated to explore complementarity of findings. A triangulation protocol is one approach to integrating such data. A retrospective triangulation protocol was carried out on mixed methods data collected as part of a process evaluation of a trial. The multi-country randomised controlled trial found that a web-based training in communication skills (including use of a patient booklet) and th...

  5. On the Relation of Locus of Control, Social and Cultural Capital and Oral Proficiency Achievement of EFL Students:

    Hamid Ashraf; Toktam Abtahi

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of difficulty that almost all students might face while learning a second language are speaking and listening skills.  Individuals’ perceptions about the underlying main causes of their lives’ events which is called Locus of Control (LOC), has a great role in their activities as well as the interactions between individuals and socio-cultural environments. This study aims at investigating the relationship between social cultural capital, LOC and oral proficiency (listening and speaki...

  6. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.;

    2013-01-01

    /week (95 % CI 19, 34) and 30 g/week (95 % CI 13, 46), respectively). The association between the GL and PPWR was most pronounced among pre-pregnant obese women, with an increase in weight retention of 1·3 (95 % CI 0·2, 2·8) kg from the lowest to highest GL quintile. The GL may play a role for excessive......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...... gestational weight gain and PPWR, which may be more pronounced among overweight and obese women....

  7. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  8. Postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in adults after consumption of dairy desserts and pound cakes containing short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides used to replace sugars.

    Lecerf, J M; Clerc, E; Jaruga, A; Wagner, A; Respondek, F

    2015-01-01

    The present studies aimed to evaluate the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, in healthy adults, to short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) from sucrose used to replace sugars in foods. Two study populations aged 18-50 years were recruited and they consumed dairy desserts or pound cakes containing either standard sugar content or scFOS to replace 30 % of the sugar content. For each study, the two products were tested once under a double-blind and cross-over design with at least 7 d between the two tests. Glucose and insulin were measured using standard methods in blood samples collected with a venous catheter for 120 min during a kinetic test. For the dairy desserts, replacing 30 % of the sugars with scFOS significantly reduced postprandial glycaemic (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·020) and insulinaemic (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·003) responses. For the pound cakes, the glycaemic response was not altered (AUC0-120 min; P =  0·322) while the insulinaemic response tended to be lower (AUC0-120 min; P = 0·067). This study showed that scFOS can be used to replace sugars with the benefit of lowering the postprandial glycaemic response without increasing the insulinaemic response. The effect might be modulated by other parameters (e.g. fat content) of the food matrices. PMID:26495125

  9. Scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality: the Village Malaria Worker project in Cambodia

    Yasuoka Junko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria control has been scaled up in many developing countries in their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Cambodia recently scaled up their Village Malaria Worker (VMW project by substantially increasing the number of VMWs and expanding the project's health services to include treatment of fever, diarrhoea, and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI in children under five. This study examined if the scale-up interfered with VMWs' service quality, actions, and knowledge of malaria control, and analysed VMWs' overall achievements and perceptions of the newly added health services. Methods Structured interviews were conducted pre scale-up in February-March 2008 with 251 VMWs and post scale-up in July-August 2010 with 252 VMWs. Comparing the pre and post scale-up survey results (n = 195, changes were examined in terms of VMWs' 1 service quality, 2 malaria prevention and vector control actions, and 3 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. In addition, VMWs' newly added health services were descriptively analysed based on the post scale-up survey (n = 252. Results VMWs' service quality and actions significantly improved overall during the scale-up of the VMW project (mean index score: +0.805, p p p Conclusions The Cambodian experience clearly demonstrated that a nationwide scale-up of community-based malaria control can be achieved without degrading community health workers' service quality. The government's strategy to expand VMWs' health services, while providing sufficient training to maintain the quality of their original malaria control services, could have contributed to the improvement of VMW's service quality, actions, and knowledge in spite of the rapid scale-up of the project.

  10. To achieve an earlier IFN-γ response is not sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    Cristina Vilaplana

    Full Text Available The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates.

  11. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  12. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats. PMID:26634322

  13. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  14. Development of a patient decision aid for type 2 diabetes mellitus for patients not achieving glycemic control on metformin alone

    Shillington AC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia C Shillington,1 Nananda Col,2 Robert A Bailey,3 Mark A Jewell11EPI-Q, Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA; 2Shared Decision-making Resources, Georgetown, ME, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USAPurpose: To describe the process used to develop an evidence-based patient decision aid (PDA that facilitates shared decision-making for treatment intensification in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM consistent with International Patient Decision Aids Standards.Methods: A PDA was developed by a multidisciplinary steering committee of clinicians, patient advocate, nurse, certified diabetes educators, and decision scientist, using a systematic development process. The process included defining the PDA scope and purpose, outlining the framework, content creation, and designing for integration into clinical practice. This was accomplished through a review of the literature and publically available educational materials and input from practicing clinicians and patients during development and iteratively refining content based on input. Patients with poorly controlled T2DM on metformin considering additional medication assessed the PDA during a pilot.Results: Testing identified six preference-sensitive domains important for choosing T2DM treatment: degree of glycemic response, avoiding weight gain, hypoglycemia risk and other adverse events, avoiding injections, convenience of dose administration, blood glucose monitoring, and cost of therapy. Patient feedback guided content revision. Treatment options were offered after presenting medication class risk–benefit information and eliciting patient values, goals, and preferences. The PDA received the highest International Patient Decision Aids Standards global score to date, 88/100, with 100% of criteria fully met for the following dimensions: development process, disclosures, evaluation process, evidence quality, guidance for users, information quality, language

  15. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  16. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm3 of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V50) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose–volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V50 (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm3), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm3 of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p 50 using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold 50. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  17. Ethiopia and its steps to mobilize resources to achieve 2020 elimination and control goals for neglected tropical diseases webs joined can tie a lion.

    Mengitsu, Belete; Shafi, Oumer; Kebede, Biruck; Kebede, Fikreab; Worku, Dagemlidet T; Herero, Merce; French, Michael; Kebede, Biruk; Mackenzie, Charles; Martindale, Sarah; Kebede, Zeyede; Hirpa, Tigist; Frawley, Hannah; Crowley, Kathryn; O'Neil, Maggie; McPherson, Scott

    2016-03-01

    In June 2013, at the launch of its National Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Master Plan, the Ethiopian government pledged to achieve WHO NTD elimination and control targets by 2020. With an estimated 80 million people living in areas where one or more NTDs are endemic, this goal presented an enormous challenge for the Federal Ministry of Health. However, as of September 2015, the Federal Ministry of Health has managed to mobilize support to implement mass drug administration in 84% of the trachoma endemic districts and 100% of the endemic districts for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis. The national program still is facing large gaps in its podoconiosis and leishmaniasis programs, and it faces significant other challenges to stay on track for 2020 targets. However, this unprecedented scale-up in support was achieved through significant government investment in NTD interventions and creative coordination between donors and implementing partners, which may provide valuable lessons for other national NTD programs trying to achieve nationwide coverage. PMID:26940308

  18. Estimating achievable signal-to-noise ratios of MRI transmit-receive coils from radiofrequency power measurements: applications in quality control

    The inverse relationship between the radiofrequency (RF) power needed to transmit a 90 deg. RF pulse, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) available from a transmit-receive RF coil is well known. The theory is restated and a formula given for the signal-to-noise ratio from water, achievable from a single-shot MRI experiment, in terms of the net forward RF power needed for a rectangular 90 deg. RF pulse of known shape and duration. The result is normalized to a signal bandwidth of 1 Hz and a sample mass of 1 g. The RF power information needed is available on most commercial scanners, as it is used to calculate specific absorption rates for RF tissue heating. The achievable SNR figure will normally be larger that that actually observed, mainly because of receiver noise, but also because of inaccuracies in setting RF pulse angles, and relaxation effects. Phantom experiments were performed on the transmit-receive RF head coil of a commercial MRI system at 0.95 T using a projection method. The measured SNR agreed with that expected from the formula for achievable SNR once a correction was made for the noise figure of the receiving chain. Comparisons of measured SNR figures with those calculated from RF power measurements are expected to be of value in acceptance testing and quality control. (author)

  19. In Silico Closed-Loop Control Validation Studies for Optimal Insulin Delivery in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Zavitsanou, Stamatina; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Georgiadis, Michael C; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N

    2015-10-01

    This study presents a general closed-loop control strategy for optimal insulin delivery in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). The proposed control strategy aims toward an individualized optimal insulin delivery that consists of a patient-specific model predictive controller, a state estimator, a personalized scheduling level, and an open-loop optimization problem subjected to patient-specific process model and constraints. This control strategy can be also modified to address the case of limited patient data availability resulting in an "approximation" control strategy. Both strategies are validated in silico in the presence of predefined and unknown meal disturbances using both a novel mathematical model of glucose-insulin interactions and the UVa/Padova Simulator model as a virtual patient. The robustness of the control performance is evaluated under several conditions such as skipped meals, variability in the meal time, and metabolic uncertainty. The simulation results of the closed-loop validation studies indicate that the proposed control strategies can potentially achieve improved glycaemic control. PMID:25935026

  20. Web-based guided insulin self-titration in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Di@log study. Design of a cluster randomised controlled trial [TC1316

    Kostense Piet J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM are not able to reach the glycaemic target level of HbA1c Methods/Design T2DM patients (n = 248, aged 35–75 years, with an HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, eligible for treatment with insulin and able to use the internet will be selected from general practices in two different regions in the Netherlands. Cluster randomisation will be performed at the level of general practices. Patients in the intervention group will use a self-developed internet programme to assist them in self-titrating insulin. The control group will receive usual care. Primary outcome is the difference in change in HbA1c between intervention and control group. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diabetes self-efficacy and frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes. Results will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion An internet intervention supporting self-titration of insulin therapy in T2DM patients is an innovative patient-centred intervention. The programme provides guided self-monitoring and evaluation of health and self-care behaviours through tailored feedback on input of glucose values. This is expected to result in a better performance of self-titration of insulin and consequently in the improvement of glycaemic control. The patient will be enabled to 'discover and use his or her own ability to gain mastery over his/her diabetes' and therefore patient empowerment will increase. Based on the self-regulation theory of Leventhal, we hypothesize that additional benefits will be achieved in terms of increases in treatment satisfaction, quality of life and self-efficacy. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register TC1316.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Psychosocial Intervention for Children and Teenagers Experiencing Diabetes (DEPICTED: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a communication skills training programme for healthcare professionals working with young people with type 1 diabetes

    Lowes Lesley

    2010-02-01

    type 1 diabetes. Previous research indicates the effectiveness of specialist psychological interventions in achieving sustained improvements in glycaemic control. This trial will evaluate an intervention which does not require the involvement of trained psychologists, maximising the potential feasibility of delivery in a wider NHS context. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN61568050.

  2. In situ formed phase transited drug delivery system of ketoprofen for achieving osmotic, controlled and level a in vitro in vivo correlation

    Philip A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A dry process induced phase transited, non disintegrating, controlled release, in situ formed asymmetric membrane capsular system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, was developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for osmotic and controlled release of the drug. In situ formed asymmetric membrane capsules were prepared using fabricated glass capsule holders via dry, phase inversion process. Effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense region with less pores and an inner porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. In vitro release studies and statistical test for all the prepared and marketed formulation were done at P > 0.05. The drug release was found to be independent of the pH, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a level A correlation (R 2> 0.99 with 39.24 % relative bioavailability compared to immediate release tablet of ketoprofen. Excellent correlation achieved suggested that the in vivo performance of the phase transited in situ formed AMCs could be accurately predicted from their in vitro release profiles and could a means for controlled delivery of drugs with varying solubility.

  3. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min. (paper)

  4. Motivational effects of 12-week moderately restrictive diets with or without special attention to the Glycaemic Index of foods.

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A M; De Assis, M A; Kupek, E; Gerwig, U; Slama, G; Oppert, J M

    2007-04-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) diets may facilitate weight loss via behavioural and/or endocrine mechanisms. This study investigated whether the outcomes of the Weight Watchers POINTS Weight-Loss System could be improved by encouraging dieters to select low GI, high-carbohydrate foods. Ninety-six women (age 20-72 years; BMI 25-40 kg/m2) were recruited as they started the Weight Watchers POINTS programme for 12 weeks. Weekly classes were randomized so that seven (forty-five women) followed the regular programme while seven others (fifty-one women) followed a revised programme encouraging the selection of low GI foods. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the 12-week diets. Participants rated hunger and desire to eat using visual analogue scales on 1 d per week, several times per d. Attrition was the same in both groups (32 v. 30 %), as well as many benefits (5 % weight loss, decreases in insulinaemia and blood lipids, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure). Hunger and desire to eat were rated consistently lower in the low GI group over the 12-week diet. Group differences in subjective sensations were especially large in the afternoon. The 12-week weight management yielded many significant anthropometric and biochemical benefits that were not improved by encouraging dieters to select low GI foods. The subjective benefits (lower hunger and desire to eat) of the low GI diet may be a worthwhile contribution to the motivation of dieters that might affect adherence to the diet over the long term. PMID:17349094

  5. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  6. Postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in adults after consumption of dairy desserts and pound cakes containing short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides used to replace sugars

    Lecerf, J.M.; Clerc, E.; Jaruga, A.; Wagner, A; Respondek, F

    2015-01-01

    The present studies aimed to evaluate the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, in healthy adults, to short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) from sucrose used to replace sugars in foods. Two study populations aged 18–50 years were recruited and they consumed dairy desserts or pound cakes containing either standard sugar content or scFOS to replace 30 % of the sugar content. For each study, the two products were tested once under a double-blind and cross-over design with at least 7 d betw...

  7. Digestive tolerance and postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of dairy desserts containing maltitol and fructo-oligosaccharides in adults

    Respondek, F; Hilpipre, C; Chauveau, P.; Cazaubiel, M; Gendre, D; Maudet, C; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: To evaluate the short-term digestive tolerance and glycaemic response of several associations of maltitol and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) used to replace sugars (for example, dextrose) in foods. Subjects/methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 18–60 years were recruited for the study and 32 completed it. The subjects consumed six different mixtures of dextrose, maltitol and scFOS added in a chocolate dairy dessert at a dosage of 35 g. The test days wer...

  8. A moderate elevation of blood glucose level increases the effectiveness of thermoradiotherapy in a rat tumor model II. improved tumor control at clinically achievable temperatures

    Purpose: To assess the therapeutic gain (at the TCD50 level) that can be obtained by boosting thermoradiotherapy with intravenous glucose infusion at different temperatures. This completes our series of studies to determine the optimal conditions and the effectiveness of glucose administration at clinically achievable glucose levels and treatment temperatures. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112 was irradiated with graded single doses of 300-kV X-rays (dose range 0-60 Gy). Fifteen minutes after irradiation, a 100-min intravenous infusion was started, consisting of either glucose (20% solution, 2.4-3 g/kg/h) or saline as a control. Then heat was applied to the tumors at 42 deg. C or 43 deg. C (water bath) during a subsequent 100-min period of infusion. Tumor control was scored as the absence of palpable growth at 100 days after treatment. Results: Glucose infusion enhanced tumor control independent of temperature in the range 42-43 deg. C. At 42 deg. C, the TCD50 for X-irradiation decreased by 5.9 Gy (SEM 1.8 Gy), from 41.6 (1.6) to 35.7 (1.5) Gy, and at 43 deg. C from 33.3 (1.6) to 27.3 (1.5) Gy, representing a glucose enhancement ratio of approximately 1.2. At doses corresponding to the TCD50 at either 42 or 43 deg. C, the addition of glucose increased tumor control from 50% to 70%. An enhancement ratio of 2.1 was found for the combination of irradiation, glucose infusion, and heating at 43 deg. C, with respect to irradiation alone (TCD50 56.3 Gy, reanalyzed earlier data). The contribution of combined heat and glucose to tumor control represented an additive effect, probably on the hypoxic cell population. Conclusion: Moderate glucose administration (blood concentration 300 mg/100 mL) sizably improves experimental tumor control after combined X-irradiation and hyperthermia under clinically feasible conditions. Clinical treatment should benefit from this additional modality, in particular if unsatisfactory local control rates are due to

  9. A thermolysis approach to simultaneously achieve crystal phase- and shape-control of ternary M-Fe-O metal oxide nanoparticles

    Huang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chich-Neng; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a cubic morphology. On the other hand, the three-step heating procedure in air obtained the spinel-type with a thermodynamic equilibrium octahedral shape exclusively. Either using metal acetates (M(ac)2) or metal acetylacetonates (M(acac)2) as the starting precursors (M = Mn, Co) can be introduced to prepare NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) crystallites with identical experimental parameters, including precursor concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and heating rate. The oleic acid molecule, reaction temperature, and heating rate employed in the synthesis were carefully examined and found acting as determined roles behind the reaction processes. Apart from the previous literature reports as shape-directed and/or stabilizing agents, the oleic acid molecule played an additional phase-tuning role.Significant studies have achieved beautiful control in particle size, while the shape- and phase-control synthesis of nanoparticles remains an open challenge. In this study, we have developed a generalized methodology to selectively prepare either NaCl-type (reduced form) or spinel-type ferrite (oxidized form) M-Fe-O (M = Mn, Co) crystallites with high reproducibility. A two-step heating process was able to control formation of two types of crystal phase, either a thermodynamic spinel-type under air or a kinetic-control of NaCl-type (rock salt structure) under Ar in a

  10. body mass (ID 1412), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1414), and maintenance of a normal blood lipid profile (1421) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight, reduction in the sense of hunger, reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile. The scientific substantiation is...... 1412), very low calorie diet is not sufficiently characterised in relation to: reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1414) and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile (ID 1421), mainly owing to the lack of standardisation of the type of available carbohydrates and of most of the fatty...... profile (ID 1421)....

  11. Effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement in young poor readers: a pragmatic cluster-randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Hugo Cogo-Moreira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age with reading difficulties. METHOD: 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114, and five served as controls (n = 121. Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT, and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE estimation method, which took compliance status into account. RESULTS: The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]. As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children, more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year. CONCLUSION: The results may be seen as promising, but they are not

  12. Long-term exendin-4 treatment delays natural deterioration of glycaemic control in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    Simonsen, L; Pilgaard, S; Orskov, C; Hartmann, B; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, C F

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4, has previously been shown to delay the onset of diabetes when administered to Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats in the prediabetic period. The present study aimed to evaluate whether long-term administration of exendin-4 to GK rats in the...

  13. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  14. The association of mindful parenting with glycemic control and quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: : Results from Diabetes MILES—The Netherlands

    Serkel-Schrama, Inge; de Vries, J.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Pouwer, F.; Nyklicek, I.; Speight, Jane; de Bruin, Esther; Bogels, Susan; Hartman, E.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between the mindful parenting style of parents of adolescents (aged 12–18) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL) of the adolescents. Chronic health conditions, such as T1DM, that require deman

  15. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  16. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support.

    Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François

    2016-01-01

    The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship--termed the working alliance--is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes. PMID:26682229

  17. Working Together to Promote Diabetes Control: A Practical Guide for Diabetes Health Care Providers in Establishing a Working Alliance to Achieve Self-Management Support

    Allan Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the “patient-carer” relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship—termed the working alliance—is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes.

  18. Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing

    Bakhøj, S; Flint, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    to the responses to bread of modern wheat (Triticum aestivum). DESIGN: The 3-h postprandial insulinaemic, glycaemic, GIP, and GLP-1 responses to bread made from Einkorn were compared to responses to a traditional Danish wheat loaf. The bread from Einkorn was prepared by 3 different processing methods...

  19. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  20. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin M.; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across 3 years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, S.D. = 0.39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from 1 year prior) and for influences of child's age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and…

  1. Impact of metformin versus repaglinide on non-glycaemic cardiovascular risk markers related to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Lund, Søren S; Tarnow, Lise; Stehouwer, Coen D A;

    2008-01-01

    versus repaglinide treatments. In contrast, Amadori albumin and heart rate were higher during metformin versus repaglinide. Levels of interleukin-6, fibrinogen, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, asymmetric dimethylarginine and advanced glycation end products as well as glycaemic levels......-hyperglycaemic potency. Here, we report the effect of metformin versus an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on CVD biomarkers in non-obese T2DM patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2x4 months involving 96 non-obese (body mass index< or =27 kg/m(2)) insulin...... (previously reported) and 24-h blood pressure were similar between treatments. Adjustment for known macrovascular disease did not affect the between-treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: In non-obese T2DM patients, metformin was more effective in reducing selected biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is fructose. From the information provided, the Panel assumes that fructose should replace sucrose or glucose in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that fructose, and the food constituents...... post-prandial glycaemic responses. In the context of the proposed wordings and the references provided, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to the reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post...

  3. Physical activity intervention (Movi-Kids) on improving academic achievement and adiposity in preschoolers with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Sánchez López, Mairena; Pardo Guijarro, María Jesús; Gutiérrez Díaz del Campo, David; Silva, Pedro; Martínez Andrés, María; Gulías González, Roberto; Díez Fernández, Ana; Franquelo Morales, Pablo; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevention of obesity and improvement of academic achievement in children are concerns of industrialized societies. Obesity has been associated with psychological disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, whose prevalence has been estimated at 6.8 % in Spanish children and adolescents. It is known that physical activity is positively related to academic achievement and negatively related to the risk of obesity in children. However, studies to test the effec...

  4. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Hugo Cogo-Moreira; Clara Regina Brandão de Ávila; Ploubidis, George B; Jair de Jesus Mari

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading...

  5. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  6. Effects of Sulbutiamine on Diabetic Polyneuropathy: An Open Randomised Controlled Study in Type 2 Diabetics

    Kiew, K.K.; Wan Mohamad, W.B.; Ridzuan, A.; Mafauzy, M

    2002-01-01

    Thirty patients with diabetic polyneuropathy were recruited from the diabetic clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from 1996 to 1998. They were randomly assigned either sulbutiamine (Arcalion®) (15 patients) or no treatment (control group; 15 patients). Glycaemic control was assessed by blood glucose and HbA1. Severity of neuropathy was assessed by symptom and sign score, and electrophysiological parameters (nerve conduction velocity and compound muscle action potential) at entry to t...

  7. 5-grass pollen tablets achieve disease control in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis unresponsive to drugs: a real-life study

    Pastorello EA

    2013-12-01

    of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis before SLIT. After SLIT, 33 patients had mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, none had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, seven had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and seven had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. The mean medication score decreased from 4.2±1.3 before to 2.4±2.0 after SLIT (P<0.01, representing a reduction of 42%. The response to treatment before SLIT was judged as poor by 70% of patients and very poor by 30%. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased after SLIT (P<0.01.Conclusion: In real life, most patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug treatment can achieve control of the condition with one season of treatment using 5-grass pollen tablets.Keywords: grass pollen, rhinitis, drug resistance, allergen immunotherapy, effectiveness, patient satisfaction

  8. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT. PMID:26671582

  9. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  10. Control and Treatment Profiles of 70,889 Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Malaysia - A Cross Sectional Survey in 2009

    Ismail Mastura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the current diabetes care in Malaysia is the first step towards successful control. Many local studies have contributed toward knowledge of diabetes control and treatment profile but none had reported from such a large cohort of patients as in this registry.Aim & Objectives: To describe glycaemic control, risk factors, and treatment profile for quality assessment of diabetes care in Malaysia.Methods: This is a descriptive study based on secondary data from the online Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM looking into the control and treatment profiles of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 18 years old and above from 1st January until 31st December 2009. Clinical characteristics included were age, sex, diabetes duration and treatment, glycaemic control, blood pressure, body mass index, and treatment for co-morbidity. Results: A total of 303 centres contributed a total of 70889 patients. Fifty-nine percent was female. The study population included 61.9% Malay, 19% Chinese and 18% Indian. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.3 years old (SD 11.10 and the mean duration of diabetes was 5.9 years (SD 5.56. The mean of HbA1c was 8.3% (SD 2.10; only 18.1% attained HbA1c < 6.5%. There were 61.8% diabetic hypertensive patients based on blood pressure measurements and about one third were treated to target BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg. The mean of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was 3.2 mmol/L (SD 1.10; one-third achieved the target of ≤ 2.6 mmol/L. Eighteen percent was on more than two anti-hypertensive agents and 41.6% were on anti-lipid agents. Metformin (83.2%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (63.9% and statin (89.8% were the mostly prescribed anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive and anti-lipid agents respectively.Conclusion: Diabetes and its co-morbidities (hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were less satisfactorily controlled. The choice of drugs was appropriate but probably inadequate. More effort and resources are

  11. Tailoring mass drug administration to context: implementation research is critical in achieving equitable progress in the control and elimination of helminth neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Dean, Laura; Page, Samantha; Hawkins, Kate; Stothard, Russell; Thomson, Rachael; Wanji, Samuel; Gyapong, Margaret; Anagbogu, Ifeoma; Molyneux, David; Theobald, Sally

    2016-07-01

    The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control. PMID:27481833

  12. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province. PMID:12020889

  13. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  14. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendanc...

  15. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Estimating achievement from fame

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  17. Research and Development Work Carried out by the Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Measurement and Control Systems, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography WUT - Thematic Scope and Achievements

    Nowak, Edward; Malarski, Ryszard; Prószyński, Witold; Sadowska, Alicja; Woźniak, Marek; Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Geodetic engineering surveys are an important part of the works carried out by the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology. These works concern measurement techniques as well as advanced result analysis methods applied in precise industrial surveys and in processes controlling object's behaviour over time. The thematic scope of research realised by Chair of Engineering Geodesy and Control-Measuring Systems shows that article related to geodetic engineering measurements and geodetic monitoring is carried out with high intensity, resulting in technological advancement and implementation of new or improved measurement solutions and methods of measurement result development.

  18. Quasi-experimental nonequivalent (pretest and posttest) control-group study of the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory systems on academic achievement in high school chemistry students at two South Carolina high schools

    Venables, Jeffrey M.

    The literature on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) lacks quantitative studies that measure the effect of MBL on student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MBL systems on the achievement of high school chemistry students. The first research question examined the effect of MBL systems on student achievement in high school chemistry laboratories. The second question analyzed the effect of MBL systems on the academic achievement of students of different genders, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study evaluated the effects of MBL on student achievement in high school chemistry. The sample consisted of 124 college preparatory chemistry students at two high schools in a South Carolina school district. There were 42 participants in the experimental group and 82 participants in the control group. Both experimental and groups completed a pre- and post-test with MBL being the independent variable. The mean difference score for the experimental group was compared to that of the control group using an independent-measures t test and an analysis of variance. For the second research question, results were analyzed using a two-factor analysis of variance. Participant scores were broken down by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status in order to identify potential differences. The results revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups, and no significant differences in effects of MBL on different segments of the population. Future studies should examine students using MBL for longer durations than one unit of study. As society continues to make technological advances, the effective assessment and implementation of technology resources for the classroom are becoming increasingly important.

  19. We Don’t Need No Education -- We Don’t Need No Thought Control: Reflections on Achieving Musical Literacy & the Importance of Unschooling

    Dr. John L. Vitale

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During a recent curriculum methods class, one of my students inquired about my musical training. Since the vast majority of my musical experiences transpired outside the forum of formal music education, I was unable to answer the question without getting into my life’s story. This experience motivated me to chronicle my lifelong musical experiences and subsequently reflect on them. These reflections ultimately substantiate that the process of rejecting formal music education and engaging in self-teaching has been the primary method that allowed me to achieve a high level of musical literacy. The paper also argues that the process of self-teaching in the musical arena is very similar to the principles of unschooling (a term coined by American author and educator John Caldwell Holt where learning is based on the student's interests, needs, and goals.

  20. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments. PMID:26361094

  1. Effects of Learning Approaches, Locus of Control, Socio-Economic Status and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement: A Turkish Perspective

    Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…

  2. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte;

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  3. Long-term local control achieved after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy for adrenal gland metastases: A retrospective analysis of 34 patients

    Aims and background. To describe feasibility, tolerability and clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of adrenal metastases in 34 consecutive cancer patients. Material and methods. Between March 2004 and July 2010, a total of 34 consecutive patients, accounting for 36 adrenal metastatic lesions, were treated with SBRT. SBRT treatments were delivered by a Linac Varian 600 with microMLC (3DLine, Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) and a Linac ELEKTA Precise (Elekta). All 34 patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated during and after completion of SBRT. Following outcomes were taken into account: best clinical response at any time, local control, time to systemic progression, time to local progression, overall survival and toxicity. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and factor potentially affecting outcomes were analyzed with Cox regression analysis. Results. Total RT doses ranged from 20 Gy in 4 fractions to 45 Gy in 18 fractions (median dose: 32 Gy; median number of fractions: 4). All doses were prescribed to the 95% isodose line. No cases of Grade ≥ 3 toxicity were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 41 months (range, 12-75) 22 patients were alive. Three of 28 lesions (11%) showed complete response, 13/28 (46%) partial response, 10/28 (36%) stable disease and 2/28 (7%) progressed in the treated area. Local failure was observed in 13 cases. Actuarial local control rates at one and two years were 66% and 32%, respectively. Median time to local progression was 19 months. Median survival was 22 months. Conclusion. SBRT in adrenal gland metastasis is feasible without significant acute and late toxicities, with a good rate of local control. New SBRT fractionation schemes and the possibility to combine new systemic approaches should be investigated in order to further increase local control and reduce systemic disease progression

  4. Comparison of nateglinide and gliclazide in combination with metformin, for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on maximum doses of metformin alone

    Ristic, S; Collober-Maugeais, C; Pecher, E; Cressier, F

    2006-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects of nateglinide plus metformin with gliclazide plus metformin on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods Double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, randomized, multicentre study over 24 weeks. Patients with inadequate glucose control on maximal doses of metformin were randomized to additionally receive nateglinide (n = 133) or gliclazide (n = 129). Changes from baseline in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and mealtime glucose and insulin excu...

  5. Mediating the effect of self-care management intervention in type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of 47 randomised controlled trials

    Minet, Lisbeth; Møller, Sine; Vach, Werner;

    2010-01-01

    -up. For type of intervention and duration of intervention there was a non-significant effect on effect size in favour of educational techniques and short interventions. CONCLUSION: In type 2 diabetes, there are improvements in glycaemic control in people who receive self-care management treatment with a......OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis assessing the effects of self-care management interventions in improving glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes by analysing the impact of different study characteristics on the effect size. METHODS: A literature search in eight scientific databases up to...... November 2007 included original studies of randomised controlled trials involving adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and evaluating a self-care management intervention. RESULTS: The 47 included studies yielded 7677 participants. The analysis showed a 0.36% (95% CI 0.21-0.51) improvement in...

  6. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  7. Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study

    Viswanathan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients′ and physicians′ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2, mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG, post prandial (PPG and random (RBG plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%; other complications were: Foot (32.7%, eye (19.7%, cardiovascular (6.8% and nephropathy (6.2%. The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2% of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs. More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient′s perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician′s perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9% and treatment compliance (3.6%. Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These

  8. MP-RCP:ACHIEVING FAST RECOVERY OF iBGP USING ROUTE CONTROL PLATFORM%MP-RCP:基于RCP的快速恢复iBGP协议

    程柏林; 胡乔林; 陈新; 吕树君

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism of iBGP single best path propagation may prevent the router from acquiring diverse paths,which results in connection disruption and inter-domain churn in the scene of transient link.MP-RCP optimises the route control platform (RCP)to reduce the session numbers and configuration complexity,makes use of global visible routes to compute and disseminate multiple paths for each router.When a router detects the failure in best path,the router encapsulates the packets and forwards them to the backup path to avoid the connection disruption.MP-RCP also separates the failure detection and processing in order to prevent the frequent convergence triggered by transient failures,which reduces the inter-domain disturbance.It is proved through Abilene topology and the experiment of topology generation that the MP-RCP structure reduces the forwarding disruption and inter-domain churn effectively.%iBGP 传播单条最佳路径机制不能保证路由器获得多样性路径,造成链路瞬时故障场景下连接中断及域间扰动。MP-RCP(MultiPath Route Control Platform)优化路由控制平台RCP以降低会话数量及配置复杂性,利用全局可视路由对每台路由器计算、分发多路径。当路由器检测到最佳路径失效后,将报文封装转发到备份路径中避免连接中断;MP-RCP中将失效检测、处理进行分离以避免瞬时故障引起的频繁收敛,从而降低了域间扰动。通过使用Abilene拓扑以及生成拓扑的实验证明了MP-RCP结构能有效避免转发中断和域间扰动。

  9. The coarse pointing assembly for SILEX program or how to achieve outstanding pointing accuracy with simple hardware associated with consistent control laws

    Buvat, Daniel; Muller, Gerard; Peyrot, Patrick

    1991-06-01

    Attention is given to the coarse pointing assembly (CPA) for the SILEX program, designed on the basis of 10 years of MATRA experience in very accurate drive mechanisms successfully conducted by the SPOT 1 and 2 flights as well as EURECA IOC. The basic key design feature of the mechanism is a 1200-step stepper motor driven in microstepping with harmonic defects compensation. This allows very low torque noise associated with a high accuracy (0.01 deg). The direct drive principle avoids backlash and permits a linear control of the output shaft of each drive. The only parts susceptible to possible wear are the ball bearings, which have a design margin of greater than 1000 for 10 yr of service life. In order to meet the dynamic performances required by SILEX, a closed loop active damping system is added to each drive unit. Two accelerometers used in a differential way sense the hinge microvibrations and an active damping loop reduces their Q factor down to a few dB. All CPA electrical parts (including motor, optical encoder, and accelerometer) are redundant to avoid single point of failure.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Nutriose®06 and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    post-prandial glycaemia. This opinion applies to non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. non-starch polysaccharides, resistant oligosaccharides and resistant starch), which should replace glycaemic carbohydrates in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food...... constituent, non-digestible carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claim, and the food constituent (i.e. glycaemic carbohydrates) that non-digestible carbohydrates should replace in foods or beverages are both sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that a...... the conditions of use, also applies to this application. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of foods/beverages containing non-digestible carbohydrates and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses as compared with foods/beverages...

  11. Prescribing Data in General Practice Demonstration (PDGPD project - a cluster randomised controlled trial of a quality improvement intervention to achieve better prescribing for chronic heart failure and hypertension

    Williamson Margaret

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research literature consistently documents that scientifically based therapeutic recommendations are not always followed in the hospital or in the primary care setting. Currently, there is evidence that some general practitioners in Australia are not prescribing appropriately for patients diagnosed with 1 hypertension (HT and 2 chronic heart failure (CHF. The objectives of this study were to improve general practitioner’s drug treatment management of these patients through feedback on their own prescribing and small group discussions with peers and a trained group facilitator. The impact evaluation includes quantitative assessment of prescribing changes at 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after the intervention. Methods A pragmatic multi site cluster RCT began recruiting practices in October 2009 to evaluate the effects of a multi-faceted quality improvement (QI intervention on prescribing practice among Australian general practitioners (GP in relation to patients with CHF and HT. General practices were recruited nationally through General Practice Networks across Australia. Participating practices were randomly allocated to one of three groups: two groups received the QI intervention (the prescribing indicator feedback reports and small group discussion with each group undertaking the clinical topics (CHF and HT in reverse order to the other. The third group was waitlisted to receive the intervention 6 months later and acted as a “control” for the other two groups. De-identified data on practice, doctor and patient characteristics and their treatment for CHF and HT are extracted at six-monthly intervals before and after the intervention. Post-test comparisons will be conducted between the intervention and control arms using intention to treat analysis and models that account for clustering of practices in a Network and clustering of patients within practices and GPs. Discussion This paper describes the study protocol for a

  12. Fatty acid as structure directing agent for controlled secondary growth of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles to achieve mesoscale assemblies: A facile approach for developing hierarchical structures

    Saikia, K.; Kaushik, S. D.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Deb, P.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale hierarchical assemblies have emerged out as a new class of structures between fine dimension nanoparticles and bulk structures, having distinctly different physical properties from either side. Controlling the self-assembly process of primary nanoparticles and subsequent secondary growth mechanism is the key aspect for achieving such ordered structures. In this work, we introduce a new insight on achieving hierarchical assemblies of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles based on the temporal stability of the primary nanoparticles, where, the growth and stability of the primary particles are controlled by using oleic acid. It is found that the developed particles, at a critical concentration of oleic acid, prefer a secondary growth process, rather than promoting their individual growth. Domination of the attractive hydrophobic interaction over steric repulsion among the primary particles at this critical concentration of oleic acid is found to be the key factor for the initial aggregation of the primary particles, which eventually leads to the formation of spherical hierarchical assemblies via oriented attachment. It is also realized that the extremely well or poor stability conditions of the primary particles do not allow this secondary growth process. Estimated values of Co2+ distribution factor show that the cation distribution factor of CoFe2O4 system is not affected by the nature of dominant growth processes, when these are controlled. Interestingly, magnetic measurements reflect the stronger interparticle interaction in the hierarchical system and high magnetic moment values at low magnetic field.

  13. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. PMID:27213415

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus—A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Yuchen Qin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol, or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china.

  15. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus-A Population Based Study in Shanghai, China.

    Qin, Yuchen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Yanfang; Lu, Jian; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A sample of 3600 residents aged from 18 to 80 years selected by a randomized stratified multiple-stage sampling method in Shanghai was investigated, with blood samples collected. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol), or previous diagnosis by a physician. Adequate control of diabetes was taken as a level of HbA1c < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) among people with treated diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore associated factors for diabetes and prediabetes. In the 3136 participants suitable for analysis, the prevalences of diabetes, prediabetes, and previously diagnosed diabetes were 15.91%, 37.37%, and 4.46%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 28.06% were aware of their condition, 25.85% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 12.42% achieved glycaemic control. Logistic regression showed that old age, preobesity, obesity, elevated triglyceride (TG), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and lower education level were associated with an increased risk of diabetes; old age, obesity, elevated TG, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, while male sex and rural residence were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In summary, the state of diabetes in China is alarming; the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were relatively low. More efforts should be made to promote the prevention and control of diabetes in china. PMID:27213415

  16. Achievements and experiences in the 'TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004' obtained in the fields of radionuclide and trace element analysis

    The Radiochemical Laboratory participated in the 2-year-long TC Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004 organized by the IAEA during the period June 1999 and September 2001. Motivations, major goals of participation in the project, cornerstones of implementation of the project, establishing the quality system, improvements fulfilling both technical and management requirements as well as major achievements for future activities of the laboratory with respect to technical and financial conditions are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Hemisphericity and student achievement.

    Yeap, L L

    1989-10-01

    Hemispheric preference, the newest element of learning style, refers to the tendency of a person to use one side of the brain to perceive and function more than the other. The objective of the study was to investigate the psychological domain of learning styles in terms of the hemispheric patterns of Singapore Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels, namely Normal (low achievers), Express (average achievers), and Special (high achievers). Using the Cognitive Laterality Battery (Gordon, 1986) to measure the students' hemispheric dominance, the study found that it is in the psychological domain of the students' learning styles, in terms of their hemispheric dominance that the Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels are distinctly different. PMID:2583937

  18. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (PLSAT diet (PLSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  19. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men. PMID:27245103

  20. The obese woman with gestational diabetes: effects of body mass index and weight gain in pregnancy on obstetric and glycaemic outcomes

    Ip, Flora; Bradford, Jennifer; Hng, Tien-Ming; Hendon, Susan; McLean, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represent a high-risk group in pregnancy, although the effects of increasing degrees of obesity and weight gain in pregnancy in this group is poorly defined. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 375 singleton pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity and GDM. Women with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–35 kg/m2 were compared with those with a BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2. Additionally, women were categorized according to weight gain in pregnancy: Group A (0.27 kg/week). Results Obstetric outcomes did not differ between the groups; however, postpartum dysglycaemia was more likely in women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–8.9). Group B and Group C had higher odds of LGA (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3–11.3; OR 5.0, 95% CI: 2.0–12.1, respectively) compared with Group A. Group C also had a lower risk of SGA (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–1.0) and a higher risk of postpartum dysglycaemia (OR 6.8, 95% CI: 1.7–26.9) compared with Group A. Conclusion Greater degrees of obesity are associated with higher risk of abnormal metabolic outcomes after pregnancy. Excessive weight gain in pregnancy in obese women increases adverse obstetric and glycaemic outcomes. Our findings suggest that targets for weight gain in pregnancy for obese women should be reduced from current recommendations.

  1. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-day diet diaries were available at age 36, 43 and 53 for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary patterns scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n=106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and whole grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at age 43 among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at age 43 had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5.45 (2.01, 14.79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 SD unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not men. PMID:27245103

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to non digestible carbohydrates and a reduction of post prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Beneo-Orafti SA, Sensus BV and Cosucra-Groupe Warcoing SA, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS from inulin and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-digestible carbohydrates including FOS are resistant to hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine and do not contribute to post-prandial glycaemia. This opinion applies to non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. non-starch polysaccharides, resistant oligosaccharides and resistant starch which should replace sugars in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, non-digestible carbohydrates, which is the subject of the health claim, and the food constituent (i.e. sugars that non-digestible carbohydrates should replace in foods or beverages, are both sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses might be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that consumption of non-digestible carbohydrates results in reduced post-prandial blood glucose (and insulinaemic responses compared with the consumption of sugars on a weight-by-weight basis owing to the non-digestibility in the small intestine and to a decrease in the amount of available carbohydrates, and that the consumption of foods/drinks in which non-digestible carbohydrates replaced sugars induced lower post-prandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses than sugar-containing foods/drinks. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of foods/beverages containing non

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to non digestible carbohydrates and a reduction of post prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Beneo-Orafti SA, Sensus BV and Cosucra-Groupe Warcoing SA, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from inulin and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-dig...

  4. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na2O2.l-1. After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO2-neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 1000C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  5. College Achievement and Earnings

    Gemus, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    I study the size and sources of the monetary return to college achievement as measured by cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA). I first present evidence that the return to achievement is large and statistically significant. I find, however, that this masks variation in the return across different groups of people. In particular, there is no relationship between GPA and earnings for graduate degree holders but a large and positive relationship for people without a graduate degree. To reconcile...

  6. THE EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS VIGOROUS EXERCISE AND LIFESTYLE-EMBEDDED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UPON ACUTE GLYCAEMIC REGULATION- A CASE STUDY

    ASH C. ROUTEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous exercise and lifestyle-embedded physical activity upon glucose regulation, and assess the feasibility of seven day continuous glucose monitoring (CGM in a normoglycaemic individual. One physically active non-diabetic male [age: 22 y; mass: 71.5 kg; height: 181 cm] underwent 7 days CGM, performing 3 trial conditions: a sedentary control (< 2500 steps, pedometer controlled, a continuous exercise condition (2 x 30 min treadmill running at 70% HRmax, and a lifestyleembedded physical activity condition (100 min fractionalized moderate activity. Diet was standardised andphysical activity levels were monitored via accelerometry throughout. Results showed a significant difference of -0.24 mmol.dL-1 in twenty-four hour mean glucose levels between the sedentary and continuous condition (p = 0.00, and a significant difference of -0.038 mmol.L-1 in twenty-four hour mean glucose levels between thesedentary and lifestyle embedded physical activity condition (p = 0.004. Descriptive results displayed a post exercise decrease in glucose levels (2 h pre-6 h post (5.3 – 5.1 mmol.L-1 with a carryover effect for the following day (reduced mean glucose 24 h pre-post (5.5 ± 0.5 - 5.2 ± 0.3 mmol.L-1 in the continuous exercisecondition. Physical activity counts (c.min-1 during exercise were significantly related to blood glucose levels in the continuous exercise condition (r = 0.51, p = 0.08. Findings show that intra- and inter-day glucose homeostasis may be optimised through bouts of continuous vigorous exercise

  7. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  8. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Use of Modified Casein Method for Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection to Achieve Tannin Content Control%利用改良干酪素法对丹参注射液实现鞣质含量控制

    张万峰; 章向群; 陈方军; 沈金芳

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Use of Modified Casein Method for Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza injection to achieve tannin content control, to ensure the quality of injection. METHODS Determination method of tannin in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (casein method) was improved by setting the suitable sample dilution ratio, establishing determination method of tannin in Danshen injection. RESULTS Modified determination method has achieved good results, tannin content is 0.83-2.06 mg·mL‐1 in commercial samples. CONCLUSION The requirements of Tannin limit is inconsistent in two limit tests in Chinese pharmacopoeia, tannin content determination in production control and quality inspection is of practical significance.%目的 利用改良干酪素法对丹参注射液实现鞣质含量控制,以保证注射液的质量.方法 通过对中国药典中鞣质含量测定方法(干酪素法)进行改良,设定了适宜的样品稀释比例,建立了丹参注射液的鞣质含量测定方法.结果 测定方法的改良取得了良好的效果,所测市售样品鞣质含量在0.83~2.06 mg·mL-1之间.结论 鞣质限度检查两法的限度要求不一致,鞣质含量测定在生产控制及质量考察中具有实际意义.

  11. Increased renal gene transcription of protein kinase C-beta in human diabetic nephropathy: relationship to long-term glycaemic control

    Langham, R.G.; Kelly, D.J.; Gow, R.M.;

    2008-01-01

    -embedded sections of renal biopsies using immunohistochemistry. The effects of high glucose on PRKC-beta expression and peptide production in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells were assessed. RESULTS: Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated a 9.9-fold increase in PRKC-beta mRNA in kidney biopsies of......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms has been implicated as a central mediator in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Although high glucose levels stimulate catalytic activity of PKC, the effects of high glucose levels on the expression of genes encoding PKC isoforms...... tubules. A 60% increase in PRKC-beta mRNA and peptide in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to high glucose (p<0.05) was seen in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: PKC-beta is upregulated at the gene expression level in human diabetic nephropathy. PRKC-beta mRNA correlates closely...

  12. A cross-sectional study of glycaemic control, complications and psychosocial functioning among 18- to 35-year-old adults with type 1 diabetes

    Zoffmann, V; Vistisen, D; Due-Christensen, M

    2014-01-01

    , HbA1c and complications for 710 younger adults (18-35 years) with type 1 diabetes. A questionnaire with wide-ranging psychometric scales was used to measure various aspects of psychosocial functioning: the burden of diabetes-related problems, well-being, self-esteem, perceived competence in managing...... diabetes, perceived autonomy support from health professionals and self-management motivations. Furthermore, patients reported weekly self-monitored blood glucose measurements and insulin administration. Associations between HbA1c , complication and psychosocial indicators were tested using linear...

  13. Urinary creatinine concentration is inversely related to glycaemic control and the presence of some diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Andreasen, Anne H; Vestbo, Else;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio between urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and urinary creatinine concentration (UCC) is widely used to estimate renal involvement. We examined how UAC and UCC associate with each other, with other risk factors, and with diabetic complications in a population-based sample of...... Type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A freshly voided morning urine specimen was provided by 1,284 consecutive, newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 40 years or over in general practice. Albumin was measured by a polyethyleneglycol radioimmunoassay and creatinine by a modified Jaffe method. RESULTS: In...... a multivariate model including UAC, UCC, age, sex, HbA1c, and urinary glucose concentration, UAC increased with both age (P=.042) and HbA1c (P=.014), while UCC decreased (P<.001 and P<.001, respectively). In two regression models, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (P<.001) and relatively high...

  14. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on glycaemic profile & their localization in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Shobhit Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in irradiated diabetic rat model has transiently shown to decrease blood glucose level. This study examines the effect of high dose and multiple injections of MSCs on glycemic profile, their localization and regeneration of islet in diabetic Wistar rat. Methods: The study was carried out in male Wistar rats categorized into three groups (n=6, in each group: Group 1 as control, group 2 streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg induced diabetic group and group 3 experimental group; 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelled allogenic MSCs were injected in the non-irradiated diabetic rat of the experimental group through tail vein. The blood glucose profile was subsequently monitored at regular intervals. Rats were sacrificed on day 45 and pancreas was examined for localization of BrdU labelled stem cells by immunofluorescence and islet-neogenesis by immunohistochemistry . Results: There was a significant reduction in blood glucose level after administration of MSCs in the experimental group (P<0.001. The presence of BrdU labelled MSCs in islet suggested their localization in the pancreas. Co-expression of anti-BrdU and anti-insulin antibody indicated trans-differentiation / fusion into insulin producing cells evidenced by significant increase in total number of islet (P=0.004 and insulin positive cells ( P<0.0001 in experimental group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the MSCs administration in non-irradiated diabetic Wistar rat reduced hyperglycaemia and was accompanied by increased islet-neogengesis, possibly through trans- differentiation/fusion.

  15. Relationship of glycaemic level of mother in last two hours before delivery and occurrence of acute neonatal complications

    Georgy Joy Eralil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common pre-existing medical disorder seen in pregnancy. Between 2-5% of pregnancies are complicated by diabetes. 87.5% of these women have gestational diabetes, 7.5% have type 1 and 5% have type 2. The study was designed to know the relation of control of diabetes to neonatal outcome in terms of metabolic complications. Methods: Study was conducted in laboring women in government medical college hospital Kottayam. Selection criteria was based on oral GTT. Patients with multiple gestations, other medical disorders were excluded. All the patients were monitored with hourly RBS in active phase of labor. It was compared with cord levels of RBS, calcium, haematocrit and admission to SCNU. For data measured at normal level Chi square test was used to study the significance of difference between the groups. For statistically significant differences odds ratios were computed and 95% confidence limits are calculated. Whenever necessary for quantitative data t- test was used to study the difference in mean values. Results: All normal RBS had live births and all the intrauterine deaths were associated with maternal hyperglycaemia. Among the SCNU admission 87.5% had hyperglycaemia in mother. 33.3 % of abnormal RBS had admission to SCNU whereas only 3.4% of the normal RBS group had admission. The risk of SCNU admission is 14 times more among babies of mothers with abnormal maternal RBS. X2 = 16.188 P = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between maternal RBS and cord RBS is 0.35 indicating a negative relationship between maternal RBS and Cord RBS. The coefficient of determination (r2 is 12 indicates 12% of variation of RBS is explained by maternal RBS. The average RBs cord among mothers with abnormal maternal RBS is 58.4 and among mothers with normal RBS is 72.4 and the observed difference is statistically significant. Conclusions: Heart The study shows that tight regulation of maternal glucose levels during labor can reduce

  16. A mixed diet supplemented with l-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects.

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Nielsen, Søren; Bukhave, Klaus; Andersen, Jens R

    2015-01-01

    In addition to a yet-to-be published study showing arabinose to have an inhibiting effect on maltase, in vitro studies have shown l-arabinose to exert an inhibiting effect on small-intestinal sucrase and maltase and the consumption of a sucrose-rich drink containing l-arabinose to exert positive effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding l-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of l-arabinose added to a sugar drink could be reproduced in subjects consuming a mixed meal containing sucrose and/or starch from wheat flour. A total of seventeen healthy men participated in study 1, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects consumed two different breakfast meals containing sucrose and starch from wheat flour (meal A) or starch from wheat flour (meal B) supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 % l-arabinose by weight after a 12 h fast. A total of six healthy men participated in study 2, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects also consumed meal B served in two different textures and a liquid meal with maltose supplemented with 0 and 20 % l-arabinose. In addition, 1·5 g of paracetamol was chosen as an indirect marker to assess gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured regularly for 3 h. The results of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of l-arabinose added to sucrose drinks when l-arabinose was mixed in a solid or semi-solid mixed meal. PMID:25400106

  17. ACHIEVING OPTIMAL SCHOOL CLIMATE

    Nizar SHIHADI

    2015-01-01

    Development of optimal school climate is the basis of educational, social and moral work in school. Optimal educa-tional climate in a school is a condition for learning and development of all those attending the educational establishment (pupils, teachers and parents). The school is responsible for the personal, cognitive, emotional, social and moral develop-ment of pupils. The educational team has the ability and commitment to promote an educational climate. Improvement of study achievements...

  18. Motivation and achievements

    Stefanova, Sladzana; Miceski, Trajko

    2015-01-01

    Motivation of employees as management function is an important factor in encouraging, guiding and strengthening the behavior of employees in organizations. For one organization is very important the employees to be motivated, only thus will be achieved its objectives. The manager is usually responsible for the motivation of employees and for fulfilment their needs in the workplace, but it is recommended the employees to motivate themselves. Generally, employees are working t...

  19. 基于51单片机的蔬菜大棚监控系统设计与实现%The Design and Achievement of Automatic Monitoring Control System in Vegetable shed

    聂虹

    2011-01-01

    本设计基于51单片机[1]的设施栽培环境检测与控制系统。它适用于各种温室、大棚等设施栽培环境参数的检测与控制。本文首先介绍了监控系统的功能和结构框图,随后阐述了其硬件和软件的设计与实现,具有简单、低成本、高可靠性、易于实现和维护、可用电池供电等诸多优点,具有很好地推广及应用前景。%The design is based on 51 single-chip cultivation environment detection and control system. It is suitable for greenhouse cultivation of environmental parameters such as detection and control. The functions and design block diagram of the monitor system are presented first, and then the design and implementation of hardware and software are also expounded, such as simplicity, low power, low cost, high reliability, easy achievement and maintenance and long term battery power supply, etc. and has very good prospects of popularization and utilization.

  20. Adhere to the scientific and sustainable control strategies to achieve the elimination of filariasis in China%坚持科学的和可持续的防治策略实现全国消除丝虫病

    孙德建; 伍卫平; 姚立农

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the establishment of China' s strategy for control and elimination of filariasis and improvement of control measures were described.Through the efforts of half a century,the national goal of elimination of filariasis was achieved in 2006,and China has become the first country since the 50th World Health Assembly adopted 'Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem resolution' in 1997.%该文阐述了我国控制和消除丝虫病策略的确立以及防治措施的改进.我国经过半个世纪的努力,至2006年实现了全国消除丝虫病的目标,成为1997年第50届世界卫生大会通过的"消除作为一个公共卫生问题的淋巴丝虫病"决议以来,第一个宣告实现消除淋巴丝虫病的国家.

  1. Achieving customer choice

    The Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) is composed of 66 members representing the largest industrial consumers of electricity in Ontario. AMPCO's goal is to achieve competitive rates and a reliable supply of electricity in the province. This paper explains AMPCO's minimum conditions that customers should expect in Ontario's new restructured electricity marketplace. A review of the White Paper and what AMPCO considers to be its major weaknesses, namely the creation of one single giant generating company, (Genco), problems regarding stranded debt, market regulation, and increased volatility in the marketplace are also addressed

  2. Achieving empowerment through information.

    Parmalee, J C; Scholomiti, T O; Whitman, P; Sees, M; Smith, D; Gardner, E; Bastian, C

    1993-05-01

    Despite the problems we encountered, which are not uncommon with the development and implementation of any data system, we are confident that our success in achieving our goals is due to the following: establishing a reliable information database connecting several related departments; interfacing with registration and billing systems to avoid duplication of data and chance for error; appointing a qualified Systems Manager devoted to the project; developing superusers to include intensive training in the operating system (UNIX), parameters of the information system, and the report writer. We achieved what we set out to accomplish: the development of a reliable database and reports on which to base a variety of hospital decisions; improved hospital utilization; reliable clinical data for reimbursement, quality management, and credentialing; enhanced communication and collaboration among departments; and an increased profile of the departments and staff. Data quality specialists, Utilization Management and Quality Management coordinators, and the Medical Staff Credentialing Supervisor and their managers are relied upon by physicians and administrators to provide timely information. The staff are recognized for their knowledge and expertise in their department-specific information. The most significant reward is the potential for innovation. Users are no longer restricted to narrow information corridors. UNIX programming encourages creativity without demanding a degree in computer science. The capability to reach and use diverse hospital database information is no longer a dream. PMID:10139109

  3. Salt and the glycaemic response.

    Thorburn, A W; Brand, J C; Truswell, A S

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that salt increases plasma glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods was investigated. Six healthy adults took four morning test meals randomly: 50 g carbohydrate as cooked lentils or white bread, with or without 4.25 g of added salt (an amount within the range of salt found in a meal). When salt was added to the lentils the incremental area under the three hour plasma glucose curve was significantly greater than that for lentils alone (43.2 mmol.min/l v 11.1 mmol.min/l (...

  4. Research on Data Connection Between Nation Census of Water Achievements and Flood Control Project Database%水利普查成果与防洪工程数据库数据对接研究

    杨海坤; 陈德清; 谭巍

    2012-01-01

      水利普查通过规范化的数据收集,确保对象不重不漏、指标切合实际,为水利信息化积累重要数据资源。研究表明水利普查成果与防洪工程数据库在工程对象和指标数据项2方面具有一定对应性,结合以指标分析、数据准备、名录对比分析和数据整编入库为主要工作内容的技术路线,可实现两者的数据对接,提高防洪工程数据的完整性、准确性和时效性。%  National census for water is a survey by the standardized data collection, ensuring no repeat or leak of objects, index practical, so as to accumulate important data resource for informatization of water conservancy. Studies show that national census for water achievements and flood control project database in two ways which are engineering objects and index data have a certain correspondence. Combining with the technical route which is with index analysis, data preparation, directory comparison analysis and data reorganization storage as the main work content, it can realize two data connecting, and can enhance flood control project data integrity, accuracy and timeliness.

  5. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  6. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  7. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  8. Saxagliptin is non-inferior to glipizide in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin alone: a 52-week randomised controlled trial

    Gause-Nilsson, Ingrid; Göke, Burkhard; Gallwitz, Baptist; Eriksson, Johan; Hellqvist, Asa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Assess the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin vs. glipizide, as add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone. Methods and patients: A total of 858 patients (age ?18 years; glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] >6.5?10.0%; on stable metformin doses ?1500mg/day) were randomised 1:1 to saxagliptin 5mg/day or glipizide up-titrated as needed from 5?20mg/day for 52 weeks. The primary objective wa...

  9. Sleep and Student Achievement

    Eric R Eide; Mark H. Showalter

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between sleep and student performance on standardized tests. We model test scores as a nonlinear function of sleep, which allows us to compute the hours of sleep associated with maximum test scores. We refer to this as “optimal” hours of sleep. We also evaluate how the sleep and student performance relationship changes with age. We use the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, which includes excellent control variables that are not usually av...

  10. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  11. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  12. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  13. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management

  14. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  15. CAMS achievements in 1995

    CAMS (Computerized Accident Management Support) is a system being developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project with additional financing from the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) and the Nordic NKS/RAK-2 project. Three types of users are envisaged: the staff in the control room, the staff in the technical support centre and the staff at a national emergency centre. It is still an experimental system. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate kindly accepted to test CAMS at a safety exercise on the 4th of May, 1995. CAMS is designed assuming automatic data transfer from the plant. Missing the data link, a simulator running in the next room was updated now and then with data received by phone. As seen from CAMS, it did not matter if the data came from a fake plant or from a real plant, except that the data were delayed. Overall, it seemed that CAMS can be a very important tool for a national authority. A data link from the plant would increase its usefulness. Several comments on design features were collected and will be used to improve the system. The model needs more inputs to control the main parameters, and a larger repertoire of fault conditions should be put into the model. In the second half of 1995 the work on CAMS has concentrated upon designing new modules for signal validation, tracking simulation and state identification. This will provide better capabilities for on-line monitoring and assessment of the plant state. Further, it has been proposed to introduce Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to assist in risk monitoring. A first prototype has been made on a personal computer showing the main features of such a PSA module. (au)

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to AlphaGOS® and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    . This opinion applies to non-digestible carbohydrates (e.g. non-starch polysaccharides, resistant oligosaccharides and resistant starch) which should replace sugars in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, non-digestible carbohydrates......, which is the subject of the health claim, and the food constituent (i.e. sugars) that non-digestible carbohydrates should replace in foods or beverages are both sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses might...... application. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of foods/beverages containing non-digestible carbohydrates and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses as compared with sugar-containing foods/beverages....

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 1868, 1881) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium alginate and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is “sodium alginate and Ascophyllum nodosum”. From the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium alginate. The Panel considers that sodium alginate with an M....../G ratio of 1.50 is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “alginate can reduce the activity of digestive enzymes and reduce glucose absorption”. The target population is assumed to be subjects who wish to reduce their post-prandial glycaemic responses. The...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to arabinoxylan produced from wheat endosperm and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 830) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is “wheat grain fibre”. From the references and information provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent that is responsible for the claimed effect is arabinoxylan from wheat endosperm. The...... claim in relation to arabinoxylan produced from wheat endosperm and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... responses. The Panel considers that the reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post-prandial insulinaemic responses are not disproportionally increased) may be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one well-designed intervention...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses”. The food constituent, “slowly digestible starch (SDS)”, as defined by the applicant in applying an appropriate method (such as the method developed by Englyst et al. (1996; 1999......)), which is the subject of the health claim, and the comparator food constituent, “rapidly digestible starch (RDS)”, as defined by the applicant, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post......-prandial insulinaemic responses are not disproportionally increased), may be a beneficial physiological effect. The studies provided consistently showed that consumption of 40-50 % of digestible starch as “SDS” in cereal products containing about 55-70 % of available carbohydrates as starch and 30-45 % as sugars in the...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function (ID 603, 653) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    ; attention; memory”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal brain function. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal brain function is a beneficial...... physiological effect. Glucose is the preferred energy source for most body cells. The brain requires glucose for its energy needs. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of glycaemic carbohydrates and maintenance of normal brain function. A daily...... intake of 130 g of glycaemic carbohydrates has been estimated to cover the glucose requirement of the brain. Such amounts can be consumed as part of a balanced diet. The target population is the general population....

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to high-fibre sourdough rye bread and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    scientific substantiation of a health claim related to high‑fibre sourdough rye bread and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that the food, high-fibre sourdough rye bread, and its “comparator”, glucose, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. A...... reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses might be a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that in the four human intervention studies submitted as pertinent to the health claim the consumption of high-fibre sourdough rye bread induced a significant reduction of post-prandial blood glucose......-prandial blood glucose responses as compared with glucose. However, the Panel considers that solid foods, including high-fibre sourdough rye bread, are generally not considered as an alternative to glucose solutions. In this context, conditions of use cannot be established for this health claim....

  2. Controlling

    Lohnická, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the description and analysis of controlling methods in one unnamed company, which is the subsidiary of multinational corporation. Controlling, its function, objectives and controlling methods are theoretically defined in the thesis. The practical part of the thesis is focused on methods of planning in the company, its system of calculations, responsibility centres and reporting.

  3. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Arti...

  5. Achievement of 30% conversion from O II to O II(a1Δ) at 50 torr using an integrally cooled, controlled avalanche ionized electric O II(a1Δ) generator

    Hill, Alan E.

    2007-06-01

    imparted to the gas by means of the ~6 KW subbreakdown pump field, while another 2700 watts is applied to the controlled avalanche field. The generator consists of 24 each, 1 cm diameter tubes that are submerged in rapidly circulating cold fluorinert. Heat is efficiently removed so that that the gas temperature, initially 273°K, raises only by 125°K, as evidenced by spectrographic analysis of the fine structure of O II(b1Σ) at lower pressure. Since all necessary conditions have been met, a 30% conversion rate of O II to O II(a1Δ) has been achieved. Fortuitously, neither O atom production nor O II(b1Σ) production is visible in the spectra of the higher pressure, best yield runs. Essentially all other spectral lines are dwarfed in comparison the O II(a1Δ) line. Energy normally partitioned to O II(b1Σ) and apparently O atoms now feeds into O II(a1Δ) directly, enabling electrical efficiency to exceed 40%.

  6. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  7. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  8. Parenting Style and Black Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Attaway, Nicole M.; Bry, Brenna Hafer

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between maternal beliefs in control and responsiveness and adolescent academic achievement were examined by interviewing 59 Black mothers and female guardians of adolescents, ages 11 to 19, living in a northeastern small city or adjacent suburb and correlating their answers to year-end report cards of their adolescents.…

  9. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  10. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  11. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  12. Attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement towards Physics Achievement

    Arsaythamby Veloo; Rahimah Nor; Rozalina Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students’ attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards Physics, career related to Physics, importance of Physics, difficulty of understanding Physics, Physics teachers and Physics equipment usage. The re...

  13. Challenges of maintaining research protocol fidelity in a clinical care setting: A qualitative study of the experiences and views of patients and staff participating in a randomized controlled trial

    Farmer Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trial research has predominantly focused on patient and staff understandings of trial concepts and/or motivations for taking part, rather than why treatment recommendations may or may not be followed during trial delivery. This study sought to understand why there was limited attainment of the glycaemic target (HbA1c ≤6.5% among patients who participated in the Treating to Target in Type 2 Diabetes Trial (4-T. The objective was to inform interpretation of trial outcomes and provide recommendations for future trial delivery. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 patients and 21 health professionals recruited from 11 of 58 trial centres in the UK. Patients were broadly representative of those in the main trial in terms of treatment allocation, demographics and glycaemic control. Both physicians and research nurses were interviewed. Results Most patients were committed to taking insulin as recommended by 4-T staff. To avoid hypoglycaemia, patients occasionally altered or skipped insulin doses, normally in consultation with staff. Patients were usually unaware of the trial's glycaemic target. Positive staff feedback could lead patients to believe they had been 'successful' trial participants even when their HbA1c exceeded 6.5%. While some staff felt that the 4-T automated insulin dose adjustment algorithm had increased their confidence to prescribe larger insulin doses than in routine clinical practice, all described situations where they had not followed its recommendations. Staff regarded the application of a 'one size fits all' glycaemic target during the trial as contradicting routine clinical practice where they would tailor treatments to individuals. Staff also expressed concerns that 'tight' glycaemic control might impose an unacceptably high risk of hypoglycaemia, thus compromising trust and safety, especially amongst older patients. To address these concerns, staff tended to adapt the trial protocol to

  14. Boredom and Academic Achievement: Testing a Model of Reciprocal Causation

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C.; Goetz, Thomas; Perry, Raymond P.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model linking boredom and academic achievement is proposed. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, the model posits that boredom and achievement reciprocally influence each other over time. Data from a longitudinal study with college students (N = 424) were used to examine the hypothesized effects. The…

  15. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  16. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  17. Impact of Metacognition on Guitar Performance Achievement

    YOKUŞ, Tuba

    2013-01-01

    This study has been carried out to determine the impact of the development of metacognition on guitar performance achievement in the individual instrument guitar lesson, which is included in the Bachelor’s program of Music Teacher Education in Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education, Department of Fine Arts Education, in Turkey. “Experimental Design with Pretest–Posttest Control Group” has been used, in order to achieve the objective of the study. The study sample (N=10) consists of g...

  18. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed patients with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: A double-blind randomised placebo controlled 6-month trial

    Wahlbeck Kristian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycaemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this investigator-initiated trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on quality of life, metabolic control, and mental well-being in mildly depressed diabetics aged 50–70 years. Methods We randomised 49 mildly depressed primary care outpatients with non-optimally controlled diabetes to a 6-month double-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or matching placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were quality of life and glycaemic control. The primary global outcome of the study was defined as a 10 points improvement in the SF-36 quality of life score. The primary metabolic outcome of the study was defined as a 0.8%-units decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c(GHbA1c. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results Six patients withdrew their consent before starting medication and six dropped out later in the study. We performed analysis of covariance with the baseline value as a covariate. Quality of life and glycaemic control as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety improved in both groups over the 6-month study period. After three months of treatment we found a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups in GHbA1c (mean difference = 0.59%-units, p = 0.018 and in SF-36 score (mean difference = 11.0 points, p = 0.039. However, at the end of the study, no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. No severe adverse events occurred. Conclusion This pragmatic study of primary care patients did not confirm earlier preliminary findings indicating a beneficial effect of paroxetine on glycaemic control. The study indicates that in pragmatic circumstances any possible benefit from administration of paroxetine in diabetic patients with sub

  19. Attribution theory in science achievement

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  20. The Process of Science Achievement.

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  1. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  2. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  3. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  4. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  5. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  6. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  7. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS

    V.AMBEDKAR

    2012-01-01

    The world is becoming more and more competitive. Quality of performance has become the key factor for personal progress. Parents desire that their children climb the ladder of performance to as high a level as possible. This desire for a high level of achievement puts a lot of pressure on students, teachers, schools, and, in general, the educational system itself. In fact, it appears as if, the whole system of education revolves round the academic achievement of students, though various other...

  8. Height and cognitive achievement among Indian children.

    Spears, Dean

    2012-03-01

    Taller children perform better on average on tests of cognitive achievement, in part because of differences in early-life health and net nutrition. Recent research documenting this height-achievement slope has primarily focused on rich countries. Using the India Human Development Survey, a representative sample of 40,000 households which matches anthropometric data to learning tests, this paper documents a height-achievement slope among Indian children. The height-achievement slope in India is more than twice as steep as in the U.S. An earlier survey interviewed some IHDS children's households eleven years before. Including matched early-life control variables reduces the apparent effect of height, but does not eliminate it; water, sanitation, and hygiene may be particularly important for children's outcomes. Being one standard deviation taller is associated with being 5 percentage points more likely to be able to write, a slope that falls only to 3.4 percentage points controlling for a long list of contemporary and early-life conditions. PMID:21907646

  9. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world's large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City's experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  10. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  11. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  12. Weight Control

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to rye fibre and changes in bowel function (ID 825), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 826) and maintenance of normal blood LDL

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to rye fibre and changes in bowel function, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13...... health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is rye fibre. The Panel considers that rye fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects....

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha-cyclodextrin and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 2926, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to alpha-cyclodextrin and......), may be a beneficial physiological effect. The proposed target population is individuals who wish to reduce their post-prandial glycaemic responses. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two intervention studies showed a significant effect of alpha-cyclodextrin added to starch on...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to high-fibre sourdough rye bread and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Oy Karl Fazer AB, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to high‑fibre sourdough rye bread and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that the food, high-fibre sourdough rye...

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to non-digestible carbohydrates and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Beneo-Orafti SA, Sensus BV and Cosucra-Groupe Warcoing SA, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from inulin and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. Non-dig...

  17. The effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and related metabolic parameters in people at risk of type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Menon, Ravi K; Rickard, Anna P; Mannan, Nasima; Timms, Peter M; Sharp, Stephen J.; Martineau, Adrian; Boucher, Barbara J; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Simon J Griffin; Hitman, Graham A; Forouhi, Nita G

    2013-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Effective strategies to address this public health challenge are currently lacking. A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations between low concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and the incidence of diabetes, but a causal link has not been established. We investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic status of individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods/design...

  18. Living Well with Diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered intervention for maintenance of weight loss, physical activity and glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Eakin Elizabeth G; Reeves Marina M; Marshall Alison L; Dunstan David W; Graves Nicholas; Healy Genevieve N; Bleier Jonathan; Barnett Adrian G; O'Moore-Sullivan Trisha; Russell Anthony; Wilkie Ken

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background By 2025, it is estimated that approximately 1.8 million Australian adults (approximately 8.4% of the adult population) will have diabetes, with the majority having type 2 diabetes. Weight management via improved physical activity and diet is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes management. However, the majority of weight loss trials in diabetes have evaluated short-term, intensive clinic-based interventions that, while producing short-term outcomes, have failed to address is...

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of super-functional environment-resistant materials by controlling trace metal ion implantation; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Gokubiryo kinzoku ion chunyu seigyo ni yoru chokino taikankyo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim was to develop reliable materials high in resistance to hostile environments, greatly improved in their resistance to oxidation, abrasion, and corrosion at high temperatures. To achieve the goal, trace quantities of high melting point metals were implanted into the compound formed on the substrate surface or deep into the substrate material. This year's research and development is outlined below. Important technologies in the ion process involved materials which at high temperatures were very resistant to oxidation, abrasion, and corrosion. The high-temperature oxidation resistant material was studied for use with the automobile supercharger rotor. The study on the high-temperature abrasion resistant material involved Ti-N thin coatings: the optimization of coating conditions, slidability at room temperature, and slidability in a high-temperature atmosphere. As for the high-temperature corrosion resistant material, studies were made to use it for refuse-fueled power generation. The TiAl material was also studied: the effect of ion implantation on the improvement of its high-temperature oxidation resisting capability, analysis into oxidized alloy surface properties, ion implantation into complicatedly shaped items and the optimum material for them, and the surface treatment by ion beams for improving resistance to high-temperature corrosion. (NEDO)

  20. Guided self-determination improves life skills with Type 1 diabetes and A1C in randomized controlled trial

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report 1-year results of newly developed method, guided self-determination (GSD), applied in group training (GSD-GT) for Type 1 diabetes patients with persistent poor glycaemic control. Methods GSD was designed on the basis of qualitative research to help patients develop life skills...... with diabetes using worksheets filled in at home and coached by nurses in mutual reflection. We randomized 18–49-year-old adults at a Danish university hospital to either 16 h GSD-GT in 2001 or to similar training 1 year later. Inclusion criteria: mean A1C ≥ 8.0% for at least 2 years, disease onset ≤40...... < 0.001); (c) increased perceived competence in managing diabetes (p < 0.01); (d) fewer diabetes-related problems (p < 0.05); and (e) improved glycaemic control (p < 0.01). Conclusion GSD was effective in improving life skills with diabetes, including A1C, over a period of 1 year. Practice...

  1. Evaluate the effect of oat-beta glucan in controlling blood glucose levels among type 2 diabetic individuals

    Ahmad Abdulualrazag Ali Albalawi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate hyperglycemia due to deficiency in producing insulin or inefficient action of this hormone. Patients with DM are frequently afflicted with ischemic vascular disease, wound healing defect, vascular alterations, myocardic infarction, nephropathies, retinopathies and neuropathies. The uses of hypoglycemic agents or insulin are the common conventional treatments of diabetes. However, the frequent use of such expensive medications increased the financial burden upon patients. Low glycaemic food consumption is a very fruitful alternative in controlling diabetes. Foods that are rich in fiber are on the top of the glycaemic index and the potential component is beta glucan. The evidence of consuming oat beta-glucan to enhance glycaemia and insulin levels is not well established. So, the objective of this overview review is to evaluate the effect of oat-beta glucan in controlling blood glucose levels among type 2 diabetic individuals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1309-1312

  2. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  3. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  4. Achieving universal access to broadband

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be...

  5. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  6. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  7. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  8. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  9. Science Engagement and Science Achievement: Longitudinal Models Using NELS Data

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Mo, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The study explored the relationship of self-concept and locus of control to science engagement and science achievement. Furthermore, the relationship of self variables with science engagement and science achievement was studied across ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). The data were accessed from the 3 waves of the National…

  10. Teacher Practices and Middle-School Science Achievements

    Odom, Arthur L.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; LaNasa, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the construction and application of an instrument entitled the "Science Achievement Influences Survey" to assess combined effects of student attitudes about science, peer interaction, and home support, and the frequency of student-centred and teacher-centred instructional practices on student achievement. Controlling for pre-test…

  11. Dramatic change in a young woman’s perception of her diabetes and remarkable reduction in HbA1c after an individual course of Guided Self-Determination

    Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes participated in a randomised controlled trial proving effectiveness of a flexible Guided Self-Determination (GSD) intervention. She had for 10 years been living with a complex situation of eating disorder, poor glycaemic control, non-attendance and...... psychosocial distress. She managed to change her perception of diabetes dramatically and improved her glycaemic control. Considering the complexity of her case, we explored how she achieved these changes. A GSD-trained nurse delivered the intervention, which involves reflection sheets and advanced professional...

  12. Lavkulhydratdiæt til patienter med type 2-diabetes

    Gram-Kampmann, Eva-Marie; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Recently, low-carbohydrate diets have increased in popularity as a method to achieve glycaemic control and weight loss in Type 2 diabetes patients. However, there is a lack of consistency and long-term results in existing studies on patients with Type 2 diabetes. In this review, we address current...... knowledge of low-carbohydrate diets and how they affect glycaemic control, diabetic dyslipidaemia, weight and markers of cardiovascular risk, and our aim is to aid medical practitioners in guiding patients with Type 2 diabetes who wish to try a low-carbohydrate diet in order to take control of their disease....

  13. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    A. Vrugt; F.J. Oort

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  14. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  15. Development of intelligent robots - Achievements and issues

    Nitzan, D.

    1985-03-01

    A flexible, intelligent robot is regarded as a general purpose machine system that may include effectors, sensors, computers, and auxiliary equipment and, like a human, can perform a variety of tasks under unpredictable conditions. Development of intelligent robots is essential for increasing the growth rate of today's robot population in industry and elsewhere. Robotics research and development topics include manipulation, end effectors, mobility, sensing (noncontact and contact), adaptive control, robot programming languages, and manufacturing process planning. Past achievements and current issues related to each of these topics are described briefly.

  16. Migrants and educational achievement gaps

    Entorf, Horst

    2015-01-01

    As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...

  17. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-d...

  18. School sport and academic achievement

    Bradley, John L.; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the Healthy Body, Healthy Mind philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects and research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This case study aims to investigate how partic...

  19. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations.The emerg...

  20. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen

    2006-01-01

    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  1. Creativity, knowledge and school achievement

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of education the knowledge is acquired which is a necessary base for creativity. The problem of relations between creativity and knowledge in school context is posed as a problem of relations between creativity and academic performance due to the influence it has on personal and professional development of an individual. The paper presents the results of survey on relations between creativity, academic performance and academic preferences. Creativity was measured by the test for creative thinking - drawing production of Urban and Jellen, academic performance by general achievement, and academic preferences by a questionnaire. The sample comprised final primary school graders. Low and statistically significant positive correlation was found between creativity and school achievement in the sub-sample of girls. However, girls have a significantly better school achievement and prefer art as a school subject and the test administered demands visual art expression. Hence, it can not be claimed for sure that the obtained results reflect realistic differences in creativity between boys and girls. It is of vital importance for work in school the data that high creativity can be possessed by students who are failures at school. It has been concluded that initial step in the acquisition of knowledge that will contribute to student creative thinking and behavior is the development of cognitive flexibility.

  2. Effects of sulbutiamine on diabetic polyneuropathy: an open randomised controlled study in type 2 diabetics.

    Kiew, K K; Wan Mohamad, W B; Ridzuan, A; Mafauzy, M

    2002-01-01

    Thirty patients with diabetic polyneuropathy were recruited from the diabetic clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from 1996 to 1998. They were randomly assigned either sulbutiamine (Arcalion(®)) (15 patients) or no treatment (control group; 15 patients). Glycaemic control was assessed by blood glucose and HbA1. Severity of neuropathy was assessed by symptom and sign score, and electrophysiological parameters (nerve conduction velocity and compound muscle action potential) at entry to the study and after 6 weeks. There were improvements in the electrophysiological parameters in the treatment group when compared to the controls with significant improvement in the median nerve conduction velocity (psulbutiamine treated group. (pSulbutiamine objectively improved peripheral nerve function in diabetic polyneuropathy although the symptom score did not improve, possibly due to the short duration of the study. PMID:22969314

  3. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Development of technologies for creating high-quality crystalline materials for low-loss power control devices; 1999 nendo teisonshitsu denryoku seigyo soshiyo kohinshitsu kessho zairyo sosei gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Researches are conducted for the advancement of, and loss reduction for, semiconductor devices for controlling electric power. Physical properties of molten semiconductors etc. are accurately measured in a microgravity environment and computer simulations are performed, which are for the production of larger-diameter, higher-quality semiconductor crystal materials. In the measurement of physical properties of molten semiconductors etc. carried out at JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center) free-fall facilities where a high-quality microgravity environment is available, measurements are made of the surface tension, density, viscosity index, heat conductivity, and vertical spectral factor of the molten silicon. Solubility is measured of silica, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide, and, in equilibrium with these, the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in molten silicon, and highly reliable data are obtained. As for the comprehensive analysis code developed under this subject, the X-ray image data of the surface of a solid solution, collected from a crystal growing in a small Cz furnace at the NEC Fundamental Research Laboratories, and data of oxygen concentration in the silicon crystal agree excellently with the result of calculation, which suggests that the code is reliable. (NEDO)

  4. Pregnancy-induced sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in women with Type 1 diabetes

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Laugesen, C.S.;

    2010-01-01

    To determine the progression of diabetic retinopathy in pregnant women with diabetes offered tight glycaemic and blood pressure control.......To determine the progression of diabetic retinopathy in pregnant women with diabetes offered tight glycaemic and blood pressure control....

  5. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  6. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  7. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having...

  8. On Roald Amundsen's scientific achievements

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the significant direct and indirect contributions to science made by the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen in the period 1897–1924. It documents that his expeditions through the North-west Passage (1903–06 with Gjøa, to the South Pole (1910–12 with Fram and through the North-east Passage (1918–1920 and the Chukchi and East Siberian seas (1921–25 with Maud yielded vast amounts of published scientific material on meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, geology, palaeontology, oceanography, ethnography, zoology and botany, which, though celebrated at the time, have since received scant recognition in more recent assessments of Amundsen's achievements.

  9. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    , professional associations argue that the low numbers of people in STEM fields can severely damage the competitiveness of developed nations in international, globalized markets. The narrative that connects progress, economic superiority, and development to citizen’s mathematical competence is made intelligible...... as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what......, H. (1899). Préface. L' Enseignement Mathématique, 1(1), 1-5. Popkewitz, T. S. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the age of school reform: Science, education, and making society by making the child. New York: Routledge....

  10. 基于先进工艺的低功耗小型化采编测控数传一体化设计与实现%Design and realization of the integral whole turns of adopt plait to control number low achievement and small scaled based on advanced craft

    卢丹; 付海燕; 纪春国

    2016-01-01

    This text aims at an aircraft performance the task ask low achievement to consume, small scaled method for turn, adopting the forerunner's technological design, pass the design that the advanced craft instruction radio frequency, radicle takes a mold piece, the engineering carried out low achievement consume, small scaled turn to adopt plait to measure to control number to spread integral whole to turn, solved the Han that the hot design, radio frequency and radicle of system heat elimination, big power spare part takes circuit board to pack, the structure design an etc. crux within engineering realization and carried out low achievement consume small scaled turn, design reasonable can go.%本文针对飞行器执行任务要求低功耗、小型化,采用了先进的工艺设计方法,通过先进工艺指导射频、基带模块的设计,工程实现了低功耗、小型化采编测控数传一体化,解决了系统散热、大功率器件的热设计、射频、基带电路板的焊装、结构设计等工程实现中的难点,实现了低功耗小型化,设计合理可行.

  11. Network computing : limits and achievability

    Karamchandani, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in hardware technology have ushered in a digital revolution, with networks of thousands of small devices, each capable of sensing, computing, and communicating data, fast becoming a near reality. These networks are envisioned to be used for monitoring and controlling our transportation systems, power grids, and engineering structures. They are typically required to sample a field of interest, do 'in-network' computations, and then communicate a relevant summary of the data to a d...

  12. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-01-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, a...

  13. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to r...

  14. Achieving Symptom Control in Patients with Moderate Asthma

    Weir, Nargues A.; Levine, Stewart J.

    2011-01-01

    Disease severity in asthma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe based upon the frequency of symptoms or the severity of airflow obstruction. This review will focus on the treatment of youths greater than 12 years of age and adults with moderate persistent asthma. Moderate asthmatics may have daily symptoms that cause some limitation with normal daily activities and require use of a rescue inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist inhaler or experience nocturnal awakenings secondary to asthm...

  15. Soft commitment: self-control achieved by response persistence.

    Siegel, E; Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    With reinforcement contingent on a single peck on either of two available keys (concurrent continuous reinforcement schedules) 4 pigeons, at 80% of free-feeding weights, preferred a smaller-sooner reinforcer (2.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 0.5-s delay) to a larger-later reinforcer (4.5 s of mixed grain preceded by a 3.5-s delay). However, when the smaller-sooner and larger-later reinforcers were contingent on a concurrent fixed-ratio 31 schedule (the first 30 pecks distributed in any way ...

  16. Report on research achievement in relation with developing fundamental combustion control technologies in fiscal 1998. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces; 1998 nendo nensho seigyo kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Development is intended to be made on fundamental combustion control technologies applicable to high-performance industrial furnaces that can reduce energy consumption and respond to environment preservation requirements. With an intention to achieve reduction in combustion exhaust gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, fundamental studies will be made on factors to decide flame shapes as represented by high-temperature combustion and flame shape control by utilizing microgravity environment, and researches will be made on combustion systems. Devices required for the experiments were fabricated to evaluate critical combustion characteristics of flames in furnaces including industrial furnaces, analyze and evaluate flame control parameters, and study low-pollution combustion technologies. Experimental methods acquired by 1997 were used for the experiments under the microgravity environment. Evaluation experiments were performed on flame shape control technologies and flame radiation characteristics, and basic experiments on the low-pollution combustion technologies. With these experiments, elucidation of the combustion mechanisms was launched by analyzing and evaluating the acquired data. A flame experimenting device for high-temperature preheated air completed by fiscal 1997 was used to acquire such combustion characteristics data as NOx discharge characteristics when the high-temperature preheated air is used. Based on the result thereof, verification was carried out on simulation models. (NEDO)

  17. Achieving Nuclear Sustainability through Innovation

    In 2000, the IAEA Member States recognized that concerted and coordinated research and development is needed to drive innovation that ensures that nuclear energy can help meet energy needs sustainably in the 21st century. Following an IAEA General Conference resolution, an international 'think tank' and dialogue forum were established. The resulting organization, the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), helps nuclear technology holders and users coordinate the national and international studies, research and other activities needed to achieve innovations in nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. Currently, 38 countries plus the European Commission are participating in the project. This group includes both developing and developed economies that represent more than 75% of the world's population and 85% of its gross domestic product. INPRO undertakes collaborative projects among IAEA Member States, which analyse development scenarios and examine how nuclear energy can support the United Nations' goals for sustainable development in the 21st century. The results of these projects can be applied by IAEA Member States in their national nuclear energy strategies and can lead to international cooperation resulting in beneficial innovations in nuclear energy technology and its deployment. For example, INPRO studies the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, including recycling of spent fuel to increase resource use efficiency and to reduce the waste disposal burdens.

  18. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  19. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  20. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science