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Sample records for achieve efficient signal

  1. Achievable efficiencies for probabilistically cloning the states

    Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli; Wang, Zhixi

    2003-01-01

    We present an example of quantum computational tasks whose performance is enhanced if we distribute quantum information using quantum cloning. Furthermore we give achievable efficiencies for probabilistic cloning the quantum states used in implemented tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance.

  2. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  3. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  4. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  5. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Huang Pingping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  6. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  7. MOSFET analog memory circuit achieves long duration signal storage

    1966-01-01

    Memory circuit maintains the signal voltage at the output of an analog signal amplifier when the input signal is interrupted or removed. The circuit uses MOSFET /Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor/ devices as voltage-controlled switches, triggered by an external voltage-sensing device.

  8. Quality assurance: the management route to achieve efficiency and competitiveness

    Quality Assurance (QA) requires total integration and control of all elements within a particular area of operation so that none is subservient to the others. These elements cover such aspects as administration, design, procurement, manufacture, installation and commissioning. The responsibility for the establishment of requirements and the integration and control of all activities should therefore be assigned to a certain person. Ultimately it is the senior executive of an organization who must accept responsibility for the above mentioned direction and for the quality of the items or services produced by his company. QA is therefore a management function which cannot be delegated. The philosophy and the concept are highlighted of QA as a management tool and a route to achieve efficiency and competitiveness. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs

  9. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  10. Shannon limit of superresolution and its achievement in signal reconstruction

    It is shown, that at signal reconstruction there is improvement limit for resolution (superresolution) as compared to Rayleigh classical diffraction criterion. The limit superresolution depends logarithmically on signal-to-noise ratio and may be calculated by Shannon theorem concerning maximal rate of information transmission through transmission channel with noise. Reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum-likelihood method, is shown to reach practically the limit of superresolution. Results of its application in experiment on nuclear magnetic resonance of UBe13 heavy-fermion superconductor are given

  11. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    None

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  12. Achieving energy efficiency through product policy: the UK experience

    The focus of this paper is on energy efficiency of domestic equipment. It is contended that, in the UK and--by extension--elsewhere. Government has to take the lead in defining low-energy standards for products. In the absence of policy, manufacturers do not recognize the need for carbon reductions in the equipment they design and consumers are unaware of the variation in energy performance in the product range. At present, neither market pull nor technology push can be relied upon to deliver energy savings. The imposition of a weak minimum standard on domestic fridges and freezers in 1999 will, over the lifetime of the appliances already sold by December 2002, save 1 Mt C of carbon dioxide at nil cost to government or to the manufacturers, and a net benefit to consumers of pound 855 m: a highly cost-effective policy. The difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation is that it takes time for the cumulative benefits of an energy efficiency improvement to result in the maximum effect on energy demand reduction: the benefits of the 1999 energy efficiency standard will accumulate until at least 2020. This period is equivalent to the cycle of stock replacement for that particular object. The final level of energy conservation depends upon the offsetting effects of growth in ownership levels and the size of new equipment purchases

  13. Achieving energy efficiency through product policy: the UK experience

    Boardman, Brenda

    2004-06-01

    The focus of this paper is on energy efficiency of domestic equipment. It is contended that, in the UK and--by extension--elsewhere. Government has to take the lead in defining low-energy standards for products. In the absence of policy, manufacturers do not recognize the need for carbon reductions in the equipment they design and consumers are unaware of the variation in energy performance in the product range. At present, neither market pull nor technology push can be relied upon to deliver energy savings. The imposition of a weak minimum standard on domestic fridges and freezers in 1999 will, over the lifetime of the appliances already sold by December 2002, save 1 Mt C of carbon dioxide at nil cost to government or to the manufacturers, and a net benefit to consumers of pound 855 m: a highly cost-effective policy. The difference between energy efficiency and energy conservation is that it takes time for the cumulative benefits of an energy efficiency improvement to result in the maximum effect on energy demand reduction: the benefits of the 1999 energy efficiency standard will accumulate until at least 2020. This period is equivalent to the cycle of stock replacement for that particular object. The final level of energy conservation depends upon the offsetting effects of growth in ownership levels and the size of new equipment purchases.

  14. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  15. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  16. Achieving energy efficiency in restructured markets, implications for IRP

    The shift of the focus of the vertically integrated model to the new unbundled models of organization to attain a ''new competitive'' Electricity Supply Industry brings new subjects into IRP (Integrated Resource Planning) study. The decision centralization on new capacity additions is being substituted by market mechanisms, changing the implementation of the IRP regarding both the construction of new capacity and the DSM. The implication for DSM is that, without a central planning process, it will not be possible to carry out IRP. In some countries they are implementing policies tending to create a more favourable attitude towards energy efficiency, in products and services. The conventional programmes of Demand-Side Management are being redesigned as added-value services to conserve or create market quota through Market Transformation mechanisms, such as Technology Procurement. (author)

  17. Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Hydrostatic Ice Sheet Flow

    Brown, Jed

    2013-03-12

    The hydrostatic equations for ice sheet flow offer improved fidelity compared with the shallow ice approximation and shallow stream approximation popular in today\\'s ice sheet models. Nevertheless, they present a serious bottleneck because they require the solution of a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear system, as opposed to the two-dimensional system present in the shallow stream approximation. This 3D system is posed on high-aspect domains with strong anisotropy and variation in coefficients, making it expensive to solve with current methods. This paper presents a Newton--Krylov multigrid solver for the hydrostatic equations that demonstrates textbook multigrid efficiency (an order of magnitude reduction in residual per iteration and solution of the fine-level system at a small multiple of the cost of a residual evaluation). Scalability on Blue Gene/P is demonstrated, and the method is compared to various algebraic methods that are in use or have been proposed as viable approaches.

  18. Achievement of Narrow-Band CARS Signal by Manipulating Broad-band Laser Spectrum

    We theoretically demonstrate the achievement of narrow-band coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal by manipulating broad-band probe spectrum. The narrowing of the CARS signal depends on the spectrum bandwidth of the probe beam, and thus high-resolution CARS signal for a complicated quantum system can be obtained by the simple spectrum manipulation. Furthermore, the energy-level diagram for the complicated quantum system can also be labelled by measuring the CARS signal at a given frequency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  19. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  20. Quantifying efficient information transduction of biochemical signaling cascades

    Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Cells can be considered as systems that utilize changes in thermodynamic entropy as information. Therefore, they serve as useful models for investigating the relationships between entropy production and information transmission, i.e., signal transduction. Based on the hypothesis that cells apply a chemical reaction cascade for the most efficient transduction of information, we adopted a coding design that minimizes the number of bits per concentration of molecules that are employed for information transduction. As a result, the average rate of entropy production is uniform across all cycles in a cascade reaction. Thus, the entropy production rate can be a valuable measure for the quantification of intracellular signal transduction.

  1. An Efficient Technique for Classification of Electrocardiogram Signals

    EBRAHIMZADEH, A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a Radial Basis Function (RBF neural network method used to analyze ECG signals for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias effectively. The proposed method can accurately classify and differentiate normal (Normal and abnormal heartbeats. Abnormal heartbeats include left bundle branch block (LBBB, right bundle branch block (RBBB, atrial premature contractions (APC and premature ventricular contractions (PVC. This paper proposes a three stage, preprocessing, feature extraction and classification method for the detection of ECG beat types. In the first stage, ECG beats is normalized to a mean of zero and standard deviation of unity. Feature extraction module extracts wavelet approximate coefficients of ECG signals in conjunction with three timing interval features. Then a number of radial basis function (RBF neural networks with different value of spread parameter are designed. We compared the classification ability of five different classes of ECG signals that were achieved over eight files from the MIT/BIH arrhythmia database.

  2. Efficient feature for classification of eye movements using electrooculography signals

    Phukpattaranont Pornchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrooculography (EOG signal is widely and successfully used to detect activities of human eye. The advantages of the EOG-based interface over other conventional interfaces have been presented in the last two decades; however, due to a lot of information in EOG signals, the extraction of useful features should be done before the classification task. In this study, an efficient feature extracted from two directional EOG signals: vertical and horizontal signals has been presented and evaluated. There are the maximum peak and valley amplitude values, the maximum peak and valley position values, and slope, which are derived from both vertical and horizontal signals. In the experiments, EOG signals obtained from five healthy subjects with ten directional eye movements were employed: up, down, right, left, up-right, up-left, down-right down-left clockwise and counterclockwise. The mean feature values and their standard deviations have been reported. The difference between the mean values of the proposed feature from different eye movements can be clearly seen. Using the scatter plot, the differences in features can be also clearly observed. Results show that classification accuracy can approach 100% with a simple distinction feature rule. The proposed features can be useful for various advanced human-computer interface applications in future researches.

  3. Innovative strategies devised by Indian microfinance institutions to achieve cost efficiency

    Nadiya Marakkath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a discussion on the ‘Non-Governmental Organization-Microfinance Institution Partnership Model’ and ‘Securitization Model’ used by Indian microfinance institutions to achieve cost efficiency. These two models are effective strategies devised and used by efficient and sustainable Indian MFIs to reduce their operating cost and financing cost. Achieving such cost efficiency is crucial for microfinance institutions to attain operational self-sustainability without levying high interest rates. Using interview method the study elicits information on these innovative strategies and recommends them to be worthy of emulation for other microfinance institutions operating in the Indian microfinance industry.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of the Efficiency of Physiological Signals in Emotional State Recognition for Healthcare Applications

    B. Mojarradshafie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available efficient monitoring of emotions may provide medical information with diagnostic value for healthcare applications and clinical researches. Different emotions can generate specific patterns in physiology via Autonomic Nervous System (ANS. Consequently, we achieve an acceptable accuracy of the emotion classification using extracting relevant features from physiological signals. In this study, an experiment is conducted to elicit four emotional states (happiness, anger, sadness and relax in twenty four healthy subjects. The physiological signals such as ECG, SCL (Skin Conductivity Level, EMG and Respiration signal are recorded simultaneously. After necessary preprocessing for primary signals such as segmentation, filtering, smoothing, removing artifacts and removal of baseline drift, various features in time and frequency domain are extracted. Feature selection method is used to find best relevant features. Afterward, different dimension reduction algorithms and classification methods are used to compare the efficiency of different physiological signals in emotion recognition. The precision of classifications with different features is found to be higher than 70%. The results show that the different physiological signals have different ability to classify four given affective states. Our proposed methods can result in developing a robust emotional states recognition system for healthcare applications.

  5. An Efficient Implementation of Generalized Delayed Signal Cancellation PLL

    Golestan, Saeed; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Vidal, Ana;

    2016-01-01

    extraction of them. Inspired by the concept of delayed signal cancellation (DSC), the generalized DSC (GDSC) operator has recently been introduced as an interesting option for the PLL prefiltering stage. In its typical structure, the GDSC operator extracts the grid fundamental component and feeds it to a...... voltage quantities, an efficient and low-cost implementation of the GDSCPLL is suggested in this paper. The proposed structure, which is called the enhanced GDSC-PLL (EGDSC-PLL), uses a nonadaptive GDSC operator as its prefiltering stage, and compensates the phase-shift and amplitude scaling caused by...

  6. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  7. An Energy Efficient Compressed Sensing Framework for the Compression of Electroencephalogram Signals

    Simon Fauvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless body sensor networks is gaining popularity in monitoring and communicating information about a person’s health. In such applications, the amount of data transmitted by the sensor node should be minimized. This is because the energy available in these battery powered sensors is limited. In this paper, we study the wireless transmission of electroencephalogram (EEG signals. We propose the use of a compressed sensing (CS framework to efficiently compress these signals at the sensor node. Our framework exploits both the temporal correlation within EEG signals and the spatial correlations amongst the EEG channels. We show that our framework is up to eight times more energy efficient than the typical wavelet compression method in terms of compression and encoding computations and wireless transmission. We also show that for a fixed compression ratio, our method achieves a better reconstruction quality than the CS-based state-of-the art method. We finally demonstrate that our method is robust to measurement noise and to packet loss and that it is applicable to a wide range of EEG signal types.

  8. Enhanced signal-to-noise ratios in frog hearing can be achieved through amplitude death

    Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    In the ear, hair cells transform mechanical stimuli into neuronal signals with great sensitivity relying on certain active processes. Individual hair cell bundles of non-mammals such as frogs and turtles are known to show spontaneous oscillation. However hair bundles in vivo must be quiet in the absence of stimuli, otherwise, the signal is drowned in intrinsic noise. Thus, a certain mechanism is needed to exist in order to suppress intrinsic noise. Here, through a model study of elastically coupled hair bundles of bullfrog sacculi, we show that a low stimulus threshold and a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved through the amplitude death phenomenon (the cessation of spontaneous oscillations by coupling). This phenomenon occurs only when the coupled hair bundles have inhomogeneous distribution, which is likely to be the case in biological systems. We show that the SNR has non-monotonic dependence on the mass of the overlying membrane, and find out that the SNR has maximum value in the region of th...

  9. Energy efficient acquisition and reconstruction of EEG signals.

    Singh, W; Shukla, A; Deb, S; Majumdar, A

    2014-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) the energy consumption is dominated by sensing and communication. Previous Compressed Sensing (CS) based solutions to EEG tele-monitoring over WBAN's could only reduce the communication cost. In this work, we propose a matrix completion based formulation that can also reduce the energy consumption for sensing. We test our method with state-of-the-art CS based techniques and find that the reconstruction accuracy from our method is significantly better and that too at considerably less energy consumption. Our method is also tested for post-reconstruction signal classification where it outperforms previous CS based techniques. At the heart of the system is an Analog to Information Converter (AIC) implemented in 65nm CMOS technology. The pseudorandom clock generator enables random under-sampling and subsequent conversion by the 12-bit Successive Approximation Register Analog to Digital Converter (SAR ADC). AIC achieves a sample rate of 0.5 KS/s, an ENOB 9.54 bits, and consumes 108 nW from 1 V power supply. PMID:25570198

  10. Self-learning Multiscale Simulation for Achieving High Accuracy and High Efficiency Simultaneously

    Li, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new multi-scale molecular dynamics simulation method which can achieve high accuracy and high sampling efficiency simultaneously without aforehand knowledge of the coarse grained (CG) potential and test it for a biomolecular system. Based on the resolution exchange simulations between atomistic and CG replicas, a self-learning strategy is introduced to progressively improve the CG potential by an iterative way. Two tests show that, the new method can rapidly improve the CG potential and achieve efficient sampling even starting from an unrealistic CG potential. The resulting free energy agreed well with exact result and the convergence by the method was much faster than that by the replica exchange method. The method is generic and can be applied to many biological as well as non-biological problems.

  11. Efficiency evaluation of external environments control using bio-signals

    Kawala-Janik, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of bio-signals with various control application prospects. This dissertation regards possible application domain of electroencephalographic signal. The implementation of EEG signals, as a source of information used for control of external devices, became recently a growing concern in the scientific world. Application of electroencephalographic signals in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) (variant of Human-Computer Interfaces (HCI)) as an implement, which enables direct and ...

  12. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination

  13. Achievable Efficiency of Numerical Methods for Simulations of Solar Surface Convection

    Grimm-Strele, Hannes; Muthsam, Herbert J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the achievable efficiency of both the time and the space discretisation methods used in Antares. We show that the fifth order variant of WENO combined with a second order Runge-Kutta scheme is not only more accurate than standard first and second order schemes, but also more efficient taking the computation time into account. Then, we calculate the error decay rates of WENO with several explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for advective and diffusive problems with smooth and non-smooth initial conditions. With this data, we estimate the computational costs of three-dimensional simulations and show that SSP RK(3,2) is the most efficient scheme considered in this comparison.

  14. Device engineering of perovskite solar cells to achieve near ideal efficiency

    Agarwal, Sumanshu, E-mail: sumanshu@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nair, Pradeep R., E-mail: sumanshu@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: prnair@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2015-09-21

    Despite the exciting recent research on perovskite based solar cells, the design space for further optimization and the practical limits of efficiency are not well known in the community. In this letter, we address these aspects through theoretical calculations and detailed numerical simulations. Here, we first provide the detailed balance limit efficiency in the presence of radiative and Auger recombination. Then, using coupled optical and carrier transport simulations, we identify the physical mechanisms that contribute towards bias dependent carrier collection, and hence low fill factors of current perovskite based solar cells. Our detailed simulations indicate that it is indeed possible to achieve efficiencies and fill factors greater than 25% and 85%, respectively, with near ideal super-position characteristics even in the presence of Auger recombination.

  15. The flat fielding and achievable signal-to-noise of the MAMA detectors

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Lindler, Don J.; Bohlin, Ralph C.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was designed to achieve a signal-to-noise (S/N) of at least 100:1 per resolution element. Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMA) observations during Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) confirm that this specification can be met. From analysis of a single spectrum of GD153, with counting statistics of approximately 165 a S/N of approximately 125 is achieved per spectral resolution element in the far ultraviolet (FUV) over the spectral range of 1280A to 1455A. Co-adding spectra of GRW+7OD5824 to increase the counting statistics to approximately 300 yields a S/N of approximately 190 per spectral resolution element over the region extending from 1347A to 1480A in the FUV. In the near ultraviolet (NUV), a single spectrum of GRW+7OD5824 with counting statistics of approximately 200 yields a S/N of approximately 150 per spectral resolution element over the spectral region extending from 2167 to 2520A. Details of the flat field construction, the spectral extraction, and the definition of a spectral resolution element will be described in the text.

  16. Beyond Nyquist: Efficient Sampling of Sparse Bandlimited Signals

    Tropp, Joel A.; Laska, Jason N.; Duarte, Marco F.; Romberg, Justin K.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Wideband analog signals push contemporary analog- to-digital conversion (ADC) systems to their performance limits. In many applications, however, sampling at the Nyquist rate is inefficient because the signals of interest contain only a small number of significant frequencies relative to the band limit, although the locations of the frequencies may not be known a priori. For this type of sparse signal, other sampling strategies are possible. This paper describes a new type of data acquisition...

  17. Energy-Efficient Optical Signal Processing Using Optical Time Lenses

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes advanced functionalities for optical signal processing using optical time lenses. A special focus is devoted to functionalities that allow for energy-savings. In particular, we find that optical signal processing, where the processing is broadband and capable of handling many....... Combining time lenses into telescopic arrangements allows for more advanced signal processing, such as temporal or spectral compression or magnification. A spectral telescope may for instance allow for conversion of OFDM signals to DWDM-like signals, which can be separated passively, i.e. without additional...... bits in a single operation allows for sharing the processing energy by the many bits, and hence the energy per bit is reduced. Such functionalities include serial-to-parallel conversion in a single time lens, where a large number of parallel demultiplexers may be substituted by a single time lens...

  18. High Efficiency, High Linearity, Switch Mode Power Amplifiers for Varying envelop Signal Applications

    Tong, Tian; Sira, Daniel; Nielsen, Michael; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Larsen, Torben

    Transmission of big h-order modulated signals at sufficient linearity while maintaining high power efficiency is always a challenge in modern communication application. Using conventional transmitter topologies, high linearity and high efficiency are two conflicting parameters somehow. However...

  19. Achievement-Relevant Personality: Relations with the Big Five and Validation of an Efficient Instrument.

    Briley, Daniel A; Domiteaux, Matthew; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2014-05-01

    Many achievement-relevant personality measures (APMs) have been developed, but the interrelations among APMs or associations with the broader personality landscape are not well-known. In Study 1, 214 participants were measured on 36 APMs and a measure of the Big Five. Factor analytic results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of five latent dimensions: performance, mastery, self-doubt, effort, and intellectual investment. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience had the most consistent associations with APMs. We constructed a more efficient scale- the Multidimensional Achievement-Relevant Personality Scale (MAPS). In Study 2, we replicated the factor structure and external correlates of the MAPS in a sample of 359 individuals. Finally, we validated the MAPS with four indicators of academic performance and demonstrated incremental validity. PMID:24839374

  20. Achieving Efficient Channel Utilization for Data Communications in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    ZHANG Liang; SHU Yantai

    2005-01-01

    In the IEEE 802. 11 protocol, the adoption of the exponential backoff technique leads to throughput performance strongly dependent on the initial contention window size and, most importantly, on the number of contending stations considered in the network. This paper proposes a simpie but accurate method to dynamically estimate the number of contending stations in a wireless local area network (WLAN). Based on estimation, all the mobile stations dynamically adjust the initial contention window in medium access control (MAC) layer to avoid collisions. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve efficient channel utilization, higher system throughput, and better fairness performance.

  1. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  2. Highly efficient industrial large-area black silicon solar cells achieved by surface nanostructured modification

    Li, Ping; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Zengchao; Tan, Xin; Bian, Jiming; Wang, Yuxuan; Lu, Chunxi; Liu, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional black silicon solar cells show relatively low efficiencies due to the high surface recombination occurring at the front surfaces. In this paper, we present a surface modification process to suppress surface recombination and fabricate highly efficient industrial black silicon solar cells. The Ag-nanoparticle-assisted etching is applied to realize front surface nanostructures on silicon wafers in order to reduce the surface reflectance. Through a further tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) treatment, the carrier recombination at and near the surface is greatly suppressed, due to a lower surface dopant concentration after the surface modification. This modified surface presents a low reflectivity in a range of 350-1100 nm. Large-area solar cells with an average conversion efficiency of 19.03% are achieved by using the TMAH treatment of 30 s. This efficiency is 0.18% higher than that of standard silicon solar cells with pyramidal surfaces, and also a remarkable improvement compared with black silicon solar cells without TMAH modifications.

  3. Nanosized free-energy transducer F1-ATPase achieves 100% efficiency at finite time operation

    Toyabe, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    The free-energy transduction at 100% efficiency is not prohibited by thermodynamic laws. However, it is usually reached only at the quasi-static limit such as the macroscopic piston pulled or pushed at the infinitely slow velocity. If we operate the piston quickly, turbulence is inevitable and irreversible heat dissipates through the microscopic degrees of freedom. Here, we evaluated the work performed by the nano-sized biological free-energy transducer F1-ATPase by single-molecule experiments on the basis of nonequilibrium theory. We show that the F1-ATPase achieves a nearly 100% free-energy conversion efficiency even far from quasistatic process for both the mechanical-to-chemical and chemical-to-mechanical transductions. Such a high efficiency at a finite-time operation is not expected for macroscopic engines and highlights a remarkable property of the nano-sized engines working in the energy scale of k_{B}T. Some of the microscopic degrees of freedom may not be hidden but accessible to the F1-ATPase. Henc...

  4. Design and Analysis of an Efficient Primary Synchronization Signal Detector

    Mathana.J.M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel design for the detection of primary synchronization signal in a Long Term Evolution (LTE system based device at the expense of low cost and low power. This is facilitated by using a matched filter architecture which incorporates parallel processing. The approach of a 1-bit analog-todigital converter (ADC with down-sampling is compared with that of a 10-bit ADC without down-sampling under multi-path fading conditions defined in LTE standard for user equipment (UE performance test. A high performance primary synchronization signal detection method is derived in this paper.

  5. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  6. Efficient Information Aggregation Strategies for Distributed Control and Signal Processing

    Olshevsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with distributed control and coordination of networks consisting of multiple, potentially mobile, agents. This is motivated mainly by the emergence of large scale networks characterized by the lack of centralized access to information and time-varying connectivity. Control and optimization algorithms deployed in such networks should be completely distributed, relying only on local observations and information, and robust against unexpected changes in topology such as link failures. We will describe protocols to solve certain control and signal processing problems in this setting. We will demonstrate that a key challenge for such systems is the problem of computing averages in a decentralized way. Namely, we will show that a number of distributed control and signal processing problems can be solved straightforwardly if solutions to the averaging problem are available. The rest of the thesis will be concerned with algorithms for the averaging problem and its generalizations. We will (i)...

  7. An Efficient Technique for Classification of Electrocardiogram Signals

    Ebrahimzadeh, A. (PhD); KHAZAEE, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network method used to analyze ECG signals for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias effectively. The proposed method can accurately classify and differentiate normal (Normal) and abnormal heartbeats. Abnormal heartbeats include left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), atrial premature contractions (APC) and premature ventricular contractions (PVC). This paper proposes a three stage, preprocessing, feature extraction ...

  8. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    for a single sech/tanh pulse. Residual splitting of the centerband, normally associated with incomplete or inefficient decoupling, is not seen in sech/tanh decoupling and therefore cannot be used as a measure of adiabatic decoupling efficiency. The calibrated experimental performance levels achieved in this study are within 20% of theoretical performance levels derived previously for ideal sech/tanh decoupling at high power, indicating a small scope for further improvement at practical RF power levels. The optimization procedures employed here will be generally applicable to any good combination of adiabatic inversion pulse and phase cycle. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9761708

  9. Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award Lecture 2010: Deconstructing Leptin: From Signals to Circuits

    Myers, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Martin G. Myers Jr., MD, PhD, received the American Diabetes Association's prestigious 2010 Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award at the Association's 70th Scientific Sessions in Orlando, Florida, on 28 June 2010. The Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award recognizes outstanding scientific achievement in the field of diabetes, taking into consideration independence of thought and originality. Currently the Marilyn H. Vincent Professor of Diabetes Research at the University of Michigan, A...

  10. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Signal Processing in Wireless Networks: A Cross-Layer Analysis

    Geraci, Giovanni; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In order to meet the growing mobile data demand, future wireless networks will be equipped with a multitude of access points (APs). Besides the important implications for the energy consumption, the trend towards densification requires the development of decentralized and sustainable radio resource management techniques. It is critically important to understand how the distribution of signal processing operations affects the energy efficiency of wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a cross-layer framework to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency of wireless networks under different levels of distribution of the signal processing load: (i) hybrid, where the signal processing operations are shared between nodes and APs, (ii) centralized, where signal processing is entirely implemented at the APs, and (iii) fully distributed, where all operations are performed by the nodes. We find that in practical wireless networks, hybrid signal processing exhibits a significant energy efficiency gain over both centralized and fully distributed approaches.

  11. Efficient and low complexity analysis of Bio-signals using continuous Haar wavelet transforms for removing noise

    S.GANESAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has been inspired by the need to find an efficient method for ECG Signal Analysis which is simple and has good accuracy and less computation time. The initial task for efficient analysis is the removal of noise. It actually involves the extraction of the required cardiac components by rejecting the background noise. Enhancementof signal is achieved by the use of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD method. The use of EMD was inspired by its adaptive nature. The second task is that of R peak detection which is achieved by the use of Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT.Efficiency of the method is measured in terms of detection error rate. Various other methods of R peak detection like Hilbert Transform and Difference Operation Method are implemented and the results when compared with the Continuous Wavelet Transform prove that CWT is a better method. The simulationis done in MATLAB environment. The experiments are carried out on MIT-BIH database. The results show that our proposed method is very effective and an efficient method for fast computation of R peak detection.

  12. Efficient Sparse Signal Transmission over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing

    Liantao Wu; Kai Yu; Dongyu Cao; Yuhen Hu; Zhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data transmission over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For signals that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS) is applied to facilitate efficient sparse signal transmissions over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original signal will be reconstructed from the lossy trans...

  13. High-efficiency gold-coated cross-grating for heterodyne grating interferometer with improved signal contrast and optical subdivision

    Lin, Cunbao; Yan, Shuhua; Du, Zhiguang; Wei, Chunhua; Wang, Guochao

    2015-03-01

    The gold-coated cross-grating is investigated to simultaneously improve the diffraction efficiency, signal contrast and optical subdivision in heterodyne grating interferometer (HGI). Based on the theories of Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), the diffractive characteristics related to diffraction efficiency, wavelength selectivity and polarization dependency are analyzed. The analysis reveals that grating pitch less than twice of the incident wavelength ought to be adopted here to avoid the second-orders, and longer wavelength is preferred to achieve high diffraction efficiency in the visible region. Meanwhile, the equivalent efficiency for TE and TM polarization, probably up to 18.32% at the wavelength of 632.8 nm, can be obtained with normal incidence which results in a signal contrast of 100% theoretically. Additionally, an eightfold optical subdivision method with cross-gratings is proposed for HGIs, and it is applicable to nearly all the existing two-dimensional (2D) optical configurations. The experimental tests on diffraction field, polarization dependency and signal contrast are performed. The results show reasonable consistency with the theoretical analysis, which validates the capability of cross-gratings for HGIs.

  14. Considerations on the Optimal and Efficient Processing of Information-Bearing Signals

    Harms, Herbert Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a fundamental hurdle that impedes the processing of information-bearing signals, specifically the extraction of salient information. Processing that is both optimal and efficient is desired; optimality ensures the extracted information has the highest fidelity allowed by the noise, while efficiency ensures limited resource usage. Optimal…

  15. Management Methods for Achieving Faster and Higher Energy Efficiency for End Users

    Zēbergs, V; Zeltiņš, N; Puikevica-Puikevska, I; Silantjeva, I; Grackova, L

    2008-01-01

    The paper reflects investigations into the management methods for raising the efficiency of the processes of the use of energy under the conditions of Latvia. It justifies the fact that the model ISO 14001 of the ecological management system can be used for the management of the processes of raising energy efficiency. The impact of the energy efficiency management system is shown on raising the energy efficiency of an industrial enterprise. Certification of the energy efficienc...

  16. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  17. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIPAMONG TEACHING EFFICIENCY , ATTITUDE TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION AND ACEDEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF B.ED. STUDENTS

    PRADIPKUMAR NAVNITLAL JAISWAL

    2013-01-01

    Only 223 student-teachers were included in this study out of which 94 male and 129 female trainees randomly selected, and were administered Ahuliwalia's “Attitude Inventory” and Deva's 'Teaching Efficiency Scale' Academic achievement divisions obtained by the student-teachers from bachelor degree examination onwards. The data was collected from student-teachers of three training colleges of Sabarkantha district, Gujarat Stat. The collected data was analysed mean, S.D. and Co-efficient of corr...

  18. Efficient market and signaling hypothesis on Vietnam Stock Exchange 2006-2009

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Yen

    2011-01-01

    Efficient market and signaling hypothesis are interesting topics that have interested many researchers. This study tests the signaling theory of dividend announcements and examines the day of the week effect for the Vietnam Stock Exchange in the period of 2006-2009. The results indicate that the announcements of dividend payments have affected the stock prices. There is a partial of significantly abnormal return, although announcements do not provide solid information to the market. The resul...

  19. Energy-Efficient Distributed Signal Processing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    ARIENZO LOREDANA

    2009-01-01

    Wireless mobile sensor networks are important for a number of strategic applications such as surveillance, fire detection, outlier detection. Energy is a critical resource in wireless sensor networks and system lifetime needs to be prolonged through the use of energy-efficient signal processing during system operation. We present an overview of statistical prediction frameworks for tracking dynamic targets in range-based signal processing. The single mobile target algorithm has been evaluated...

  20. Time domain zero-padding based adaptive-PAM signal transmission with high spectral efficiency in IMDD optical communication system

    Zhang, Fangliu; He, Jing; Deng, Rui; Cheng, Yun; Xiao, Minlei; Chen, Lin

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive pulse amplitude modulation (APAM) scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in the intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IMDD) optical communications system. In the proposed scheme, the channel is divided into two sub-channels, and different PAM mapping can be chosen for different sub-channel according to the fading conditions. In addition, the 20-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission of 24 Gbit/s 16/4-APAM signal with the spectral efficiency (SE) up to 6 bit/s/Hz is experimentally demonstrated. The experiment results show that the bit error rate (BER) of the 16/4-APAM signal can be achieved less than 2.4e-2.

  1. The Effect of Curriculum for Developing Efficient Studying Skills on Academic Achievements and Studying Skills of Learners

    Demir, Semra; Kilinc, Mehmet; Dogan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine the effect of "Development of Efficient Studying Skills Curriculum" on academic achievements and studying skills of 7th grade primary school students. In this study, pre-test post-test from experiment models and semi-experimental model with control group were preferred. The reason for the preference is…

  2. Assessment of the achieved savings from induction motors energy efficiency labeling in Brazil

    Highlights: • We have modeled the influence of the increase of efficiency of motors. • The amount of saved energy is estimated. • The work deals with the “measurement” of a non-consumed energy. • The influence of the motor useful life is taken into account. • The influence of efficiency decrease along the motor life is also taken into account. - Abstract: Since 1995 Brazil has been applying its labeling program to increase the efficiency of application of many household appliances and equipment. From 2003 on inductions motors have also been receiving the PROCEL prize, which helped push motors efficiency over than those limits established by the labeling program. Therefore, this work presents the development of a model to estimate the amount of savings obtained with the usage of the PROCEL endorsement labels in standard and in energy efficient motors. The estimated peak demand reduction is also inferred. The developed model makes the usage of sales information and of a discard function to estimate the Brazilian motor stock. Approaches such as the use of efficiency loading and efficiency aging factors are employed to estimate motors consumption

  3. Efficient Recovery of Block Sparse Signals via Zero-point Attracting Projection

    Liu, Jingbo; Jin, Jian; Gu, Yuantao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider compressed sensing (CS) of block-sparse signals, i.e., sparse signals that have nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters. An efficient algorithm, called zero-point attracting projection (ZAP) algorithm, is extended to the scenario of block CS. The block version of ZAP algorithm employs an approximate $l_{2,0}$ norm as the cost function, and finds its minimum in the solution space via iterations. For block sparse signals, an analysis of the stability of the local m...

  4. Efficient signal processing for time-resolved fluorescence detection of nitrogen-vacancy spins in diamond

    Gupta, A.; Hacquebard, L.; Childress, L.

    2016-03-01

    Room-temperature fluorescence detection of the nitrogen-vacancy center electronic spin typically has low signal to noise, requiring long experiments to reveal an averaged signal. Here, we present a simple approach to analysis of time-resolved fluorescence data that permits an improvement in measurement precision through signal processing alone. Applying our technique to experimental data reveals an improvement in signal to noise equivalent to a 14% increase in photon collection efficiency. We further explore the dependence of the signal to noise ratio on excitation power, and analyze our results using a rate equation model. Our results provide a rubric for optimizing fluorescence spin detection, which has direct implications for improving precision of nitrogen-vacancy-based sensors.

  5. The ECG Signal Compression Using an Efficient Algorithm Based on the DWT

    Oussama El B’charri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The storage capacity of the ECG records presents an important issue in the medical practices. These data could contain hours of recording, which needs a large space for storage to save these records. The compression of the ECG signal is widely used to deal with this issue. The problem with this process is the possibility of losing some important features of the ECG signal. This loss could influence negatively the analyzing of the heart condition. In this paper, we shall propose an efficient method of the ECG signal compression using the discrete wavelet transform and the run length encoding. This method is based on the decomposition of the ECG signal, the thresholding stage and the encoding of the final data. This method is tested on some of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia signals from the international database Physionet. This method shows high performances comparing to other methods recently published.

  6. Prospects for Prudential Policy: Toward Achieving an Efficient and Stable Banking System

    Oda, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Tokiko

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how public intervention (prudential policy) in the banking area should be pursued and aims at providing points for discussion in considering what kind of system should be established to promote both the efficiency and stability of banking functions. The basic thrust of the paper is that it is effective to utilize market mechanisms to improve the efficiency of banking functions and that public intervention is justified in coping with various market failures if optimality is...

  7. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  8. A Thorough and Efficient Education: School Funding, Student Achievement and Productivity

    Ahlgrim, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Many school districts are facing stagnant or reduced funding (input) concurrent with demands for improved student achievement (output). In other words, there is pressure for all schools, even those schools with student populations of low socioeconomic status, to improve academic results (accountability for output) without a directly proportionate…

  9. Efficient Sparse Signal Transmission over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing

    Liantao Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable data transmission over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For signals that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS is applied to facilitate efficient sparse signal transmissions over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original signal will be reconstructed from the lossy transmission results using the CS-based reconstruction method at the receiving end. The impacts of packet lengths on transmission efficiency under different channel conditions have been discussed, and interleaving is incorporated to mitigate the impact of burst data loss. Extensive simulations and experiments have been conducted and compared to the traditional automatic repeat request (ARQ interpolation technique, and very favorable results have been observed in terms of both accuracy of the reconstructed signals and the transmission energy consumption. Furthermore, the packet length effect provides useful insights for using compressed sensing for efficient sparse signal transmission via lossy links.

  10. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  11. Design of thermal-noise-harnessing single-electron circuit for efficient signal propagation

    Hirashima, Ryo; Oya, Takahide

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new single-electron (SE) circuit that can improve the signal propagation speed by harnessing thermal noise efficiently. Generally, an SE circuit has some weaknesses. It is very sensitive to thermal noise and it takes a long time for signal propagation. To solve these problems, we focus on a unique function at an output terminal (an axon) of a neuron that can improve the signal propagation speed because of its distinctive structure. It is expected that a new high-speed SE circuit can be realized by mimicking the structure of the neuron. Here, we indicate the possibility of improving the signal propagation speed by harnessing the thermal noise in one-dimensional neuromorphic single-electron oscillators. Moreover, we designed a two-dimensional neuromorphic single-electron oscillator as an advanced circuit and confirmed its tolerance to thermal noise. Our study will be useful for constructing novel devices that actively use noise energy in the future.

  12. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Doping in the Mixed Layer to Achieve High Brightness and Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices

    高文宝; 杨开霞; 刘宏宇; 冯晶; 刘式墉

    2002-01-01

    Doping in the mixed layer was introduced to fabricate high brightness and high efficiency organic light emitting devices. In these devices, a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film acts as the buffer layer, a naphthylphenybiphenyl amine (NPB) film as the hole transport layer and a tris(8-hydroxyquinolinolate)aluminium (Alq3) film as the electron transport layer. The luminescent layer consists of the mixture of NPB, Alq3 (to be called the mixed layer), and an emitting dopant 5,6,11,12-petraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene), where the concentration of NPB declined and the concentration of Alq3 was increased gradually in the deposition process. Adopting this doping mixed layer, the device exhibits the maximum emission of 49300cd/m2 at 35 V and the maximum efficiency of 7.96cd/A at 10.5 V, which have been improved by two times in comparison with conventional doped devices. We attribute this improvement to the effective confinement of carriers in the mixed layer, which leads to the increase of the recombination efficiency of carriers.

  14. Babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission

    Chauvin, Alain; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Sarah; Plantard, Olivier; Malandrin, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. True babesiae (Babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. A large number of true Babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. This review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of Babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. The main adaptations lead to ...

  15. Signal Efficiency of the Resistive Plate Chambers in the PHENIX Forward Trigger Upgrade

    Coley, Mark

    2009-10-01

    PHENIX is an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) that studies polarized proton-proton and heavy ion collisions. PHENIX is in the process of upgrading the forward muon trigger to improve its capabilities of studying W-bosons. By triggering on single, high transverse momentum muons, new observations on the spin structure of a proton will be obtained. The trigger upgrade will consist of four stations of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with two stations on each side of the interaction region. Inside an RPC, there are several copper strips which form a signal plane. When a charged particle travels through the adjacent gas gaps a signal is induced on these strips. This signal propagates from the copper strip to the readout electronics. In the readout electronics, the signal is amplified and sent to a discriminator. Care must be taken when setting the chamber high voltage and the readout electronics threshold to balance the detector efficiency and noise. Lowering the threshold increases the efficiency of detecting muons but also increases the background interference. These RPCs are tested on a cosmic ray test stand to determine the optimal operating conditions. This poster will describe the RPCs, how the signal propagates out of the chamber and how the high voltage and threshold affect performance.

  16. Reuse and recovery of raw materials: Towards the achievement of a resource-efficient society

    Resource efficiency plays a key role in the transition from a linear to a circular economy system. During the last few decades a rapid growth in the number of materials used across complex products has occurred. Given the high economic importance of critical raw materials combined with relatively high supply risk, securing reliable and undistorted access of certain raw materials is of growing concern across the globe. Development of eco-innovative approaches devoted to closing the loop of resources is strongly needed, allowing the connection between production cycles and their territory.

  17. Achieving efficiency in Africa: What are the priorities, the best practices and the policy measures?

    Fall, Latsoucabe

    2010-09-15

    Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements offer huge opportunities for Africa to meet growing energy needs, secure a more sustainable energy supply and demand, improve business productivity, preserve local environment and mitigate GHG emissions. The paper focuses on the ways and means to overcome the related challenges in order to reap the benefits of such improvements. It also identifies the priorities for Africa and provides responses on how to establish and implement effective policy-measures to enhance EE in African countries. Subsequently, it delivers key recommendations to help improve EE policies and practices and to implement national and regional measures of EE improvements.

  18. Call transmission efficiency in native and invasive anurans: competing hypotheses of divergence in acoustic signals.

    Llusia, Diego; Gómez, Miguel; Penna, Mario; Márquez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a leading cause of the current biodiversity decline, and hence examining the major traits favouring invasion is a key and long-standing goal of invasion biology. Despite the prominent role of the advertisement calls in sexual selection and reproduction, very little attention has been paid to the features of acoustic communication of invasive species in nonindigenous habitats and their potential impacts on native species. Here we compare for the first time the transmission efficiency of the advertisement calls of native and invasive species, searching for competitive advantages for acoustic communication and reproduction of introduced taxa, and providing insights into competing hypotheses in evolutionary divergence of acoustic signals: acoustic adaptation vs. morphological constraints. Using sound propagation experiments, we measured the attenuation rates of pure tones (0.2-5 kHz) and playback calls (Lithobates catesbeianus and Pelophylax perezi) across four distances (1, 2, 4, and 8 m) and over two substrates (water and soil) in seven Iberian localities. All factors considered (signal type, distance, substrate, and locality) affected transmission efficiency of acoustic signals, which was maximized with lower frequency sounds, shorter distances, and over water surface. Despite being broadcast in nonindigenous habitats, the advertisement calls of invasive L. catesbeianus were propagated more efficiently than those of the native species, in both aquatic and terrestrial substrates, and in most of the study sites. This implies absence of optimal relationship between native environments and propagation of acoustic signals in anurans, in contrast to what predicted by the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and it might render these vertebrates particularly vulnerable to intrusion of invasive species producing low frequency signals, such as L. catesbeianus. Our findings suggest that mechanisms optimizing sound transmission in native habitat can play a less

  19. An Efficient Technique for Compressing ECG Signals Using QRS Detection, Estimation, and 2D DWT Coefficients Thresholding

    Mohammed Abo-Zahhad; Sabah M. Ahmed; Ahmed Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient electrocardiogram (ECG) signals compression technique based on QRS detection, estimation, and 2D DWT coefficients thresholding. Firstly, the original ECG signal is preprocessed by detecting QRS complex, then the difference between the preprocessed ECG signal and the estimated QRS-complex waveform is estimated. 2D approaches utilize the fact that ECG signals generally show redundancy between adjacent beats and between adjacent samples. The error signal is cut a...

  20. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  1. AUDIT FUNCTION ROLE IN ACHIEVING AN EFFICIENT CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – CONCEPTUAL MODEL PROPOSAL

    Melinda Timea Fülöp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays corporate governance plays an important role in decisions making processes, which represents a relatively new approach for both Romanian scientific studies and practice. As a consequence we consider the increased attention given to corporate governance to be crucial, especially addressing the role of the audit function and the importance of the corporate governance code. Audit function is of particular practical importance in corporate governance, therefore we decided meticulously to consider it, and especially to develop a conceptual framework for its role in support of an effective corporate governance. We consider that there are two levels and seven key elements utilized in order to achieve an effective corporate governance. In conclusion, audit function as a whole, with an active role in improving corporate governance, should perform correlated in terms of its components: internal audit, external audit and audit committees.

  2. Achieving Internet-based efficiencies in a rural IDS: a case study.

    Bacus, R; Zunke, R

    2001-09-01

    After suffering payment cuts resulting from the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Colorado-Fayette Medical Center (CFMC), a not-for-profit, rural integrated delivery system in Texas, wanted to reduce costs by gaining systemwide Internet access for its internal information system at a reasonable price. An application service provider affiliated with the Texas Hospital Association, helped CFMC achieve its goals for the project by performing a needs assessment, installing a wide-area network (WAN) with Internet access, and training staff. The new WAN enabled CFMC to improve its Web presence, allow radiologic image viewing at all sites, negotiate more favorable prices from vendors, implement electronic communication for staff members, and take advantage of on-line education opportunities. CFMC has found that the monthly fee paid to THN is offset by savings on long-distance calls, Internet service provider fees, and marketing and advertising costs. PMID:11552587

  3. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  4. Operations & Maintenance Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 3)

    Sullivan, Greg; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2010-08-04

    This guide highlights operations and maintenance programs targeting energy and water efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide you, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M)/Energy manager and practitioner, with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy and water efficiency, and cost-reduction approaches. To make this guide useful and to reflect your needs and concerns, the authors met with O&M and Energy managers via Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) workshops. In addition, the authors conducted extensive literature searches and contacted numerous vendors and industry experts. The information and case studies that appear in this guide resulted from these activities. It needs to be stated at the outset that this guide is designed to provide information on effective O&M as it applies to systems and equipment typically found at Federal facilities. This guide is not designed to provide the reader with step-by-step procedures for performing O&M on any specific piece of equipment. Rather, this guide first directs the user to the manufacturer's specifications and recommendations. In no way should the recommendations in this guide be used in place of manufacturer's recommendations. The recommendations in this guide are designed to supplement those of the manufacturer, or, as is all too often the case, provide guidance for systems and equipment for which all technical documentation has been lost. As a rule, this guide will first defer to the manufacturer's recommendations on equipment operation and maintenance.

  5. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary – This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  6. Efficient Recovery of Block Sparse Signals via Zero-point Attracting Projection

    Liu, Jingbo; Gu, Yuantao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider compressed sensing (CS) of block-sparse signals, i.e., sparse signals that have nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters. An efficient algorithm, called zero-point attracting projection (ZAP) algorithm, is extended to the scenario of block CS. The block version of ZAP algorithm employs an approximate $l_{2,0}$ norm as the cost function, and finds its minimum in the solution space via iterations. For block sparse signals, an analysis of the stability of the local minimums of this cost function under the perturbation of noise reveals an advantage of the proposed algorithm over its original non-block version in terms of reconstruction error. Finally, numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other state of the art methods for the block sparse problem in various respects, especially the stability under noise.

  7. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  8. Oxidation of steels in liquid lead bismuth: Oxygen control to achieve efficient corrosion protection

    Martinelli, Laure, E-mail: laure.martinelli@cea.f [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jean-Louis, Courouau; Fanny, Balbaud-Celerier [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-05-15

    Hybrid systems dedicated to waste transmutation are constituted of an accelerator generating a high energy proton flux, a spallation target on which the accelerated proton beam impinges to produce neutrons and a subcritical core. The Pb-Bi eutectic liquid alloy is considered as spallation target material due to its suitable nuclear and physical properties. However, liquid metals can be corrosive towards containment materials (austenitic and Fe9Cr alloys). In the case of liquid lead bismuth alloy, one of the protection means considered against the dissolution of the steels is the in situ protection by the formation of an oxide layer at the steels' surface. However, in order to ensure the efficient protection of the steels by an oxide layer, the control and the monitoring of the oxygen content in the Pb-Bi alloy is a major issue. The paper recalls, first, the oxygen chemistry in a lead alloy system, in order to propose the oxygen operating window that complies with both the contamination by lead oxide of the coolant and the corrosion control by the promotion of an oxide film on the structure. Results of tests performed in stagnant lead bismuth at high oxygen concentrations are also presented showing the effect of various operating parameters on the oxidation kinetics and on the nature of the oxide layer. An oxidation mechanism and model are also proposed and compared with experimental data.

  9. Defect Profile Estimation from Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal via Efficient Managing Particle Swarm Optimization

    Wenhua Han

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, efficient managing particle swarm optimization (EMPSO for high dimension problem is proposed to estimate defect profile from magnetic flux leakage (MFL signal. In the proposed EMPSO, in order to strengthen exchange of information among particles, particle pair model was built. For more efficient searching when facing different landscapes of problems, velocity updating scheme including three velocity updating models was also proposed. In addition, for more chances to search optimum solution out, automatic particle selection for re-initialization was implemented. The optimization results of six benchmark functions show EMPSO performs well when optimizing 100-D problems. The defect simulation results demonstrate that the inversing technique based on EMPSO outperforms the one based on self-learning particle swarm optimizer (SLPSO, and the estimated profiles are still close to the desired profiles with the presence of low noise in MFL signal. The results estimated from real MFL signal by EMPSO-based inversing technique also indicate that the algorithm is capable of providing an accurate solution of the defect profile with real signal. Both the simulation results and experiment results show the computing time of the EMPSO-based inversing technique is reduced by 20%–30% than that of the SLPSO-based inversing technique.

  10. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  11. ITC SOLUTIONS TO ACHIEVE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF HEALTH SERVICES: ONLINE VIRTUAL CLINIC

    Adina BĂLAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital era modified the way people work, how the information and the informational resources are defined and organized. The organization which holds, uses and correctly reproduces the piece of information, the knowledge, the intellectual capital, becomes a leader in the proper field of activity. Following the actual tendencies in the digital era connected to the exchange of professional information, I can say that the exchange and sharing of digital information in a global multitude of interconnected computers are essential instruments that can contribute to the development and consolidation of the intellectual potential of the organization. This is why, the access of the individuals to information is an actual requirement of the development of the Romanian society in the context of globalization and world implication o contemporary processes and phenomena. The Digital integration eliminates the barriers that traditionally suppress the circuit of the medical information, lets the goods and services circulate to and from Romania by promoting efficiency as final purpose. Performance is needed in the health system, the transformation of the system of medical services by bringing the benefits of the medical science and technology to all individuals from every community. In order to accomplish these expectations it is needed that all the components that form the health system look at it as a whole and subscribe to modern solutions for improvement so that the quality of health should raise to an unprecedented level. Even if health systems differ from country to country from the organizational and financial point of view, they face the same challenges and problems, respectively the supply of medical care of better quality and keeping under control the health expenses. The use of information and communication technology in the field of medical assistance in order to stock, share, transmit and analyze clinical data and knowledge is more necessary

  12. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  13. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    Liu, Yu-Hsin [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0418 (United States); Yan, Lujiang; Zhang, Alex Ce; Hall, David; Niaz, Iftikhar Ahmad; Zhou, Yuchun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0409 (United States); Sham, L. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lo, Yu-Hwa, E-mail: ylo@ucsd.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0418 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0409 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Signal amplification, performed by transistor amplifiers with its merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics, is ubiquitous in all electronic systems. Because of transistor thermal noise, an intrinsic signal amplification mechanism, impact ionization was sought after to complement the limits of transistor amplifiers. However, due to the high operation voltage (30-200 V typically), low power efficiency, limited scalability, and, above all, rapidly increasing excess noise with amplification factor, impact ionization has been out of favor for most electronic systems except for a few applications such as avalanche photodetectors and single-photon Geiger detectors. Here, we report an internal signal amplification mechanism based on the principle of the phonon-assisted cycling excitation process (CEP). Si devices using this concept show ultrahigh gain, low operation voltage, CMOS compatibility, and, above all, quantum limit noise performance that is 30 times lower than devices using impact ionization. Established on a unique physical effect of attractive properties, CEP-based devices can potentially revolutionize the fields of semiconductor electronics.

  14. Cycling excitation process: An ultra efficient and quiet signal amplification mechanism in semiconductor

    Signal amplification, performed by transistor amplifiers with its merit rated by the efficiency and noise characteristics, is ubiquitous in all electronic systems. Because of transistor thermal noise, an intrinsic signal amplification mechanism, impact ionization was sought after to complement the limits of transistor amplifiers. However, due to the high operation voltage (30-200 V typically), low power efficiency, limited scalability, and, above all, rapidly increasing excess noise with amplification factor, impact ionization has been out of favor for most electronic systems except for a few applications such as avalanche photodetectors and single-photon Geiger detectors. Here, we report an internal signal amplification mechanism based on the principle of the phonon-assisted cycling excitation process (CEP). Si devices using this concept show ultrahigh gain, low operation voltage, CMOS compatibility, and, above all, quantum limit noise performance that is 30 times lower than devices using impact ionization. Established on a unique physical effect of attractive properties, CEP-based devices can potentially revolutionize the fields of semiconductor electronics

  15. Korea's emission trading scheme and policy design issues to achieve market-efficiency and abatement targets

    In 2008, the government of Republic of Korea (Korea) announced the national abatement target aiming at 30% reductions from the Business-as-Usual projections by 2020. Accordingly, the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 onwards. As ETS performance substantially depends on the structural design, it is critically important to examine the details of Korean ETS for the achievement of cost effectiveness and concurrent development of an active emission trading market. This paper addresses several policy design issues for this purpose. After providing an overview on the current framework of Korean ETS, we propose ways to achieve flexibility, consistency and market efficiency of the program in consideration of the preexisting policies. Issues in policy design are discussed by focusing on allowance allocation, market stabilization measures and price mechanism in the emission and energy markets in Korea. This paper will serve as a practical guideline for establishing sustainable and market-efficient Korean ETS that can be compatible with the international standards as in the EU ETS. - Highlights: • Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) will be implemented from 2015 in Korea to reduce CO2. • ETS performance substantially depends on structural design. • We provide policy overview on the current framework of Korean ETS. • Several policy design issues are discussed for developing policy consistency. • We focus on allowance allocation, allowance reserve and market stabilization measures

  16. Efficient ECG Signal Conditioning Techniques using Variable Step Size Least Mean Fourth Algorithms

    BurraVenkataSrikanth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available obtaining an artifact free signal is an important task in making a successful diagnosis using Electro Cardiograph (ECG signal. Several techniques were proposed in the literature with varying degree of accuracy. In this paper some efficient signal conditioning techniques to remove the artifact from ECG signals are presented. The proposed techniques are derived from basic higher order technique known as of Least Mean Fourth (LMF algorithm.All the techniques are evaluated using MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The SNR performance of the techniques is calculated and is compared with Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS algorithm. From the SNR measurements obtained variable XENLMF was found to be exhibiting the superior performance over the NLMS and the other techniques and on an average the SNR values of variable XE-NLMF in case of PLI, BW,MA and EM artifacts are 10.7800dB, 8.5950dB, 9.0703dB, 8.3210dB which are better than their counterparts. The convergence characteristics of all these techniques measured have further shown the suitability of the Variable XENLMF technique over the other in using at real time situations

  17. Computationally efficient locally-recurrent neural networks for online signal processing

    Hussain, A; Shim, I

    1999-01-01

    A general class of computationally efficient locally recurrent networks (CERN) is described for real-time adaptive signal processing. The structure of the CERN is based on linear-in-the- parameters single-hidden-layered feedforward neural networks such as the radial basis function (RBF) network, the Volterra neural network (VNN) and the functionally expanded neural network (FENN), adapted to employ local output feedback. The corresponding learning algorithms are derived and key structural and computational complexity comparisons are made between the CERN and conventional recurrent neural networks. Two case studies are performed involving the real- time adaptive nonlinear prediction of real-world chaotic, highly non- stationary laser time series and an actual speech signal, which show that a recurrent FENN based adaptive CERN predictor can significantly outperform the corresponding feedforward FENN and conventionally employed linear adaptive filtering models. (13 refs).

  18. Efficient transmission of subthreshold signals in complex networks of spiking neurons

    Torres, Joaquin J; Marro, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the efficient transmission and processing of weak signals (subthreshold) in a realistic neural medium in the presence of different levels of the underlying noise. Assuming Hebbian weights for maximal synaptic conductances - that naturally balances the network with excitatory and inhibitory synapses - and considering short-term synaptic plasticity affecting such conductances, we found different dynamical phases in the system. This includes a memory phase where population of neurons remain synchronized, an oscillatory phase where transitions between different synchronized populations of neurons appears and an asynchronous or noisy phase. When a weak stimulus input is applied to each neuron and increasing the level of noise in the medium we found an efficient transmission of such stimuli around the transition and critical points separating different phases and therefore for quite well defined and different levels of stochasticity in the system. We proved that this intriguing phenomenon is quite ro...

  19. Efficiency of dispersive wave generation from a dual-frequency beat signal

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G

    2016-01-01

    The emission of dispersive waves (DWs) by temporal solitons can be described as a cascaded four-wave mixing process triggered by a pair of monochromatic continuous waves (CWs). We report experimental and numerical results demonstrating that the efficiency of this process is strongly and non-trivially affected by the frequency detuning of the CW pump lasers. We explain our results by showing that individual cycles of the input dual-frequency beat signal can evolve as higher-order solitons whose temporal compression and soliton fission govern the DW efficiency. Analytical predictions based on the detuning dependence of the soliton order are shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental and numerical observations.

  20. Efficient ECG signal analysis using wavelet technique for arrhythmia detection: an ANFIS approach

    Khandait, P. D.; Bawane, N. G.; Limaye, S. S.

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with improved ECG signal analysis using Wavelet Transform Techniques and employing subsequent modified feature extraction for Arrhythmia detection based on Neuro-Fuzzy technique. This improvement is based on suitable choice of features in evaluating and predicting life threatening Ventricular Arrhythmia . Analyzing electrocardiographic signals (ECG) includes not only inspection of P, QRS and T waves, but also the causal relations they have and the temporal sequences they build within long observation periods. Wavelet-transform is used for effective feature extraction and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is considered for the classifier model. In a first step, QRS complexes are detected. Then, each QRS is delineated by detecting and identifying the peaks of the individual waves, as well as the complex onset and end. Finally, the determination of P and T wave peaks, onsets and ends is performed. We evaluated the algorithm on several manually annotated databases, such as MIT-BIH Arrhythmia and CSE databases, developed for validation purposes. Features based on the ECG waveform shape and heart beat intervals are used as inputs to the classifiers. The performance of the ANFIS model is evaluated in terms of training performance and classification accuracies and the results confirmed that the proposed ANFIS model has potential in classifying the ECG signals. Cross validation is used to measure the classifier performance. A testing classification accuracy of 95.13% is achieved which is a significant improvement.

  1. From here to efficiency : time lags between the introduction of new technology and the achievement of fuel savings

    In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels

  2. A hybrid method for efficient and accurate simulations of diffusion compartment imaging signals

    Rensonnet, Gaëtan; Jacobs, Damien; Macq, Benoît; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging is sensitive to the movement of water molecules through the tissue microstructure and can therefore be used to gain insight into the tissue cellular architecture. While the diffusion signal arising from simple geometrical microstructure is known analytically, it remains unclear what diffusion signal arises from complex microstructural configurations. Such knowledge is important to design optimal acquisition sequences, to understand the limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging and to validate novel models of the brain microstructure. We present a novel framework for the efficient simulation of high-quality DW-MRI signals based on the hybrid combination of exact analytic expressions in simple geometric compartments such as cylinders and spheres and Monte Carlo simulations in more complex geometries. We validate our approach on synthetic arrangements of parallel cylinders representing the geometry of white matter fascicles, by comparing it to complete, all-out Monte Carlo simulations commonly used in the literature. For typical configurations, equal levels of accuracy are obtained with our hybrid method in less than one fifth of the computational time required for Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Can Efficient Technology Transfer Be Achieved through a Hybrid Corporate Culture? A Study on Japanese Manufacturing Subsidiaries in Vietnam

    Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the positive manners of dealing with cultural differences to efficiently implementtechnology transfer for Japanese subsidiaries in Vietnam. Based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, thestudy, which employed qualitative data collection approaches, including in-depth interviews, focus groupdiscussions, and observations, was conducted at thirteen Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Vietnam. Thedata were further analyzed using Adler’s framework on intercultural interaction synergy. The results were: (1Differences between Vietnamese and Japanese management existing in implementing technology transfer aretraced back to each national culture fundamental, mainly lie on dimensions of Collectivism and Power Distance;and (2 strategic activities directly convincing Vietnamese staff behaviors and addressing the mindset ofJapanese and Vietnamese staff were taken to minimize the above differences. This study proposes the workingframework towards hybrid corporate culture that flexibly incorporates local practices while maintaining coreJapanese management. It can help achieve efficiently technology transfer performance for Japanese firms doingbusiness in developing countries, especially Vietnam.

  4. Biphasic modulation of Wnt signaling supports efficient foregut endoderm formation from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Hoepfner, Jeannine; Kleinsorge, Mandy; Papp, Oliver; Ackermann, Mania; Alfken, Susanne; Rinas, Ursula; Solodenko, Wladimir; Kirschning, Andreas; Sgodda, Malte; Cantz, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) are of great promise in regenerative medicine, including molecular studies of disease mechanisms, if the affected cell type can be authentically generated during in vitro differentiation. Most existing protocols aim to mimic embryonic development steps by the supplementation of specific cytokines and small molecules, but the involved signaling pathways need further exploration. In this study, we investigated enhanced initial activation of Wnt signaling for definitive endoderm formation and subsequent rapid shutdown of Wnt signaling for proper foregut endoderm specification using 3 μM CHIR99021 and 0.5 μg/mL of secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (sFRP-5) for biphasic modulation of the Wnt pathway. The definitive endoderm and foregut endoderm differentiation capabilities of Wnt pathway-modulated cells were determined based on the expression levels of the endodermal transcription factors SOX17 and FOXA2 and those of the transcription activator GATA4 and the α-fetoprotein (AFP) gene, respectively. Furthermore, the resulting biphasic Wnt pathway modulation was investigated at the protein level by analyzing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and β-catenin. Finally, Wnt target gene expression was determined using an improved lentiviral reporter construct that enabled robust T-cell transcription factor 4 (TCF4)/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1)-mediated luciferase expression in differentiating pluripotent stem cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated robust, homogeneous, and efficient derivation of foregut endodermal cells by inducing a biphasic modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:26861571

  5. Field Programmable DSP Arrays - A Novel Reconfigurable Architecture for Efficient Reliazation of Digital Signal Processing Functions

    Amitabha Sinha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital Signal Processing functions are widely used in real time high speed applications. Those functions are generally implemented either on ASICs with inflexibility, or on FPGAs with bottlenecks of relatively smaller utilization factor or lower speed compared to ASIC. The proposed reconfigurable DSP processor is redolent to FPGA, but with basic fixed Common Modules (CMs (like adders, subtractors, multipliers, scaling units, shifters instead of CLBs. This pape r introduces the development of a reconfigurable DSP processor that integrates different filter and transform functions. The switching between DSP functions is occurred by reconfiguring the interconnection between CMs. Validation of the proposed reconfigurable architecture has been achieved on Virtex5 FPGA. The architecture provides sufficient amount of flexibility, parallelism and scalability.

  6. Hands-On, Demonstration, and Videotape Laboratories for Non-Science Majors in a Food Science Course: Achievement, Attitude, and Efficiency

    Johnson, H. L.; Trout, B. L.; Brekke, C. J.; Luedecke, L. O.

    2004-01-01

    Student achievement, attitude, and instructional efficiency were determined for hands-on and for live and videotape demonstration laboratories for nonscience majors. Each of 3 laboratory sections experienced 3 different teaching methods for one 4-wk unit. No significant difference in achievement was found among the laboratory methods. An attitude…

  7. Viral and chloroplastic signals essential for initiation and efficiency of translation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Ahmad, Tauqeer; Venkataraman, Srividhya; Hefferon, Kathleen; AbouHaidar, Mounir G

    2014-09-12

    The construction of high-level protein expression vectors using the CaMV 35S promoter in concert with highly efficient translation initiation signals for Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a relatively less explored field compared to that of Escherichia coli. In the current study, we experimentally investigated the capacity of the CaMV 35S promoter to direct GFP gene expression in A. tumefaciens in the context of different viral and chloroplastic translation initiation signals. GFP expression and concomitant translational efficiency was monitored by confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. Among all of the constructs, the highest level of translation was observed for the construct containing the phage T7 translation initiation region followed by the chloroplastic Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) 58-nucleotide 5' leader region including its SD-like sequence (GGGAGGG). Replacing the SD-like (GGGAGGG) with non SD-like (TTTATTT) or replacing the remaining 52 nucleotides of rbcL with nonspecific sequence completely abolished translation. In addition, this 58 nucleotide region of rbcL serves as a translational enhancer in plants when located within the 5' UTR of mRNA corresponding to GFP. Other constructs, including those containing sequences upstream of the coat proteins of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, or the GAGG sequence of T4 phage or the chloroplastic atpI and/or PsbA 5' UTR sequence, supported low levels of GFP expression or none at all. From these studies, we propose that we have created high expression vectors in A. tumefaciens and/or plants which contain the CaMV 35S promoter, followed by the translationally strong T7 SD plus RBS translation initiation region or the rbcL 58-nucleotide 5' leader region upstream of the gene of interest. PMID:25117444

  8. Interpopulational Variations in Sexual Chemical Signals of Iberian Wall Lizards May Allow Maximizing Signal Efficiency under Different Climatic Conditions.

    José Martín

    Full Text Available Sexual signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve to maximize efficacy under a given climatic condition. Thus, chemical secretions of lizards might evolve in the evolutionary time to ensure that signals are perfectly tuned to local humidity and temperature conditions affecting their volatility and therefore their persistence and transmission through the environment. We tested experimentally whether interpopulational altitudinal differences in chemical composition of femoral gland secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanicus have evolved to maximize efficacy of chemical signals in different environmental conditions. Chemical analyses first showed that the characteristics of chemical signals of male lizards differed between two populations inhabiting environments with different climatic conditions in spite of the fact that these two populations are closely related genetically. We also examined experimentally whether the temporal attenuation of the chemical stimuli depended on simulated climatic conditions. Thus, we used tongue-flick essays to test whether female lizards were able to detect male scent marks maintained under different conditions of temperature and humidity by chemosensory cues alone. Chemosensory tests showed that chemical signals of males had a lower efficacy (i.e. detectability and persistence when temperature and dryness increase, but that these effects were more detrimental for signals of the highest elevation population, which occupies naturally colder and more humid environments. We suggest that the abiotic environment may cause a selective pressure on the form and expression of sexual chemical signals. Therefore, interpopulational differences in chemical profiles of femoral secretions of male P. hispanicus lizards may reflect adaptation to maximize the efficacy of the chemical signal in different climates.

  9. Lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals to achieve high-efficient and clean combustion technology

    Smajevic Izet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes full lab-scale investigation of Middle-Bosnia coals launched to support selection an appropriate combustion technology and to support optimization of the boiler design. Tested mix of Middle-Bosnia brown coals is projected coal for new co-generation power plant Kakanj Unit 8 (300-450 MWe, EP B&H electricity utility. The basic coal blend consisting of the coals Kakanj: Breza: Zenica at approximate mass ratio of 70:20:10 is low grade brown coal with very high percentage of ash - over 40%. Testing that coal in circulated fluidized bed combustion technique, performed at Ruhr-University Bohum and Doosan Lentjes GmbH, has shown its inconveniency for fluidized bed combustion technology, primarily due to the agglomeration problems. Tests of these coals in PFC (pulverized fuel combustion technology have been performed in referent laboratory at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Sarajevo University, on a lab-scale PFC furnace, to provide reliable data for further analysis. The PFC tests results are fitted well with previously obtained results of the burning similar Bosnian coal blends in the PFC dry bottom furnace technique. Combination of the coals shares, the process temperature and the air combustion distribution for the lowest NOx and SO2 emissions was found in this work, provided that combustion efficiency and CO emissions are within very strict criteria, considering specific settlement of lab-scale furnace. Sustainability assessment based on calculation economic and environmental indicators, in combination with Low Cost Planning method, is used for optimization the power plant design. The results of the full lab-scale investigation will help in selection optimal Boiler design, to achieve sustainable energy system with high-efficient and clean combustion technology applied for given coals.

  10. Signal Processing and Its Effect on Scanning Efficiencies for a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-energy Radiation.

    Marianno, Craig M

    2015-07-01

    Signal processing within a radiation detector affects detection efficiency. Currently, organizations such as private industry, the U.S. Navy, Army, and Air Force are coupling some detector systems with data collection devices to survey large land areas for radioactive contamination. As detector technology has advanced and analog data collection has turned to digital, signal processing is becoming prevalent in some instruments. Using a NIST traceable (241)Am source, detection efficiency for a field instrument for detecting low-energy radiation (FIDLER) was examined for both a static and scanning mode. Experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo-generated efficiencies. Stationary data compared nicely to the theoretical results. Conversely, scanning detection efficiencies were considerably different from their theoretical counterparts. As speed increased, differences in detection efficiency approached two orders of magnitude. To account for these differences, a quasi time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation was created mimicking the signal processing undertaken by the FIDLER detection system. By including signal processing, experimental results fell within the bounds of the Monte Carlo-generated efficiencies, thus demonstrating the negative effects of such processing on detection efficiencies. PMID:26011500

  11. Efficient Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using Low-power Digital Signal Processor

    Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2011-01-01

    RSA(Rivest, Shamir and Adleman)is being used as a public key exchange and key agreement tool for many years. Due to large numbers involved in RSA, there is need for more efficient methods in implementation for public key cryptosystems. Elliptic Curve Cryptography(ECC) is based on elliptic curves defined over a finite field. Elliptic curve cryptosystems(ECC) were discovered by Victor Miller and Neal Koblitz in 1985.This paper comprises of five sections. Section I is introduction to ECC and its components. Section II describes advantages of ECC schemes and its comparison with RSA. Section III is about some of the applications of ECC. Section IV gives some embedded implementations of ECC. Section V contains ECC implementation on fixed point Digital Signal Processor(TMS320VC5416). ECC was implemented using general purpose microcontrollers and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) before this work. DSP is more powerful than microcontrollers and much economical than FPGA. So this implementation can be efficiently u...

  12. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146 of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160 on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc. challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.. Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures.

  13. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Delibes, Miguel; Blázquez, María del Carmen; Soriano, Laura; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146) of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160) on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc.) challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.). Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures. PMID:22216244

  14. Efficient transmission of subthreshold signals in complex networks of spiking neurons.

    Joaquin J Torres

    Full Text Available We investigate the efficient transmission and processing of weak, subthreshold signals in a realistic neural medium in the presence of different levels of the underlying noise. Assuming Hebbian weights for maximal synaptic conductances--that naturally balances the network with excitatory and inhibitory synapses--and considering short-term synaptic plasticity affecting such conductances, we found different dynamic phases in the system. This includes a memory phase where population of neurons remain synchronized, an oscillatory phase where transitions between different synchronized populations of neurons appears and an asynchronous or noisy phase. When a weak stimulus input is applied to each neuron, increasing the level of noise in the medium we found an efficient transmission of such stimuli around the transition and critical points separating different phases for well-defined different levels of stochasticity in the system. We proved that this intriguing phenomenon is quite robust, as it occurs in different situations including several types of synaptic plasticity, different type and number of stored patterns and diverse network topologies, namely, diluted networks and complex topologies such as scale-free and small-world networks. We conclude that the robustness of the phenomenon in different realistic scenarios, including spiking neurons, short-term synaptic plasticity and complex networks topologies, make very likely that it could also occur in actual neural systems as recent psycho-physical experiments suggest.

  15. Improving the efficiency of the detection of gravitational wave signals from inspiraling compact binaries: Chebyshev interpolation

    arranged to have the same false alarm and false dismissal probabilities as the dense sampling strategy using 25% fewer templates. Generalized to the two-dimensional space used in the computationally limited current analyses, this suggests a factor of 2 increase in computational efficiency; generalized to the full seven-dimensional parameter space that characterizes the signal associated with an eccentric binary system of spinning neutron stars or black holes, it suggests an order of magnitude increase in computational efficiency. Since the computational cost of the analysis is driven almost exclusively by the matched filter evaluations, a reduction in the number of template evaluations translates directly into an increase in computational efficiency; additionally, since the computational cost of the analysis is large, the increased efficiency translates also into an increase in the size of the parameter space that can be analyzed and, thus, the science that can be accomplished with the data

  16. Reliable and Efficient Parallel Processing Algorithms and Architectures for Modern Signal Processing. Ph.D. Thesis

    Liu, Kuojuey Ray

    1990-01-01

    Least-squares (LS) estimations and spectral decomposition algorithms constitute the heart of modern signal processing and communication problems. Implementations of recursive LS and spectral decomposition algorithms onto parallel processing architectures such as systolic arrays with efficient fault-tolerant schemes are the major concerns of this dissertation. There are four major results in this dissertation. First, we propose the systolic block Householder transformation with application to the recursive least-squares minimization. It is successfully implemented on a systolic array with a two-level pipelined implementation at the vector level as well as at the word level. Second, a real-time algorithm-based concurrent error detection scheme based on the residual method is proposed for the QRD RLS systolic array. The fault diagnosis, order degraded reconfiguration, and performance analysis are also considered. Third, the dynamic range, stability, error detection capability under finite-precision implementation, order degraded performance, and residual estimation under faulty situations for the QRD RLS systolic array are studied in details. Finally, we propose the use of multi-phase systolic algorithms for spectral decomposition based on the QR algorithm. Two systolic architectures, one based on triangular array and another based on rectangular array, are presented for the multiphase operations with fault-tolerant considerations. Eigenvectors and singular vectors can be easily obtained by using the multi-pase operations. Performance issues are also considered.

  17. Computationally Efficient Modelling of Proprioceptive Signals in the Upper Limb for Prostheses: a Simulation Study

    Ian eWilliams

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate models of proprioceptive neural patterns could one day play an important role in the creation of an intuitive proprioceptive neural prosthesis for amputees. This paper looks at combining efficient implementations of biomechanical and proprioceptor models in order to generate signals that mimic human muscular proprioceptive patterns for future experimental work in prosthesis feedback. A neuro-musculoskeletal model of the upper limb with 7 degrees of freedom and 17 muscles is presented and generates real time estimates of muscle spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ neural firing patterns. Unlike previous neuro-musculoskeletal models, muscle activation and excitation levels are unknowns in this application and an inverse dynamics tool (static optimisation is integrated to estimate these variables. A proprioceptive prosthesis will need to be portable and this is incompatible with the computationally demanding nature of standard biomechanical and proprioceptor modelling. This paper uses and proposes a number of approximations and optimisations to make real time operation on portable hardware feasible. Finally technical obstacles to mimicking natural feedback for an intuitive proprioceptive prosthesis, as well as issues and limitations with existing models, are identified and discussed.

  18. Efficient Maturation and Cytokine Production of Neonatal DCs Requires Combined Proinflammatory Signals

    Claudius U. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs have been suspected as being responsible for the impaired specific immune responses observed in human neonates. To analyze stimulatory requirements for the critical transition from immature, antigen-processing DCs to mature, antigen-presenting DCs, we investigated the effect of different proinflammatory mediators and antigens on phenotype and cytokine secretion of human neonatal DCs derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs. Whereas single proinflammatory mediators were unable to induce the maturation of neonatal DCs, various combinations of IFNγ, CD40L, TNFα, LPS and antigens, induced the maturation of neonatal DCs documented by up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD83 and CD86. Combinations of proinflammatory mediators also increased cytokine secretion by neonatal DCs. Especially combined stimulation with LPS and IFNγ proved to be very efficient in inducing maturation and cytokine synthesis of neonatal DCs. In conclusion, neonatal DCs can be stimulated to express maturation as well as costimulatory surface molecules. However, induction of maturation requires combined stimulation with multiple proinflammatory signals.

  19. Estimating achievable signal-to-noise ratios of MRI transmit-receive coils from radiofrequency power measurements: applications in quality control

    The inverse relationship between the radiofrequency (RF) power needed to transmit a 90 deg. RF pulse, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) available from a transmit-receive RF coil is well known. The theory is restated and a formula given for the signal-to-noise ratio from water, achievable from a single-shot MRI experiment, in terms of the net forward RF power needed for a rectangular 90 deg. RF pulse of known shape and duration. The result is normalized to a signal bandwidth of 1 Hz and a sample mass of 1 g. The RF power information needed is available on most commercial scanners, as it is used to calculate specific absorption rates for RF tissue heating. The achievable SNR figure will normally be larger that that actually observed, mainly because of receiver noise, but also because of inaccuracies in setting RF pulse angles, and relaxation effects. Phantom experiments were performed on the transmit-receive RF head coil of a commercial MRI system at 0.95 T using a projection method. The measured SNR agreed with that expected from the formula for achievable SNR once a correction was made for the noise figure of the receiving chain. Comparisons of measured SNR figures with those calculated from RF power measurements are expected to be of value in acceptance testing and quality control. (author)

  20. Focal overlap gating in velocity map imaging to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio in photo-ion pump-probe experiments

    Shivaram, Niranjan; Cryan, James P; Wright, Travis W; Wingard, Taylor; Belkacem, Ali

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique in velocity map imaging (VMI) that allows spatial gating of the laser focal overlap region in time resolved pump-probe experiments. This significantly enhances signal-to-noise ratio by eliminating background signal arising outside the region of spatial overlap of pump and probe beams. This enhancement is achieved by tilting the laser beams with respect to the surface of the VMI electrodes which creates a gradient in flight time for particles born at different points along the beam. By suitably pulsing our microchannel plate detector, we can select particles born only where the laser beams overlap. This spatial gating in velocity map imaging can benefit nearly all photoion pump-probe VMI experiments especially when extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light or X-rays are involved which produce large background signals on their own.

  1. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye → green dye → red host → red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1 ± 0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5 ± 1.4 lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages

  2. Measuring Transit Signal Recovery in the Kepler Pipeline II: Detection Efficiency as Calculated in One Year of Data

    Christiansen, Jessie L; Burke, Christopher J; Seader, Shawn; Jenkins, Jon M; Twicken, Joseph D; Smith, Jeffrey C; Batalha, Natalie M; Haas, Michael R; Thompson, Susan E; Campbell, Jennifer R; Sabale, Anima; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler planet sample can only be used to reconstruct the underlying planet occurrence rate if the detection efficiency of the Kepler pipeline is known, here we present the results of a second experiment aimed at characterising this detection efficiency. We inject simulated transiting planet signals into the pixel data of ~10,000 targets, spanning one year of observations, and process the pixels as normal. We compare the set of detections made by the pipeline with the expectation from the set of simulated planets, and construct a sensitivity curve of signal recovery as a function of the signal-to-noise of the simulated transit signal train. The sensitivity curve does not meet the hypothetical maximum detection efficiency, however it is not as pessimistic as some of the published estimates of the detection efficiency. For the FGK stars in our sample, the sensitivity curve is well fit by a gamma function with the coefficients a = 4.35 and b = 1.05. We also find that the pipeline algorithms recover the depths...

  3. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart.

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-05-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 months) and aged (20 months) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/Rin vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a

  4. Efficient Estimation of Highly Structured Posteriors of Gravitational-Wave Signals with Markov-Chain Monte Carlo

    Farr, Benjamin; Luijten, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach designed for efficient sampling of highly correlated and multimodal posteriors. Parallel tempering, though effective, is a costly technique for sampling such posteriors. Our approach minimizes the use of parallel tempering, only using it for a short time to tune a new jump proposal. For complex posteriors we find efficiency improvements up to a factor of ~13. The estimation of parameters of gravitational-wave signals measured by ground-based detectors is currently done through Bayesian inference with MCMC one of the leading sampling methods. Posteriors for these signals are typically multimodal with strong non-linear correlations, making sampling difficult. As we enter the advanced-detector era, improved sensitivities and wider bandwidths will drastically increase the computational cost of analyses, demanding more efficient search algorithms to meet these challenges.

  5. Computationally Efficient Calculations of Target Performance of the Normalized Matched Filter Detector for Hydrocoustic Signals

    Diamant, Roee

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hydroacoustic transmissions is a key enabling technology in applications such as depth measurements, detection of objects, and undersea mapping. To cope with the long channel delay spread and the low signal-to-noise ratio, hydroacoustic signals are constructed with a large time-bandwidth product, $N$. A promising detector for hydroacoustic signals is the normalized matched filter (NMF). For the NMF, the detection threshold depends only on $N$, thereby obviating the need to estimate the characteristics of the sea ambient noise which are time-varying and hard to estimate. While previous works analyzed the characteristics of the normalized matched filter (NMF), for hydroacoustic signals with large $N$ values the expressions available are computationally complicated to evaluate. Specifically for hydroacoustic signals of large $N$ values, this paper presents approximations for the probability distribution of the NMF. These approximations are found extremely accurate in numerical simulations. We also o...

  6. Grenada, OECS Fiscal Issues : Policies to Achieve Fiscal Sustainability and Improve Efficiency and Equity of Public Expenditures

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The report reviews Grenada public expenditures for the period 1995-02 and suggests policy recommendations to achieve fiscal sustainability, improve social service delivery, and reform social protection based on the economic situation of the country at the time. To restore rapid economic growth, ensure medium-term fiscal sustainability under the umbrella of the currency union and protect th...

  7. Noise Suppression in ECG Signals through Efficient One-Step Wavelet Processing Techniques

    E. Castillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the application of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for wandering and noise suppression in electrocardiographic (ECG signals. A novel one-step implementation is presented, which allows improving the overall denoising process. In addition an exhaustive study is carried out, defining threshold limits and thresholding rules for optimal wavelet denoising using this presented technique. The system has been tested using synthetic ECG signals, which allow accurately measuring the effect of the proposed processing. Moreover, results from real abdominal ECG signals acquired from pregnant women are presented in order to validate the presented approach.

  8. Dominica : OECS Fiscal Issues, Policies to Achieve Fiscal Sustainability and Improve Efficiency and Equity of Public Expenditures

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report concludes that during FY1993/94 to FY002/03 the fiscal policy implemented by the government of Dominica was unsustainable and posed a risk to the stability of the currency board arrangement. Moreover, this report recommends that most of the adjustment required to achieve a sustainable fiscal policy needed to come from expenditure cuts, in particular a reduction in the number of established and non-established positions, and from focusing capital expenditures on projects geared to ...

  9. Heavy metal accumulation and signal transduction in herbaceous and woody plants: Paving the way for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

    Luo, Zhi-Bin; He, Jiali; Polle, Andrea; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metal (HM)-accumulating herbaceous and woody plants are employed for phytoremediation. To develop improved strategies for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency, knowledge of the microstructural, physiological and molecular responses underlying HM-accumulation is required. Here we review the progress in understanding the structural, physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification, as well as the regulation of these processes by signal transduction in response to HM exposure. The significance of genetic engineering for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency is also discussed. In herbaceous plants, HMs are taken up by roots and transported into the root cells via transmembrane carriers for nutritional ions. The HMs absorbed by root cells can be further translocated to the xylem vessels and unloaded into the xylem sap, thereby reaching the aerial parts of plants. HMs can be sequestered in the cell walls, vacuoles and the Golgi apparatuses. Plant roots initially perceive HM stress and trigger the signal transduction, thereby mediating changes at the molecular, physiological, and microstructural level. Signaling molecules such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), modulate plant responses to HMs via differentially expressed genes, activation of the antioxidative system and coordinated cross talk among different signaling molecules. A number of genes participated in HM uptake, transport, sequestration and detoxification have been functionally characterized and transformed to target plants for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Fast growing woody plants hold an advantage over herbaceous plants for phytoremediation in terms of accumulation of high HM-amounts in their large biomass. Presumably, woody plants accumulate HMs using similar mechanisms as herbaceous counterparts, but the processes of HM accumulation and signal transduction can be more complex in woody plants. PMID

  10. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility

  11. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    O'Connor, S. M.; Lynch, J. P.; Gilbert, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10-60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10-100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in

  12. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10–60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10–100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in

  13. Can Efficient Technology Transfer Be Achieved through a Hybrid Corporate Culture? A Study on Japanese Manufacturing Subsidiaries in Vietnam

    Nguyen Thi Duc Nguyen; Chikako Takanashi; Atsushi Aoyama

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the positive manners of dealing with cultural differences to efficiently implementtechnology transfer for Japanese subsidiaries in Vietnam. Based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, thestudy, which employed qualitative data collection approaches, including in-depth interviews, focus groupdiscussions, and observations, was conducted at thirteen Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Vietnam. Thedata were further analyzed using Adler’s framework on intercultural...

  14. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  15. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    Caldwell, A.; Cossavella, F.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Volynets, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  16. Signal recognition efficiencies of artificial neural-network pulse-shape discrimination in HPGe 0νββ-decay searches

    A pulse-shape discrimination method based on artificial neural networks was applied to pulses simulated for different background, signal and signal-like interactions inside a germanium detector. The simulated pulses were used to investigate variations of efficiencies as a function of used training set. It is verified that neural networks are well-suited to identify background pulses in true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors. The systematic uncertainty on the signal recognition efficiency derived using signal-like evaluation samples from calibration measurements is estimated to be 5 %. This uncertainty is due to differences between signal and calibration samples. (orig.)

  17. Inflammatory stress increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency via activation of the mTOR signalling pathway.

    Chuan Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress is an independent risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Although CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contributes to NAFLD progression, the mechanisms that link inflammatory stress to hepatic CD36 expression and steatosis remain unclear. As the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway is involved in CD36 translational activation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress enhances hepatic CD36 expression via mTOR signalling pathway and the underlying mechanisms. To induce inflammatory stress, we used tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 stimulation of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in vitro and casein injection in C57BL/6J mice in vivo. The data showed that inflammatory stress increased hepatic CD36 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression. A protein degradation assay revealed that CD36 protein stability was not different between HepG2 cells treated with or without TNF-α or IL-6. A polysomal analysis indicated that CD36 translational efficiency was significantly increased by inflammatory stress. Additionally, inflammatory stress enhanced the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. Rapamycin, an mTOR-specific inhibitor, reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR signalling pathway and decreased the CD36 translational efficiency and protein level even under inflammatory stress resulting in the alleviation of inflammatory stress-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. This study demonstrates that the activation of the mTOR signalling pathway increases hepatic CD36 translational efficiency, resulting in increased CD36 protein expression under inflammatory stress.

  18. Efficient expression and secretion of recombinant hirudin III in E. coli using the L-asparaginase II signal sequence.

    Tan, Shuhua; Wu, Wutong; Liu, Jingjing; Kong, Yi; Pu, Yinghui; Yuan, Riying

    2002-08-01

    One of the hirudin variants HV3 was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli using the L-asparaginase II signal sequence and the product was secreted into the culture medium. For the secretory manufacture of HV3, the L-asparaginase II signal sequence containing a single NheI restriction site at its 3' end was designed using the degenerate codons and PCR-amplified from E. coli chromosomal DNA. The synthetic HV3 coding sequence was fused to the signal sequence in-frame by its 5' NheI restriction site. The above signal-HV3 fusion gene was inserted into an expression vector pTA, which was derived from pkk223-3 such that its expression was under the control of the tac promotor. The resulting HV3 secretion expression vector pTASH thus constructed was introduced into an E. coli host cell AS1.357 with high L-asparaginase II producing level. After inducing with IPTG, the expression product was efficiently secreted into the culture medium and shake-flask culturing gave a yield of approximately 5 x 10(5)ATU/L (approximately 60mg/L). The secreted HV3 was easily purified from culture supernatant using ultrafiltration, ion-exchange column chromatography, and FPLC reverse-phase chromatography. The purified rHV3 from the culture supernatant had the expected N-terminal amino sequence and strong antithrombin activity, suggesting that the signal sequence was completely removed and the product was processed accurately during the secretion process. PMID:12182823

  19. Efficient generation and control of robust stationary light signals in a double-Λ system of cold atoms

    We study the dynamic processes of reversible light storage in a double-Λ system of cold atoms by modulating two counter-propagating control fields in three successive stages. We find that stationary light pulses (SLPs) can be generated when we switch on both control fields to retrieve the stored light signal from a wave-packet of atomic spin coherence. But the two control fields should have equal Rabi frequencies for a symmetric structure of atomic levels while unequal Rabi frequencies for an asymmetric structure of atomic levels. That is, the generation of SLPs requires a special ratio between Rabi frequencies of the two control fields, which is determined by the spontaneous decay rates of relevant atomic transitions. We also show that phase modulation and profile reversal of the released light signal can be implemented by suitably manipulating the two control fields. The double-Λ system of cold atoms has the advantage of high efficiency and high fidelity, when compared to the Λ system of cold atoms, because SLPs generated therein suffer very slow decay and diffusion. -- Highlights: ► We study a dynamic process of light storage and efficient stationary signals. ► It is generated in a four-level double-Λ system of cold atoms. ► We deduce the necessary condition of stationary light pulses. ► Phase modulation and profile reversal can be implemented.

  20. PAPR Reduction Scheme In MIMO-OFDM Systems With Efficient Embedded Signaling

    Sghaier, Mouna; Abdelkefi, Fatma; Siala, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising transmission scheme for high performance broadband wireless communications. However, this technique suffers from a major drawback which is the high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the output signals. In order to overcome this issue, several methods that require the transmission of explicit Side Information (SI) bits have been proposed. In fact, the transmitted bits must be channel-enco...

  1. Efficient FPGA implementation and power modelling of image and signal processing IP cores

    Chandrasekaran, Shrutisagar

    2007-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are the technology of choice in a number ofimage and signal processing application areas such as consumer electronics, instrumentation, medical data processing and avionics due to their reasonable energy consumption, high performance, security, low design-turnaround time and reconfigurability. Low power FPGA devices are also emerging as competit...

  2. A simple and efficient dual optical signaling chemodosimeter for toxic Hg(II

    Sabir H. Mashraqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 10-Methylthioacridone, designated as acrithion, has been employed as an easily accessible chemodosimeter for the optical targeting of toxic Hg2+ in buffered aqueous DMSO. The Hg2+-mediated desulfurization of the probe is translated into selective dual signaling of Hg2+ by means of color bleaching and fluorescence amplification while several other metal ions, including potentially competing Ag+, Cu2+ and Pb2+, afford no significant interferences even in excess concentrations.

  3. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass. PMID:25922489

  4. Helper-dependent adenovirus achieve more efficient and persistent liver transgene expression in non-human primates under immunosuppression.

    Unzu, C; Melero, I; Hervás-Stubbs, S; Sampedro, A; Mancheño, U; Morales-Kastresana, A; Serrano-Mendioroz, I; de Salamanca, R E; Benito, A; Fontanellas, A

    2015-11-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles kg(-1) (10(10) infective units kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (≈14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS. PMID:26125605

  5. Weak-signal conversion from 1550nm to 532nm with 84% efficiency

    Samblowski, Aiko; Baune, Christoph; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental frequency conversion of a dim, coherent continuous-wave light field from 1550nm to 532nm with an external photon-number conversion efficiency of (84.4 +/- 1.5)%. We used sum-frequency generation, which was realized in a standing-wave cavity built around a periodically poled type I potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal, pumped by an intense field at 810 nm. Our result is in full agreement with a numerical model. For optimized cavity coupler reflectivities it predicts a conversion efficiency of up to 93% using the same PPKTP crystal.

  6. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  7. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages.

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  8. An Optimal Bahadur-Efficient Method in Detection of Sparse Signals with Applications to Pathway Analysis in Sequencing Association Studies

    Wu, Guodong; Wu, Michael; Zhi, Degui

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data pose a severe curse of dimensionality, complicating traditional "single marker—single trait" analysis. We propose a two-stage combined p-value method for pathway analysis. The first stage is at the gene level, where we integrate effects within a gene using the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). The second stage is at the pathway level, where we perform a correlated Lancaster procedure to detect joint effects from multiple genes within a pathway. We show that the Lancaster procedure is optimal in Bahadur efficiency among all combined p-value methods. The Bahadur efficiency,limε→0N(2)/N(1)=ϕ12(θ), compares sample sizes among different statistical tests when signals become sparse in sequencing data, i.e. ε →0. The optimal Bahadur efficiency ensures that the Lancaster procedure asymptotically requires a minimal sample size to detect sparse signals (PN(i)<ε→0). The Lancaster procedure can also be applied to meta-analysis. Extensive empirical assessments of exome sequencing data show that the proposed method outperforms Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). We applied the competitive Lancaster procedure to meta-analysis data generated by the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium to identify pathways significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. PMID:27380176

  9. Efficiency Wages : Signals or Incentives? An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Wage and Commitment

    Mühlau, Peter; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2003-01-01

    Efficiency wage theories argue that firms induce their employees to work in a more disciplined way by paying high wages. Two basic mechanisms have been pointed out in economics about how these wage premia motivate employees. The incentives-driven ‘shirking model’ implies that employees who have a hi

  10. Efficient calculation of inelastic vibration signals in electron transport: Beyond the wide-band approximation

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Foti, Giuseppe;

    2014-01-01

    We extend the simple and efficient lowest order expansion (LOE) for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) to include variations in the electronic structure on the scale of the vibration energies. This enables first-principles calculations of IETS line shapes for molecular junctions clo...

  11. Efficient Blockade of Akt signaling is a determinant factor to overcome resistance to Matuzumab

    Meira Debora D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown antineoplastic effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs against EGFR for different indications. Several MAbs directed to EGFR were developed recently, such as matuzumab, but there is still lack of information on preclinical data on its combination with chemo-radiation. Thus, the present study intended to examine the molecular pathways triggered by matuzumab alone or associated to chemo-radiotherapy in gynecological cell lines and its impact on cell growth and signaling. Results Combination of matuzumab with radiation and cisplatin did not enhance its cytostatic effects on A431, Caski and C33A cells (high, intermediate and low EGFR expression, respectively in clonogenic assays, when compared to controls. The lack of effect was mediated by persistent signaling through EGFR due to its impaired degradation. In spite of the fact that matuzumab inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR, it had no effect upon cell viability. To analyze which downstream molecules would be involved in the EGFR signaling in the presence of matuzumab, we have tested it in combination with either PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor, or LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor. Matuzumab exhibited a synergic effect with LY294002, leading to a reduction of Akt phosphorylation that was followed by a decrease in A431 and Caski cells survival. The combination of PD98059 and matuzumab did not show the same effect suggesting that PI3K is an important effector of EGFR signaling in matuzumab-treated cells. Nonetheless, matuzumab induced ADCC in Caski cells, but not in the C33A cell line, suggesting that its potential therapeutic effects in vitro are indeed dependent on EGFR expression. Conclusions Matuzumab combined with chemoradiation did not induce cytotoxic effects on gynecological cancer cell lines in vitro, most likely due to impaired EGFR degradation. However, a combination of matuzumab and PI3K inhibitor synergistically inhibited pAkt and cell survival

  12. A Novel Efficient Cluster-Based MLSE Equalizer for Satellite Communication Channels with -QAM Signaling

    Dalakas Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In satellites, nonlinear amplifiers used near saturation severely distort the transmitted signal and cause difficulties in its reception. Nevertheless, the nonlinearities introduced by memoryless bandpass amplifiers preserve the symmetries of the -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM constellation. In this paper, a cluster-based sequence equalizer (CBSE that takes advantage of these symmetries is presented. The proposed equalizer exhibits enhanced performance compared to other techniques, including the conventional linear transversal equalizer, Volterra equalizers, and RBF network equalizers. Moreover, this gain in performance is obtained at a substantially lower computational cost.

  13. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  14. Sampling frequency, response times and embedded signal filtration in fast, high efficiency liquid chromatography: A tutorial.

    Wahab, M Farooq; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kadjo, Akinde F; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-02-11

    With increasingly efficient columns, eluite peaks are increasingly narrower. To take full advantage of this, choice of the detector response time and the data acquisition rate a.k.a. detector sampling frequency, have become increasingly important. In this work, we revisit the concept of data sampling from the theorem variously attributed to Whittaker, Nyquist, Kotelnikov, and Shannon. Focusing on time scales relevant to the current practice of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and optical absorbance detection (the most commonly used method), even for very narrow simulated peaks Fourier transformation shows that theoretical minimum sampling frequency is still relatively low (digital filters. We show that the common wisdom of sampling 20 points per peak can be inadequate for high efficiency columns and that the sampling frequency and response choices do affect the peak shape. If the sampling frequency is too low or response time is too large, the observed peak shapes will not remain as narrow as they really are - this is especially true for high efficiency and high speed separations. It is shown that both sampling frequency and digital filtering affect the retention time, noise amplitude, peak shape and width in a complex fashion. We show how a square-wave driven light emitting diode source can reveal the nature of the embedded filter. We discuss time uncertainties related to the choice of sampling frequency. Finally, we suggest steps to obtain optimum results from a given system. PMID:26803000

  15. Development and application of VISAR probe with higher signal-collecting efficiency and adjusted depth of field

    Zhao Jian Heng; Sun Cheng Wei

    2001-01-01

    The new design of optical fiber VISAR probes has been described. It consists of optical fibers and two lenses, and has simpler structure and lower cost than others. If the size of the image near the end face of collecting fiber is larger than the diameter of the core fiber, the distance between the probe and the target can be decreased. Requirement for the precision in the design is lower in this way, and is easier to build up. At the same time, the signal-collecting efficiency is improved in some degree. During the process of designing the probe, the technique for manufacturing the lens of plexiglass is developed. The lens of plexiglass is used to replace the lens of glass, which can reduce the cost of the probe. The factors affecting the collecting efficiency are analyzed

  16. Development and application of VISAR probe with higher signal-collecting efficiency and adjusted depth of field

    The new design of optical fiber VISAR probes has been described. It consists of optical fibers and two lenses, and has simpler structure and lower cost than others. If the size of the image near the end face of collecting fiber is larger than the diameter of the core fiber, the distance between the probe and the target can be decreased. Requirement for the precision in the design is lower in this way, and is easier to build up. At the same time, the signal-collecting efficiency is improved in some degree. During the process of designing the probe, the technique for manufacturing the lens of plexiglass is developed. The lens of plexiglass is used to replace the lens of glass, which can reduce the cost of the probe. The factors affecting the collecting efficiency are analyzed

  17. Efficient Hybrid Grid Synthesis Method Based on Genetic Algorithm for Power/Ground Network Optimization with Dynamic Signal Consideration

    Yang, Yun; Kimura, Shinji

    This paper proposes an efficient design algorithm for power/ground (P/G) network synthesis with dynamic signal consideration, which is mainly caused by Ldi/dt noise and Cdv/dt decoupling capacitance (DECAP) current in the distribution network. To deal with the nonlinear global optimization under synthesis constraints directly, the genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced. The proposed GA-based synthesis method can avoid the linear transformation loss and the restraint condition complexity in current SLP, SQP, ICG, and random-walk methods. In the proposed Hybrid Grid Synthesis algorithm, the dynamic signal is simulated in the gene disturbance process, and Trapezoidal Modified Euler (TME) method is introduced to realize the precise dynamic time step process. We also use a hybrid-SLP method to reduce the genetic execute time and increase the network synthesis efficiency. Experimental results on given power distribution network show the reduction on layout area and execution time compared with current P/G network synthesis methods.

  18. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  19. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Dimitrios Hatzinakos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN, which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1 a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2 a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  20. Efficient and Robust Detection of GFSK Signals under Dispersive Channel, Modulation Index, and Carrier Frequency Offset Conditions

    Stephan Weiss

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian frequency shift keying is the modulation scheme specified for Bluetooth. Signal adversities typical in Bluetooth networks include AWGN, multipath propagation, carrier frequency, and modulation index offsets. In our effort to realise a robust but efficient Bluetooth receiver, we adopt a high-performance matched-filter-based detector, which is near optimal in AWGN, but requires a prohibitively costly filter bank for processing of K bits worth of the received signal. However, through filtering over a single bit period and performing phase propagation of intermediate results over successive single-bit stages, we eliminate redundancy involved in providing the matched filter outputs and reduce its complexity by up to 90% (for K=9. The constant modulus signal characteristic and the potential for carrier frequency offsets make the constant modulus algorithm (CMA suitable for channel equalisation, and we demonstrate its effectiveness in this paper. We also introduce a stochastic gradient-based algorithm for carrier frequency offset correction, and show that the relative rotation between successive intermediate filter outputs enables us to detect and correct offsets in modulation index.

  1. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  2. Efficient Signal Processing in OFDM-based Indoor Optical Wireless Links

    Jelena Grubor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a rate-adaptive optical wireless transmission system based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for indoor communications. The investigations rely on realistic parameters of the key system components and focus on throughput maximization. We will show that a dynamically adaptive system can greatly enhance performance when compared to static operation, and how a loading algorithm, which optimally performs in powerlimited systems, needs to be adjusted if the specific terms of the optical wireless channel are to be rigorously obeyed. Our investigations include scenarios in which the non-negativity constraint on the optical source driving signal is strictly met and in which a certain amount of symmetric clipping is tolerated. In the latter case, the system can be regarded as power-limited and conventional loading algorithms are hence the most suitable. We will show that the transmission rate can be significantly improved even further by accepting a minor increase in the error rate as a result of controlled clipping, and we will compare our results with the upper system capacity limit.

  3. Signal and charge collection efficiency of n-in-p strip detectors after mixed irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Kuehn, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Barber, Thomas [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Casse, Gianluigi; Dervan, Paul [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, The Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Driewer, Adrian [Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Finkenstr. 61, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Forshaw, Dean; Huse, Torkjell [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, The Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Parzefall, Ulrich [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    For the year 2020, an upgrade of the LHC with a factor ten increase in luminosity is planned. The resulting severe radiation doses for the ATLAS tracker demand extremely radiation tolerant detectors. In this study six planar n-in-p strip sensors produced by Hamamatsu Photonics were irradiated in consecutive irradiation steps with pions of 280 Mev/c, protons of 25 Mev/c and reactor neutrons resulting in a combined fluence of up to 3×10{sup 15} 1 MeV neutron equivalent particles per square centimeter (n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}). This particle composition and fluence corresponds to the qualification limit specified by the ATLAS experiment for the outer pixel layers (assuming an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}). The 320μm thick devices are investigated using electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source. After each irradiation step both charge collection efficiency and noise measurements have been performed using the ALIBAVA readout system, which is based on analogue Beetle ASICs clocked at 40 MHz. Measurements of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio of detectors will be given after the sensors were exposed to radiation that both in fluence and composition are corresponding to the expectations for the HL-LHC trackers. Conclusions will be drawn on their operation in the ATLAS inner detector upgrade. -- Highlights: •Charge collection measurements of n-in-p strip detectors irradiated up to 3E15 n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. •Signal reduced from 25 k electrons before irradiation to 9–11 k electrons at 600 V bias. •Signal-to-noise ratio measured above 10 at 600 V after irradiation with pions, protons and neutrons. •N-in-p strip detectors functional for doses in inner strip layers of ATLAS in the HL-LHC. •Results agreeing to results after single particle irradiation.

  4. An ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical aptasensor based on signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dots sensitized structure and efficient quenching by manganese porphyrin.

    Li, Mengjie; Zheng, Yingning; Liang, Wenbin; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-06-21

    In this work, an ultrasensitive "on-off-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor was proposed based on the signal amplification of a fullerene/CdTe quantum dot (nano-C60/CdTe QDs) sensitized structure and efficient signal quenching of nano-C60/CdTe QDs by a manganese porphyrin (MnPP). PMID:27272457

  5. Interferometric Motion Detection in Atomic Layer 2D Nanostructures: Visualizing Signal Transduction Efficiency and Optimization Pathways

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2016-07-01

    Atomic layer crystals are emerging building blocks for enabling new two-dimensional (2D) nanomechanical systems, whose motions can be coupled to other attractive physical properties in such 2D systems. Optical interferometry has been very effective in reading out the infinitesimal motions of these 2D structures and spatially resolving different modes. To quantitatively understand the detection efficiency and its dependence on the device parameters and interferometric conditions, here we present a systematic study of the intrinsic motion responsivity in 2D nanomechanical systems using a Fresnel-law-based model. We find that in monolayer to 14-layer structures, MoS2 offers the highest responsivity among graphene, h-BN, and MoS2 devices and for the three commonly used visible laser wavelengths (633, 532, and 405 nm). We also find that the vacuum gap resulting from the widely used 300 nm-oxide substrate in making 2D devices, fortunately, leads to close-to-optimal responsivity for a wide range of 2D flakes. Our results elucidate and graphically visualize the dependence of motion transduction responsivity upon 2D material type and number of layers, vacuum gap, oxide thickness, and detecting wavelength, thus providing design guidelines for constructing 2D nanomechanical systems with optimal optical motion readout.

  6. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  7. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated. PMID:21062677

  8. Damage localization using a power-efficient distributed on-board signal processing algorithm in a wireless sensor network

    A distributed on-board algorithm that is embedded and executed within a group of wireless sensors to locate structural damages in isotropic plates is presented. The algorithm is based on an energy-decay model of Lamb waves and singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine damage locations. A sensor group consists of a small number of sensors, each of which independently collects wave signals and evaluates wave energy upon an external triggering signal sent from a base station. The energy values, usually a few bytes in length, are then sent to the base station to determine the presence and location of damages. In comparison with traditional centralized approaches in which whole datasets are required to be transmitted, the proposed algorithm yields much less wireless communication traffic, yet with a modest amount of computation required within sensors. Experiments have shown that the algorithm is robust to locate damage for isotropic plate structures and is very power efficient, with more than an order-of-magnitude power saving

  9. Signal and charge collection efficiency of n-in-p strip detectors after mixed irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Kuehn, Susanne; Barber, Thomas; Casse, Gianluigi; Dervan, Paul; Driewer, Adrian; Forshaw, Dean; Huse, Torkjell; Jakobs, Karl; Parzefall, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    For the year 2020, an upgrade of the LHC with a factor ten increase in luminosity is planned. The resulting severe radiation doses for the ATLAS tracker demand extremely radiation tolerant detectors. In this study six planar n-in-p strip sensors produced by Hamamatsu Photonics were irradiated in consecutive irradiation steps with pions of 280 Mev/c, protons of 25 Mev/c and reactor neutrons resulting in a combined fluence of up to 3×1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent particles per square centimeter (neq /cm2). This particle composition and fluence corresponds to the qualification limit specified by the ATLAS experiment for the outer pixel layers (assuming an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1). The 320 μm thick devices are investigated using electrons from a 90Sr source. After each irradiation step both charge collection efficiency and noise measurements have been performed using the ALIBAVA readout system, which is based on analogue Beetle ASICs clocked at 40 MHz. Measurements of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio of detectors will be given after the sensors were exposed to radiation that both in fluence and composition are corresponding to the expectations for the HL-LHC trackers. Conclusions will be drawn on their operation in the ATLAS inner detector upgrade.

  10. Statistical Evaluation of Efficiency and Possibility of Earthquake Predictions with Gravity Field Variation and its Analytic Signal in Western China

    Chen, Shi; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at assessing gravity variations as precursors for earthquake prediction in the Tibet (Xizang)-Qinghai-Xinjiang-Sichuan Region, western China. We here take a statistical approach to evaluate efficiency and possibility of earthquake prediction. We used the most recent spatiotemporal gravity field variation datasets of 2002-2008 for the region that were provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC). The datasets were space sparse and time discrete. In 2007-2010, 13 earthquakes (> M s 6.0) occurred in the region. The observed gravity variations have a statistical correlation with the occurrence of these earthquakes through the Molchan error diagram tests that lead to alarms over a good fraction of space-time. The results show that the prediction efficiency of amplitude of analytic signal of gravity variations is better than seismicity rate model and THD and absolute value of gravity variation, implying that gravity variations before earthquake may include precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  11. Signal Peptidase Cleavage at the Flavivirus C-prM Junction: Dependence on the Viral NS2B-3 Protease for Efficient Processing Requires Determinants in C, the Signal Peptide, and prM

    Stocks, C. E.; Lobigs, M

    1998-01-01

    Signal peptidase cleavage at the C-prM junction in the flavivirus structural polyprotein is inefficient in the absence of the cytoplasmic viral protease, which catalyzes cleavage at the COOH terminus of the C protein. The signal peptidase cleavage occurs efficiently in circumstances where the C protein is deleted or if the viral protease complex is present. In this study, we used cDNA of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) to examine features of the structural polyprotein which allow this ...

  12. Design and Implementation of an Efficient Software Communications Architecture Core Framework for a Digital Signal Processors Platform

    Wael A. Murtada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Software Communications Architecture (SCA was developed to improve software reuse and interoperability in Software Defined Radios (SDR. However, there have been performance concerns since its conception. Arguably, the majority of the problems and inefficiencies associated with the SCA can be attributed to the assumption of modular distributed platforms relying on General Purpose Processors (GPPs to perform all signal processing. Approach: Significant improvements in cost and power consumption can be obtained by utilizing specialized and more efficient platforms. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs present such a platform and have been widely used in the communications industry. Improvements in development tools and middleware technology opened the possibility of fully integrating DSPs into the SCA. This approach takes advantage of the exceptional power, cost and performance characteristics of DSPs, while still enjoying the flexibility and portability of the SCA. Results: This study presents the design and implementation of an SCA Core Framework (CF for a TI TMS320C6416 DSP. The framework is deployed on a C6416 Device Cycle Accurate Simulator and TI C6416 Development board. The SCA CF is implemented by leveraging OSSIE, an open-source implementation of the SCA, to support the DSP platform. OIS’s ORBExpress DSP and DSP/BIOS are used as the middleware and operating system, respectively. A sample waveform was developed to demonstrate the framework’s functionality. Benchmark results for the framework and sample applications are provided. Conclusion: Benchmark results show that, using OIS ORBExpress DSP ORB middleware has an impact for decreasing the Software Memory Footprint and increasing the System Performance compared with PrismTech's e*ORB middleware.

  13. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Abhishek Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based Reusable Verification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tight schedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes to First Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification of corner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow is needed. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC Level Verification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IP level and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification across multiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the design cycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based Reusable Verification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides a standard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  14. Hardware-Efficient Delta Sigma-Based Digital Signal Processing Circuits for the Internet-of-Things

    Yifei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents hardware-efficient Delta Sigma linear processing circuits for the next generation low-power VLSI devices in the Internet-of-things (IoT.We first propose the P-N (positive-negative pair method to manipulate both the analog value and length of a first-order Delta Sigma bit sequence. We then present a binary counter method. Based on these methods, we develop Delta Sigma domain on-the-fly digital signal-processing circuits: the Delta Sigma sum adder, average adder and coefficient multiplier. The counter-based average adder can work with both first-order and higher-order Delta Sigma modulators and can also be used as a coefficient multiplier. The functionalities of the proposed circuits are verified by MATLAB simulation and FPGA implementation. We also compare the area and power between the proposed Delta Sigma adders and a conventional multi-bit adder by synthesizing both circuits in the IBM 0.18-μm technology. Synthesis results show that the proposed Delta Sigma processing circuits can extensively reduce circuit area and power. With 100 inputs, a Delta Sigma average adder saves 94% of the silicon area and 96% of the power compared to a multi-bit binary adder. The proposed circuits have the potential to be widely used in future IoT circuits.

  15. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Abhishek Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based ReusableVerification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tightschedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes toFirst Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification ofcorner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow isneeded. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC LevelVerification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IPlevel and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification acrossmultiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the designcycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based ReusableVerification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides astandard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  16. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar;

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation of...

  17. Asynchronous detection of optical code division multiple access signals using a bandwidth-efficient and wavelength-aware receiver.

    Fok, Mable P; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2010-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate what we believe to be a novel detection scheme for interfacing asynchronous optical code division multiple access (CDMA) signals with an electronic clock and data recovery system that operates only at the baseband bandwidth. This allows using a large optical bandwidth expansion factor in which the optical chip rate is much larger than the bandwidth of the optoelectronic receiver. The received optical CDMA signal is launched into a four-wave-mixing-based wavelength-aware all-optical front end that rejects multiaccess interference, followed by an amplitude-noise suppression stage comprised of a semiconductor optical amplifier. The clean signal is then converted into a non-return-to-zero-like signal by a baseband receiver. Using the proposed detection scheme, asynchronous transmission and detection of optical CDMA signals is implemented. With the novel detection scheme, the classic CDMA near-far problem is mitigated, and error-free detection is easily obtained. PMID:20364229

  18. Infrared Signal Detection by Upconversion Technique

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Johnson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated up-conversion assisted detection of a 2.05-micron signal by using a bulk periodically poled Lithium niobate crystal. The 94% intrinsic up-conversion efficiency and 22.58% overall detection efficiency at pW level of 2.05-micron was achieved.

  19. Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Upconversion Technique

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Johnson, William; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated upconversion assisted detection of a 2.05-micron signal by sum frequency generation to generate a 700-nm light using a bulk periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The achieved 94% intrinsic upconversion efficiency and 22.58% overall detection efficiency at a pW level of 2.05 micron pave the path to detect extremely weak infrared (IR) signals for remote sensing applications.

  20. Sometimes, economic arguments provide better conditions for achieving energy efficiency in transport (A remarkable new market based approach on Commuter Mobility Management makes accessibility and energy efficiency go hand in hand)

    Commuter Mobility Management (CMM) is broadly regarded as one of the most potential instruments to reduce the negative effects of mass commuting on the environment and energy demand. Until now, only 4% of private enterprise implemented CMM in the Netherlands. Business community turned out to be very reluctant in embracing CMM as a workable method. National employers' federations, representing more than 90% of employment in private sector, pictured CMM as a laborious and not effective instrument. Novem realised that the real issue was not so much about the practicability of the instrument, but more about the environmental and energy related arguments being used by the government. Novem took the initiative and invited the employers federations to participate in a unique project: the development of a Standard Set of CMM-incentives. In this project, environmental and energy related arguments were tactically avoided. The target scenario was to convince business community strictly with economic arguments. The project showed remarkable results. The influential employers' federations became more co-operative and accepted a 'Standard Set of incentives'. While not emphasising it, the 'hidden' positive effect on energy conservation is still substantial: 5% reduction of single occupant vehicle-trips during rush hours, each 'switcher' saving an average of 7,200 single occupant car kilometres each year. By 2010 this could nation wide result in a reduction of approximately 3PJ, about 4,3% of all energy used by private car travel in mass commuting. This explains the title: 'Sometimes, economic arguments provide better conditions for achieving energy efficiency in transport'

  1. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins

    Tang, Jin-Bao [School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Tang, Ying [Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming, E-mail: yanghongming2006@sohu.com [School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • An efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free EIA is proposed. • Divalent biotinylated AP and monovalent biotinylated ZZ were prepared via Avitag–BirA system. • The above site-specific biotinylated fusion proteins form complex via SA–biotin interaction. • The mechanism relies on the ZZ–Avi-B/SA/AP–(Avi-B){sub 2} complex. • The analytical signals are enhanced (32-fold) by the proposed strategy. - Abstract: Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag–BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)–biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA–biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ–AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable

  2. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins

    Highlights: • An efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free EIA is proposed. • Divalent biotinylated AP and monovalent biotinylated ZZ were prepared via Avitag–BirA system. • The above site-specific biotinylated fusion proteins form complex via SA–biotin interaction. • The mechanism relies on the ZZ–Avi-B/SA/AP–(Avi-B)2 complex. • The analytical signals are enhanced (32-fold) by the proposed strategy. - Abstract: Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag–BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)–biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA–biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ–AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable for the

  3. Cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon: A novel efficient signal translator for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy bioassay.

    Hu, Pan; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    Due to its unique features such as high sensitivity, homogeneous format, and independence on fluorescent intensity, fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay has become a hotspot of study in oligonucleotide-based bioassays. However, until now most FA probes require carefully customized structure designs, and thus are neither generalizable for different sensing systems nor effective to obtain sufficient signal response. To address this issue, a cleavable DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was successfully engineered for signal amplified FA bioassay, via combining the unique stable structure of molecular beacon and the large molecular mass of streptavidin. Compared with single DNA strand probe or conventional molecular beacon, the DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon exhibited a much higher FA value, which was potential to obtain high signal-background ratio in sensing process. As proof-of-principle, this novel DNA-protein hybrid molecular beacon was further applied for FA bioassay using DNAzyme-Pb(2+) as a model sensing system. This FA assay approach could selectively detect as low as 0.5nM Pb(2+) in buffer solution, and also be successful for real samples analysis with good recovery values. Compatible with most of oligonucleotide probes' designs and enzyme-based signal amplification strategies, the molecular beacon can serve as a novel signal translator to expand the application prospect of FA technology in various bioassays. PMID:26592607

  4. A Language and Toolset for the Synthesis and Efficient Simulation of Clock-Cycle-True Signal-Processing Algorithms

    Hofstra, Klaas L.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Kampen, van David

    2005-01-01

    Optimal simulation speed and synthesizability are contradictory requirements for a hardware description language. This paper presents a language and toolset that enables both synthesis and fast simulation of fixed-point signal processing algorithms at the register-transfer level using a single syste

  5. JNK/SAPK Signaling Is Essential for Efficient Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Neganova, Irina; Shmeleva, Evgenija; Munkley, Jennifer; Chichagova, Valeria; Anyfantis, George; Anderson, Rhys; Passos, Joao; Elliott, David J.; Armstrong, Lyle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reprogramming of somatic cells to the phenotypic state termed “induced pluripotency” is thought to occur through three consecutive stages: initiation, maturation, and stabilisation. The initiation phase is stochastic but nevertheless very important as it sets the gene expression pattern that permits completion of reprogramming; hence a better understanding of this phase and how this is regulated may provide the molecular cues for improving the reprogramming process. c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase (JNK)/stress‐activated protein kinase (SAPKs) are stress activated MAPK kinases that play an essential role in several processes known to be important for successful completion of the initiation phase such as cellular proliferation, mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and cell cycle regulation. In view of this, we postulated that manipulation of this pathway would have significant impacts on reprogramming of human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Accordingly, we found that key components of the JNK/SAPK signaling pathway increase expression as early as day 3 of the reprogramming process and continue to rise in reprogrammed cells throughout the initiation and maturation stages. Using both chemical inhibitors and RNA interference of MKK4, MKK7 and JNK1, we tested the role of JNK/SAPK signaling during the initiation stage of neonatal and adult fibroblast reprogramming. These resulted in complete abrogation of fully reprogrammed colonies and the emergence of partially reprogrammed colonies which disaggregated and were lost from culture during the maturation stage. Inhibition of JNK/SAPK signaling resulted in reduced cell proliferation, disruption of MET and loss of the pluripotent phenotype, which either singly or in combination prevented establishment of pluripotent colonies. Together these data provide new evidence for an indispensable role for JNK/SAPK signaling to overcome the well‐established molecular barriers in human somatic cell

  6. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines : OECS Fiscal Issues, Policies to Achieve Fiscal Sustainability and Improve Efficiency and Equity of Public Expenditures

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The central theme of the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Fiscal Issues report, the first Public Expenditure Review conducted by the World Bank in this country, is that in order to restore rapid economic growth, ensure medium-term fiscal sustainability under the umbrella of the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and protect the social achievements realized in the past decades, the country will best benefit from: (a) tightening fiscal policy, mostly through expenditure cuts; (b) an increase...

  7. A more efficient approach to parallel-tempered Markov-chain Monte Carlo for the highly structured posteriors of gravitational-wave signals

    Farr, Benjamin; Kalogera, Vicky; Luijten, Erik

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a new Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach designed for the efficient sampling of highly correlated and multimodal posteriors. Parallel tempering, though effective, is a costly technique for sampling such posteriors. Our approach minimizes the use of parallel tempering, only applying it for a short time to build a proposal distribution that is based upon estimation of the kernel density and tuned to the target posterior. This proposal makes subsequent use of parallel tempering unnecessary, allowing all chains to be cooled to sample the target distribution. Gains in efficiency are found to increase with increasing posterior complexity, ranging from tens of percent in the simplest cases to over a factor of 10 for the more complex cases. Our approach is particularly useful in the context of parameter estimation of gravitational-wave signals measured by ground-based detectors, which is currently done through Bayesian inference with MCMC, one of the leading sampling methods. Posteriors for these signals are typically multimodal with strong nonlinear correlations, making sampling difficult. As we enter the advanced-detector era, improved sensitivities and wider bandwidths will drastically increase the computational cost of analyses, demanding more efficient search algorithms to meet these challenges.

  8. I/O Buffer Based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar; Kumar, Tanesh; Kalia, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    LVCMOS (Low Voltage Com-plementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) family. IO standards are used to match the impedance of transmission line, input/output port and device. The energy-efficient multipliers play a significant role in portable computing and communication systems also. Here we are using Field...

  9. A novel GSK3-regulated APC:Axin interaction regulates Wnt signaling by driving a catalytic cycle of efficient βcatenin destruction.

    Pronobis, Mira I; Rusan, Nasser M; Peifer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    APC, a key negative regulator of Wnt signaling in development and oncogenesis, acts in the destruction complex with the scaffold Axin and the kinases GSK3 and CK1 to target βcatenin for destruction. Despite 20 years of research, APC's mechanistic function remains mysterious. We used FRAP, super-resolution microscopy, functional tests in mammalian cells and flies, and other approaches to define APC's mechanistic role in the active destruction complex when Wnt signaling is off. Our data suggest APC plays two roles: (1) APC promotes efficient Axin multimerization through one known and one novel APC:Axin interaction site, and (2) GSK3 acts through APC motifs R2 and B to regulate APC:Axin interactions, promoting high-throughput of βcatenin to destruction. We propose a new dynamic model of how the destruction complex regulates Wnt signaling and how this goes wrong in cancer, providing insights into how this multiprotein signaling complex is assembled and functions via multivalent interactions. PMID:26393419

  10. C/EBPa-Mediated Activation of MicroRNAs 34a and 223 Inhibits Lef1 Expression To Achieve Efficient Reprogramming into Macrophages

    Rodriguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; van Oevelen, Chris; Parra, Maribel; Graf, Thomas; Ballestar, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert negative effects on gene expression and influence cell lineage choice during hematopoiesis. C/EBPa-induced pre-B cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation provides an excellent model to investigate the contribution of miRNAs to hematopoietic cell identity, especially because the two cell types involved fall into separate lymphoid and myeloid branches. In this process, efficient repression of the B cell-specific program is essential to ensure transdifferentation and macr...

  11. In a Peak Fitness Condition?:The Danish Elite Sports Model in International Perspective: Managerial Efficiency and Best Practice in Achieving International Sporting Success

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    According to international findings, nations today face diminishing returns on investment when it comes to elite sports. As the power struggles to win medals in international tournaments - such as the Olympics - have intensified in the last couple of years, and the financial investments have increased, the market has adapted by raising the overall price of a medal. As a direct consequence managerial efficiency can be a 'non-financial' tool for nations to enhance the chances of success. The pu...

  12. Efficient Signal Processing in Random Networks that Generate Variability: A Comparison of Internally Generated and Externally Induced Variability

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Nishikawa, Isao; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Toyoizumi, Taro

    Source of cortical variability and its influence on signal processing remain an open question. We address the latter, by studying two types of balanced randomly connected networks of quadratic I-F neurons, with irregular spontaneous activity: (a) a deterministic network with strong connections generating noise by chaotic dynamics (b) a stochastic network with weak connections receiving noisy input. They are analytically tractable in the limit of large network-size and channel time-constant. Despite different sources of noise, spontaneous activity of these networks are identical unless majority of neurons are simultaneously recorded. However, the two networks show remarkably different sensitivity to external stimuli. In the former, input reverberates internally and can be read out over long time, but in the latter, inputs rapidly decay. This is further enhanced with activity-dependent plasticity at input synapses producing marked difference in decoding inputs from neural activity. We show, this leads to distinct performance of the two networks to integrate temporally separate signals from multiple sources, with the deterministic chaotic network activity serving as reservoir for Monte Carlo sampling to perform near optimal Bayesian integration, unlike its stochastic counterpart.

  13. Reducing the Read Noise of H2RG Detector Arrays by more Efficient use of Reference Signals

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Arendt, Richard G.; Fixen, D. J.; Lindler, Don; Loose, Markus; Moseley, S. H.; Wilson, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a process for characterizing the correlation properties of the noise in large two-dimensional detector arrays, and describe an efficient process for its removal. In the case of the 2k x 2k HAWAII-2RG detectors (H2RG) detectors from Teledyne which are being used on the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we find that we can reduce the read noise by thirty percent. Noise on large spatial scales is dramatically reduced. With this relatively simple process, we provide a performance improvement that is equivalent to a significant increase in telescope collecting area for high resolution spectroscopy with NIRSpec.

  14. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications. PMID:25915172

  15. C/EBPa-mediated activation of microRNAs 34a and 223 inhibits Lef1 expression to achieve efficient reprogramming into macrophages.

    Rodriguez-Ubreva, Javier; Ciudad, Laura; van Oevelen, Chris; Parra, Maribel; Graf, Thomas; Ballestar, Esteban

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert negative effects on gene expression and influence cell lineage choice during hematopoiesis. C/EBPa-induced pre-B cell-to-macrophage transdifferentiation provides an excellent model to investigate the contribution of miRNAs to hematopoietic cell identity, especially because the two cell types involved fall into separate lymphoid and myeloid branches. In this process, efficient repression of the B cell-specific program is essential to ensure transdifferentation and macrophage function. miRNA profiling revealed that upregulation of miRNAs is highly predominant compared with downregulation and that C/EBPa directly regulates several upregulated miRNAs. We also determined that miRNA 34a (miR-34a) and miR-223 sharply accelerate C/EBPa-mediated transdifferentiation, whereas their depletion delays this process. These two miRNAs affect the transdifferentiation efficiency and activity of macrophages, including their lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent inflammatory response. miR-34a and miR-223 directly target and downregulate the lymphoid transcription factor Lef1, whose ectopic expression delays transdifferentiation to an extent similar to that seen with miR-34a and miR-223 depletion. In addition, ectopic introduction of Lef1 in macrophages causes upregulation of B cell markers, including CD19, Pax5, and Ikzf3. Our report demonstrates the importance of these miRNAs in ensuring the erasure of key B cell transcription factors, such as Lef1, and reinforces the notion of their essential role in fine-tuning the control required for establishing cell identity. PMID:24421386

  16. Study on Conversion Efficiency of Scientific and Technological Achievements of China's Strategic Emerging Industries%我国战略性新兴产业科技成果转化效率研究

    卫平; 赵良浩

    2014-01-01

    This paper measures the efficiency of transformation of scientific and technological achievements in China's strategic e-merging industries by using data envelopment analysis , and then examines the impact of the strength of enterprises , inputs , the role of government , market structure and other factors on the efficiency . The study shows that the overall China's strategic emerging industries'ef-ficiency of transformation of scientific and technological achievements is not high enough and shows a downward trend , but some industries are relatively stable , and the efficiency of inter-industry differences narrowing . Scientific and technological achievements conversion effi-ciency is positively correlated with corporate financial strength and strength of scientific and technological achievements , while negatively re-lated to new product development expenditures . And the stronger market monopoly power is , the higher the conversion efficiency is . In addition , governmental supports and the number of scientific and technical personnel have no significant correlation with the conversion effi-ciency .%本文运用数据包络法测算我国战略性新兴产业科技成果转化的效率,进而考察企业能力、要素投入、政府作用、市场结构等因素对科技成果转化效率的影响。研究表明,我国战略性新兴产业科技成果转化的整体效率不高且呈现下降趋势,但部分行业转化效率相对稳定,行业间的效率差异亦逐渐缩小。企业资金实力、科技成果转化实力与科技成果转化效率正相关,而新产品开发经费支出与之负相关;市场垄断势力越强,转化效率越高;此外,政府支持、科技人员数与科技成果转化效率无显著相关性。

  17. An efficient VLSI implementation of on-line recursive ICA processor for real-time multi-channel EEG signal separation.

    Shih, Wei-Yeh; Liao, Jui-Chieh; Huang, Kuan-Ju; Fang, Wai-Chi; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient VLSI implementation of on-line recursive ICA (ORICA) processor for real-time multi-channel EEG signal separation. The proposed design contains a system control unit, a whitening unit, a singular value decomposition unit, a floating matrix multiply unit and, and an ORICA weight training unit. Because the input sample rate of the ORICA processor is 128 Hz, the ORICA processor should produce independent components before the next sample is input in 1/128 s. Under the timing constraints of commutating multi-channel ORICA in real time, the design of the ORICA processor is a mixed architecture, which is designed as different hardware parallelism according to the complexity of processing units. The shared arithmetic processing unit and shared register can reduce hardware complexity and power consumption. The proposed design is implemented used TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology with 8-channel EEG processing in 128 Hz sample rate of raw data and consumes 2.827 mW at 50 MHz clock rate. The performance of the proposed design is also shown to reach 0.0078125 s latency after each EEG sample time, and the average correlation coefficient between the original source signals and extracted ORICA signals for each 1 s frame is 0.9763. PMID:24111307

  18. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells achieved through using Pt-free Nb2O5/C composite counter electrode and iodide-free redox couples

    Li, Ling; Lu, Qi; Li, Wenyan; Li, Xiaowei; Hagfeldt, Anders; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of Nb2O5, a composite Nb2O5/C (Nb2O5 imbedded in carbon support) is synthesized with a simple in situ method and then introduced the composite into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a counter electrode (CE) catalyst. Based on the analysis of the cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel-polarization curve measurements, the catalytic activity of the Nb2O5/C composite for the regeneration of iodide-free redox couples of polysulfide (T2/T-) and cobalt complex (Co3+/2+) is indeed enhanced significantly as compared with pure Nb2O5, because the composite electrode eliminates the particle aggregation and forms a mesoporous network structure with large pore size. The T2/T- electrolyte based DSCs with Nb2O5/C CE yields a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.11%, generating a great improvement of 63.8% as compared to the Pt CE based DSCs. In addition, the Nb2O5/C exhibits higher catalytic activity than Pt for regenerating the Co3+/2+ redox couple and the DSCs using Nb2O5/C CE shows a high PCE of 9.86%.

  19. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance. PMID:27467416

  20. 巧用图表形象教学 创设历史高效课堂%Creating Efficient History Class with Diagrams to Achieve Vivid Teaching

    马莉

    2011-01-01

    Historical illustration,as a visual teaching material,is a complement of the teaching materials.In this paper,illustrations resources from import new courses,to solve difficulties,summarize knowledge and expand knowledge,etc.to explore the use of illustrations,the image of teaching strategies to create historical efficient classroom,so as to improve teaching effectiveness.%历史插图作为一种直观教材,具有形象、生动、直观的特点,对历史教材中文字性的描述起到补充、解释的作用。本文利用插图资源从导入新课、解决难点、总结知识、拓展知识等方面,探究巧用插图形象教学的策略,以创设历史高效课堂,提高教学效果。

  1. Efficient reinforcement learning of a reservoir network model of parametric working memory achieved with a cluster population winner-take-all readout mechanism.

    Cheng, Zhenbo; Deng, Zhidong; Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Tianming

    2015-12-01

    The brain often has to make decisions based on information stored in working memory, but the neural circuitry underlying working memory is not fully understood. Many theoretical efforts have been focused on modeling the persistent delay period activity in the prefrontal areas that is believed to represent working memory. Recent experiments reveal that the delay period activity in the prefrontal cortex is neither static nor homogeneous as previously assumed. Models based on reservoir networks have been proposed to model such a dynamical activity pattern. The connections between neurons within a reservoir are random and do not require explicit tuning. Information storage does not depend on the stable states of the network. However, it is not clear how the encoded information can be retrieved for decision making with a biologically realistic algorithm. We therefore built a reservoir-based neural network to model the neuronal responses of the prefrontal cortex in a somatosensory delayed discrimination task. We first illustrate that the neurons in the reservoir exhibit a heterogeneous and dynamical delay period activity observed in previous experiments. Then we show that a cluster population circuit decodes the information from the reservoir with a winner-take-all mechanism and contributes to the decision making. Finally, we show that the model achieves a good performance rapidly by shaping only the readout with reinforcement learning. Our model reproduces important features of previous behavior and neurophysiology data. We illustrate for the first time how task-specific information stored in a reservoir network can be retrieved with a biologically plausible reinforcement learning training scheme. PMID:26445865

  2. Energy Saving Alignment Strategy: Achieving energy efficiency in urban buildings by matching occupant temperature preferences with a building’s indoor thermal environment

    Highlights: • A novel strategy for energy savings in multi-family buildings is presented. • A household’s thermal preferences are matched with a unit’s thermal environment. • Potential energy savings are examined using public housing as a test case. • 2.1–42.0% primary energy savings are shown, depending on climate location. - Abstract: Existing strategies for residential energy savings through physical renovation or motivating occupant energy conservation behavior can be costly and/or have transitory effects. Focusing on multi-family dwellings, an important subset of the urban residential sector, we propose an Energy Saving Alignment Strategy (ESAS) that has advantageous cost-effectiveness and a long-lasting influence. By aligning the distribution of residents’ thermostat preferences with the indoor temperature, ESAS aims to maximize thermal comfort and, accordingly, energy savings in multi-family buildings where indoor temperatures vary between apartments as a function of apartment orientation and floor level. Using a case study of a 1084-apartment public housing complex in New York, we classify both occupants’ thermostat preferences and apartments’ operative temperatures into five groups, and optimize energy efficiency by assigning each group of occupants to the group of apartments that best aligns with their thermostat preference. We test ESAS in eight cities representing all four U.S. census regions and six climate zones. Simulation results reveal 2.1–42.0% in energy savings compared to random apartment assignments depending on geographic location, with the highest energy reductions occurring in cities with mild climates, where the range of occupant thermostat preferences coincides with the natural indoor temperature range. We conclude by providing suggested guidelines on how ESAS might work in practice, and recommendations for extending ESAS research

  3. Recent development in thermally activated desalination methods: achieving an energy efficiency less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-05-19

    Water-Energy-Environment nexus is a crucial consideration when designing seawater desalination processes, particularly for the water-stressed countries where the annual water availability is less than 250 m3 per capita. Despite the thermodynamics limit for seawater desalination at normal conditions is about 0.78 to 1.09 kWhelec/m3, the specific energy consumption of desalination of real plants is found to operate at several folds higher. Today’s technological advancement in membranes, namely the reverse osmosis processes, has set an energy consumption of around 3.5–5 kWhelec/m3, while the conventional perception of thermally activated processes such as MSF and MED tends to be higher. Although the higher energetic specific consumption of MED or MSF processes appeared to be higher at 60–100 kWhthermal/m3, their true electricity equivalent has been converted, hitherto, using the energetic analyses where the work potential of working steam of the processes cannot be captured adequately. Thermally activated processes, such as MED and MSF, form the bottoming cycle of a cogeneration plant where both electricity and desalination processes operate in tandem in a cascaded manner. Only the bled-steam at lower exergy is extracted for the desalination processes. In this presentation, we demonstrate that in a cogen plant with 30% bled-steam for MED processes, the exergy destruction ratio is found to be less than 7% of the total available exergy that emanated from the boilers. By the exergetic approach, the equivalent electricity consumption of an average 75 kWhthermal/m3 would result in an electrical equivalent of less than 2.5 kWhelec/m3. Also in this presentation, the authors will elaborate the latest developments in the use of hybridization concept where the MED and the AD cycles are thermodynamically integrated and enhancing the overall efficiency of desalination. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications

  4. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  5. Achieving Standardization

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  6. Signal processing and field measurements for underwater acoustic communications

    Zhang, Guosong

    2013-01-01

    The present dissertation presents new developments in the signal processing of receiver structures for high-rate underwater acoustic communications, and describes the field measurements that test the structures in real oceanic environments. The signalling methods of spectrally efficient spread spectrum are also investigated to achieve long range underwater acoustic communications. The digital signal processing is of significance in recovering distorted information, and compensating waveform d...

  7. Effects of Root Pruning on Non-Hydraulic Root-Sourced Signal, Drought Tolerance and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    MA Shou-chen; LI Feng-min; YANG Shen-jiao; LI Chun-xi; XU Bing-cheng; ZHANG Xu-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of root pruning at the stem elongation stage on non-hydraulic root-sourced signals (nHRS), drought tolerance and water use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The root pruning significantly reduced the root weight of wheat, but had no effect on root/shoot ratio at the two tested stages. At booting stage, specific root respiration of root pruned plants was significantly higher than those with intact roots (1.06 and 0.94 mmol g-1 s-1, respectively). The soil water content (SWC) at which nHRS for root pruned plants appeared was higher and terminated lower than for intact root plants, the threshold range of nHRS was markedly greater for root pruned plants (61.1-44.6%field water capacity) than for intact root plants (57.9-46.1%field water capacity). At flowering stage, while there was no significant difference in specific root respiration. The SWCs at which nHRS appeared and terminated were both higher for root pruned plants than for intact root plants. The values of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, i.e., the effective photosystem II quantum yield ( PS I ), the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), and coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), in root pruned plants were significantly higher than in intact root plants, 7 d after withholding of water. Root pruned plants had significantly higher water use efficiency (WUE) than intact root plants in well-watered and medium drought soil, but not in severe drought condition. In addition, root pruning had no significant effect on grain yield in well-watered and medium drought soil, but significantly decreased grain yield in severe drought condition. In conclusion, the current study showed that root pruning significantly altered nHRS sensitivity and improved WUE of winter wheat in well-watered and medium drought soil, but lowered drought tolerance of winter wheat in severe drought soil. This

  8. Direct modulation and detection link using polybinary signaling

    Suhr, L.F.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Peucheret, Christophe; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    This paper presents experimental results on a spectral efficient optical fiber link by using a novel seven-level polybinary signaling at 14.32 Gbps achieving a potential 7.95 b/s/Hz with very little complexity and processing footprint.......This paper presents experimental results on a spectral efficient optical fiber link by using a novel seven-level polybinary signaling at 14.32 Gbps achieving a potential 7.95 b/s/Hz with very little complexity and processing footprint....

  9. Comparison of advanced DSP techniques for spectrally efficient Nyquist-WDM signal generation using digital FIR filters at transmitters based on higher-order modulation formats

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    To support the ever-increasing demand for high-speed optical communications, Nyquist spectral shaping serves as a promising technique to improve spectral efficiency (SE) by generating near-rectangular spectra with negligible crosstalk and inter-symbol interference in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems. Compared with specially-designed optical methods, DSP-based electrical filters are more flexible as they can generate different filter shapes and modulation formats. However, such transmitter-side pre-filtering approach is sensitive to the limited taps of finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter, for the complexity of the required DSP and digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is limited by the cost and power consumption of optical transponder. In this paper, we investigate the performance and complexity of transmitter-side FIR-based DSP with polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) high-order quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) formats. Our results show that Nyquist 64-QAM, 16-QAM and QPSK WDM signals can be sufficiently generated by digital FIR filters with 57, 37, and 17 taps respectively. Then we explore the effects of the required spectral pre-emphasis, bandwidth and resolution on the performance of Nyquist-WDM systems. To obtain negligible OSNR penalty with a roll-off factor of 0.1, two-channel-interleaved DAC requires a Gaussian electrical filter with the bandwidth of 0.4-0.6 times of the symbol rate for PDM-64QAM, 0.35-0.65 times for PDM-16QAM, and 0.3-0.8 times for PDM-QPSK, with required DAC resolutions as 8, 7, 6 bits correspondingly. As a tradeoff, PDM-64QAM can be a promising candidate for SE improvement in next-generation optical metro networks.

  10. A New Principle for a High Efficiency Power Audio Amplifier for Use with a Digital Preamplifier

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1986-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amlifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore, a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the current principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made...

  11. Two-qubit parametric amplifier: large amplification of weak signals

    Savel'ev, S; Rakhmanov, A L; Omelyanchouk, A N; Washington, Z; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we show that two coupled qubits can amplify a weak signal about hundredfold. This can be achieved if the two qubits are biased simultaneously by this weak signal and a strong pump signal, both of which having frequencies close to the inter-level transitions in the system. The weak signal strongly affects the spectrum generated by the strong pumping drive by producing and controlling mixed harmonics with amplitudes of the order of the main harmonic of the strong drive. We show that the amplification is robust with respect to noise, with an intensity of the order of the weak signal. When deviating from the optimal regime (corresponding to strong qubit coupling and a weak-signal frequency equal to the inter-level transition frequency) the proposed amplifier becomes less efficient, but it can still considerably enhance a weak signal (by several tens). We therefore propose to use coupled qubits as a combined parametric amplifier and frequency shifter.

  12. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  13. Retinoic acid signalling is required for the efficient differentiation of CD4+ T cells into pathogenic effector cells during the development of intestinal inflammation

    Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Pool, Lieneke; Frising, Ulrika;

    compromised. In vitro studies confirm the inefficacy of RA signalling-deficient T cells to generate bona fide Th1 cells and demonstrate their aberrant increased RORγt expression while their differentiation into Th17 remains unaffected. Surprisingly, RA signalling-deficient CD45RBlo regulatory T cells (Tregs...... cells, while it is dispensable for the protective function of Treg cells. We are currently deciphering the mechanisms of these effects of RA on CD4+ T cells....

  14. High-efficiency secretory expression of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from mammalian cell lines with human serum albumin signal peptide.

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Mingxin; Yuan, Yimin; Ge, Liyuan; Tang, Bo; Xu, Xiaoyu; Cao, Lin; Guo, Hongqian

    2016-02-01

    Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a secretory glycoprotein initially isolated from neutrophils. It is thought to be involved in the incidence and development of immunological diseases and cancers. Urinary and serum levels of NGAL have been investigated as a new biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), for an earlier and more accurate detection method than with creatinine level. However, expressing high-quality recombinant NGAL is difficult both in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells for the low yield. Here, we cloned and fused NGAL to the C-terminus of signal peptides of human NGAL, human interleukin-2 (IL2), gaussia luciferase (Gluc), human serum albumin preproprotein (HSA) or an hidden Markov model-generated signal sequence (HMM38) respectively for transient expression in Expi293F suspension cells to screen for their ability to improve the secretory expression of recombinant NGAL. The best results were obtained with signal peptide derived from HSA. The secretory recombinant protein could react specifically with NGAL antibody. For scaled production, we used HSA signal peptide to establish stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Then we developed a convenient colony-selection system to select high-expression, stable cell lines. Moreover, we purified the NGAL with Ni-Sepharose column. The recombinant human NGAL displayed full biological activity. We provide a method to enhance the secretory expression of recombinant human NGAL by using the HSA signal peptide and produce the glycoprotein in mammalian cells. PMID:26518367

  15. A new principle for a high-efficiency power audio amplifier for use with a digital preamplifier

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1987-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amplifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the usual principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made...

  16. A nuclear localization signal in the matrix of spleen necrosis virus (SNV) does not allow efficient gene transfer into quiescent cells with SNV-derived vectors

    A major limitation in gene therapy for vectors derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) is that they only deliver genes into dividing cells. In this study, a careful comparison of spleen necrosis virus (SNV)-derived vectors with MLV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 retroviral vectors indicated that SNV vectors can deliver genes 4-fold more efficiently than MLV vectors into aphidicolin-arrested cells, although at a 25-fold lower efficiency than HIV-1-derived vectors. Furthermore, the addition of a NLS in the SNV matrix (MA) that mimics the one located in HIV-1 MA did not increase the ability of SNV vectors to transfer genes into arrested cells. Also, we found that the RD114 envelope was able to pseudotype SNV viral particles in a very efficient manner

  17. Viral Preprotoxin Signal Sequence Allows Efficient Secretion of Green Fluorescent Protein by Candida glabrata, Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Eiden-Plach, Antje; Zagorc, Tatjana; Heintel, Tanja; Carius, Yvonne; Breinig, Frank; Manfred J Schmitt

    2004-01-01

    Besides its importance as model organism in eukaryotic cell biology, yeast species have also developed into an attractive host for the expression, processing, and secretion of recombinant proteins. Here we investigated foreign protein secretion in four distantly related yeasts (Candida glabrata, Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter and a viral secretion signal sequence derived from the K28 preprotoxin ...

  18. School Size, Achievement, and Achievement Gaps

    Bradley J. McMillen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between school size and achievement, a study was conducted using longitudinal achievement data from North Carolina for three separate cohorts of public school students (one elementary, one middle and one high school. Results revealed several interactions between size and student characteristics, all of which indicated that the achievement gaps typically existing between certain subgroups (i.e., more versus less-advantaged, lower versus higher-achieving were larger in larger schools. Results varied across the grade level cohorts and across subjects, but in general effects were more common in mathematics than in reading, and were more pronounced at the high school level. Study results are discussed in the context of educational equity and cost-effectiveness.

  19. Estimating achievement from fame

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  20. Evaluation of the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform as processing and preprocessing algorithm for resolution of overlapped signals in univariate and multivariate regression analyses; an application to ternary and quaternary mixtures

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-07-01

    Wavelets have been adapted for a vast number of signal-processing applications due to the amount of information that can be extracted from a signal. In this work, a comparative study on the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a signal processing tool in univariate regression and a pre-processing tool in multivariate analysis using partial least square (CWT-PLS) was conducted. These were applied to complex spectral signals of ternary and quaternary mixtures. CWT-PLS method succeeded in the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of drotaverine (DRO), caffeine (CAF), paracetamol (PAR) and p-aminophenol (PAP, the major impurity of paracetamol). While, the univariate CWT failed to simultaneously determine the quaternary mixture components and was able to determine only PAR and PAP, the ternary mixtures of DRO, CAF, and PAR and CAF, PAR, and PAP. During the calculations of CWT, different wavelet families were tested. The univariate CWT method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. While for the development of the CWT-PLS model a calibration set was prepared by means of an orthogonal experimental design and their absorption spectra were recorded and processed by CWT. The CWT-PLS model was constructed by regression between the wavelet coefficients and concentration matrices and validation was performed by both cross validation and external validation sets. Both methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform as processing and preprocessing algorithm for resolution of overlapped signals in univariate and multivariate regression analyses; an application to ternary and quaternary mixtures.

    Hegazy, Maha A; Lotfy, Hayam M; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-07-01

    Wavelets have been adapted for a vast number of signal-processing applications due to the amount of information that can be extracted from a signal. In this work, a comparative study on the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a signal processing tool in univariate regression and a pre-processing tool in multivariate analysis using partial least square (CWT-PLS) was conducted. These were applied to complex spectral signals of ternary and quaternary mixtures. CWT-PLS method succeeded in the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of drotaverine (DRO), caffeine (CAF), paracetamol (PAR) and p-aminophenol (PAP, the major impurity of paracetamol). While, the univariate CWT failed to simultaneously determine the quaternary mixture components and was able to determine only PAR and PAP, the ternary mixtures of DRO, CAF, and PAR and CAF, PAR, and PAP. During the calculations of CWT, different wavelet families were tested. The univariate CWT method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. While for the development of the CWT-PLS model a calibration set was prepared by means of an orthogonal experimental design and their absorption spectra were recorded and processed by CWT. The CWT-PLS model was constructed by regression between the wavelet coefficients and concentration matrices and validation was performed by both cross validation and external validation sets. Both methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:27070527

  2. Faster than Nyquist signaling algorithms to silicon

    Dasalukunte, Deepak; Rusek, Fredrik; Anderson, John B

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges and design trade-offs arising during the hardware design of Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers. The authors describe how to design for coexistence between the FTN system described and Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, enabling readers to design FTN specific processing blocks as add-ons to the conventional transceiver chain.   • Provides a comprehensive introduction to Faster-than-Nyquist (FTN) signaling transceivers, covering both theory and hardware implementation; • Enables readers to design systems that achieve bandwidth efficiency by making better use of the available spectrum resources; • Describes design techniques to achieve 2x improvement in bandwidth usage with similar performance as that of an OFDM system.  

  3. Retinoic acid signalling is required for the efficient differentiation of CD4+ T cells into pathogenic effector cells during the development of intestinal inflammation

    Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Pool, Lieneke; Frising, Ulrika; Wendland, Kerstin; Agace, William Winston

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of vitamin A-deficient populations have illustrated the importance of the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) in mucosal immune responses. However, RA seems to be a double-edge sword in CD4+ T cell biology. While it sustains the development of foxp3+ regulatory T cells, it was also very recently reported to be essential for the stability of the Th1 lineage and to prevent transition to a Th17 program.Here we explored the role of RA signalling in CD4+ T cells during ...

  4. SignalR blueprints

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed for software developers, primarily those with knowledge of C#, .NET, and JavaScript. Good knowledge and understanding of SignalR is assumed to allow efficient programming of core elements and applications in SignalR.

  5. Design and evaluation of area-efficient and wide-range impedance analysis circuit for multichannel high-quality brain signal recording system

    Iwagami, Takuma; Tani, Takaharu; Ito, Keita; Nishino, Satoru; Harashima, Takuya; Kino, Hisashi; Kiyoyama, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    To enable chronic and stable neural recording, we have been developing an implantable multichannel neural recording system with impedance analysis functions. One of the important things for high-quality neural signal recording is to maintain well interfaces between recording electrodes and tissues. We have proposed an impedance analysis circuit with a very small circuit area, which is implemented in a multichannel neural recording and stimulating system. In this paper, we focused on the design of an impedance analysis circuit configuration and the evaluation of a minimal voltage measurement unit. The proposed circuit has a very small circuit area of 0.23 mm2 designed with 0.18 µm CMOS technology and can measure interface impedances between recording electrodes and tissues in ultrawide ranges from 100 Ω to 10 MΩ. In addition, we also successfully acquired interface impedances using the proposed circuit in agarose gel experiments.

  6. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  7. Ultrafast Charge Separation Dynamics of Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer State (TICT) in Coumarin Dye Sensitized TiO2 Film: A New Route to Achieve Higher Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Ghosh Hirendra N.; Verma Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast transient spectroscopy of 7-diethyl amino coumarin 3-carboxylic acid (D-1421) sensitized TiO2 film reveals that TICT states facilitate higher charge separation and slow recombination and proved to be new route to design higher efficient solar cell.

  8. Ultrafast Charge Separation Dynamics of Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer State (TICT in Coumarin Dye Sensitized TiO2 Film: A New Route to Achieve Higher Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Ghosh Hirendra N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast transient spectroscopy of 7-diethyl amino coumarin 3-carboxylic acid (D-1421 sensitized TiO2 film reveals that TICT states facilitate higher charge separation and slow recombination and proved to be new route to design higher efficient solar cell.

  9. 关注国有银行与股份制银行的绩效差异%Paying Close Attention to the Difference of Achievement and Efficiency between State-run Bank and Shareholding Bank

    万颖群

    2004-01-01

    Seen from kinds of statistical data, state-run bank and shareholding bank differ in greatly in capital efficiency and harmful assets rate, management effect of shareholding bank are higher than four state-run banks, This article analyses originally main factors affecting dfficiency of commercial bank, such as enterprise administration stucture, put foward lots of valuable opinions.

  10. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  11. Signal Words

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  12. Herbivory of wild Manduca sexta causes fast down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency in Datura wrightii: an early signaling cascade visualized by chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Rascher, Uwe; Bronstein, Judith L; Davidowitz, Goggy; Chaszar, Brian; Huxman, Travis E

    2012-09-01

    Plants experiencing herbivory suffer indirect costs beyond direct loss of leaf area, but differentially so based on the herbivore involved. We used a combination of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and gas exchange techniques to quantify photosynthetic performance, the efficiency of photochemistry, and heat dissipation to examine immediate and longer-term physiological responses in the desert perennial Datura wrightii to herbivory by tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Herbivory by colony-reared larvae yielded no significant reduction in carbon assimilation, whereas herbivory by wild larvae induced a fast and spreading down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, resulting in significant losses in carbon assimilation in eaten and uneaten leaves. We found both an 89 % reduction in net photosynthetic rates in herbivore-damaged leaves and a whole-plant response (79 % decrease in undamaged leaves from adjacent branches). Consequently, herbivory costs are higher than previously estimated in this well-studied plant-insect interaction. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to elucidate the mechanisms of this down-regulation. Quantum yield decreased up to 70 % in a small concentric band surrounding the feeding area within minutes of the onset of herbivory. Non-photochemical energy dissipation by the plant to avoid permanent damage was elevated near the wound, and increased systematically in distant areas of the leaf away from the wound over subsequent hours. Together, the results underscore not only potential differences between colony-reared and wild-caught herbivores in experimental studies of herbivory but also the benefits of quantifying physiological responses of plants in unattacked leaves. PMID:22576017

  13. Integration of Optically Generated Impulse Radio UWB Signals into Baseband WDM-PON

    Pham, Tien Thang; Yu, Xianbin; Dittmann, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compact integration system to simultaneously provide wireline and wireless (baseband and ultra-wide band (UWB)) services to end-users in a WDM-PON. A 1-Gbps UWB signal is optically generated and shares the same wavelength with the baseband signal. Error-free performance was achieved...... after 23-km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission for both signals and additional 0.4-m wireless transmission for the UWB signal. The low complexity and high spectrum efficiency of this system makes it attractive for deployment of in wireline/wireless converged gigabit optical access networks....

  14. Development of pulse-shape analysis for discrimination of low energy scintillation signals from photomultiplier noises

    Pulse shape analysis technique for discrimination of low-energy scintillation signals from the photomultiplier noises was developed. Samples of low-energy signals, free from photomultiplier noise admixture were measured in special calibration runs. The algorithm of preliminary signal processing to determine beginning and base line of the pulses was developed. Comparison of different pulse shape discrimination methods was done. Among them are the methods of 'average time', optimal digital filter, least squares and artificial neural networks. The 100 % discrimination efficiency for CdWO4 scintillation signals with energies of ≥ 15 keV from photomultiplier noises was achieved

  15. Signal-light nomogram

    Gordon, J. I.; Edgerton, C. F.; Duntley, S. Q.

    1975-01-01

    A nomogram is presented for predicting the sighting range for white, steady-burning signal lights. The theoretical and experimental bases are explained and instructions are provided for its use for a variety of practical problems concerning the visibility of signal lights. The nomogram is appropriate for slant path as well as horizontal sightings, and the gain of range achieved by utilizing binoculars can be predicted by use of it.

  16. Hemisphericity and student achievement.

    Yeap, L L

    1989-10-01

    Hemispheric preference, the newest element of learning style, refers to the tendency of a person to use one side of the brain to perceive and function more than the other. The objective of the study was to investigate the psychological domain of learning styles in terms of the hemispheric patterns of Singapore Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels, namely Normal (low achievers), Express (average achievers), and Special (high achievers). Using the Cognitive Laterality Battery (Gordon, 1986) to measure the students' hemispheric dominance, the study found that it is in the psychological domain of the students' learning styles, in terms of their hemispheric dominance that the Secondary Two students in the three achievement levels are distinctly different. PMID:2583937

  17. Signaling cascades modulate the speed of signal propagation through space.

    Christopher C Govern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells are not mixed bags of signaling molecules. As a consequence, signals must travel from their origin to distal locations. Much is understood about the purely diffusive propagation of signals through space. Many signals, however, propagate via signaling cascades. Here, we show that, depending on their kinetics, cascades speed up or slow down the propagation of signals through space, relative to pure diffusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled simple cascades operating under different limits of Michaelis-Menten kinetics using deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Cascades operating far from enzyme saturation speed up signal propagation; the second mobile species moves more quickly than the first through space, on average. The enhanced speed is due to more efficient serial activation of a downstream signaling module (by the signaling molecule immediately upstream in the cascade at points distal from the signaling origin, compared to locations closer to the source. Conversely, cascades operating under saturated kinetics, which exhibit zero-order ultrasensitivity, can slow down signals, ultimately localizing them to regions around the origin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Signal speed modulation may be a fundamental function of cascades, affecting the ability of signals to penetrate within a cell, to cross-react with other signals, and to activate distant targets. In particular, enhanced speeds provide a way to increase signal penetration into a cell without needing to flood the cell with large numbers of active signaling molecules; conversely, diminished speeds in zero-order ultrasensitive cascades facilitate strong, but localized, signaling.

  18. Surface light scattering: integrated technology and signal processing

    Lading, L.; Dam-Hansen, C.; Rasmussen, E.

    1997-01-01

    systems representing increasing levels of integration are considered. It is demonstrated that efficient signal and data processing can be achieved by evaluation of the statistics of the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the detector signal. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America.......The miniaturization of surface-scattering instruments for measuring viscoelastic properties is investigated. The concepts are based on the use of holographic optical elements and integrated optics. Compact forms of optics that provide the necessary spatial and angular selections are devised. Four...

  19. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  20. A New Two-Branch Amplification Architecture and its Application with Various Modulated Signals

    W. Hamdane; A. B. Kouki; F. Gagnon

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new two-branch amplification architecture that combines baseband signal decomposition with RF front-end optimization. In the proposed architecture, the filtered modulated signals are separated into two components that are then amplified independently and combined to regenerate an amplified version of the original signal. A branch with an efficient amplifier transmits a low-varying envelope signal that contains the main part of the information. Another branch amplifies the residual portion of the signal. The baseband decomposition and parameters of the RF part are optimized to find the configuration that gives the best power efficiency and linearity. For M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) signals, this technique is limited in terms of power efficiency. However, for filtered continuous phase modulation (CPM) signals, especially for minimum shift keying (MSK) and Gaussian MSK (GMSK) signals, high power efficiency can be achieved with no significant impact on the overall linearity. The results show that this technique gives better performance than the single-ended ctass-B amplifier.

  1. College Achievement and Earnings

    Gemus, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    I study the size and sources of the monetary return to college achievement as measured by cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA). I first present evidence that the return to achievement is large and statistically significant. I find, however, that this masks variation in the return across different groups of people. In particular, there is no relationship between GPA and earnings for graduate degree holders but a large and positive relationship for people without a graduate degree. To reconcile...

  2. Analysis of P-QRS-T Components Modified by Blind Watermarking Technique Within the Electrocardiogram Signal for Authentication in Wireless Telecardiology Using DWT

    Achintya Das; Sheli Sinha Chaudhuri; Sayantan Mukhopadhyay; Nilanjan Dey

    2012-01-01

    Presently considerable amount of work has been done in tele-monitoring which involves the transmission of bio-signals and medical images in the wireless media. Intelligent exchange of bio-signals amongst hospitals needs efficient and reliable transmission. Watermarking adds “ownership” information in multimedia contents to prove the authenticity, to verify signal integrity, or to achieve control over the copy process. This paper proposes a novel session based blind watermarking method with se...

  3. Better utilisation of solar energy. Part 2. Thermal utilisation of solar energy achieves higher economic efficiency with careful planning; Solarenergie besser nutzen. Teil 2. Die thermische Nutzung der Solarenergie wird durch bessere Planung wirtschaftlich

    Kremer, R. [DVGW-Fachausschuss - Trinkwasserhygiene in Gebaeuden (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    The new EnEV (Energy Conservation Ordinance), hygiene specifications in the Freshwater Ordinance, and the desire to use alternative enrgy sources all contribute to the re-consideration projecting concepts. Modern technical facilities must be optimized with a view to maximum hygiene and minimum energy consumption. Freshwater heating systems must be corrosion-resistant, reliable and efficient. Heat loss and energy consumption in storage, circulation and distribution must be minimized. Freshwater with the new DVGW seal meet all these requirements as well as the hygienic specifications. [German] Die steigenden Brennstoffpreise und das Umweltproblem CO{sub 2} sind Anlass fuer die neue Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV). Hygienevorschriften in der Trinkwasserverordnung werden ab 1. 1. 2003 fuer oeffentliche Gebaeude umgesetzt. Die Foerdermittel fuer Solarkollektoren wurden ab Januar 2001 auf 90 Euro je m{sup 2} reduziert. Der Einfluss der Waermeschutzverordnung, neuer Hygienevorschriften und der Wunsch zur Nutzung alternativer Energiequellen fuehren dazu, dass bisher uebliche Planungsgrundsaetze ueberprueft werden muessen. Moderne haustechnische Anlagen muessen vor allem im Hinblick auf hygienische Gesichtspunkte und den Energieverbrauch optimiert und ausgelegt werden. Trinkwassererwaermungsanlagen muessen korrosionsbestaendig, betriebssicher und leistungsfaehig sein. Die Waermeverluste und der Energieverbrauch fuer Speicherung, Verteilung und Zirkulation muessen minimiert werden. Diesen und zusaetzlich den hygienischen Anforderungen genuegen insbesondere Trinkwassererwaermer mit dem neuen DVGW-Pruefzeichen. (orig.)

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Leading research and development of MGC-built superhigh-efficiency turbine system technology; 1998 nendo MGC chokokoritsu turbine system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    To further enhance energy efficiency by improving on the gas turbine system, it is necessary, first of all, to develop superhigh-temperature materials to allow the system to operate at higher temperatures. Described in this report are studies on the application of MGC (melt-growth composite) materials which retain strength and plastic deformation capability even at high temperatures. Various compositions are explored for improvement on fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/YAG system is investigated for the study of relations between microstructural control and fracture toughness. Literature on the development of nanocomposites is surveyed, and a preliminary experiment is discussed for improvement on purity by zone melting crystallization. In a study for an advanced manufacture of larger crystals, technologies of crystal growth condition setting and optimization, quality stabilization, productivity improvement, and crystal size enlargement are taken up. Casting and machining technologies are studied to enable crystals to assume complicated shapes. For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the occurrence of properties proper to high temperatures, a study is made on the evaluation of mechanical and physical properties and on the mechanism and control of crystal growth. Also studied are systems (gas turbine cycle, combustor, etc.) to which MGC materials may be applied. (NEDO)

  5. Analysis of the methods for the achievement of comfort conditions of humidity and temperature in energetically efficient designs; Analisis de los mtodos para lograr condiciones de confort higrotermico en disenos energeticamente eficientes

    Mesa A., N. A.; Morillon G., D. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the analysis of the tools commonly utilized in Bioclimatic Design, for the achievement of humidity an temperature comfort conditions in architectonic spaces. The analysis was performed by means of field studies and experimentally for different sport activities, carried out in spaces designed for each purpose. In the experimental part, inside ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured in the different spaces where sport activities were conducted, such as calisthenics, dance, judo, wrestling, weight lifting, boxing, basket-ball, volley-ball, gymnastics and fencing. At the same time an inquiry was conducted among their occupants in respect to the thermal sensation they experimented while conducting such activities. The results obtained in the inquiry were compared with the results reported by other researchers, by means of tables and psychometric diagrams as optimum values for temperature comfort. As a conclusion it was decided that the graphic and mathematical methods analyzed, are based on a sedentary activity, therefore in using them for the design of spaces for different activities uncomfortable conditions are experimented with the consequential necessity of air conditioning, which implies energy consumption and the corresponding expenditure, lastly it is necessary to adapt these tools, that is, consider the activity that is going to be performed in the buildings. [Espanol] En este documento se presenta el analisis de las herramientas, comunmente utilizadas en Diseo Bioclimatico, para lograr el confort higrotermico de espacios arquitectonicos, el analisis se realizo mediante estudios de campo y experimental, para diversas actividades deportivas, llevadas a cabo en espacios disenados para ello. En la parte experimental, se tomaron mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativa internas, de los distintos espacios en los cuales se desarrollaban las actividades deportivas, tales como calistenia, danza, judo, lucha, trabajo con pesas

  6. Efficiency in Shared Services

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  7. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  8. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  9. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  10. Motivation and achievements

    Stefanova, Sladzana; Miceski, Trajko

    2015-01-01

    Motivation of employees as management function is an important factor in encouraging, guiding and strengthening the behavior of employees in organizations. For one organization is very important the employees to be motivated, only thus will be achieved its objectives. The manager is usually responsible for the motivation of employees and for fulfilment their needs in the workplace, but it is recommended the employees to motivate themselves. Generally, employees are working t...